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    ἀδύνατος — ἀκροατής


    (102) ἀδύνατος, -όν, (δύναμαι) [from Herodotus down];TGL ἀδύνατος.2

    1. without strength, impotent: τοῖς ποσί, Acts 14:8; figuratively, of Christians whose faith is not yet quite firm, Romans 15:1 (opposed to δυνατός).TGL ἀδύνατος.3

    2. impossible (in contrast with δυνατόν): παρά τινι, for (with) anyone, Matthew 19:26; Mark 10:27; Luke 18:27; τὸ ἀδύνατος τοῦ νόμου 'what the law could not do' (this God effected by, etc.; [others take τὸ ἀδύνατος here as nominative absolutely, cf. Buttmann, 381 (326); Winer's Grammar, 574 (534); Meyer or Gifford at the passage]), Romans 8:3; followed by the accusative with an infinitive, Hebrews 6:4, Hebrews 6:18; Hebrews 10:4; by an infinitive, Hebrews 11:6.TGL ἀδύνατος.4


    (103) ᾄδω (ἀείδω); common in Greek of every period; in the Sept. for שׁוּר; to sing, chant;TGL ᾄδω.2

    1. intransitive: τινί, to the praise of anyone (Judith 16:1 (2)), Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16 (in both passages of the lyrical emotion of a devout and grateful soul).TGL ᾄδω.3

    2. transitive: ᾠδήν, Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3; Revelation 15:3.TGL ᾄδω.4


    (104) ἀεί [see αἰών ], adverb [from Homer down], always;TGL ἀεί.2

    1. perpetually, incessantly: Acts 7:51; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Titus 1:12; Hebrews 3:10.TGL ἀεί.3

    2. invariably, at any and every time when according to the circumstances something is or ought to be done again: Mark 15:8 [T WH omit] (at every feast); 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Peter 1:12.TGL ἀεί.4


    (105) ἀετός, -οῦ, (like Latin avis , from ἄημι on account of its wind-like flight [cf. Curtius, § 596]) [from Homer down], in the Sept. for נֶשֶׁר, an eagle: Revelation 4:7; Revelation 8:13 (Rec. ἀγγέλου); Revelation 12:14.TGL ἀετός.2

    In Matthew 24:28; Luke 17:37 (as in Job 39:30; Proverbs 30:17) it is better, since eagles are said seldom or never to go in quest of carrion, to understand with many interpreters either the vultur percnopterus , which resembles an eagle (Pliny, h. n. 10, 3 "quarti generis — viz. aquilarum — est percnopterus "), or the vultur barbatus . Cf. Winers RWB under the word Adler; [Tristram, National History of the Bible, p. 172ff]. The meaning of the proverb [cf. examples in Wetstein on Matthew, the passage cited] quoted in both passages is, 'where there are sinners (cf. πτῶμα ), there judgments from heaven will not be wanting'.TGL ἀετός.3


    (106) ἄζυμος, -όν, (ζύμη), Hebrew מַצָּה, unfermented, free from leaven; properly: ἄρτοι Exodus 29:2; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 6, 6; hence the neuter plural τὰ ἄζυμα, מַצּוֹת, unleavened loaves; ἑορτή τῶν ἀζύμων, הַמַּצּוֹת חַג, the (paschal) festival at which for seven days the Israelites were accustomed to eat unleavened bread in commemoration of their exit from Egypt (Exodus 23:15; Leviticus 23:6), Luke 22:1; πρώτη (namely, ἡμέρα) τῶν ἀζ. Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7; αἱ ἡμέραι τῶν ἀζ. Acts 12:3; Acts 20:6; the paschal festival itself is called τὰ ἄζυμα, Mark 14:1 [cf. 1 Esdr. 1:10, 19; Winers Grammar, 176 (166); Buttmann, 23 (21)]. Figuratively: Christians, if such as they ought to be, are called ἄζυμοι i. e. devoid of the leaven of iniquity, free from faults, 1 Corinthians 5:7; and are admonished ἑορτάζειν ἐν ἀζύμοις εἰλικρινείας, to keep festival with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, 1 Corinthians 5:8. (The word occurs twice in secular authors, viz. Athen. 3, 74 (ἄρτον) ἄζυμον, Plato, Tim., p. 74 d. ἄζυμος σάρξ flesh not yet quite formed, [add Galen de alim. fac. 1, 2].)TGL ἄζυμος.2


    (107) Ἀζώρ, Azor, the indeclinable proper name of one of the ancestors of Christ: Matthew 1:13.TGL Ἀζώρ.2


    (108) Ἄζωτος, -ου, , אַשְׁדּוֹר, Azotus, Ashdod, one of the five chief cities of the Philistines, lying between Ashkelon and Jamnia [i. e. Jabneel] and near the Mediterranean: Acts 8:40; at present a petty village, Esdῦd. A succinct history of the city is given by Gesenius, Thesaurus iii; p. 1366; Raumer, Palästina, p. 174; [Alex.'s Kitto or McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word Ashdod].TGL Ἄζωτος.2


    (109) ἀήρ, ἀέρος, , (ἄημι, ἄω, [cf. ἄνεμος , at the beginning]), the air (particularly the lower and denser, as distinguished from the higher and rarer αἰθήρ, cf. Homer, Iliad 14, 288), the atmospheric region: Acts 22:23; 1 Thessalonians 4:17; Revelation 9:2; Revelation 16:17; ἄρχων τῆς ἐξουσίας τοῦ ἀέρος in Ephesians 2:2 signifies 'the ruler of the powers (spirits, see ἐξουσία 4 c. ββ.) in the air,' i. e. the devil, the prince of the demons that according to Jewish opinion fill the realm of air (cf. Meyer at the passage; [B. D. American edition under the word Air; Stuart in Bib. Sacr. for 1843, p. 139f]). Sometimes indeed, ἀήρ denotes a hazy, obscure atmosphere (Homer, Iliad 17, 644; 3, 381; 5, 356, etc.; Polybius 18, 3, 7), but is nowhere quite equiv, to σκότος, — the sense which many injudiciously assign it in Ephesians, the passage cited ἀέρα δέρειν, (cf. verberat ictibus auras , Vergil Aen. 5, 377, of pugilists who miss their aim) i. e. to contend in vain, 1 Corinthians 9:26; εἰς ἀέρα λαλεῖν (verba ventis profundere , Lucr. 4, 929 (932)) 'to speak into the air' i. e. without effect, used of those who speak what is not understood by the hearers, 1 Corinthians 14:9.TGL ἀήρ.2


    (110) ἀθανασία -ας (ἀθάνατος), immortality: 1 Corinthians 15:53; 1 Timothy 6:16 where God is described as μόνος ἔχων ἀθανασίαν, because he possesses it essentially — 'ἐκ τῆς ὀικείας οὐσίας, οὐκ ἐκ θελήματος ἄλλου, καθάπερ οἱ λοιποί πάντες ἀθάνατοι' Justin, quaest, et resp. ad orthod. 61, p. 84, Otto edition. (In Greek writings from Plato down.)TGL ἀθανασία.2


    (111) ἀθέμιτος, -ον, a later form for the ancient and preferable ἀθέμιστος (θεμιτός, θεμιστός, θεμίζω, θέμις law, right), contrary to law and justice, prohibited by law, illicit, criminal: 1 Peter 4:3 [here A. V. abominable]; ἀθέμιτόν ἐστι τινι with an infinitive, Acts 10:28.TGL ἀθέμιτος.2


    (112) ἄθεος, -όν, (θεός) [from Pindar down], without God, knowing and worshipping no God, in which sense Aelian v. h. 2, 31 declares ὅτι μηδεὶς τῶν βαρβάρων ἄθεος; in classic authors generally slighting the gods, impious, repudiating the gods recognized by the state, in which sense certain Greek philosophers, the Jews (Josephus, contra Apion 2, 14, 4), and subsequently Christians were called ἄθεοι by the heathen (Justin , Apology 1, 13, etc. On the application of the term to Christians by the heathen see Bp. Lghtft.'s note on Ign. ad Trall. 3, vol. ii. p. 160.). In Ephesians 2:12 of one who neither knows nor worships the true God; so of the heathen (cf. 1 Thessalonians 4:5; Galatians 4:8); Clement , Alex. protr, 2:23, p. 19 Pott. ἀθέους... οἱ τὸν ὄντως ὄντα θεὸν ἠγνοήκασι, Philo, leg. ad Gai. § 25 αἰγυπτιακὴ ἀθεότης, Hosea 4:15 Symm. οἶκος ἀθεΐας, a house in which idols are worshipped, Ignatius ad Trall. 10 ἄθεοι τουτέστιν ἄπιστοι (of the Docetae); [others understand Ephesians, the passage cited passively deserted of God, Vulg. sine Deo ; on the various meanings of the word see Meyer (or Ellicott)].TGL ἄθεος.2


    (113) ἄθεσμος, -όν, (θεσμός), lawless [A. V. wicked]; of one who breaks through the restraints of law and gratifies his lusts: 2 Peter 2:7; 2 Peter 3:17. [Sept. , Diodorus, Philo, Josephus, Plutarch.]TGL ἄθεσμος.2


    (114) ἀθετέω, -ῶ; future ἀθετήσω; 1 aorist ἠθέτησα; a word met with first (yet very often) in the Sept. and Polybius;TGL ἀθετέω.2

    a. properly, to render ἄθετον; do away with θετόν τί, i. e. something laid down, prescribed, established: διαθήκην, Galatians 3:15 (1 Macc. 11:36; 2 Macc. 13:25, etc.); according to the context, 'to act toward anything as though it were annulled'; hence, to deprive a law of force by opinions or acts opposed to it, to transgress it, Mark 7:9; Hebrews 10:28 (Ezekiel 22:26); πίστιν, to break one's promise or engagement, 1 Timothy 5:12; (Polybius 8, 2, 5; 11, 29, 3, others; Diodorus excerpt. [i. e. de virt. et vit. ], p. 562, 67). Hence,TGL ἀθετέω.3

    b. to thwart the efficacy of anything, nullify, make void, frustrate: τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, Luke 7:30 (they rendered inefficacious the saving purpose of God); τὴν σύνεσιν to render prudent plans of no effect, 1 Corinthians 1:19 (Isaiah 29:14 [where κρύψω, yet cf. Bos's note]).TGL ἀθετέω.4

    c. to reject, refuse, slight; τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ, Galatians 2:21 [others refer this to b.]; of persons: Mark 6:26 (by breaking the promise given her); Luke 10:16; John 12:48; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; Jude 1:8 (for which καταφρονεῖν is used in the parallel passage 2 Peter 2:10).TGL ἀθετέω.5

    [For examples of the use of this word see Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word.)TGL ἀθετέω.6


    (115) ἀθέτησις, -εως, (ἀθετέω, which see; like νουθέτησις from νουθετεῖν), abolition: Hebrews 7:18; Hebrews 9:26; (found occasionally in later authors, as Cicero, ad Att. 6, 9; Diogenes Laërtius 3, 39, 66: in the grammarians rejection; more frequently in ecclesiastical writings).TGL ἀθέτησις.2


    (116) Ἀθῆναι, -ῶν, αἱ (on the plural cf. Winer s Grammar, 176 (166)), Athens, the most celebrated city of Greece: Acts 17:15; Acts 18:1; 1 Thessalonians 3:1.TGL Ἀθῆναι.2


    (117) Ἀθηναῖος, -αία, -αῖον, Athenian: Acts 17:21.TGL Ἀθηναῖος.2


    (118) ἀθλέω, -ῶ; [1 aorist subjunctive 3 person singular ἀθλήσῃ]; (ἆθλος, a contest); to engage in a contest, contend in public games (e. g. Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian), with the poniard [?], gauntlet, quoit, in wrestling, running, or any other way: 2 Timothy 2:5; (often in classic authors who also use the form ἀθλεύω).TGL ἀθλέω.2

    [Compare: συναθλέω].TGL ἀθλέω.3


    (119) ἄθλησις, -εως, , contest, combat, (frequently from Polybius down); figuratively, ἄθλησις παθημάτων a struggle with sufferings, trials, Hebrews 10:32; [of martyrdom, Ignatius mart. 4; Clement, mart. 25].TGL ἄθλησις.2


    (120) ἀθυμέω, -ῶ; common among the Greeks from [Aeschylus] Thucydides down; to be ἄθυμος (θυμός, spirit, courage), to be disheartened, dispirited, broken in spirit: Colossians 3:21. (Sept. 1 Samuel 1:6, etc.; Judith 7:22; 1 Macc. 4:27).TGL ἀθυμέω.2


    (121) ἀθῶος [R G Tr], more correctly ἀθῷος (L WH and T [but not in his Sept . There is want of agreement among both the ancient grammer and modern scholars; cf. Stephanus' Thesaurus i. col. 875 c.; Lob. Path. Element. i. 440f (cf. ii. 377); see Ι, ι]), -ον, (θωή [i. e. , θωϊή, cf. Etym. Magn. , p. 26, 24] punishment), [from Plato down], unpunished, innocent: αἷμα ἀθῷον, Matthew 27:4 [Tr marginal reading WH text δίκαιον], (Deuteronomy 27:25; 1 Samuel 19:5, etc.; 1 Macc. 1:37; 2 Macc. 1:8); ἀπό τινος, after the Hebrew מִן נָקִי ([Numbers 32:22; cf. Genesis 24:41; 2 Samuel 3:28; Winers Grammar, 197 (185); Buttmann, 158 (138)]), 'innocent (and therefore far) from,' innocent of, Matthew 27:24 (the guilt of the murder of this innocent man cannot be laid upon me); ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 59, 2 [cf. Numbers 5:31). The Greeks say ἀθῷός τινος [both in the sense of free from and unpunished for].TGL ἀθῷος.2


    (122) αἴγειος [WH -γιος; see their Appendix, p. 154, and Iota], -εία, -ειον, (αἴξ, genitive -γός goat, male or female), of a goat (cf. καμήλειος, ἵππειος, ὕειος, προβάτειος, etc.): Hebrews 11:37. [From Homer down.]TGL αἴγειος.2


    (123) αἰγιαλός, -οῦ, , the shore of the sea, beach, [from Homer down]: Matthew 13:2, Matthew 13:48; John 21:4; Acts 21:5; Acts 27:39, Acts 27:40.TGL αἰγιαλός.2

    (Many derive the word from ἄγνυμι and ἅλς, as though equivalent to ἀκτή, the place where the sea breaks; others from αἶγες billows and ἅλς [Curtius, § 140; Vanicek, p. 83]; others from ἀΐσσω and ἅλς [Schenkl, Liddell and Scott, under the word], the place where the sea rushes forth, bounds forward.)TGL αἰγιαλός.3


    (124) Αἰγύπτιος, , -ον, a gentile adjective, Egyptian: Acts 7:22, Acts 7:24, Acts 7:28; Acts 21:38; Hebrews 11:29.TGL Αἰγύπτιος.2


    (125) Αἴγυπτος, -ου, , [always without the article, Buttmann, 87 (76); Winers Grammar, § 18, 5 a.], the proper name of a well-known country, Egypt: Matthew 2:13; Acts 2:10; Hebrews 3:16, etc.; more fully γῆ Αἴγυπτος, Acts 7:36 [not L WH Tr text], Acts 7:40; Acts 13:17; Hebrews 8:9; Jude 1:5 (Exodus 5:12; Exodus 6:26, etc.; 1 Macc. 1:19; Baruch 1:19f, etc.); γῆ Αἴγυπτος, Acts 7:11; ἐν Αἰγύπτου namely, γῆ, Hebrews 11:26 Lachmann, but cf. Bleek at the passage; Buttmann, 171 (149); [Winer's Grammar, 384 (359)]. In Revelation 11:8 Αἴγυπτος is figuratively used for Jerusalem, i. e. for the Jewish nation viewed as persecuting Christ and his followers, and so to be likened to the Egyptians in their ancient hostility to the true God and their endeavors to crush his people.TGL Αἴγυπτος.2


    (126) ἀΐδιος, -όν, (for ἀείδιος from ἀεί), eternal, everlasting: (Wis. 7:26) Romans 1:20; Jude 1:6.TGL ἀΐδιος.2

    (Homer hymn. 29, 3; Hesiod scut. 310, and from Thucydides down in prose; [frequent in Philo, e. g. de profug. § 18 (ζῶὴ ἀΐδιος), § 31; de opif. mund. § 2, § 61; de cherub. § 1, § 2, § 3; de post. Cain. § 11 at the end.TGL ἀΐδιος.3

    Synonym: see αἰώνιος ].)TGL ἀΐδιος.4


    (127) αἰδώς (-όος) -οῦς, ; from Homer down; a sense of shame, modesty: 1 Timothy 2:9; reverence, Hebrews 12:28 (λατρεύειν, θεῷ μετὰ αἰδοῦς καὶ εὐλαβείας, but L T Tr WH εὐλαβείας καὶ δέους).TGL αἰδώς.2

    [Synonyms: αἰδώς, αἰσχύνη: Ammonius distinguishes the words as follows, αἰδώς καὶ αἰσχύνη διαφέρει, ὅτι μὲν αἰδώς ἐστιν ἐντροπὴ πρὸς ἕκαστον, ὡς σεβομένως τις ἔχει. αἰσχύνη δ' ἐφ’ οἷς ἕκαστος ἁμαρτὼν αισχύνεται, ὡς μὴ δέον τι πράξας. καὶ αἰδεῖται μέν τις τὸν πατέρα. αἰσχύνεται δὲ ὅς μεθύσκεται, etc., etc.; accordingly, αἰδ. is prominently objective in its reference, having regard to others; while αἰσχ. is subjective, making reference to oneself and one's actions. Cf. Schmidt, chapter 140. It is often said that 'αἰδ. precedes and prevents the shameful act, αἰσχ. reflects upon its consequences in the shame it brings with it' (Cope, Aristotle, rhet. 5, 6, 1). αἰδ. is the nobler word, αἰσχ. the stronger; while "αἰδ. would always restrain a good man from an unworthy act, αἰσχ. would sometimes restrain a bad one." Trench, §§ 19, 20.]TGL αἰδώς.3


    (128) Αἰθίοψ, -οπος, , (αἴθω, to burn, and ὤψ [ὄψ], the face; swarthy), Ethiopian (Hebrew כּוּשִׁי): Acts 8:27, here the reference is to upper Ethiopia, called Habesh or Abyssinia, a country of Africa adjoining Egypt and including the island Meroë; [see Dillmann in Schenkel i. 285ff; Alex.'s Kitto or McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia under the word Ethiopia. Cf. Bib. Sacr. for 1866, p. 515].TGL Αἰθίοψ.2


    (129) αἷμα, -τος, τό, blood, whether of men or of animals:TGL αἷμα.2

    1.TGL αἷμα.3

    a. simply and generally: John 19:34; Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:6; Revelation 16:3, Revelation 16:6b (on which passages cf. Exodus 7:20); Revelation 19:13; ῥύσις αἵματος, Mark 5:25 [(πηγὴ αἵμ. Mark 5:29)]; Luke 8:43; θρόμβοι αἵματος, Luke 22:44 [L brackets WH reject the passage]. So also in passages where the eating of blood (and of bloody flesh) is forbidden, Acts 15:20, Acts 15:29; Acts 21:25; cf. Leviticus 3:17; Leviticus 7:16 (26); Leviticus 17:10; see Knobel on Leviticus 7:26; [Kalisch on Leviticus, Preliminary Essay § 1]; Rückert, Abendmahl, p. 94.TGL αἷμα.4

    b. As it was anciently believed that the blood is the seat of the life (Leviticus 17:11; [cf. Delitzsch, Biblical Psychol. pp. 238-247 (English translation, p. 281ff)]), the phrase σὰρξ κ. αἷμα (וְדָם בָּשָׂר, a common phrase in rabbinical writers), or in inverse order αἷμα κ. σάρξ, denotes man's living body compounded of flesh and blood, 1 Corinthians 15:50; Hebrews 2:14, and so hints at the contrast between man and God (or even the more exalted creatures, Ephesians 6:12) as to suggest his feebleness, Ephesians 6:12 (Sir. 14:18), which is conspicuous as respects the knowledge of divine things, Galatians 1:16; Matthew 16:17.TGL αἷμα.5

    c. Since the first germs of animal life are thought to be in the blood (Wis. 7:2; Eustathius ad Iliad 6, 211 (ii. 104, 2) τὸ δὲ αἵματος ἀντὶ τοῦ σπέρματός φασιν οἱ σοφοὶ, ὡς τοῦ σπέρματος ὕλην τὸ αἷμα ἔχοντος), the word serves to denote generation and origin (in the classics also): John 1:13 (on the plural cf. Winer's Grammar, 177 (166)); Acts 17:26 [R G].TGL αἷμα.6

    d. It is used of those things which by their redness resemble blood: αἷ. σταφυλῆς the juice of the grape ('the blood of grapes,' Genesis 49:11; Deuteronomy 32:14), Sir. 39:26 Sir. 50:15; 1 Macc. 6:34, etc.; Achilles Tatius 2:2; reference to this is made in Revelation 14:18-20. εἰς αἷμα, of the moon, Acts 2:20 (Joel 2:31 (Joel 3:4)), equivalent to ὡς αἷμα Revelation 6:12.TGL αἷμα.7

    2. bloodshed or to be shed by violence (very often also in the classics);TGL αἷμα.8

    a. : Luke 13:1 (the meaning is, whom Pilate had ordered to be massacred while they were sacrificing, so that their blood mingled with the blood [yet cf. Winer's Grammar, 623 (579)] of the victims); αἷ. ἀθῷον [or δίκαιον Tr marginal reading WH text] the blood of an innocent [or righteous] man viz. to be shed, Matthew 27:4; έκχεῖν and ἐκχύνειν αἷμα (דָּם שָׁפַךְ, Genesis 9:6; Isaiah 59:7, etc.) to shed blood, slay, Matthew 23:35; Luke 11:50; Acts 22:20; Romans 3:15; Revelation 16:6 [here Tdf. αἵματα]; hence, αἷμα is used for the bloody death itself: Matthew 23:30, Matthew 23:35; Matthew 27:24; Luke 11:51; Acts (Acts 2:19, yet, cf. i d. above;) Acts 20:26; Revelation 17:6; μέχρις αἵματος unto blood, i. e. , so as to undergo a bloody death, Hebrews 12:4 (τὸν αἴτιον τῆς... μέχρις αἵματος στάσεως, Heliodorus 7, 8); τιμὴ αἵματος 'price of blood' i. e. price received for murder, Matthew 27:6; ἀγρὸς αἵματος field bought with the price of blood, Matthew 27:8, equivalent to χωρίον αἵματος, Acts 1:19 — unless in this latter passage we prefer the explanation, which agrees better with the context, 'the field dyed with the blood of Judas'; the guilt and punishment of bloodshed, in the following Hebraistic expressions: ἐν αὐτῇ αἵματα (Rec. αἷμα [so L Tr WH]) ὑρέθη, i. e. , it was discovered that she was guilty of murders, Revelation 18:24 (cf. πόλις αἱμάτων, Ezekiel 24:6); τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ ἐφ’ ἡμᾶς (namely, ἐλθέτω) let the penalty of the bloodshed fall on us, Matthew 27:25; τὸ αἷμα ὑμῶν ἐπὶ τὴν κεφαλὴν ὑμῶν (namely, ἐλθέτω) let the guilt of your destruction be reckoned to your own account, Acts 18:6 (cf. 2 Samuel 1:16; Joshua 2:19, etc.); ἐπάγειν τὸ αἷμά τινος ἐπί τινα, to cause the punishment of a murder to be visited upon anyone, Acts 5:28; ἐκζητεῖν τὸ αἷμά τινος ἀπό τινος (פ׳ מִיַד פ׳ דַּם בִּקֵשׁ, 2 Samuel 4:11; Ezekiel 3:18, Ezekiel 3:20; Ezekiel 33:8), to exact of anyone the penalty for another's death, Luke 11:50; the same idea is expressed by ἐκδικεῖν τὸ αἷμά τινος, Revelation 6:10; Revelation 19:2.TGL αἷμα.9

    b. It is used specially of the blood of sacrificial victims having a purifying or expiating power (Leviticus 17:11): Hebrews 9:7, Hebrews 9:12, Hebrews 9:18-22, Hebrews 9:25; Hebrews 10:4; Hebrews 11:28; Hebrews 13:11.TGL αἷμα.10

    c. Frequent mention is made in the N. T. of the blood of Christ (αἷμα τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Corinthians 10:16; τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Corinthians 11:27; τοῦ ἀρνίου, Revelation 7:14; Revelation 12:11, cf. Revelation 19:13) shed on the cross (αἷ. τοῦ σταυροῦ, Colossians 1:20) for the salvation of many, Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24, cf. Luke 22:20; the pledge of redemption, Ephesians 1:7 (ἀπολύτρωσις διὰ τοῦ αἵ. αὐτοῦ; so too in Colossians 1:14 Rec. ); 1 Peter 1:19 (see ἀγοράζω , 2 b.); having expiatory efficacy, Romans 3:25; Hebrews 9:12; by which believers are purified and are cleansed from the guilt of sin, Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 12:24; [Hebrews 13:12]; 1 John 1:7 (cf. 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:8); Revelation 1:5; Revelation 7:14; 1 Peter 1:2; are rendered acceptable to God, Romans 5:9, and find access into the heavenly sanctuary, Hebrews 10:19; by which the Gentiles are brought to God and the blessings of his kingdom, Ephesians 2:13, and in general all rational beings on earth and in heaven are reconciled to God, Colossians 1:20; with which Christ purchased for himself the church, Acts 20:28, and gathered it for God, Revelation 5:9. Moreover, since Christ's dying blood served to establish new religious institutions and a new relationship between men and God, it is likened also to a federative or covenant sacrifice: τό αἷμα τῆς διαθήκης, the blood by the shedding of which the covenant should be ratified, Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24, or has been ratified, Hebrews 10:29; Hebrews 13:20 (cf. Hebrews 9:20); add, 1 Corinthians 11:25; Luke 22:20 [WH reject this passage] (in both which the meaning is, 'this cup containing wine, an emblem of blood, is rendered by the shedding of my blood an emblem of the new covenant'), 1 Corinthians 11:27; (cf. Cicero, pro Sestio 10, 24 foedus sanguine meo ictum sanciri , Livy 23, 8 sanguine Hannibalis sanciam Romanum foedus ). πίνειν τὸ αἷμα αὐτοῦ (i. e. of Christ), to appropriate the saving results of Christ's death, John 6:53, John 6:56. [Westcott, Epistles of John, p. 34f.]TGL αἷμα.11


    (130) αἱματεκχυσία, -ας, , (αἷμα and ἐκχύνω), shedding of blood: Hebrews 9:22. Several times also in ecclesiastical writings.TGL αἱματεκχυσία.2


    (131) ἁιμορρέω, -ῶ; to be αἱμόρροος (αἷμα and ῤέω), to suffer from a flow of blood: Matthew 9:20. (Sept. Leviticus 15:33, where it means menstruous, and in medical writings.)TGL αἱμορροέω.2


    (132) Αἰνέας, -ου, , Ae'neas, the proper name of the paralytic cured by Peter: Acts 9:33.TGL Αἰνέας.2


    (133) αἴνεσις, -εως, , (αἰνέω), praise: θυσία αἰνέσεως (זֶבַח הַתּוֹרָח, Leviticus 7:13), Hebrews 13:15 a thank-offering, [A. V. 'sacrifice of praise'], presented to God for some benefit received; see θυσία , b. (αἴνεσις often occurs in the Sept. , but not in secular authors.)TGL αἴνεσις.2


    (134) αἰνέω, -ῶ; (found in secular authors of every age ["only twice in good Attic prose" (where ἐπαιν. παραιν. etc, take its place), Veitch], but especially frequently in the Sept. and the Apocrypha of the O. T.; from αἶνος); to praise, extol: τὸν θεόν, Luke 2:13, Luke 2:20; Luke 19:37; Luke 24:53 [WH omit; Tr text brackets); Acts 2:47; Acts 3:8; Romans 15:11; with the dative of person, τῷ θεῷ, to sing praises in honor of God, Revelation 19:5 L T Tr WH, as the Sept. in 2 Chronicles 7:3 (for (לְ הוֹדָה), 1 Chronicles 16:36; 1 Chronicles 23:5; Jeremiah 20:13 etc. (for לְ הִלֵּל); [Winers Grammar, § 31, 1 f.; Buttmann, 176 (153). Compare: ἐπ-, παραινέω.].TGL αἰνέω.2


    (135) αἴνιγμα, -τος, τό (common from [Pindar fragment 165 (190)] Aeschylus down; from αἰνίσσομαι or αἰνίττομαί τι, to express something obscurely [from αἶνος, which see]);TGL αἴνιγμα.2

    1. an obscure saying, an enigma, Hebrew חִידָה (Judges 14:13, Sept. πρόβλημα).TGL αἴνιγμα.3

    2. an obscure thing: 1 Corinthians 13:12, where ἐν αἰνίγματι is not equivalent to αἰνιγματικῶς, i. e. , ἀμαυρῶς obscurely, but denotes the object in the discerning of which we are engaged, as βλέπειν ἔν τινι, Matthew 6:4; cf. DeWette at the passage; the apostle has in mind Numbers 12:8 Sept. : ἐν εἴδει καὶ οὐ δἰ αἰνιγμάτων. [Others take ἐν locally, of the sphere in which we are looking; others refer the passage to 1. and take ἐν instrumentally.]TGL αἴνιγμα.4


    (136) αἶνος, -ου, , (often used by the Greek poets);TGL αἶνος.2

    1. a saying, a proverb.TGL αἶνος.3

    2. praise, laudatory discourse: Matthew 21:16 (Psalms 8:3); Luke 18:43.TGL αἶνος.4


    (137) Αἰνών, , (either a strengthened form of עַיִן and equivalent to עֵינָן, or a Chaldaic plural, equivalent to עֵינָוָן, springs; [others besides]), Aenon, indeclinable proper name, either of a place, or of a fountain, not far from Salim: John 3:23 [thought to be Wâdy Fâr’ah, running from Mt. Ebal to the Jordan; see Conder in the "Palestine Exploration Fund" for July 1874, p. 191f; Tent Work in Palestine, 1:91f; especially Stevens in Journ. of Exeget. Soc., December, 1883, pp. 128-141. Cf. B. D. American edition].TGL Αἰνών.2


    (138) αἱρέω, -ῶ: [thought by some to be akin to ἄγρα, ἀγρέω, χείρ, English grip, etc.; cf. Bttm. Lexil. 1:131 — but see Curtius, § 117]; to take. In the N. T. in the middle only: future αἱρήσομαι; 2 aorist εἱλόμην, but G L T Tr WH εἱλόμην, 2 Thessalonians 2:13, cf. [Tdf. Proleg., p. 123; WH's Appendix, p. 165;] Winers Grammar, § 13, 1 a.; Buttmann, 40 (35), see ἀπέρχομαι at the beginning; [participle ἑλόμενος, Hebrews 11:25]; to take for oneself, to choose, prefer: Philippians 1:22; 2 Thessalonians 2:13; μᾶλλον followed by infinitive with (common in Attic), Hebrews 11:25.TGL αἱρέω.2

    [Compare: ἀν-, ἀφ-, δι-, ἐξ-, καθ-, περι-, προαιρέω.]TGL αἱρέω.3


    (139) αἵρεσις, -εως, ;TGL αἵρεσις.2

    1. (from αἱρέω), act of taking, capture: τῆς πόλεως, the storming of a city; in secular authors.TGL αἵρεσις.3

    2. (from αἱρέομαι), choosing, choice, very often in secular writings: Sept. Leviticus 22:18; 1 Macc. 8:30.TGL αἵρεσις.4

    3. that which is chosen, a chosen course of thought and action; hence one's chosen opinion, tenet; according to the context, an opinion varying from the true exposition of the Christian faith (heresy): 2 Peter 2:1 (cf. DeWette at the passage), and in ecclesiastical writings [cf. Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word].TGL αἵρεσις.5

    4. a body of men separating themselves from others and following their own tenets (a sect or party): as the Sadducees, Acts 5:17; the Pharisees, Acts 15:5; Acts 26:5; the Christians, Acts 24:5, Acts 24:14 (in both instances with a suggestion of reproach); Acts 28:22 (in Diogenes Laërtius 1 (13) 18f, others, used of the schools of philosophy).TGL αἵρεσις.6

    5. dissensions arising from diversity of opinions and aims: Galatians 5:20; 1 Corinthians 11:19. [Cf. Meyer, at the passages cited; B. D. American edition under the word Sects; Burton, Bampt. Lect. for 1829; Campbell, Diss. on the Gospels, diss. ix., part iv.]TGL αἵρεσις.7


    (140) αἱρετίζω: 1 aorist ᾑρέτισα [Treg. ᾑρ. see Ι, ι]; (from αἱρετός, see αἱρέω ); to choose: Matthew 12:18. (Often in the Sept. in O. T. Apocrypha and in ecclesiastical writings; the middle is found in Ctesias Pers. § 9 [cf. Herodotus edition Schweig. 6:2, p. 354]. Cf. Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 144.)TGL αἱρετίζω.2


    (141) αἱρετικός, -ή, [see αἱρέω ];TGL αἱρετικός.2

    1. fitted or able to take or choose a thing; rare in secular authors.TGL αἱρετικός.3

    2. schismatic, factious, a follower of false doctrine: Titus 3:10.TGL αἱρετικός.4


    (142) αἴρω (contracted from the poetic ἀείρω); future ἀρῶ 1 aorist ἦρα, infinitive ἆραι, imperative ἆρον; perfect ἠρκα (Colossians 2:14); passive, [present αἴρομαι]; perfect ἤρμαι (John 20:1); 1 aorist ἤρθην; (on the rejection of the iota subscript in these tenses see Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i., pp. 413, 439; [Winer's Grammar, 47 (46)]); 1 future ἀρθήσομαι; [from Homer down]; in the Sept. generally equivalent to נָשָׂא; to lift up, raise.TGL αἴρω.2

    1. to raise up;TGL αἴρω.3

    a. to raise from the ground, take up: stones, John 8:59; serpents, Mark 16:18; a dead body, Acts 20:9.TGL αἴρω.4

    b. to raise upward, elevate, lift up: the hand, Revelation 10:5; the eyes, John 11:41; the voice, i. e., speak in a loud tone, cry out, Luke 17:13; Acts 4:24 (also in secular writings); τὴν ψυχήν, to raise the mind, equivalent to excite, affect strongly (with a sense of fear, hope, joy, grief, etc.); in John 10:24 to hold the mind in suspense between doubt and hope, cf. Lücke [or Meyer] at the passage,TGL αἴρω.5

    c. to draw up: a fish, Matthew 17:27 (ἀνασπᾶν, Habakkuk 1:15); σκάφην, Acts 27:17; anchors from the bottom of the sea, Acts 27:13, where supply τὰς ἀγκύρας; cf. Kuinoel at the passage; [Winers Grammar, 594 (552); Buttmann, 146 (127)].TGL αἴρω.6

    2. to take upon oneself and carry what has been raised, to bear: τινὰ ἐπὶ χειρῶν, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11 (Psalms 90:12 (Psalms 91:12)); a sick man, Mark 2:3; ζυγόν, Matthew 11:29 (Lamentations 3:27); a bed, Matthew 9:6; Mark 2:9, Mark 2:11; Luke 5:24; John 5:8-12; τὸν σταυρόν, Matt. [Matthew 10:38 Lachmann marginal reading]; Matthew 16:24; Matthew 27:32; Luke 9:23; Mark 8:34; Mark 10:21 [in R L brackets]; Mark 15:21; [λίθον,] Revelation 18:21; to carry with one, [A. V. take]: Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; Luke 22:36. Both of these ideas are expressed in classical Greek by the middle αἴρεσθαι.TGL αἴρω.7

    3. to bear away what has been raised, carry off;TGL αἴρω.8

    a. to move from its place: Matthew 21:21; Mark 11:23 (ἄρθητι be thou taken up, removed [Buttmann, 52 (45)], namely, from thy place); Matthew 22:13 [Rec. ]; John 2:16; John 11:39, John 11:41; John 20:1.TGL αἴρω.9

    b. to take off or away what is attached to anything: John 19:31, John 19:38; to tear away, Matthew 9:16; Mark 2:21; to rend away, cut off, John 15:2.TGL αἴρω.10

    c. to remove: 1 Corinthians 5:2 (cast out from the church, where ἀρθῇ should be read for Rec. ἐξαρθῇ); tropically: faults, Ephesians 4:31; τήν ἁμαρτίαν, John 1:29 [36 Lachmann in brackets], to remove the guilt and punishment of sin by expiation, or to cause that sin be neither imputed nor punished (αἴρειν ἁμάρτημα, 1 Samuel 15:25; ἀνόμημα, 1 Samuel 25:28, i. e. to grant pardon for an offence); but in 1 John 3:5 τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν αἴρειν is to cause our sins to cease, i. e., that we no longer sin, while we enter into fellowship with Christ, who is free from sin, and abide in that fellowship, cf. 1 John 3:6.TGL αἴρω.11

    d. to carry off; carry away with one: Matthew 14:12, Matthew 14:20; Matthew 15:37; Matthew 20:14; Matthew 24:17; Mark 6:29, Mark 6:43; Mark 8:8, Mark 8:19; Mark 13:15; Luke 9:17; Luke 17:31; John 20:2, John 20:13, John 20:15; Acts 20:9.TGL αἴρω.12

    e. to appropriate what is taken: Luke 19:21; Mark 15:24.TGL αἴρω.13

    f. to take away from another what is his or what is committed to him, to take by force: Luke 6:30; Luke 11:52; τὶ ἀπό with the genitive of person, Matthew 13:12; Matthew 21:43; Matthew 25:28; Luke 8:12, Luke 8:18; Luke 19:24, Luke 19:26; [Matthew 25:29]; Mark 4:25:(Mark 4:15); John 10:18; John 16:22; perhaps also with the mere genitive of the person from whom anything is taken, Luke 6:29; Luke 11:22; John 11:48, unless one prefer to regard these as possessive genitive,TGL αἴρω.14

    g. to take and apply to any use: Acts 21:11; 1 Corinthians 6:15.TGL αἴρω.15

    h. to take from among the living, either by a natural death, John 17:15 (ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου take away from intercourse with the world), or by violence, Matthew 24:39; Luke 23:18; John 19:15; Acts 21:36; with the addition of ἀπό τῆς γῆς, Acts 22:22; αἴρεται ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς ζωὴ αὐτοῦ, of a bloody death inflicted upon one, Acts 8:33 (Isaiah 53:8).TGL αἴρω.16

    i. of things; to take out of the way, destroy: χειρόγραφον, Colossians 2:14; cause to cease: τὴν κρίσιν, Acts 8:33 (Isaiah 53:8).TGL αἴρω.17

    [Compare: ἀπ-, ἐξ-, ἐπ-, μετ-, συν-, ὑπεραίρω.]TGL αἴρω.18


    (143) αἰσθάνομαι: 2 aorist ᾐσθόμην; [from Aeschylus down]; deponent middle to perceive;TGL αἰσθάνομαι.2

    1. by the bodily senses;TGL αἰσθάνομαι.3

    2. with the mind; to understand: Luke 9:45.TGL αἰσθάνομαι.4


    (144) αἴσθησις, -εως, , (αἰσθάνομαι), [from Euripides down], perception, not only by the senses but also by the intellect; cognition, discernment; (in the Sept. , Proverbs 1:22; Proverbs 2:10, etc., equivalent to דַּעַת): Philippians 1:9, of moral discernment, the understanding of ethical matters, as is plain from what is added in Philippians 1:10.TGL αἴσθησις.2


    (145) αἰσθητήριον, -ου, τό, an organ of perception; external sense, [Hippocrates]; Plato, Ax. 366 a.; Aristotle, polit, 4, 3, 9, others; faculty of the mind for perceiving, understanding, judging, Hebrews 5:14 (Jeremiah 4:19 αἰσθητ. τῆς καρδίας, 4 Macc. 2:22 [common text] τὰ ἔνδον αἰσθητήρια).TGL αἰσθητήριον.2


    (146) αἰσχροκερδής, -ές, (αἰσχρός and κέρδος; cf. αἰσχροπαθής in Philo [de mere. meretr. § 4]), eager for base gain (greedy of filthy lucre): 1 Timothy 3:3 Rec. , 8; Titus 1:7. (Herodotus 1, 187; Xenophon, Plato, others; [cf. turpilucricupidus , Plautus Trin. 1, 2, 63].)TGL αἰσχροκερδής.2


    (147) αἰσχροκερδῶς, adverb, from eagerness for base gain [for filthy lucre]: 1 Peter 5:2, cf. Titus 1:11. Not found elsewhere.TGL αἰσχροκερδῶς.2


    (148) αἰσχρολογία, -ας, , (from αἰσχρολόγος, and this from αἰσχρός and λέγω), foul speaking (Tertullian turpiloquium ), low and obscene speech, [R. V. shameful speaking]: Colossians 3:8: (Xenophon, Aristotle, Polybius) [Cf. Bishop Lightfoot at the passage; Trench, § xxxiv.]TGL αἰσχρολογία.2


    (149) αἰσχρός, -ά, -όν, (from αἶσχος baseness, disgrace), base, dishonorable: 1 Corinthians 11:6; 1 Corinthians 14:35; Ephesians 5:12; Titus 1:11.TGL αἴσχρον.2


    (150) αἰσχρός, -ά, -όν, (from αἶσχος baseness, disgrace), base, dishonorable: 1 Corinthians 11:6; 1 Corinthians 14:35; Ephesians 5:12; Titus 1:11.TGL αἰσχρός.2


    (151) αἰσχρότης, -ητος, , baseness, dishonor: Ephesians 5:4 [A. V. filthiness]. (Plato, Gorgias 525 a.)TGL αἰσχρότης.2


    (152) αἰσχύνη, -ης, , (αἶσχος [cf. αἰσχρός ]);TGL αἰσχύνη.2

    1. subjectively, the confusion of one who is ashamed of anything, sense of shame: μετ’ αἰσχύνης suffused with shame, Luke 14:9; τὰ κρυπτὰ τῆς αἰσχύνης those things which shame conceals, opposed to φανέρωσις τῆς ἀληθείας, 2 Corinthians 4:2 (evil arts of which one ought to be ashamed).TGL αἰσχύνη.3

    2. objectively, ignominy: visited on one by the wicked, Hebrews 12:2; which ought to arise from guilt, Philippians 3:19 (opposed to δόξα).TGL αἰσχύνη.4

    3. a thing to be ashamed of: αἰσχύνη τῆς γυμνότητος (genitive of apposition) nakedness to be ashamed of, Revelation 3:18, cf. Revelation 16:15; plural [cf. Winer's Grammar, 176 (166)] αἱ αἰσχῦναι basenesses, disgraces, shameful deeds, Jude 1:13. [(Aeschylus, Herodotus, others) Synonym: see αἰδώς , at the end.]TGL αἰσχύνη.5


    (153) αἰσχύνω: (αἶσχος [cf. αἰσχρός ]);TGL αἰσχύνω.2

    1. to disfigure: πρόσωπον, Homer, Iliad 18, 24, and many others.TGL αἰσχύνω.3

    2. to dishonor: Sept. Proverbs 29:15.TGL αἰσχύνω.4

    3. to suffuse with shame, make ashamed: Sir. 13:7. In the N. T. only passive, αἰσχύνομαι; future αἰσχυνθήσομαι; 1 aorist ᾐσχύνθην; to be suffused with shame, be made ashamed, be ashamed: 2 Corinthians 10:8; Philippians 1:20; 1 Peter 4:16; μὴ αἰσχυνθῶμεν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ that we may not in shame shrink from him, 1 John 2:28 (Sir. 21:22 αἰσχυνθήσεται ἀπὸ προσώπου [Isaiah 1:29; Jeremiah 12:13; cf. Buttmann, § 147, 2]); followed by an infinitive (on which see Winer's Grammar, 346 (325)), Luke 16:3.TGL αἰσχύνω.5

    [Compare: ἐπ- (-μαι), καταισχύνω.]TGL αἰσχύνω.6


    (154) αἰτέω, -ῶ; future αἰτήσω; 1 aorist ᾔτησα; perfect ἤτηκα; middle, present αἰτοῦμαι; imperfect ᾐτούμην future αἰτήσομαι; 1 aorist ᾐτησάμην; [from Homer down]; to ask; middle to ask for oneself, request for oneself; absolutely: James 1:6; Matthew 7:7; middle, James 4:3; John 16:26; Mark 15:8; αἰτεῖσθαι τι, John 15:7; Matthew 14:7; Mark 6:24; Mark 10:38; Mark 11:24; Mark 15:43; 1 John 5:14; Luke 23:52; Acts 25:3, Acts 25:15, etc.; αἰτεῖν with the accusative of the person to whom the request is made: Matthew 5:42; Matthew 6:8; Luke 6:30; αἰτεῖσθαι with the accusative of the person asked for — whether to be released, Matthew 27:20; Mark 15:6 [here T WH Tr marginal reading παραιτ., which see]; Luke 23:25; or bestowed as a gift; Acts 13:21; αἰτεῖν τι ἀπό τινος, Matthew 20:20 L Tr text WH text; [Luke 12:20 Tr WH]; 1 John 5:15 L T Tr WH; (so αἰτεῖσθαι in Plutarch, Galb. 20) [cf. Buttmann, 149 (130)]; τὶ παρά τινος, Acts 3:2; Matthew 20:20 R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading; James 1:5; 1 John 5:15 R G; followed by the infinitive, John 4:9; middle, Acts 9:2; [αἰτεῖν τι ἐν τ. ὀνόματι Χριστοῦ, John 14:13; John 16:24 (see ὄνομα , 2 e.); τὶ ἐν τῇ προσευχή, Matthew 21:22]; αἰτεῖν τινά τι, Matthew 7:9; Luke 11:11; Mark 6:22; John [John 14:14 T but L WH Tr marginal reading brackets]; John 16:23; ὑπέρ τινος followed by ἵνα, Colossians 1:9 [cf. Buttmann, 237 (204)]; αἰτεῖσθαι with the accusative and the infinitive, Luke 23:23; Acts 3:14; only with the infinitive, Acts 7:46 (ᾐτήσατο εὑρεῖν he asked that he himself might find; others wrongly translate ᾐτήσατο desired); Ephesians 3:13.TGL αἰτέω.2

    With the idea of demanding prominent: αἰτεῖν τι, Luke 1:63; 1 Corinthians 1:22; τινά τι, Luke 12:48; 1 Peter 3:15.TGL αἰτέω.3

    [The constructions of this word in the Greek Bible, the Apostolic Fathers, etc., are exhibited in detail by Prof. Ezra Abbot in the North American Review for Jan. 1872, p. 182f. He there shows also (in opposition to Trench, § xl., and others) that it is not "the constant word for the seeking of the inferior from the superior," and so differing from ἐρωτάω, which has been assumed to imply 'a certain equality or familiarity between the parties'; that the distinction between the words does not turn upon the relative dignity of the person asking and the person asked; but that αἰτέω signifies to ask for something to be given not done, giving prominence to the thing asked for rather than the person, and hence is rarely used in exhortation. έρωτάω, on the other hand, is to request a person to do (rarely to give) something; referring more directly to the person, it is naturally used in exhortation, etc. The views of Trench are also rejected by Cremer, 4te Aufl. under the word. The latter distinguishes αἰτέω from similar words as follows: "αἰτέω denotes the request of the will, ἐπιθυμέω that of the sensibilities, δέομαι the asking of need, while ἐρωτάω marks the form of the request, as does εὔχεσθαι also, which in classic Greek is the proper expression for a request directed to the gods and embodying itself in prayer." έρωτάω, αἰτέω and δέομαι are also compared briefy by Green, Critical Notes, etc. (on John 14:13, John 14:16), who concludes of ἐρωτάω "it cannot serve to indicate directly any peculiar position, absolute or relative, of the agent. The use of the word may, therefore, be viewed as having relation to the manner and cast of the request, namely, when carrying a certain freedom of aim and bearing; a thing inseparable from the act of direct interrogation"; cf. further Schmidt, chapter 7. Compare: ἀπ-, ἐξ-, ἐπ-, παρ- (-μαι), προσαιτέω.]TGL αἰτέω.4


    (155) αἴτημα, -τος, τό, (αἰτέω), [from Plato down], what is or has been asked for: Luke 23:24; plural [A. V. requests), Philippians 4:6 [cf. Ellicott at the passage]; things asked for, 1 John 5:15. [See the preceding word, and Trench, § li.]TGL αἴτημα.2


    (156) αἰτία, -ας, ;TGL αἰτία.2

    1. cause, reason: Acts 10:21; Acts 22:24; Acts 28:20; κατὰ πᾶσαν αἰτίαν for every cause, Matthew 19:3; δἰ ἥν αἰτίαν for which cause, wherefore, Luke 8:47; 2 Timothy 1:6, 2 Timothy 1:12; Titus 1:13; Hebrews 2:11; cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 4:28.TGL αἰτία.3

    2. cause for which one is worthy of punishment; crime of which one is accused: Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; John 18:38; John 19:4 [John 19:6; Acts 23:28]; αἰτία θανάτου [A. V. cause of death] crime deserving the punishment of death, Acts 13:28; Acts 28:18.TGL αἰτία.4

    3. charge of crime, accusation: Acts 25:18, Acts 25:27. (All these meanings are in secular writings also; [but Liddell and Scott now make meaning 3 the primary one].)TGL αἰτία.5

    In Matthew 19:10 the words εἰ οὕτως ἐστὶν αἰτία τοῦ ἀνθρώπου μετὰ τῆς γυναικός find a simple explanation in a Latinism (causa equivalent to res : si ita res se habet, etc.) if the case of the man with his wife is so.TGL αἰτία.6


    (157) αἰτίαμα, -τος, τό see αἰτίωμα.TGL αἰτίαμα.2

    Related entry: αἰτιάομαι, -ῶμαι: to accuse, bring a charge against; ᾐτιασάμεθα is a various reading in Romans 3:9 for the προῃτιασάμεθα of the printed texts. (Proverbs 19:3; Sir. 29:5; frequently in secular writings.) Synonym: see κατηγορέω .TGL αἰτίαμα.3

    Related entry: αἰτίωμα, -τος, τό (αἰτιάομαι); in Acts 25:7 the reading of the best manuscripts adopted by G L T Tr WH for Rec. αἰτίαμα: accusation, charge of guilt. (A form not found in other writings; [yet Meyer notes αἰτίωσις for αἰτίασις, Eustathius, p. 1422, 21; see Buttmann, 73; WH's Appendix, p. 166].)TGL αἰτίαμα.4


    (158) αἴτιος, , -ον, that in which the cause of anything resides, causative, causing. Hence,TGL αἴτιον.2

    1. αἴτιος the author: σωτηρίας, Hebrews 5:9 (the same phrase is frequent in secular writings; cf. the opposite αἰ. τῆς ἀπωλείας in Bel and the Dragon, verse 41; τῶν κακῶν, 2 Macc. 13:4; Lucian, Tim. 36, Lipsius edition; τῶν ἀγαθῶν, Isocr. ad Phil. 49, p. 106 a.; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 94f.).TGL αἴτιον.3

    2. τὸ αἴτιον equivalent to αἰτία;TGL αἴτιον.4

    a. cause: Acts 19:40 [cf. Buttmann, 400 (342) n.].TGL αἴτιον.5

    b. crime, offence: Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22. (αἴτιος culprit.) [See αἰτία , 3.]TGL αἴτιον.6


    (159) αἴτιος, , -ον, that in which the cause of anything resides, causative, causing. Hence,TGL αἴτιος.2

    1. αἴτιος the author: σωτηρίας, Hebrews 5:9 (the same phrase is frequent in secular writings; cf. the opposite αἰ. τῆς ἀπωλείας in Bel and the Dragon, verse 41; τῶν κακῶν, 2 Macc. 13:4; Lucian, Tim. 36, Lipsius edition; τῶν ἀγαθῶν, Isocr. ad Phil. 49, p. 106 a.; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. 2:2, p. 94f.).TGL αἴτιος.3

    2. τὸ αἴτιον equivalent to αἰτία;TGL αἴτιος.4

    a. cause: Acts 19:40 [cf. Buttmann, 400 (342) n.].TGL αἴτιος.5

    b. crime, offence: Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22. (αἴτιος culprit.) [See αἰτία , 3.]TGL αἴτιος.6


    (160) αἰφνίδιος, -όν, (αἴφνης, ἀφανής, ἄφνω, which see), unexpected, sudden, unforeseen: Luke 21:34 [here WH ἐφνιδ., see their Introductory § 404 and Appendix, p. 151]; 1 Thessalonians 5:3. (Wis. 17:14; 2 Macc. 14:17; 3 Macc. 3:24; Aeschylus, Thucydides 2, 61 τὸ αἰφνίδιον καὶ ἀπροσδόκητον, Polybius, Josephus, Plutarch, Dionysius Halicarnassus, others.)TGL αἰφνίδιος.2


    (161) αἰχμαλωσία, -ας, , (αἰχμάλωτος, which see), captivity: Revelation 13:10; abstract for concrete equivalent to αἰχμάλωτοι (cf. ἀδελφότης above), Ephesians 4:8 (from Psalm 67:19 (Psalms 68:19) [cf. Buttmann, 148 (129); Winer's Grammar, 225 (211)]); also εἴ τις αἰχμαλωσίαν συνάγει (according to the common but doubtless corrupt text), Revelation 13:10 (as in Numbers 31:12, etc.). [Polybius, Diodorus, Josephus, Plutarch, others.]TGL αἰχμαλωσία.2


    (162) αἰχμαλωτεύω; 1 aorist ἠχμαλώτευσα; a later word (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 442; [Winers Grammar, 92 (88)]); to make captive, take captive: 2 Timothy 3:6 Rec. ; frequent in the Sept. and O. T. Apocrypha; to lead captive: Ephesians 4:8 (Ezekiel 12:3; [1 Esdr. 6:15]).TGL αἰχμαλωτεύω.2


    (163) αἰχμαλωτίζω; 1 future passive αἰχμαλωτισθήσομαι;TGL αἰχμαλωτίζω.2

    a. equivalent to αἰχμάλωτον ποιῶ, which the earlier Greeks use.TGL αἰχμαλωτίζω.3

    b. to lead away captive: followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, Luke 21:24 (1 Macc. 10:33; Tobit 1:10).TGL αἰχμαλωτίζω.4

    c. figuratively, to subjugate, bring under control: 2 Corinthians 10:5 (on which passage see νόημα , 2); τινά τινι, Romans 7:23 [yet T Tr א etc. insert ἐν before the dative]; to take captive one's mind, captivate: γυναικάρια, 2 Timothy 3:6 [not Rec. ] (Judith 16:9 τὸ κάλλος αὐτῆς ᾐχμαλώτισε ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ). The word is used also in the Sept. , Diodorus, Josephus, Plutarch, Arrian, Heliodorus; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 442; [Winer's Grammar, 91 (87); Ellicott on 2 Timothy, the passage cited].TGL αἰχμαλωτίζω.5


    (164) αἰχμάλωτος, -όν, (from αἰχμή, a spear and ἁλωτός, verbal adjective from ἁλῶναι, properly, taken by the spear), [from Aeschylus down], captive: Luke 4:18 (19).TGL αἰχμάλωτος.2


    (165) αἰών, -ῶνος, , (as if αἰὲν — poetic for ἀείὤν, so teaches Aristotle, de caelo 1, 11, 9, vol. i., p. 279a, 27; [so Proclus book iv. in Plato, Timaeo, p. 241; and others]; but more probable is the conjecture [cf. Etym. Magn. 41, 11] that αἰών is so connected with ἄημι to breathe, blow, as to denote properly that which causes life, vital force; cf. Harless on Ephesians 2:2). [But αἰών (=αἰϝών) is now generally connected with αἰεί, ἀεί, Sanskrit êvas (aivas ), Latin aevum , Gothic aivs, German ewig, English aye, ever ; cf. Curtius, § 585; Fick, Part i., p. 27; Vanicek, p. 79; Benfey, Wurzellex, i., p. 7f; Schleicher, Compend. edition 2, p. 400; Pott, Etymologicum Forsch., edition 2, 2:2, p. 442; Ebeling, Lex. Homer under the word; Liddell and Scott, under the word ἀεί; Cremer, edd, 2, 3, 4 (although in edition 1 he agreed with Prof. Grimm); Pott and Fick, however, connect it with Sanskrit âyus rather than êvas, although both these forms are derived from i to go (see Pott, Sehleicher, Fick, Vanicek, as above).]TGL αἰών.2

    In Greek authors:TGL αἰών.3

    1. age (Latin aevum , which is αἰών with the Aeolic digamma), a human lifetime (in Homer, Herodotus, Pindar, Tragic poets), life itself (Homer Iliad 5, 685 μὲ καὶ λίποι αἰών etc.).TGL αἰών.4

    2. an unbroken age, perpetuity of time, eternity, (Plato, Tim., p. 37 d. 38 a.; Tim. Locr., p. 97 d. [quoted below]; Plutarch, others).TGL αἰών.5

    With this signification the Hebrew and Rabbinic idea of the word עוֹלָם (of which in the Sept. αἰών is the equivalent) combines in the Biblical and ecclesiastical writings.TGL αἰών.6

    Hence, in the N. T. used:TGL αἰών.7

    1.TGL αἰών.8

    a. universally: in the phrases εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, לְעוֹלָם (Genesis 6:3), forever, John 6:51, John 6:58; John 14:16; Hebrews 5:6; Hebrews 6:20, etc.; and strengthened εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ αἰῶνος, Hebrews 1:8 [from Psalms 44:7 (Psalms 45:7) Alexandrian LXX , cf. Winer's Grammar, § 36, 2] (Tobit 6:18; Psalm 82:18 (Psalms 83:18), etc.); εἰς αἰῶνα, Jude 1:13; εἰς ἡμέραν αἰῶνος unto the day which is eternity (genitive of apposition), 2 Peter 3:18 [cf. Sir. 18:10 (9)]; with a negation: never, John 4:14 [Lachmann in brackets]; John 8:51; John 10:28; John 11:26; John 13:8; 1 Corinthians 8:13; or not for ever, not always, John 8:35; εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, unto the ages, i. e., as long as time shall be (the plural denotes the individual ages whose sum is eternity): [Luke 1:33]; Romans 1:25; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; [Romans 16:27 R G Tr WH]; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Hebrews 13:8; εἰς πάντας τ. αἰῶνας, Jude 1:25; εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων (in which expression the endless future is divided up into various periods, the shorter of which are comprehended in the longer [cf. Winers Grammar, § 36, 2; among the various phrases to express duration composed of this word with preposition or adjuncts (which to the number of more than fifteen are to be found in the Sept. , cf. Vaughan on Romans 1:25), this combination of the double plural seems to be peculiar to the N. T.]): [Romans 16:27 L T]; Galatians 1:5; [Philippians 4:20]; 1 Timothy 1:17; [2 Timothy 4:18; 1 Peter 4:11]; Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 11:15; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 19:3; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 22:5; εἰς αἰῶνας αἰώνων, Revelation 14:11; αἰὼν τῶν αἰώνων the (whole) age embracing the (shorter) ages, Ephesians 3:21 (cf. Meyer [or Ellicott] at the passage); ἀπὸ τῶν αἰώνων from the ages down, from eternity, Colossians 1:26; Ephesians 3:9; πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων before time was, before the foundation of the world, 1 Corinthians 2:7; πρόθεσις τῶν αἰώνων eternal purpose, Ephesians 3:11.TGL αἰών.9

    b. in hyperbolic and popular usage: ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος (מֵעוֹלָם Genesis 6:4, cf. Deuteronomy 32:7) from the most ancient time down (within the memory of man), from of old, Luke 1:70; Acts 3:21; Acts 15:18 (Tobit 4:12 οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἀπὸ τοῦ αἰῶνος; οἱ ἀπʹ αἰῶνος Ῥωμαῖοι, Dion Cass. 63, 20, 2 cf. 5; Longinus, 34 τούς ἀπʹ αἰῶνος ῥήτορας); also ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος, John 9:32 (1 Esdr. 2:19, 22 (23); Diodorus 4:83 of the temple of Venus τήν, ἐξ αἰῶνος ἀρχήν λαβόν, 17, 1 τούς ἐξ αἰῶνος βασιλεῖς [excerpt. de legat, xl.], p. 632 τήν ἐξ αἰῶνος παραδεδομένην ἐλευθερίαν).TGL αἰών.10

    2. by metonymy of the container for the contained, οἱ αἰῶνες denotes the worlds, the universe, i. e. the aggregate of things contained in time [on the plural cf. Winers Grammar, 176 (166); Buttmann, 24 (21)]: Hebrews 1:2; Hebrews 11:3; and (?) 1 Timothy 1:17; [Revelation 15:3 WH text; cf. Psalms 144:13 (Psalms 145:13); Tobit 13:6, 10; Sir. 36:22; Philo de plant. Noë § 12 twice; de mundo § 7; Josephus, Antiquities 1, 18, 7; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 61, 2; 35, 3 (πατὴρ τ. α.); 55, 6 (θεὸς τ. α.); Apostolic Constitutions 7, 34; see Abbot in Journal Society for Biblical Literature etc. i., p. 106 n.]. So αἰών in Wis. 13:9; Wis. 14:6; Wis. 18:4; the same use occurs in the Talmud, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic; cf. Bleek, Hebräerbr. ii., 1, p. 36ff; Gesenius, Thesaurus ii., p. 1036; [cf. the use of οἱ αἰῶνες in the Fathers, equivalent to the world of mankind, e. g. Ignatius ad Eph. 19, 2]:TGL αἰών.11

    3. As the Jews distinguished הַזֶּה הָעוֹלָם the time before the Messiah, and הַבָּא הַעוֹלָם, the time after the advent of the Messiah (cf. Riehm, Lehrb. d. Hebräerbr., p. 204ff; [Schürer, § 29, 9]), so most of the N. T. writers distinguish αἰὼν οὗτος this age (also simply αἰών, Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:19 G L T Tr WH; ἐνεστὼς αἰών, Galatians 1:4; νῦν αἰών, 1 Timothy 6:17; [2 Timothy 4:10]; Titus 2:12), the time before the appointed return or truly Messianic advent of Christ (i. e., the παρουσία, which see), the period of instability, weakness, impiety, wickedness, calamity, misery — and αἰὼν μέλλων the future age (also αἰὼν ἐκεῖνος, Luke 20:35; αἰὼν ἐρχόμενος, Luke 18:30; Mark 10:30; οἱ αἰῶνες οἱ ἐπερχόμενοι, Ephesians 2:7), i. e., the age after the return of Christ in majesty, the period of the consummate establishment of the divine kingdom and all its blessings: Matthew 12:32; Ephesians 1:21; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. 3:22f.TGL αἰών.12

    Hence, the things of 'this age' are mentioned in the N. T. with censure: αἰὼν οὗτος, by metonymy, men controlled by the thoughts and pursuits of this present time, Romans 12:2, the same who are called υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰ. τούτου in Luke 16:8; Luke 20:34; κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τοῦ κόσμου τούτου conformably to the age to which this (wicked) world belongs, Ephesians 2:2 [cf. Trench, § 59 under the end]; ἀγαπᾶν τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα, 2 Timothy 4:10 (see ἀγαπάω ); ἄρχοντες τοῦ αἰ. τούτου, 1 Corinthians 2:6 (see ἄρχων ); θεὸς τοῦ αἰ. τούτου, the devil, who rules the thoughts and deeds of the men of this age, 2 Corinthians 4:4; αἱ μέριμναι τοῦ αἰῶνος, the anxieties for the things of this age, Mark 4:19; πλούσιος ἐν τῷ νῦν αἰῶνι, rich in worldly wealth, 1 Timothy 6:17; σοφία τοῦ αἰ. τούτ. such wisdom as belongs to this age — full of error, arrogant, hostile to the gospel, 1 Corinthians 2:6; συζητητὴς τοῦ αἰ. τούτ. disputer, sophist, such as we now find him, 1 Corinthians 1:20; συντέλεια τοῦ αἰ. τούτ., the end, or rather consummation, of the age preceding Christ's return, with which will be connected the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment, the demolition of this world and its restoration to a more excellent condition [cf. 4 Esdr. 7:43], Matthew 13:39, Matthew 13:49; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 28:20; it is called συντέλεια τῶν αἰώνων in Hebrews 9:26 [so Test xii. Patr., test. Leviticus 10:1-20, test. Benj. 11 (cf. Vorstman, p. 133)]; τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων the ends (last part) of the ages before the return of Christ, 1 Corinthians 10:11; δυνάμεις τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος, powers which present themselves from the future or divine order of things, i. e., the Holy Spirit, Hebrews 6:5; τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν, to partake of the blessings of the future age, Luke 20:35. Among the N. T. writers James does not use the word αἰών.TGL αἰών.13

    [On the word in its relation to κόσμος see Trench, § 59: Its biblical sense and its relation to עוֹלָם are discussed by Stuart, Exeget. Essays on Words relating to Future Punishment, Andover, 1830 (and Presbyterian Publishing Committee, Philadelphia); Tayler Lewis in Lange's Commentary on Ecclesiastes, pp. 44-51; J. W. Hanson, Aion-Aionios (pp. 174), Chicago, 1880. See especially E. Abbot, Literature of the Doctrine of a Future Life, etc. (New York, 1867), Index of subjects, under the word. For its meanings in ecclesiastical writings see Suicer, Thesaurus Eccl. i. col. 140ff, cf. ii. col 1609; Huet, Origeniana (Appendix to Vol. iv. of De la Rue's Origen) book ii. c. ii. quaest. 11, § 26. Its use in Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Aristotle, Plato, Tim. Locr., is exhibited in detail by E. S. Goodwin in the Christ. Exam. for March and May, 1831, March and May, 1832. "On αἰών as the complete period, either of each particular life or of all existence, see Aristotle, cael. 1, 9, 15; on αἰών and χρόνος, cf. Philo [quis rer. div. her. § 34] i. 496, 18f; [de mut. nom. § 47] i. 619, 10f." Liddell and Scott, edition 6; see also Philo de alleg. leg. iii. 8; quod deus immut. § 6 at the end; de secular § 11; de praem, et poen. § 15; and (de mund, opif. § 7) especially J. G. Müller, Philo's Lehre v. d. Weltschöpfung, p. 168 (Berl. 1864). Schmidt (chapter 44) gives the distinction, for substance, as follows: both words denote the abstract idea of time and with special reference to its extent or duration; χρόνος is the general designation for time, which can be divided up into portions, each of which is in its turn a χρόνος; on the other hand, αἰών, which in the concrete and simple language of Homer (Pindar and the Tragedians) denotes the allotted lifetime, even the life, of the individual (Iliad 4, 478 μινυνθάδιος δέ οἱ αἰών etc.), in Attic prose differs from χρόνος by denoting time unlimited and boundless, which is not conceived of as divisible into αἰῶνες (contrast here biblical usage and see below), but rather into χρόνοι. In philosophical speech it is without beginning also. Cf. Tim. Locr. 97 c. d. χρόνω δὲ τὰ μέρεα τάσδε τὰς περιόδως λέγοντι, ἅς ἐκόσμησεν θεὸς σὺν κόσμῳ· οὐ γὰρ ἦν πρὸ κόσμω ἄστρα· διόπερ οὐδ’ ἐνιαυτὸς οὐδ’ ὠρᾶν περίοδοι, αἷς μετρέεταί γεννατὸς χρόνος οὗτος. εὶκὼν δέ ἐστι τῶ ἀγεννάτω χρόνω, ὅν αἰῶνα ποταγορεύομες· ὡς γὰρ ποτ’ ἀΐδιον παράδειγμα, τὸν ἰδανικὸν κόσμον, ὅδε ὠρανὸς ἐγεννάθη, οὕτως ὡς πρὸς παράδειγμα, τὸν αἰῶνα, ὅδε χρόνος σὺν κόσμῳ ἐδαμιουργήθη — after Plato, Timaeus, p. 37 d. (where see Stallbaum's note and references); Isocrates 8, 34 τοὺς δὲ μετ’ εὐσεβείας κ. δικαιοσύνης ζῶντας (ὁρῶ) ἐν τε τοῖς παροῦσι χρόνοις ἀσφαλῶς διάγοντας καὶ περὶ τοῦ σύμπαντος αἰῶνος ἡδίους τὰς ἐλπίδας ἔχοντας. The adjective ἄχρονος independent of time, above and beyond all time, is synonymous with αἰώνιος; where time (with its subdivisions and limitations) ends eternity begins: Nonnus, metaph, evang. Johan. 1:1, ἄχρονος ἦν, ἀκίχητος, ἐν ἀρρήτω λόγος ἀρχῇ. Thoroughly Platonic in cast are the definitions of Gregory of Nazianzus (orat. xxxviii. 8) αἰὼν γὰρ οὔτε χρόνος οὔτε χρόνου τι μέρος· οὐδὲ γάρ μετρητόν, ἀλλ’ ὅπερ, ἡμῖν χρόνος ἡλίου φορᾷ μετρούμενος, τοῦτο τοῖς ἀϊδίοις αἰών, τὸ συμπαρεκτεινόμενον τοῖς οὖσιν οἷον τι χρονικὸν κίνημα καὶ διάστημα (Suicer as above). So Clement of Alexandria, strom., i. 13, p. 756 a., Migne edition, γ’ οὖν αἰὼν τοῦ χρόνου τὸ μέλλον καὶ τὸ ἐνεστὼς, αὐτὰρ δὴ καὶ τὸ παρῳχηκὸς ἀκαριαίως συνίστησι. Instances from extra-biblical writings of the use of αἰών in the plural are: τὸν ἀπ’ αἰώνων μύθον, Anthol. vol iii., part ii., p. 55, Jacobs edition; εἰς αἰῶνας, ibid. vol. iv. epigr. 492; ἐκ περιτροπῆς αἰώνων, Josephus, b. j. 3, 8, 5; εἰς αἰῶνας διαμένει, Sextus Empiricus, adv. Phys. i. 62. The discussions which have been raised respecting the word may give interest to additional references to its use by Philo and Josephus. Philo: πᾶς (ἅπας, σύμπας) or πᾶς (etc.) αἰών: de alleg. leg. iii. § 70; de cherub. § 1 (a noteworthy passage, cf. de congressu erud. § 11 and references under the word θάνατος); de sacrif. Ab. et Caini § 11; quod det. pot. § 48; quod deus immut. § 1, § 24; de plantat. § 27; de sobrietate § 13; de migr. Abr. § 2; de secular § 9; de mut. nom. § 34; de somn. ii., § 15, § 31, § 38; de legat. ad Gaium § 38; () μακρὸς αἰ.: de sacrif. Ab et Caini § 21; de ebrietate § 47; de secular § 20; αἰ. μήκιστος: de sobrietate § 5; de secular § 21; ἄπειρος αἰ.: de legat, ad Gaium § 11; ἔμπροσθεν αἰ.: de praem, et. poen. § 6; αἰ. πολύς: de Abrah. § 46; τίς αἰ.: de merc. meretr. § 1; δἰ αἰ.: de cherub. § 26; de plantat. § 27; εἰς τὸν αἰ.: de gigant. § 5; ἐν (τῷ) αἰ.: de mut. nom. § 2 (twice) (note the restriction); quod deus immut. § 6; ἐξ αἰ.: de somn. 1 § 3; ἐπ’ αἰ.: de plantat. § 12 (twice); de mundo § 7; πρὸ αἰ.: de mut. nom. § 2; πρὸς αἰ.: de mut. nom. § 11; () αἰ.: de secular § 18; de alleg. leg. iii. § 70; de cherub. § 22; de migr. Abr. § 22; de somn. i., § 18, § 22; de Josepho § 5; de vita Moys. ii. § 3; de decalogo § 14; de victimis § 3; fragment in Mang. 2:660 (Richter vi., p. 219); de plantat. § 12 (bis); de mundo § 7. Josephus: () πᾶς αἰών: Antiquities 1, 18, 7; 3, 8, 10; contra Apion 2, 11, 3; 2, 22, 1; μακρὸς αἰ.: Antiquities 2, 7, 3; πολὺς αἰ.: contra Apion 2, 31, 1; τοσοῦτος αἰ.: contra Apion 1, 8, 4; πλῆθος αἰῶνος: Antiquities prooem. § 3; ἀπ’ αἰ.: b. j. prooem. § 4; δι’ αἰ.: Antiquities 1, 18, 8; 4, 6, 4; b. j. 6, 2, 1; εἰς (τὸν) αἰ.: Antiquities 4, 8, 18; 5, 1, 27; 7, 9, 5; 7, 14, 5; ἐξ αἰ.: b. j. 5, 10, 5; () αἰ.: Antiquities 19, 2, 2; b. j. 1, 21, 10; plural (see above) 3, 8, 5. See αἰώνιος .]TGL αἰών.14


    (166) αἰώνιος, -ον, and (in 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Hebrews 9:12; Numbers 25:13; Plato, Tim., p. 38 b. [see below]; Diodorus 1:1; [cf. WHs Appendix, p. 157; Winers Grammar, 69 (67); Buttmann, 26 (23)]) -ος, , -ον, (αἰών);TGL αἰώνιος.2

    1. without beginning or end, that which always has been and always will be: θεός, Romans 16:26 ( μόνος αἰώνιος, 2 Macc. 1:25); πνεῦμα, Hebrews 9:14.TGL αἰώνιος.3

    2. without beginning: χρόνοις αἰωνίοις, Romans 16:25; πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων, 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2; εὐαγγέλιον, a gospel whose subject-matter is eternal, i. e., the saving purpose of God adopted from eternity, Revelation 14:6.TGL αἰώνιος.4

    3. without end, never to cease, everlasting: 2 Corinthians 4:18 (opposed to πρόσκαιρος); αἰώνιον αὐτόν, joined to thee forever as a sharer of the same eternal life, Philemon 1:15; βάρος δόξης, 2 Corinthians 4:17; βασιλεία, 2 Peter 1:11; δόξα, 2 Timothy 2:10; 1 Peter 5:10; ζωή (see ζωή , 2 b.); κληρονομία, Hebrews 9:15; λύτρωσις, Hebrews 9:12; παράκλησις, 2 Thessalonians 2:16; σκηναί, abodes to be occupied forever, Luke 16:9 (the habitations of the blessed in heaven are referred to, cf. John 14:2 [also, dabo eis tabernacula aeterna, quae praeparaveram illis , 4 Esdras (Fritzsche, 5 Esdr.) 2:11]; similarly Hades is called αἰώνιος τόπος, Tobit 3:6, cf. Ecclesiastes 12:5); σωτηρία, Hebrews 5:9; [so Mark 16:1-20 WH, in the (rejected) 'Shorter Conclusion'].TGL αἰώνιος.5

    Opposite ideas are: κόλασις, Matthew 25:46; κρίμα, Hebrews 6:2; κρίσις, Mark 3:29 (Rec. [but L T WH Tr text ἁμαρτήματος; in Acta Thom. § 47, p. 227 Tdf. , ἔσται σοι τοῦτο εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν καὶ λύτρον αἰωνίων παραπτωμάτων, it has been plausibly conjectured we should read λύτρον, αἰώνιον (cf. Hebrews 9:12)]); ὄλεθρος [Lachmann text ὀλέθριος], 2 Thessalonians 1:9 (4 Macc. 10:15); πῦρ, Matthew 25:41 (4 Macc. 12:12 αἰωνίῳ πυρὶ κ. βασάνοις, αἳ εἰς ὅλον τὸν αἰῶνα οὐκ ἀνήσουσί σε).TGL αἰώνιος.6

    [Of the examples of αἰώνιος from Philo (with whom it is less common than ἀΐδιος, which see, of which there are some fifty instances) the following are noteworthy: de mut. nora. § 2; de caritate § 17; κόλασις αἰ. fragment in Mang. 2:667 at the end (Richter 6:229 middle); cf. de praem, et poen. § 12. Other examples are de alleg, leg. iii., § 70; de poster. Caini § 35; quod deus immut. § 30; quis rer. div. her. § 58; de congressu quaer, erud. § 19; de secular sec 38; de somn. ii. § 43; de Josepho § 24; quod omn. prob. book § 4, § 18; de ebrietate § 32; de Abrah. § 10; ζωὴ αἰ.: de secular § 15; Θεός () αἰ.: de plantat. § 2, § 18 (twice), § 20 (twice); de mundo § 2. from Josephus: Antiquities 7, 14, 5; 12, 7, 3; 15, 10, 5; b. j. 1, 33, 2; 6, 2, I; κλέος αἰ. Antiquities 4, 6, 5; b. j. 3, 8, 5, μνήμη αἱ.: Antiquities 1, 13, 4; 6, 14, 4; 10, 11, 7; 15, 11, 1; οἶκον μὲν αἰώνιον ἔχεις (of God), Antiquities 8, 4, 2; ἐφυλάχθη Ἰωάννης δεσμοῖς αἰωνίοις, b. j. 6, 9, 4.TGL αἰώνιος.7

    SYNONYMS: ἀΐδιος, αἰώνιος: ἀΐδ. covers the complete philosophic idea — without beginning and without end; also either without beginning or without end; as respects the past, it is applied to what has existed time out of mind. αἰώνιος (from Plato on) gives prominence to the immeasurableness of eternity (while such words as συνεχής continuous, unintermitted, διατελής perpetual, lasting to the end, are not so applicable to an abstract term, like αἰών); αἰώνιος accordingly is especially adapted to supersensuous things, see the N. T. Cf. Tim. Locr. 96 c. Θεὸν δὲ τὸν μὲν αἰώνιον νόος ὁρῆ μόνος etc.; Plato, Tim. 37 d. (and Stallbaum at the passage); 38 b. c.; legg. x., p. 904 a. ἀνώλεθρον δὲ ὄν γενόμενον, ἀλλ’ οὐκ αἰώνιον. Cf. also Plato's διαιώνιος (Tim. 38 b.; 39 e.). Schmidt, chapter 45.]TGL αἰώνιος.8


    (167) ἀκαθαρσία, -ας, , (ἀκάθαρτος) [from Hippocrates down], uncleanness;TGL ἀκαθαρσία.2

    a. physical: Matthew 23:27.TGL ἀκαθαρσία.3

    b. in a moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious, profligate living: Romans 1:24; Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 12:21; Galatians 5:19; Ephesians 4:19; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:7; used of impure motives in 1 Thessalonians 2:3. (Demosthenes, p. 553, 12.) Cf. Tittmann i., p. 150f.TGL ἀκαθαρσία.4


    (168) ἀκαθάρτης, -ητος, , impurity: Revelation 17:4, — not found elsewhere, and the true reading here is τὰ ἀκάθαρτα τῆς.TGL ἀκαθάρτης.2


    (169) ἀκάθαρτος, -όν, (καθαίρω) [from Sophocles down], in the Sept. equivalent to טָמֶא, not cleansed, unclean;TGL ἀκάθαρτος.2

    a. in a ceremonial sense, that which must be abstained from according to the levitical law, lest impurity be contracted: Acts 10:14; Acts 11:8 (of food); Acts 10:28; 1 Corinthians 7:14 (of men); 2 Corinthians 6:17 (from Isaiah 52:11, of things pertaining to idolatry); Revelation 18:2 (of birds),TGL ἀκάθαρτος.3

    b. in a moral sense, unclean in thought and life (frequent in Plato): Ephesians 5:5; τὰ ἀκάθαρτα τῆς πορνείας, Revelation 17:4 (according to the true reading); πνεύματα, demons, bad angels [in twenty-three passages of the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation]: Matthew 10:1; Matthew 12:43; Mark 1:23, Mark 1:26; Mark 3:11, etc.; Luke 4:33, Luke 4:36; Luke 6:18, etc.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 18:2 (πνεύματα πονηρά in Matthew 12:45; Luke 7:21; Luke 8:2; Luke 11:26; Acts 19:12, Acts 19:15).TGL ἀκάθαρτος.4


    (170) ἀκαιρέομαι, -οῦμαι: [imperfect ἠκαιρούμην]; (ἄκαιρος inopportune); to lack opportunity, (opposed to εὐκαιρέω): Philippians 4:10. (Photius , Suidas, Zonaras ; ἀκαίρεῖν, Diodorus excerp. Vatican edition Mai, p. 30 [fragment l. x., § 7, Dindorf edition].)TGL ἀκαιρέομαι.2


    (171) ἀκαίρως, (καιρός), adverb, unseasonably, [A. V. out of season] (opposed to εὐκαίρως): 2 Timothy 4:2 (whether seasonable for men or not). (Sir. 35:4; [Aeschylus Ag. 808]; Plato, de rep. x., p. 606 b.; Tim. 33 a.; 86 c.; Xenophon, Ephesians 5:1-33, Ephesians 5:7; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 7, 2, others.)TGL ἀκαίρως.2


    (172) ἄκακος, -όν, (κακός);TGL ἄκακος.2

    a. without guile or fraud, harmless; free from guilt: Hebrews 7:26; [cf. Clement, fragment 8, Jacobson edition (Bishop Lightfoot S. Clement of Rome etc., p. 219): ἄκακος Πατὴρ πνεῦμα ἔδωκεν ἄκακον).TGL ἄκακος.3

    b. fearing no evil from others, distrusting no one, [cf. English guileless ): Romans 16:18. ([Aeschylus] Plato, Demosthenes, Polybius, others; the Sept. ) [Cf. Trench, § lvi.; Tittmann i., p. 27f.]TGL ἄκακος.4


    (173) ἄκανθα, -ης, , (ἀκή a point [but see in ἀκμή )];TGL ἄκανθα.2

    a. a thorn bramble-bush, brier: Matthew 7:16; Luke 6:44; Hebrews 6:8; εἰς τὰς ἀκάνθας i. e. among the seeds of thorns, Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:7 [L margin: ἐπί], Mark 4:18 [Tdf. ἐπί]; Luke 8:14 (Luke 8:7 ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀκανθῶν); ἐπὶ τὰς ἀκ., i. e. upon ground in which seeds of thorns were lying hidden, Matthew 13:7.TGL ἄκανθα.3

    b. a thorny plant: στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν, Matthew 27:29; John 19:2 — for bare thorns might have caused delirium or even death; what species of plant is referred to, is not clear. Some boldly read ἀκάνθων, from ἄκανθος, acanthus, bear's foot; but the meaning of ἄκανθα is somewhat comprehensive even in secular writings cf. the classical Greek Lexicons under the word.TGL ἄκανθα.4

    [On the "Crown of thorns" see BB. DD. under the word, and for references McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia.]TGL ἄκανθα.5


    (174) ἀκάνθινος, -ον, (ἄκανθα; Cf. ἀμαράντινος ), thorny, woven out of the twigs of a thorny plant: Mark 15:17; John 19:5. (Isaiah 34:13.) Cf. the preceding word.TGL ἀκάνθινος.2


    (175) ἄκαρπος, -ον, (καρπός), [from Aeschylus down], without fruit, barren;TGL ἄκαρπος.2

    1. properly: δένδρα, Jude 1:12.TGL ἄκαρπος.3

    2. metaphorically, not yielding what it ought to yield, [A. V. unfruitful]: Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:19; destitute of good deeds, Titus 3:14; 2 Peter 1:8; contributing nothing to the instruction, improvement, comfort, of others, 1 Corinthians 14:14; by litotes pernicious, Ephesians 5:11 (Wis. 15:4; cf. Grimm on Wis. 1:11).TGL ἄκαρπος.4


    (176) ἀκατάγνωστος, -ον, (καταγινώσκω), that cannot be condemned, not to be censured: Titus 2:8. (2 Macc. 4:47, and several times in ecclesiastical writings.)TGL ἀκατάγνωστος.2


    (177) ἀκατακάλυπτος, -ον, (κατακαλύπτω), not covered, unveiled: 1 Corinthians 11:5, 1 Corinthians 11:13. (Polybius 15, 27, 2; [Sept. , Philo].)TGL ἀκατακάλυπτος.2


    (178) ἀκατάκριτος, -ον, (κατακρίνω), uncondemned; punished without being tried: Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25. (Not found in secular writings.)TGL ἀκατάκριτος.2


    (179) ἀκατάλυτος, -ον, (καταλύω), indissoluble; not subject to destruction, [A. V. endless]: ζωή, Hebrews 7:16. (4 Macc. 10:11; Dionysius Halicarnassus 10, 31.)TGL ἀκατάλυτος.2


    (180) ἀκατάπαυστος, -ον, (καταπαύω), unable to stop, unceasing; passively, not quieted, that cannot be quieted; with gen. of thing (on which cf. W. § 30, 4), 2 Peter 2:14 [R G T Tr txt.] (eyes not quieted with sin, namely which they commit with adulterous look). (Polybius, Diodorus, Josephus, Plutarch)TGL ἀκατάπαυστος.2

    Related entry: ἀκατάπαστος, -ον, — found only in 2 Peter 2:14 in manuscripts A and B, from which L WH Tr marginal reading have adopted it instead of the Rec. ἀκαταπαύστους, which see. It may be derived from πατέομαι, perfect πέπασμαι, to taste, eat; whence ἀκατάπαστος insatiable. In secular writings κατάπαστος [which Buttmann conjectures may have been the original reading] signifies besprinkled, soiled, from καταπάσσω to besprinkle. For a fuller discussion of this various reading see Buttmann, 65 (57) [and WH's Appendix, p. 170].TGL ἀκατάπαυστος.3


    (181) ἀκαταστασία, -ας, , (ἀκατάστατος), instability, a state of disorder, disturbance, confusion: 1 Corinthians 14:33; James 3:16; (Clement of Rome , 1 Corinthians 14:1-40, 1 Corinthians 14:1; [Proverbs 26:28; Tobit 4:13]); plural disturbances, disorders: of dissensions, 2 Corinthians 12:20; of seditions, 2 Corinthians 6:5 (Cf. Meyer at the passage); of the tumults or commotions of war, Luke 21:9 (Polybius, Dionysius Halicarnassus).TGL ἀκαταστασία.2


    (182) ἀκατάστατος, -ον, (καθίστημι), unstable, inconstant, restless: James 1:8, and L T Tr WH in James 3:8 also, but less fitly; [cf. Hermae Past. l. ii. mand. 2, 3 πονηρὸν πνεῦμά ἐστιν καταλαλιά, καὶ ἀκατάστατον δαιμόνιον, μηδέποτε εἰρηνεῦον, ἀλλά etc.). ([Hippocrates and others] Polybius 7, 4, 6, others [Sept. Isaiah 54:11].)TGL ἀκατάστατος.2


    (183) ἀκατάσχετος, -ον, (κατέχω, to restrain, control), that cannot be restrained: James 3:8 R G. (Job 31:11; 3 Macc. 6:17; Diodorus 17, 38 ἀκατ. δάκρυα, others.)TGL ἀκατάσχετος.2


    (184) Ἁκελδαμά, or Ἁκελδαμάχ (Lachmann), [or Ἁκελδ. WH (see their Introductory § 408)], or Ἀχελδαμάχ (T Tr), from Chaldean דְּמָא חֲקָל (field of blood), Akeldama: Acts 1:19; see αἷμα , 2 a. [B. D. under the word ; especially Kautzsch, Gram., pp. 8, 173].TGL Ἀκελδαμά.2


    (185) ἀκέραιος, -ον, (κεράννυμι);TGL ἀκέραιος.2

    a. unmixed, pure, as wine, metals,TGL ἀκέραιος.3

    b. of the mind, without admixture of evil, free from guile, innocent, simple: Matthew 10:16; Romans 16:19; Philippians 2:15; (and frequent in secular writings). [Cf. Ellicott on Philippians, the passage cited; Trench, § lvi.; Tittmann 1:27f.]TGL ἀκέραιος.4


    (186) ἀκλινής, -ές (κλίνω), not inclining, firm, unmoved: Hebrews 10:23. (Frequent in secular writings.)TGL ἀκλινής.2


    (187) ἀκμάζω: 1 aorist ἤκμασα; (ἀκμή); to flourish, come to maturity: Revelation 14:18. (Very frequent in secular writings.)TGL ἀκμάζω.2


    (188) ἀκμή, -ῆς, , (cf. ἀκή [on the accent cf. Chandler § 116; but the word is 'a mere figment of the grammarians,' Pape (yet cf. Liddell and Scott) under the word], αἰχμή, Latin acies, acuo ); among the GreeksTGL ἀκμήν.2

    a. properly, a point, to prick with (cf. [the classic] αἰχμή).TGL ἀκμήν.3

    b. extremity, climax, acme, highest degree.TGL ἀκμήν.4

    c. the present point of time.TGL ἀκμήν.5

    Hence, accusative [Winers Grammar, 230 (216), 464 (432f); Buttmann, 153 (134)] ἀκμήν with adverbial force, equivalent to ἔπί, even now, even yet: Matthew 15:16. (Theocritus, id. 4, 60; Polybius 4, 36, 8; Strat. epigr. 3, p. 101, Lipsius edition; Strabo l. i. [c. 3 prol.], p. 56; Plutarch, de glor. Athen. 2, 85, others) Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 123.TGL ἀκμήν.6


    (189) ἀκοή, -ῆς, , (from an assumed perfect form ἤκοα, cf. ἀγορά above [but cf. Epic ἀκουή; Curtius, p. 555]);TGL ἀκοή.2

    1. hearing, by which one perceives sounds; sense of hearing 1 Corinthians 12:17; 2 Peter 2:8. Hebraistically, ἀκοῇ ἀκούειν by hearing to hear, i. e., to perceive by hearing, Matthew 13:14; Acts 28:26 (Isaiah 6:9); cf. Winers Grammar, § 44, 8 Rem. 3, p. 339; § 54, 3, p. 466; [Buttmann, 183f (159)].TGL ἀκοή.3

    2. the organ of hearing, the ear: Mark 7:35; Luke 7:1; 2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4; Acts 17:20; Hebrews 5:11.TGL ἀκοή.4

    3. thing heard;TGL ἀκοή.5

    a. instruction, namely oral; specifically, the preaching of the gospel, [A. V. text report]: John 12:38; Romans 10:16 (τίς ἐπίστευσε τῇ ἀκοῇ ἡμῶν; from Isaiah 53:1, Hebrew שְׁמוּעָה, which in 2 Samuel 4:4, etc., is rendered ἀγγελία); ἀκοὴ πίστεως preaching on the necessity of faith, (German Glaubenspredigt), Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:5; λόγος ἀκοῆς equivalent to λ. ἀκουσθείς [cf. Winer's Grammar, 531 (494f)]: 1 Thessalonians 2:13; Hebrews 4:2.TGL ἀκοή.6

    b. hearsay, report, rumor; τινός, concerning anyone: Matthew 4:24; Matthew 14:1; Matthew 24:6; Mark 1:28; Mark 13:7. (Frequent in Greek writings.)TGL ἀκοή.7


    (190) ἀκολουθέω, -ῶ; future ἀκολουθήσω; imperfect ἠκολούθουν; 1 aorist ἠκολούθησα; perfect ἠκολούθηκα (Mark 10:28 L T Tr WH); (from ἀκόλουθος, and this from α copulative and κέλευθος road, properly, walking the same road);TGL ἀκολουθέω.2

    1. to follow one who precedes, join him as his attendant, accompany him: Matthew 4:25; Matthew 8:19; Matthew 9:19; Matthew 27:55; Mark 3:7; Mark 5:24 [Mark 5:37 Lachmann]; Mark 14:51 [R G]; Luke 22:39, Luke 22:54; Luke 23:27; John 1:37, John 1:43 (John 1:44); John 6:2; John 18:15; John 20:6, etc.; Acts 12:8; Acts 13:43; Acts 21:36; 1 Corinthians 10:4; distinguished from προάγειν in Matthew 21:9; Mark 11:9; tropically, τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν ἀκολουθεῖ μετ’ αὐτῶν, their good deeds will accompany them to the presence of God the judge to be rewarded by him, Revelation 14:13; on the other hand, ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῆς αἱ ἁμαρτίαι ἄχρι τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Revelation 18:5, but here for ἠκολούθησαν G L T Tr WH have restored ἐκολλήθησαν; [σημεῖα τοῖς πιστεύσασιν ἀκολουθήσει ταῦτα, Mark 16:17 Tr WH text (where others παρακολ. which see)], to follow one in time, succeed one: Revelation 14:8. (Herodian, 1, 14, 12 (6) τὰ γοῦν ἀκολουθήσαντα, others). Since among the ancients disciples were accustomed to accompany their masters on their walks and journeys — [others derive the usage that follows from the figurative sense of the word directly; cf. e. g. 2 Macc. 8:36 τὸ ἀκολουθεῖν τοῖς νόμοις; M. Antoninus l. vii. § 31 ἀκολούθησον θεῷ, and Gataker at the passage], ἀκολουθέω denotesTGL ἀκολουθέω.3

    2. to join one as a disciple, become or be his disciple; side with his party, [A. V. follow him]: Matthew 4:20, Matthew 4:22; Matthew 9:9; Matthew 19:27; Mark 1:18; Mark 8:34; Luke 5:11, Luke 5:27, etc.; John 8:12 (where Jesus likens himself to a torch which the disciple follows); οὐκ ἀκολουθεῖ ἡμῖν he is not of our band of thy disciples, Mark 9:38 to cleave steadfastly to one, conform wholly to his example, in living and if need be in dying also: Matthew 10:38; Matthew 16:24; John 12:26; John 21:22. This verb is not found in the Epistles except in 1 Corinthians 10:4. As in the classics, it is joined mostly with a dative of the object; sometimes with μετά τινος, Luke 9:49; Revelation 6:8 [Treg. marginal reading dative]; Revelation 14:13; (so also in Greek writings; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 353f; [Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 458f]); ὀπίσω τινός, Matthew 10:38; Mark 8:34 (where R L WH Tr marginal reading ἐλθεῖν), Hebrew הָלַךְ פְּלֹנִי אַחֲרֵי, cf. 1 Kings 19:21; see Winers Grammar, 234 (219); [Buttmann, 172 (150), cf. ἀκολ . κατόπιν τινός, Aristophanes Plutarch, 13.TGL ἀκολουθέω.4

    Compare: ἐξ-, ἐπ-, κατ-, παρ-, συνακολουθέω].TGL ἀκολουθέω.5


    (191) ἀκούω [on the use of the present in a perfect sense cf. Winers Grammar, 274f (258); Buttmann, 203 (176)]; imperfect ἤκουον; future (in best Greek usage) ἀκούσομαι, John 5:25 R G L, John 5:28 R G L; Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37 R G; Acts 17:32; [Acts 21:22]; Acts 25:22; Acts 28:28; [Romans 10:14 Tdf. ], and (a later form) ἀκούσω, Matthew 12:19; Matthew 13:14 (both from the Sept. ); [John 10:16; John 16:13 Tr WH marginal reading; Acts 28:26]; Romans 10:14 [R G]; and T Tr WH in John 5:25, John 5:28 (cf. Winers Grammar, 82 (79); Buttmann, 53 (46) [Veitch, under the word]); [1 aorist ἤκουσα, John 3:32, etc.]; perfect ἀκήκοα; passive [present ἀκούομαι; 1 future ἀκουσθήσομαι]; 1 aorist ἠκούσθην; [from Homer down]; to hear.TGL ἀκούω.2

    I. absolutelyTGL ἀκούω.3

    1. to be endowed with the faculty of hearing (not deaf): Mark 7:37; Luke 7:22; Matthew 11:5.TGL ἀκούω.4

    2. to attend to (use the faculty of hearing), consider what is or has been said. So in exhortations: ἀκούετε, Mark 4:3; ἀκούσατε, James 2:5; ἔχων ὦτα ἀκούειν ἀκουέτω, Matthew 11:15; Matthew 13:9 [in both T WH omit; Tr brackets ἀκούειν]; Mark 4:23; Luke 14:35 (34); ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω, Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:11, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:29; Revelation 3:6, Revelation 3:13, Revelation 3:22, etc.TGL ἀκούω.5

    3. tropically, to understand, perceive the sense of what is said: Matthew 13:15; Mark 8:18; 1 Corinthians 14:2.TGL ἀκούω.6

    II. with an object [Buttmann, § 132, 17; Winer's Grammar, 199 (187f)];TGL ἀκούω.7

    1. ἀκούω τι, to hear something;TGL ἀκούω.8

    a. to perceive by the ear what is announced in one's presence (to hear immediately): τὴν φωνήν, Matthew 12:19; John 3:8; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 5:11; Revelation 18:4; Acts 22:9, etc.; τὸν ἀσπασμόν, Luke 1:41 (cf. Luke 1:44); Γαλιλαίαν, the name 'Galilee,' Luke 23:6 [T WH omits; Tr mrg. brackets Γαλ.; cf. Buttmann, 166 (145)]; ἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν, the phrase 'ἀνάστ. νεκρῶν,' Acts 17:32; τὸν λόγον, Mark 5:36 [R G L] (on this passage see παρακούω , 2); Matthew 19:22; John 5:24, etc.; τοὺς λόγους, Acts 2:22; Acts 5:24; Matthew 7:24; ῤήματα, 2 Corinthians 12:4; τί λέγουσιν, Matthew 21:16; passive, Matthew 2:18; Revelation 18:22; τὶ ἔκ τινος, 2 Corinthians 12:6 [R G]; followed by ὅτι [Buttmann, 300 (257f)], Acts 22:2; Mark 16:11; John 4:42; John 14:28.TGL ἀκούω.9

    b. to get by hearinq, learn (from the mouth of the teacher or narrator): Acts 15:17; Matthew 10:27 ( εἰς τὸ οὖς ἀκούετε, what is taught you in secret); Romans 15:21; Ephesians 1:13; Colossians 1:6; John 14:24; 1 John 2:7, 1 John 2:24; 1 John 3:11; Χριστόν i. e. to become acquainted with Christ from apostolic teaching, Ephesians 4:21 (cf. μαθεῖν τὸν Χριστόν, Ephesians 4:20 [Buttmann, 166 (144) note; Winer's Grammar, 199 (187) note]); passive, Luke 12:3; Hebrews 2:1; τὶ with the genitive of person from whom one hears, Acts 1:4; τὶ παρά τινος, John 8:26, John 8:40; John 15:15; Acts 10:22; Acts 28:22; 2 Timothy 2:2 (Thucydides 6, 93; Xenophon, an. 1, 2, 5 [here Dindorf omits παρά]; Plato, rep. 6, p. 506 d., others; [Buttmann, 166 (145); Winer's Grammar, 199 (188)]); [παρά τινος, without an object expressed, John 1:40 (41)]; ἔκ τινος, John 12:34 (ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, from attendance on its public reading); ἀπό with the genitive of person, 1 John 1:5; with περί τινος added, Acts 9:13; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 5:21, Matthew 5:27, Matthew 5:33, Matthew 5:38, Matthew 5:43.TGL ἀκούω.10

    c. ἀκούω τι, a thing comes to one's ears, to find out (by hearsay), learn, (hear [(of)] mediately): with the accusative of thing, τὰ ἔργα, Matthew 11:2; ὅσα ἐποίει, Mark 3:8 [Treg. text ποιεῖ]; πολέμους, Luke 21:9; Matthew 24:6; Mark 13:7; to learn, absol, viz. what has just been mentioned: Matthew 2:3; Matthew 22:7 [R L]; Mark 2:17; Mark 3:21; Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 1:15; Colossians 1:4; Philemon 1:5, etc. followed by ὅτι, Matthew 2:22; Matthew 4:12; Matthew 20:30; Mark 6:55; Mark 10:47; John 4:47; John 9:35; John 11:6; John 12:12; Galatians 1:23; περί τινος, Mark 7:25; τὶ περί τινος, Luke 9:9; Luke 16:2; Luke 23:8 [R G L]; followed by an accusative with participle [Buttmann, 303 (260)]: Luke 4:23; Acts 7:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:11; 3 John 1:4; followed by an accusative with an infinitive in two instances [cf. Buttmann, the passage cited]: John 12:18; 1 Corinthians 11:18. passive: Acts 11:22 (ἠκούσθη λόγος εἰς τὰ ὦτα τῆς ἐκκλησίας was brought to the ears); 1 Corinthians 5:1 (ἀκούεται πορνεία ἐν ὑμῖν); Matthew 28:14 (ἐὰν ἀκουσθῇ τοῦτο ἐπί [L Tr WH marginal reading ὑπὸ] τοῦ ἡγεμόνος); Mark 2:1; John 9:32 ἠκούσθη ὅτι.TGL ἀκούω.11

    d. to give ear to teaching or teacher: τοὺς λόγους, Matthew 10:14; to follow with attentive hearing, τὸν λόγον, John 8:43; τὰ ῤήματα τοῦ θεοῦ, John 8:47.TGL ἀκούω.12

    e. to comprehend, understand, (like Latin audio ): Mark 4:33; Galatians 4:21 ([Lachmann marginal reading ἀναγινώσκετε) yet cf. Meyer at the passage]; (Genesis 11:7).TGL ἀκούω.13

    2. ἀκούειν is not joined with the genitive of the object unless one hear the person or thing with his own ears [Buttmann, 166 (114)];TGL ἀκούω.14

    a. with the genitive of a person; simply;TGL ἀκούω.15

    α. to perceive anyone's voice: οὗ, i. e., of Christ, whose voice is heard in the instruction of his messengers (Luke 10:16), Romans 10:14 [Winer's Grammar, 199 (187) note2],TGL ἀκούω.16

    β. to give ear to one, listen, hearken, (German ihm zuhören, ihn anhören): Matthew 2:9; Mark 7:14; Mark 12:37; Luke 2:46; Luke 10:16; Luke 15:1; Luke 19:48; Luke 21:38; Acts 17:32; Acts 24:24 (in both these passages τινὸς περί τινος); Acts 25:22; John 6:60.TGL ἀκούω.17

    γ. to yield to, hear and obey, hear to one, (German auf einen hören): Matthew 17:5 (Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35); John 3:29; John 10:8; Acts 3:22; Acts 4:19; Acts 7:37 [R G]; 1 John 4:5. Hence,TGL ἀκούω.18

    δ. its use by John in the sense to listen to, have regard to, of God answering the prayers of men: John 9:31; John 11:41; 1 John 5:14 (the Sept. render שָׁמַע by εἰσακούω).TGL ἀκούω.19

    ε. with the genitive of person and participle [Buttmann, 301 (259)]: Mark 14:58; Luke 18:36; John 1:37; John 7:32; Acts 2:6, Acts 2:11; Revelation 16:5; ἤκουσα τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου λέγοντος, Revelation 16:7 G L T [Tr WH the Sinaiticus manuscript], a poetic personification; cf. DeWette at the passage, Winers Grammar, § 30, 11.TGL ἀκούω.20

    b. with the genitive of a thing: τῆς βλασφημίας, Mark 14:64 (Lachmann τὴν βλασφημίαν, as in Matthew 26:65; the accusative merely denotes the object; τῆς βλασφ. is equivalent, in sense to αὐτοῦ βλασφημοῦντος, [cf. Buttmann, 166 (145)]); τῶν λόγων, Luke 6:47 (Matthew 7:24 τοὺς λόγους); John 7:40 (L T Tr WH the Sinaiticus manuscript, but R G τὸν λόγον [cf. Buttmann, as above]); συμφωνίας κ. χορῶν, Luke 15:25; τοῦ στεναγμοῦ, Acts 7:34; τῆς ἀπολογίας, Acts 22:1. The frequent phrase ἀκούειν τῆς φωνῆς (equivalent to שָׁמַע בְּקוֹל, Exodus 18:19) meansTGL ἀκούω.21

    α. to perceive the distinct words of a voice: John 5:25, John 5:28; Acts 9:7; Acts 11:7; Acts 22:7; Hebrews 3:7, Hebrews 3:15; Hebrews 4:7; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 21:3.TGL ἀκούω.22

    β. to yield obedience to the voice: John 5:25 (οἱ ἀκούσαντες namely, τῆς φωνῆς); John 10:16, John 10:27; John 18:37; Revelation 3:20. In John 12:47; John 18:37; Luke 6:47; Acts 22:1, it is better to consider the pronoun μοῦ which precedes as a possessive genitive rather than, with Buttmann, 167 (145f), to assume a double genitive of the object, one of the person and one of the thing.TGL ἀκούω.23

    The Johannean phrase ἀκούειν παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, or τὶ παρὰ θεοῦ, signifiesTGL ἀκούω.24

    a. to perceive in the soul the inward communication of God: John 6:45.TGL ἀκούω.25

    b. to be taught by God's inward communication: John 8:26, John 8:40 (so, too, the simple ἀκούειν in John 8:30); to be taught by the devil, according to the reading of L T Tr WH, ἠκούσατε παρὰ τοῦ πατρός, in John 8:38. For the rest cf. Buttmann, 165 (144ff); 301 (258ff)TGL ἀκούω.26

    [Compare: δι-, εἰσ-, ἐπ-, παρ-, προ-, ὑπακούω.]TGL ἀκούω.27


    (192) ἀκρασία, -ας, , (ἀκρατής), want of self-control, incontinence, intemperance: Matthew 23:25 (Griesbach ἀδικία); 1 Corinthians 7:5. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 524f. [(Aristotle on.)]TGL ἀκρασία.2


    (193) ἀκρατής, -ές, genitive -έος, -οῦς, (κράτος), without self-control, intemperate: 2 Timothy 3:3. (Frequently in secular writings from Plato and Xenophon down.)TGL ἀκρατής.2


    (194) ἄκρατος, -ον, (κεράννυμι), unmixed, pure: Revelation 14:10 (of wine undiluted with water, as freq. in secular writings and Jeremiah 32:1 (Jeremiah 25:15)).TGL ἄκρατος.2


    (195) ἀκρίβεια, -είας, , (ἀκριβής), exactness, exactest care: Acts 22:3 (κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν τοῦ νόμου in accordance with the strictness of the Mosaic law [cf. Isoc. areop., p. 147 e.]). [From Thucydides down.]TGL ἀκρίβεια.2


    (196) ἀκριβής, -ές, genitive -οῦς, exact, careful. The neuter comparitive is used adverbially in Acts 18:26; Acts 23:15, Acts 23:20; Acts 24:22; ἀκριβεστάτη αἵρεσις the straitest sect i. e. the most precise and rigorous in interpreting the Mosaic law, and in observing even the more minute precepts of the law and of tradition, Acts 26:5. [From Herodotus down.]TGL ἀκριβής.2


    (197) ἀκριβής, -ές, genitive -οῦς, exact, careful. The neuter comparitive is used adverbially in Acts 18:26; Acts 23:15, Acts 23:20; Acts 24:22; ἀκριβεστάτη αἵρεσις the straitest sect i. e. the most precise and rigorous in interpreting the Mosaic law, and in observing even the more minute precepts of the law and of tradition, Acts 26:5. [From Herodotus down.]TGL ἀκριβέστερον.2


    (198) ἀκριβόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἠκρίβωσα); (ἀκριβής);TGL ἀκριβόω.2

    1. in secular writings, to know accurately, to do exactly.TGL ἀκριβόω.3

    2. to investigate diligently: Matthew 2:7, Matthew 2:16 (ἀκριβῶς ἐξετάζειν, Matthew 2:8); Aristotle, gen. anim. 5, 1; Philo, m. opif. § 25 μετὰ πάσης ἐξετάσεως ἀκριβοῦντες. [Others to learn exactly, ascertain; cf. Fritzsche or Meyer on Matthew, as above.]TGL ἀκριβόω.4


    (199) ἀκριβῶς, adverb, exactly, accurately, diligently: Matthew 2:8; Luke 1:3; Acts 18:25; 1 Thessalonians 5:2; ἀκριβῶς περιπατεῖν to live carefully, circumspectly, deviating in no respect from the law of duty, Ephesians 5:15. [From Aeschylus down.]TGL ἀκριβῶς.2


    (200) ἀκρίς, -ίδος, , [from Homer down], a locust, particularly that species which especially infests oriental countries, stripping fields and trees. Numberless swarms of them almost every spring are carried by the wind from Arabia into Palestine, and having devastated that country migrate to regions farther north, until they perish by falling into the sea. The Orientals are accustomed to feed upon locusts, either raw or roasted and seasoned with salt [or prepared in other ways], and the Israelites also (according to Leviticus 11:22) were permitted to eat them; (cf. Winers RWB under the word Heuschrecken; Furrer in Schenkel iii., p. 78f; [BB. DD. , under the word ; Tristram, National History of the Bible, p. 313ff]): Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6. A marvelous and infernal kind of locusts is described in Revelation 9:3, Revelation 9:7, cf. Revelation 9:2, Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:8-12; see Dusterdieck at the passage.TGL ἀκρίς.2


    (201) ἀκροατήριον, -ου, τό, (ἀκροάομαι to be a hearer), place of assemblage for hearing, auditorium; like this Latin word in Roman Law, ἀκροατ. in Acts 25:23 denotes a place set apart for hearing and deciding cases, [yet cf. Meyer at the passage].TGL ἀκροατήριον.2

    (Several times in Plutarch, and other later writers.)TGL ἀκροατήριον.3


    (202) ἀκροατής, -οῦ, , (ἀκροάομαι, [see the preceding word]), a hearer: τοῦ νόμου, Romans 2:13; τοῦ λόγου, James 1:22, James 1:25. (Thucydides, Isocrates, Plato, Demosthenes, Plutarch.)TGL ἀκροατής.2

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