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    ἀκροβυστία — ἀνά


    (203) ἀκροβυστία, -ας, , (a word unknown to the Greeks, who used ἀκροποσθία and τὸ ἀκροπόσθιον, from πόσθη i. e. membrum virile . Accordingly it is likely that τὴν ποσθην of the Greeks was pronounced τὴν βύστην by the Alexandrians, and ἀκροβυστία said instead of ἀκροποσθια — i. e. τὸ ἄκρον τῆς πόσθης; cf. the acute remarks of Fritzsche, Commentary on Romans, vol. i., 136, together with the opinion which Winer prefers 99 (94) [and Cremer, 3te Aufl. under the word]), in the Sept. the equivalent of עָרְלָה the prepuce, the skin covering the glans penis;TGL ἀκροβυστία.2

    a. properly: Acts 11:3; Romans 2:25, Romans 2:26b; 1 Corinthians 7:19; Galatians 5:6; Galatians 6:15; Colossians 3:11; (Judith 14:10; 1 Macc. 1:15); ἐν ἀκροβυστία ὤν having the foreskin (Tertullian praeputiatus ), uncircumcised i. e. Gentile, Romans 4:10; ἐν ἀκρ. namely, ὤν, 1 Corinthians 7:18; equivalent, to the same is δἰ ἀκροβ. Romans 4:11; ἐν τῇ ἀκροβυστία πίστις the faith which one has while he is uncircumcised, Romans 4:11.TGL ἀκροβυστία.3

    b. by metonyny, of the abstract for the concrete, having the foreskin is equivalent to a Gentile: Romans 2:26a; Romans 3:30; Romans 4:9; Ephesians 2:11; ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβ. one uncircumcised by birth or a Gentile, opposed to a Jew who shows himself a Gentile in character, Romans 2:27; εὐαγγέλιον τῆς ἀκροβ. gospel to be preached to the Gentiles, Galatians 2:7.TGL ἀκροβυστία.4

    c. in a transferred sense: ἀκροβ. τῆς σαρκός (opposed to the περιτομή ἀχειροποίητος or regeneration, Colossians 2:11), the condition in which the corrupt desires rooted in the σάρξ were not yet extinct, Colossians 2:13 (the expression is derived from the circumstance that the foreskin was the sign of impurity and alienation from God, [cf. B. D. under the word Circumcision]).TGL ἀκροβυστία.5


    (204) ἀκρογωνιαῖος, -αία, -αῖον, a word wholly Biblical and ecclesiastical [Winer's Grammar, 99 (94); 236 (221)] (ἄκρος extreme, and γωνία corner, angle), placed at the extreme corner; λίθος cornerstone; used of Christ, 1 Peter 2:6; Ephesians 2:20; Sept. Isaiah 28:16 for פִּנָּה אֶבֶן. For as the cornerstone holds together two walls, so Christ joins together as Christians, into one body dedicated to God, those who were formerly Jews and Gentiles, Ephesians 2:20 [yet cf. Meyer at the passage] compared with Ephesians 2:14, Ephesians 2:16-19, Ephesians 2:21. And as a cornerstone contributes to sustain the edifice, but nevertheless some fall in going around the corner carelessly; so some are built up by the aid of Christ, while others stumbling at Christ perish, 1 Peter 2:6-8; see γωνία , a.TGL ἀκρογωνιαῖος.2


    (205) ἀκροθίνιον, -ου, τό, (from ἄκρος extreme, and θίς, genitive θινός, a heap; extremity, topmost part of a heap), generally in plural τὰ ἀκροθίνια the first-fruits, whether of crops or of spoils (among the Greeks customarily selected from the topmost part of the heaps and offered to the gods, Xenophon, Cyril 7, 5, 35); in the Bible only once: Hebrews 7:4, of booty. (Pindar, Aeschylus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Plutarch, others.)TGL ἀκροθίνιον.2


    (206) ἄκρος, , -ον, (ἀκή point [see ἀκμή ]) [from Homer down], highest, extreme; τὸ ἄκρον the topmost point, the extremity [cf. Buttmann, 94 (82)]: Luke 16:24; Hebrews 11:21 [see προσκυνέω , a. at the end); ἄκρα, ἄκρον γῆς, οὐρανοῦ, the farthest bounds, uttermost parts, end, of the earth, of heaven: Matthew 24:31; Mark 13:27; cf. Deuteronomy 4:32; Deuteronomy 28:64; Isaiah 13:5; Jeremiah 12:12.TGL ἄκρον.2


    (207) Ἀκύλας, -ου, [but no genitive seems to be extant, see Buttmann, 20 (18)], , Aquila, a Jew of Pontus, a tent-maker, convert to Christ, companion and ally of Paul in propagating the Christian religion: Acts 18:2, Acts 18:18, Acts 18:26; Romans 16:3; 1 Corinthians 16:19; 2 Timothy 4:19; [see B. D. ].TGL Ἀκύλας.2


    (208) ἀκυρόω, -ῶ, 1 aorist ἠκύρωσα; (ἄκυρος without authority, not binding, void; from κῦρος force, authority), to render void, deprive of force and authority, (opposed to κυρόω to confirm, make valid): ἐντολήν, Matthew 15:6 [R G; νόμον, ibid. T WH marginal reading]; λόγον [Matthew 15:6 L Tr WH text]; Mark 7:13 (cf. ἀθετέω ); διαθήκην, Galatians 3:17. ([1 Esdr. 6:31]; Diodorus, Dionysius Halicarnassus, Plutarch.)TGL ἀκυρόω.2


    (209) ἀκωλύτως, adverb (κωλύω), without hindrance: Acts 28:31. [Plato, Epictetus, Herodian]TGL ἀκωλύτως.2


    (210) ἄκων, ἄκουσα, ἄκον, (contracted from ἀέκων, α privative and ἕκων willing), not of one's own will, unwilling: 1 Corinthians 9:17. (Very frequent among the Greeks.)TGL ἄκων.2


    (211) ἀλάβαστρον, -ου, τό, (in the plural in Theocritus, 15, 114; Anth, Pal. 9, 153; in other secular writings and ἀλάβαστρος; [the older and more correct spelling drops the ρ, cf. Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word, 1385 d.; Liddell and Scott, under the word ἀλάβαστρος]), a box made of alabaster, in which unguents are preserved (Pliny, h. n, 13, 2 (3) [others, 13, 19] "unguenta optime servantur in alabastris "); with the addition of μύρου (as in Lucian, dial. mer. 14, 2; [Herodotus 3, 20]): Luke 7:37; Matthew 26:7; Mark 14:3 (where L T adopt τὸν ἀλάβ., Tr WH [Meyer] τὴν ἀλ.; Matthew and Luke do not add the article, so that it is not clear in what gender they use the word, [cf. Tdf 's critical note at the passage]). Cf. Winers RWB [or B. D. ] under the word Alabaster.TGL ἀλάβαστρον.2


    (212) ἀλαζονεία, and ἀλαζονία (which spelling, not uncommon in later Greek, T WH adopt [see Ι, ι]), -ας, , (from ἀλαζονεύομαι, i. e. to act the ἀλαζών, which see);TGL ἀλαζονεία.2

    a. in secular writings [from Aristophanes down] generally empty, braggart talk, sometimes also empty display in act, swagger. For illustration see Xenophon, Cyril 2, 2, 12; mem. 1, 7; Aristotle, eth. Nic. 4, 13, p. 1127, Bekker edition; [also Trench, § xxix.].TGL ἀλαζονεία.3

    b. an insolent and empty assurance, which trusts in its own power and resources and shamefully despises and violates divine laws and human rights: 2 Macc. 9:8; Wis. 5:8.TGL ἀλαζονεία.4

    c. an impious and empty presumption which trusts in the stability of earthly things, [R. V. vaunting]: James 4:16 (where the plural has reference to the various occasions on which this presumption shows itself; [cf. Winers Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann, 77 (67)]); τοῦ βίου, display in one's style of living, [R. V. vainglory], 1 John 2:16.TGL ἀλαζονεία.5


    (213) ἀλαζών, -ονος, , , (ἄλη, wandering) [from Aristophanes on], an empty pretender, a boaster: Romans 1:30; 2 Timothy 3:2. [Trench, § xxix.; Tittmann i., p. 73f; Schmidt, chapter 172, 2.]TGL ἀλαζών.2


    (214) ἀλαλάζω; [from Pindar down];TGL ἀλαλάζω.2

    a. properly, to repeat frequently the cry ἀλαλά, as soldiers used to do on entering battle,TGL ἀλαλάζω.3

    b. universally, to utter a joyful shout: Psalms 46:2 (Psalms 47:2); Psalms 65:2 (Psalms 66:2); and in secular writingsTGL ἀλαλάζω.4

    c. to wail, lament: Mark 5:38 (הֵילִיל Jeremiah 4:8; Jeremiah 32:20 (Jeremiah 25:34)); cf. ὀλολύζω , Latin ululare . [Synonyms: see κλαίω at the end]TGL ἀλαλάζω.5

    d. to ring loudly, to clang: 1 Corinthians 13:1 [cf. ἐν κυμβάλοις ἀλαλαγμοῦ, Psalms 150:5].TGL ἀλαλάζω.6


    (215) ἀλάλητος, -ον, (λαλητός from λαλέω; [cf. Winers Grammar, 23]), not to be uttered, not to be expressed in words: στεναγμοί mute sighs, the expression of which is suppressed by grief, Romans 8:26 [others, 'which (from their nature) cannot be uttered'; cf. Meyer at the passage; Winers Grammar, 97 (92)]. (Anth. Pal. 5, 4 συνίστορα ἀλαλήτων, i. e. of love-secrets.)TGL ἀλάλητος.2


    (216) ἄλαλος, -ον, (λάλος, talking, talkative) [from Aeschylus on], speechless, dumb, lacking the faculty of speech: Mark 7:37; πνεῦμα, Mark 9:17, Mark 9:25, because the defects of demoniacs were thought to proceed from the nature and peculiarities of the demons by which they were possessed.TGL ἄλαλος.2

    (Sept. Psalms 37:14 (Psalms 38:14); Psalm 30:19 (Psalms 31:19); ἀλάλου καὶ κακοῦ πνεύματος πλήρης, Plutarch, de orac. def. 51, p. 438 b.)TGL ἄλαλος.3


    (217) ἅλας, -ατος, τό, (a later form, found in the Sept. and N. T. [Aristotle, de mirab, ausc. § 138; Plutarch, qu. conv. 4:4, 3, 3], cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i., p. 220; dative ἅλατι Colossians 4:6), and ἅλς, ἁλός, , (the classic form [from Homer down]; Sir. 22:15 (13); Sirach 43:19; Wis. 10:7; 1 Macc. 10:29, etc.; Mark 9:49 ἁλί dative [T WH Tr marginal reading omit; Tr text brackets], and in Mark 9:50 L T Tr WH ἅλα accusative [yet without the article] with the nominative τὸ ἅλας), finally, the nominative and the accusative ἅλα Tdf. in Mark 9:50 [also Matthew 5:13; Luke 14:34 (where see his note)] (similar to γάλα, genitive γάλατος, a form noted by certain grammarians, see [WH's Appendix, p. 158;] Kühner, 1:353f; but see what Fritzsche, Commentary on Sirach (Sir. 39:26), p. 226f, says in opposition); salt;TGL ἅλας.2

    1. Salt with which food is seasoned and sacrifices are sprinkled: Mark 9:49 R G; cf. ἁλίζω .TGL ἅλας.3

    2. ἅλας τῆς γῆς, those kinds of saline matter used to fertilize arable land, Matthew 5:13a; here salt as a condiment cannot be understood, since this renders land sterile (Deuteronomy 29:23; Zephaniah 2:9; Judges 9:45); cf. Grohmann in Käuffer's Biblical Studien, 1844, p. 82ff The meaning is, 'It is your prerogative to impart to mankind (likened to arable land) the influences required for a life of devotion to God.' In the statement immediately following, ἐὰν δὲ ἅλας κτλ., the comparison seems to be drawn from salt as a condiment, so that two figures are blended; [but it is better to adopt this latter meaning throughout the passage, and take γῆ to denote the mass of mankind, see under the word, 4 b. and cf. Tholuck and others at the passage]. In Mark 9:50a and Luke 14:34 salt is a symbol of that health and vigor of soul which is essential to Christian virtue; [cf. Meyer on the former passage].TGL ἅλας.4

    3. Salt is a symbol of lasting concord, Mark 9:50c, because it protects food from putrefaction and preserves it unchanged. Accordingly, in the solemn ratification of compacts, the Orientals were, and are to this day, accustomed to partake of salt together. Cf. Winers RWB under the word Salz; [BB. DD. under the word Salt]; Knobel on Leviticus, p. 370.TGL ἅλας.5

    4. Wisdom and grace exhibited in speech: Colossians 4:6 [where see Bp. Lightfoot].TGL ἅλας.6


    (218) ἀλείφω: imperfect ἤλειφον; 1 aorist ἤλειψα; 1 aorist middle imperative ἄλειψαι; [allied with λίπος, grease; cf. Curtius, § 340; Vanicek, p. 811; Peile, p. 407; from Homer down]; to anoint: τινά or τί, Mark 16:1; John 12:3; τινά or τί τινι [Winer's Grammar, 227 (213)], as ἐλαίῳ, Luke 7:46a; Mark 6:13; James 5:14; μύρῳ, John 11:2; Luke 7:38, Luke 7:46b; middle, Matthew 6:17 (literally, 'anoint for thyself thy head,' unge tibi caput tuum ; cf. Winers Grammar, 257 (242); Buttmann, 192 (166f)). Cf. Winers RWB under the word Salbe; [B. D. or McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word Anoint, etc. Synonyms: "ἀλείφειν is the mundane and profane, χρίειν the sacred and religious, word." Trench, § 38. Compare: ἐξαλείφω].TGL ἀλείφω.2


    (219) ἀλεκτοροφωνία, -ας, , (ἀλέκτωρ and φωνή [Winers Grammar, 25]), the crowing of a cock, cock-crowing: Aesop fab. 79 [44]. Used of the third watch of the night: Mark 13:35; in this passage the watches are enumerated into which the Jews, following the Roman method, divided the night; [cf. Winers RWB under the word Nachtwachen; B. D. under the word Watches of Night; Alex's Kitto under the word Cock-crowing; Wetstein on Matthew 14:25; Wieseler, Chron. Synonym., p. 406 note].TGL ἀλεκτοροφωνία.2

    (For writers who use this word see Lob. ad Phryn, p. 229 [and add (from Sophocles Lexicon, under the word) Strabo 7, fragment 35, p. 83, 24; Origen i., 825 b.; Apostolic Constitutions 5, 18; 5, 19; 8, 34].)TGL ἀλεκτοροφωνία.3


    (220) ἀλέκτωρ, -ορος, , a cock, (Latin gallus gallinaceus ): Matthew 26:34, Matthew 26:74; Mark 14:30, Mark 14:68 [Lachmann brackets], Mark 14:72; Luke 22:34, Luke 22:60; John 13:38; John 18:27. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 229; [Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 307; Winers Grammar, 23; see also BB. DD. under the word; Tristram, National History of the Bible, p. 221f; especially Egli, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Theol., 1879, p. 517ff].TGL ἀλέκτωρ.2


    (221) Ἀλεξανδρεύς, -έως, , an Alexandrian, a native or a resident of Alexandria (a celebrated city of Egypt): Acts 6:9; Acts 18:24. [(Plutarch, Pomp. 49, 6; others.)]TGL Ἀλεξανδρεύς.2


    (222) Ἀλεξανδρινός [cf. Tdf. 's note on Acts 27:6; G L Tr Cobet, others -δρῖνος; Chandler § 397 note], -ή, -όν, Alexandrian: Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11. [(Polybius 34, 8, 7.)]TGL Ἀλεξανδρίνος.2


    (223) Ἀλέξανδρος [i. e., defender of men], -ου, , Alexander;TGL Ἀλέξανδρος.2

    1. a son of that Simon of Cyrene who carried the cross of Jesus: Mark 15:21.TGL Ἀλέξανδρος.3

    2. a certain man of the kindred of the high priest: Acts 4:6.TGL Ἀλέξανδρος.4

    3. a certain Jew: Acts 19:33.TGL Ἀλέξανδρος.5

    4. a certain coppersmith, an opponent of the apostle Paul: 1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 4:14; [others doubt whether both these passages relate to the same man; cf. e. g. Ellicott on the former].TGL Ἀλέξανδρος.6


    (224) ἄλευρον, -ου, τό, (ἀλεύω to grind), wheaten flour, meal: Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:21. Hesychius ἄλευρα κυρίως τὰ τοῦ σίτου, ἄλφιτα δὲ τῶν κριθῶν. (Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, Josephus, others.)TGL ἄλευρον.2


    (225) ἀλήθεια, -ας, , (ἀληθής) [from Homer down], verity, truth.TGL ἀλήθεια.2

    I. objectively;TGL ἀλήθεια.3

    1. universally, what is true in any matter under consideration (opposed to what is feigned, fictitious, false): James 3:14; ἀλήθειαν λέγειν, ἐρεῖν, John 8:45; John 16:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 12:6; 1 Timothy 2:7; εἶπεν αὐτῷ πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν, everything as it really was, Mark 5:33 (so in classics); μαρτυρεῖν τῇ ἀλήθεια to testify according to the true state of the case, John 5:33; in a broader sense, λαλεῖν ἀλήθειαν, to speak always according to truth, Ephesians 4:25; [ἀληθείας ῤήματα ἀποφθέγγομαι, as opposed to the vagaries of madness, Acts 26:25]; ἀλήθεια ἐγένετο, was shown to be true by the event, 2 Corinthians 7:14. ἐν ἀλήθειᾳ, in truth, truly, as the case is, according to fact: Matthew 22:16; John 4:23 (as accords with the divine nature); 2 Corinthians 7:14; Colossians 1:6; ἐπ’ ἀληθείαςTGL ἀλήθεια.4

    a. truly, in truth, according to truth: Mark 12:32; Luke 4:25 (Job 9:2 the Sept. ; Philo, vit. Moys. i., § 1).TGL ἀλήθεια.5

    b. of a truth, in reality, in fact, certainly: Mark 12:14; Luke 20:21; [Luke 22:59]; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:34 (Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 23, 5 and 47, 3); [cf. Winers Grammar, § 51, 2 f.; Buttmann, 336 (289)]; κατ’ ἀλήθειαν in accordance with fact, i. e. (according to the context) justly, without partiality: Romans 2:2; εἴτε προφάσει, εἴτε ἀληθειᾳ, Philippians 1:18; ἐν ἔργῳ κ. ἀληθειᾳ, 1 John 3:18 [Rec. omits ἐν; so Ephesians 4:21 WH marginal reading].TGL ἀλήθεια.6

    2. In reference to religion, the word denotes what is true in things appertaining to God and the duties of man, ('moral and religious truth'); and thatTGL ἀλήθεια.7

    a. with the greatest latitude, in the sceptical question τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια, John 18:38;TGL ἀλήθεια.8

    b. the true notions of God which are open to human reason without his supernatural intervention: Romans 1:18; also ἀλήθεια θεοῦ the truth of which God is the author, Romans 1:25, cf. Romans 1:19 ( ἀλήθεια τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Evang. Nicod., c. 5, 2; accordingly, it is not, as many interpret the phrase, the true nature of God [yet see Meyer at the passage]); truth, the embodiment of which the Jews sought in the Mosaic law, Romans 2:20.TGL ἀλήθεια.9

    c. the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man, opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians: ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγ. the truth which is the gospel or which the gospel presents, Galatians 2:5, Galatians 2:14 [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3 a.]; and absolutely ἀλήθεια and ἀλήθεια: John 1:14, John 1:17; John 8:32, John 8:40; [John 16:13]; John 17:19; 1 John 1:8; 1 John 2:4, 1 John 2:21; 2 John 1:1-3; Galatians 3:1 (Rec. ); Galatians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 13:8; Ephesians 4:24; 2 Thessalonians 2:10, 2 Thessalonians 2:12; 1 Timothy 2:7 (ἐν πίστει κ. ἀληθείᾳ in faith and truth, of which I became a partaker through faith); 1 Timothy 3:15; 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 Timothy 6:5; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2 Peter 1:12; [3 John 1:8, 3 John 1:12]; λόγος τῆς ἀληθείας, Colossians 1:5; Ephesians 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:15; λόγος ἀληθείας, 2 Corinthians 6:7; James 1:18; ὁδὸς τῆς ἀλ. 2 Peter 2:2; πίστις ἀληθείας, 2 Thessalonians 2:13 [Winer's Grammar, 186 (175)]; ὑπακοὴ τῆς ἀλ. 1 Peter 1:22; ἐπίγνωσις τῆς ἀλ. Hebrews 10:26; 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; [Titus 1:1]; πνεῦμα τῆς ἀλ. the Spirit (of God) which is truth (1 John 5:6) and imbues men with the knowledge of the truth, John 14:17; [John 16:13]; John 15:26; 1 John 4:6; ἐγώ εἰμι ἀλήθεια, I am he in whom the truth is summed up and impersonated, John 14:6; ἀλήθειά σου [Rec. ] (i. e. θεοῦ) the truth which is in thee and proceeds from thee, John 17:17; [ἔστιν ἀλήθεια Χριστοῦ ἐν ἐμοί, i. e., controls, actuates, me, 2 Corinthians 11:10]; εἶναι ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας to be eager to know the truth, John 18:37 (see ἐκ , II. 7, and εἰμί, V. 3 d.); to proceed from the truth, 1 John 2:21; to be prompted and controlled by the truth, 1 John 3:19; μαρτυρεῖν τῇ ἀληθ. to give testimony in favor of the truth in order to establish its authority among men, John 18:37; ἀλήθειαν ποιεῖν to exemplify truth in the life, to express the form of truth in one's habits of thought and modes of living, John 3:21; 1 John 1:6 (Tobit 13:6; Tobit 4:6; cf. Nehemiah 9:33; ὁδὸν ἀληθείας αἰρετίζεσθαι, Psalm 118:30 (Psalms 119:30)); so also περιπατεῖν ἐν τῇ ἀλ. 2 John 1:4; 3 John 1:3; ἀπειθεῖν τῇ ἀλ. is just the opposite, Romans 2:8; so also πλανηθῆναι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀλ. James 5:19.TGL ἀλήθεια.10

    II. (subjectively) truth as a personal excellence; that candor of mind which is free from affectation, pretence, simulation, falsehood, deceit: John 8:44; sincerity of mind and integrity of character, or a mode of life in harmony with divine truth: 1 Corinthians 5:8; 1 Corinthians 13:6 (opposed to ἀδικία); Ephesians 4:21 [see I. 1 b. above]; Ephesians 5:9; [Ephesians 6:14]; σοῦ ἀλήθεια the truth as it is discerned in thee, thy habit of thinking and acting in congruity with truth, 3 John 1:3; ἀλήθεια τοῦ θεοῦ which belongs to God, i. e., his holiness [but cf. περισσεύω , 1 b. at the end], Romans 3:7; specifically, veracity (of God in keeping his promises), Romans 15:8; ἐν ἀληθεια sincerely and truthfully, 2 John 1:1; 3 John 1:1. The word is not found in Revelation ([nor in 1 Thessalonians, Philemon, Jude]). Cf. H ölemann, "Bibelstudien" (Lpz. 1859) 1te Abth., p. 8ff; [Wendt in Studien und Kritiken, 1883, p. 511ff.]TGL ἀλήθεια.11


    (226) ἀληθεύω; in secular writings ([Aeschylus], Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, others) to speak the truth;TGL ἀληθεύω.2

    a. to teach the truth: τινί Galatians 4:16.TGL ἀληθεύω.3

    b. to profess the truth (true doctrine): Ephesians 4:15. [R. V. marginal reading in both passages, to deal truly.]TGL ἀληθεύω.4


    (227) ἀληθής, -ές (α privative and λήθω, λαθεῖν [λανθάνω], τὸ λῆθος — cf. ἀμαθής ; literally, not hidden, unconcealed) [from Homer down];TGL ἀληθής.2

    1. true: John 4:18; John 10:41; John 19:35; 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:27; Acts 12:9 (an actual occurrence, opposed to ὅραμα), Philippians 4:8; μαρτυρία, John 5:31; John 8:13, John 8:17; John 21:24; 3 John 1:12; Titus 1:13; κρίσις, just, John 8:16 (L T Tr WH ἀληθινή); παροιμία, 2 Peter 2:22; χάρις, grace which can be trusted, 1 Peter 5:12.TGL ἀληθής.3

    2. loving the truth, speaking the truth, truthful: Matthew 22:16; Mark 12:14; John 7:18; 2 Corinthians 6:8 (opposed to πλάνος); of God, John 3:33; John 8:26; Romans 3:4 (opposed to ψεύστης).TGL ἀληθής.4

    3. equivalent to ἀληθινός, 1: John 6:55 (L T Tr WH; for Rec. ἀληθῶς), as in Wis. 12:27, where ἀληθὴς θεός is contrasted with οὃς ἐδόκουν θεούς. Cf. Rückert, Abendmahl, p. 266f.TGL ἀληθής.5

    [On the distinction between this word and the next, see Trench, § viii.; Schmidt, chapter 178, 6. A. Schlatter, Der Glaube im Neuen Testament (Leiden, 1885), p. 169.]TGL ἀληθής.6


    (228) ἀληθινός, -ή, -όν, (frequent in secular writings from Plato down; [twenty-three times in John's writings; only five (according to Lachmann six) times in the rest of the N. T.]);TGL ἀληθινός.2

    1. "that which has not only the name and semblance, but the real nature corresponding to the name" (Tittmann, p. 155; ["particularly applied to express that which is all that it pretends to be, for instance, pure gold as opposed to adulterated metal" Donaldson, New Crat. § 258; see, at length, Trench, § viii.]), in every respect corresponding to the idea signified by the name, real and true, genuine;TGL ἀληθινός.3

    a. opposed to what is fictitious, counterfeit, imaginary, simulated, pretended: θεός (אֱמֶת אֱלֹהַי, 2 Chronicles 15:3), 1 Thessalonians 1:9; Hebrews 9:14 Lachmann; John 17:3; 1 John 5:20. (ἀληθινοὶ φίλοι, Demosthenes, Philippians 3:1-21, p. 113, 27.)TGL ἀληθινός.4

    b. it contrasts realities with their semblances: σκηνή, Hebrews 8:2; the sanctuary, Hebrews 9:24. ( ἵππος contrasted with ἐν τῇ εἰκόνι, Aelian v. h. 2, 3.)TGL ἀληθινός.5

    c. opposed to what is imperfect, defective, frail, uncertain: John 4:23, John 4:37; John 7:28; used without adjunct of Jesus as the true Messiah, Revelation 3:7; φῶς, John 1:9; 1 John 2:8; κρίσις, John 8:16 (L T Tr WH; Isaiah 59:4); κρίσεις, Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2; ἄρτος, as nourishing the soul unto life everlasting, John 6:32; ἄμπελος, John 15:1; μαρτυρία John 19:35; μάρτυς, Revelation 3:14; δεσπότης, Revelation 6:10; ὁδοί, Revelation 15:3; coupled with πιστός, Revelation 3:14; Revelation 19:11; substantively, τὸ ἀληθινόν the genuine, real good, opposed to external riches, Luke 16:11 ([οἷς μέν γὰρ ἀληθινὸς πλοῦτος ἐν οὐρανῷ, Philo de praem, et poen. § 17, p. 425, Mang. edition; cf. Wetstein on Luke, the passage cited]; ἀθληταί, Polybius 1, 6, 6).TGL ἀληθινός.6

    2. equivalent to ἀληθής, true, veracious, sincere, (often so in the Sept. ): καρδία, Hebrews 10:22 (μετ’ ἀληθείας ’ν καρδίᾳ ἀληθινῇ, Isaiah 38:3); λόγοι, Rev. (Revelation 19:9); Revelation 21:5; Revelation 22:6 (Plutarch, apoph, p. 184 e.). [Cf. Cremer, 4te Aufl. under the word ἀλήθεια.]TGL ἀληθινός.7


    (229) ἀλήθω; (a common Greek form for the Attic ἀλέω, cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 151); to grind: Matthew 24:41; Luke 17:35.TGL ἀλήθω.2

    It was the custom to send women and female slaves to the mill-houses [?] to turn the hand-mills (Exodus 11:5), who were called by the Greeks γυναῖκες ἀλετρίδες (Homer, Odyssey 20, 105); [cf. B. D. under the word Mill].TGL ἀλήθω.3


    (230) ἀληθῶς, adverb [from Aeschylus down], truly, of a truth, in reality; most certainly: John 1:47 (John 1:48); John 4:42; John 6:14,John 6:55 Rec. ; John 7:26,John 7:40; John 8:31; John 17:8; Matthew 14:33; Matthew 26:73; [Mark 14:70]; Matthew 27:54; [Mark 15:39]; Luke 9:27; Luke 12:44; Luke 21:3; Acts 12:11; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 John 2:5.TGL ἀληθῶς.2


    (231) ἁλιεύς, -έως , (ἅλς, ἁλός, the sea) [from Homer down]; a fisherman, fisher: Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16; Luke 5:2 — in all which passages T and WH have ἁλεεῖς from the form ἁλεεύς, which see.TGL ἁλιεύς.2

    Related entry: [ἁλεεύς, , T WH uniformly for ἁλιεύς, see Tdf.'s note on Mark 1:16 and N. T. edition 7, Proleg. p. l.; especially edition 8, Proleg. p. 82f.; WH. App. p. 151.]TGL ἁλιεύς.3


    (232) ἁλιεύω; (ἁλιεύς); to fish: John 21:3. [Philo, Plutarch]TGL ἁλιεύω.2


    (233) ἁλίζω: (ἅλς, ἁλός, salt); to salt, season with salt, sprinkle with salt; only the future passive is found in the N. T.: ἐν τίνι ἁλισθήσεται; by what means can its saltness be restored? Matthew 5:13; θυσία ἁλί ἁλισθήσεται, the sacrifice is sprinkled with salt and thus rendered acceptable to God, Mark 9:49 [R G L Tr text brackets] (Leviticus 2:13; Ezekiel 43:24; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 9, 1; cf. Knobel on Lev., p. 369f; Winers RWB under the word Salz; [BB. DD. under the word Salt]); πᾶς πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεται, every true Christian is rendered ripe for a holy and happy association with God in his kingdom by fire, i. e. by the pain of afflictions and trials, which if endured with constancy tend to purge and strengthen the soul, Mark 9:49.TGL ἁλίζω.2

    But this extremely difficult passage is explained differently by others; [cf. Meyer, who also briefly reviews the history of its exposition].TGL ἁλίζω.3

    (Used by the Sept. , Aristotle [cf: Sophocles Lexicon); Ignatius ad Magnes. 10 [shorter form] ἁλίσθητε ἐν Χριστῷ, ἵνα μὴ διαφθαρῇ τις ἐν ὑμῖν.)TGL ἁλίζω.4

    [Compare: συναλίζω — but see the word.]TGL ἁλίζω.5


    (234) ἀλίσγημα, -τος, τό, (ἀλισγέω, to pollute, which occurs Sir. 40:29; Daniel 1:8; Malachi 1:7, Malachi 1:12; akin to ἀλίνω, ἀλινέω to besmear (Latin linere , cf. Lob. Pathol. Element., p. 21; Rhemat., p. 123; Stephanus Thesaurus, Hesychius , Sturz, De Dial. Alex., p. 145]), pollution, contamination: Acts 15:20 (τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι κτλ. to beware of pollution from the use of meats left from the heathen sacrifices, cf. Acts 15:29). Neither ἀλισγέω nor ἀλίσγημα occurs in Greek writings.TGL ἀλίσγημα.2


    (235) ἀλλά, an adversative particle, derived from ἄλλα, neuter of the adjective ἄλλος, which was originally pronounced ἀλλός (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 1f), hence properly, other things namely, than those just mentioned. It differs from δέ, as the Latin at and sed from autem , [cf. Winer's Grammar, 441f (411)].TGL ἀλλά.2

    I. But. So related to the preceding words that it serves to introduceTGL ἀλλά.3

    1. an opposition to concessions; nevertheless, notwithstanding: Matthew 24:6; Mark 13:20; Mark 14:28; John 16:7, John 16:20; Acts 4:17; Acts 7:48; Romans 5:14; Romans 10:16; 1 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Corinthians 7:6; Philippians 2:27 (ἀλλ’ θεός etc.), etc.TGL ἀλλά.4

    2. an objection: John 7:27; Romans 10:18; 1 Corinthians 15:35; James 2:18.TGL ἀλλά.5

    3. an exception: Luke 22:53; Romans 4:2; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Corinthians 10:23.TGL ἀλλά.6

    4. a restriction: John 11:42; Galatians 4:8; Mark 14:36.TGL ἀλλά.7

    5. an ascensive transition or gradation, nay rather, yea moreover: John 16:2; 2 Corinthians 1:9; especially with καί added, Luke 12:7; Luke 16:21; Luke 24:22. ἀλλ’ οὐδέ, but... not even (German ja nicht einmal): Luke 23:15; Acts 19:2; 1 Corinthians 3:2 [Rec. οὔτε]; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 157.TGL ἀλλά.8

    6. or forms a transition to the cardinal matter, especially before imperatives: Matthew 9:18.; Mark 9:22; Mark 16:7; Luke 7:7; John 8:26; John 16:4; Acts 9:6 [not Rec. ]; Acts 10:20; Acts 26:16.TGL ἀλλά.9

    7. it is put elliptically: ἀλλ’ ἵνα, i. e. ἀλλὰ τοῦτο γέγονεν, Mark 14:49; John 13:18; John 15:25; 1 John 2:19.TGL ἀλλά.10

    8. after a conditional or concessive protasis it signifies, at the beginning of the apodosis, yet [cf. Winer's Grammar, 442 (411)]: after καὶ εἰ, 2 Corinthians 13:4 [R G]; Mark 14:29 R G L, (2 Macc. 8:15); after εἰ καί, Mark 14:29 [T Tr WH]; 2 Corinthians 4:16; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 11:6; Colossians 2:5 (2 Macc. 6:26); after εἰ, 1 Corinthians 9:2; Romans 6:5 (1 Macc. 2:20); after ἐάν, 1 Corinthians 4:15; after εἴπερ, 1 Corinthians 8:6 [L Tr marginal reading WH brackets ἀλλ’; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 93f; Kühner, ii., p. 827, § 535 Anm. 6.TGL ἀλλά.11

    9. after a preceding μέν: Mark 9:13 [T omits; Tr brackets μέν]; Acts 4:16; Romans 14:20; 1 Corinthians 14:17.TGL ἀλλά.12

    10. it is joined to other particles; ἀλλά γε [Griesbach ἀλλάγε] (twice in the N. T.): yet at least, 1 Corinthians 9:2; yet surely (aber freilich ), Luke 24:21 [L T Tr WH add καί yea and etc.], cf. Bornemann at the passage. In the more elegant Greek writers these particles are not combined without the interposition of the most emphatic word between them; cf. Bornemann, the passage cited; Klotz ad Devar. ii., pp. 15f, 24f; Ast, Lex. Plato, i., p. 101; [Winer's Grammar, 444 (413)]. ἀλλ’ (arising from the blending of the two statements οὐδὲν ἄλλο and οὐδὲν ἄλλο, ἀλλά) save only, except: 1 Corinthians 3:5 (where ἀλλ’ omitted by G L T Tr WH is spurious); Luke 12:51 (Sir. 37:12; Sir. 44:10); and after ἄλλα itself, 2 Corinthians 1:13 [here Lachmann brackets ἀλλ’ before ]; cf. Klotz as above ii., 31ff; Kühner, ii., p. 824f § 535, 6; Winers Grammar, 442 (412); [Buttmann, 374 (320)]. ἀλλ’ οὐ but not, yet not: Hebrews 3:16 (if punctuated παρεπίκραναν; ἀλλ’ οὐ) for 'but why do I ask? did not all,' etc.; cf. Bleek at the passage [Winer's Grammar, 442 (411)]. ἀλλ’ οὐχί will he not rather? Luke 17:8.TGL ἀλλά.13

    II. preceded by a negation: but (Latin sed, German sondern);TGL ἀλλά.14

    1. οὐκ (μή)... ἀλλά: Matthew 19:11; Mark 5:39; John 7:16; 1 Corinthians 1:17; 1 Corinthians 7:10, 1 Corinthians 7:19 [οὐδέν]; 2 Corinthians 7:9; 1 Timothy 5:23 [μηκέτι], etc. By a rhetorical construction οὐκ... ἀλλά sometimes is logically equivalent to not so much... as: Mark 9:37 (οὐκ ἐμὲ δέχεται, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με); Matthew 10:20; John 12:44; Acts 5:4; 1 Corinthians 15:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:8; by this form of speech the emphasis is laid on the second member; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 773ff; Winers Grammar, § 55, 8 b.; [Buttmann, 356 (306)]. οὐ μόνον... ἀλλὰ καί not only... but also: John 5:18; John 11:52 [ἀλλ’ ἵνα καί, etc.]; Romans 1:32, and very often. When καί is omitted (as in the Latin non solum... sed ), the gradation is strengthened: Acts 19:26 [Lachmann adds καί]; 1 John 5:6; ἀλλὰ πολλῷ μᾶλλον, Philippians 2:12; cf. Fritzsche, the passage cited, p. 786ff; Winers Grammar, 498 (464); [Buttmann, 369f (317)].TGL ἀλλά.15

    2. The negation to which ἀλλά pertains is suppressed, but can easily be supplied upon reflection [Winer's Grammar, 442 (412)]: Matthew 11:7-9; Luke 7:24-26 (in each passage, before ἀλλά supply 'you will say you did not go out into the wilderness for this purpose'); Acts 19:2 (we have not received the Holy Spirit, but...); Galatians 2:3 (they said not one word in opposition to me, but...); 2 Corinthians 7:11 (where before ἀλλά, repeated six times by anaphora, supply οὐ μόνον with the accusative of the preceding word). It is used in answers to questions having the force of a negation [Winer's Grammar, 442 (412)]: John 7:49; Acts 15:11; 1 Corinthians 10:20. ἀλλὰ ἵνα [or ἀλλ’ ἵνα, cf. Winers Grammar, 40; Buttmann, 10] elliptical after a negation [Winer's Grammar, 316f (297); 620 (576); Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 840f]: John 1:8 (supply ἀλλὰ ἦλθεν, ἵνα); John 9:3 (ἀλλὰ τυφλὸς ἐγένετο [or ἐγεννήθη], ἵνα); Mark 4:22 (ἀλλὰ τοιοῦτο ἐγένετο, ἵνα).TGL ἀλλά.16

    ["The best manuscripts seem to elide the final α before nouns, but not before verbs" Scrivener, Plain Introduction, etc., p. 14; but see Dr. Gregory's full exhibition of the facts in Tdf. Proleg., p. 93f, from which it appears that "elision is commonly or almost always omitted before α, almost always before υ, often before ε and η, rarely before ο and ω, never before ι; and it should be noticed that this coincides with the fact that the familiar words ἐν, ἵνα, ὅτι, οὐ, ὡς, prefer the form ἀλλ’"; see also WHs Appendix, p. 146. Cf. Winers Grammar, § 5, 1 a.; Buttmann, p. 10.]TGL ἀλλά.17


    (236) ἀλλάσσω: future ἀλλάξω; 1 aorist ἤλλαξα; 2 future passive ἀλλαγήσομαι; (ἄλλος); [from Aeschylus down]; to change: to cause one thing to cease and another to take its place, τὰ ἔθη, Acts 6:14; τὴν φωνήν to vary the voice, i. e., to speak in a different manner according to the different conditions of minds, to adapt the matter and form of discourse to mental moods, to treat them now severely, now gently, Galatians 4:20 [but see Meyer at the passage], to exchange one thing for another: τὶ ἔν τινι, Romans 1:23 (בְּ הֵמִיר Psalms 105:20 (Psalms 106:20); the Greeks say ἀλλάσσειν τί τινος [cf. Winers Grammar, 206 (194), 388 (363) Vaughan on Romans, the passage cited]), to transform: 1 Corinthians 15:51; Hebrews 1:12.TGL ἀλλάσσω.2

    [Compare: ἀπ-, δι-, κατ-, ἀποκατ-, μετ-, συναλλάσσω.]TGL ἀλλάσσω.3


    (237) ἀλλαχόθεν, adverb, from another place: John 10:1 (equivalent to ἄλλοθεν [which the grammarians prefer, Thomas Magister, Ritschl edition, p. 10, 13; Moeris edition Piers., p. 11]; cf, ἑκασταχόθεν, πανταχόθεν). [(Antiphanes, others.)]TGL ἀλλαχόθεν.2

    Related entry: ἀλλαχοῦ adverb equivalent to ἄλλοθι, elsewhere, in another place: Mark 1:38 (T Tr text WH Tr margin brackets). Cf. Bornemann in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1843, p. 127 sq. [Sophocles, Xenophon, others; see Thomas Magister and Moeris as in the preceding word.]TGL ἀλλαχόθεν.3


    (238) ἀλληγορέω, -ῶ: (present passive participle ἀλληγοροὺμενος); i. e., ἄλλο μὲν ἀγορεύω, ἄλλο δὲ νοέω, "aliud verbis, aliud sensu ostendo " (Quintilian instt. 8, 6, 44), to speak allegorically or in a figure: Galatians 4:24 (Philo, Josephus, Plutarch, and grammatical writers; [cf. Meyer on Galatians, the passage cited].)TGL ἀλληγορέω.2


    (239) ἀλληλούϊα, [WH. Ἁλλ. and -ά; see Introductory § 408], Hebrew הַלְלוּ־יָהּ, praise ye the Lord, Hallelujah: Revelation 19:1, Revelation 19:3, Revelation 19:6. [Sept. Psalms, passim; Tobit 13:18; 3 Macc. 7:13.]TGL ἁλληλουϊά.2


    (240) ἀλλήλων, genitive plural [no nominative being possible]; dative -οις, -αις, -οις; accusative -ους, -ας, , one another; reciprocally, mutually: Matthew 24:10; John 13:35; Acts 28:25; Romans 1:12; James 5:16; Revelation 6:4, and often. [From Homer down.]TGL ἀλλήλων.2


    (241) ἀλλογενής, -ες (ἄλλος and γένος), sprung from another race, a foreigner, alien: Luke 17:18. (In the Sept. [Genesis 17:27; Exodus 12:43, etc.], but nowhere in secular writings.)TGL ἀλλογενής.2


    (242) ἅλλομαι; imperfect ἡλλόμην; aorist ἡλάμην and ἡλόμην (Buttmann Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 108; [Winers Grammar, 82 (79); Buttmann, 54 (47)]); to leap (Latin salio ): Acts 3:8; Acts 14:10 (Rec. ἥλλετο; G L T Tr WH ἥλατο); to spring up, gush up, of water, John 4:14 (as in Latin salire , Vergil ecl. 5 , 47; Suetonius, Octav. 82).TGL ἅλλομαι.2

    [Compare: ἐξ-, ἐφάλλομαι.]TGL ἅλλομαι.3


    (243) ἄλλος, , -ο, [cf. Latin alius , German alles, English else ; from Homer down], another, other;TGL ἄλλος.2

    a. absolutely: Matthew 27:42; Matthew 20:3; Mark 6:15; Acts 19:32; Acts 21:34 (ἄλλοι μὲν ἄλλο), and often,TGL ἄλλος.3

    b. as an adjective: Matthew 2:12; Matthew 4:21; John 14:16; 1 Corinthians 10:29 (ἄλλη συνείδησις, i. e. συν. ἄλλου τινός).TGL ἄλλος.4

    c. with the article: ἄλλος the other (of two), Matthew 5:39; Matthew 12:13, etc. [cf. Buttmann, 32 (28), 122 (107)]; οἱ ἄλλοι all others, the remainder, the rest: John 21:8; 1 Corinthians 14:29.TGL ἄλλος.5

    [Synonyms: ἄλλος, ἕτερος: ἄλ. as compared with ἕτ. denotes numerical in distinction from qualitative difference; ἄλ. adds ('one besides'), ἕτ. distinguishes ('one of two'); every ἕτ. is an ἄλ., but not every ἄλ. is a ἕτ.; ἄλ. generally 'denotes simply distinction of individuals, ἕτερος involves the secondary idea of difference of kind'; e. g. 2 Corinthians 11:4; Galatians 1:6-7. See Bp. Lightfoot and Meyer on the latter passage; Trench, § xcv.; Schmidt, chapter 198.]TGL ἄλλος.6


    (244) ἀλλοτριοεπίσκοπος (L T Tr WH ἀλλοτριεπ.), -ου, (ἀλλότριος and ἐπίσκοπος), one who takes the supervision of affairs pertaining to others and in no wise to himself, [a meddler in other men's matters]: 1 Peter 4:15 (the writer seems to refer to those who, with holy but intemperate zeal, meddle with the affairs of the Gentiles — whether public or private, civil or sacred — in order to make them conform to the Christian standard).TGL ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος.2

    [Hilgenfeld (cf. Einl. ins N. T., p. 630) would make it equivalent to the Latin delator .] The word is found again only in Dionysius, Areop. ep. 8, p. 783 (of one who intrudes into another's office), and [German of Const. ep. 2 ad Cypr. c. 9, in] Coteler. Eccl. Graec. Mon. 2:481 b.; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 25, 99 (94)].TGL ἀλλοτριεπίσκοπος.3


    (245) ἀλλότριος, , -ον;TGL ἀλλότριος.2

    1. belonging to another (opposed to ἴδιος), not one's own: Hebrews 9:25; Romans 14:4; Romans 15:20; 2 Corinthians 10:15; 1 Timothy 5:22; John 10:5. in neuter, Luke 16:12 (opposed to τὸ ὑμέτερον).TGL ἀλλότριος.3

    2. foreign, strange: γῆ, Acts 7:6; Hebrews 11:9; not of one's own family, alien, Matthew 17:25; an enemy, Hebrews 11:34 (Homer, Iliad 5, 214; Xenophon, an. 3, 5, 5).TGL ἀλλότριος.4


    (246) ἀλλόφυλος, -ον, (ἄλλος, and φῦλον race), foreign, (in secular authors from [Aeschylus] Thucydides down); when used in Hellenistic Greek in opposed to a Jew, it signifies a Gentile, [A. V. one of another nation]: Acts 10:28. (Philo, Josephus)TGL ἀλλόφυλος.2


    (247) ἄλλως, adverb (ἄλλος) [from Homer down], otherwise: 1 Timothy 5:25 (τὰ ἄλλως ἔχοντα, which are of a different sort, i. e., which are not καλὰ ἔργα [others which are not πρόδηλα]).TGL ἄλλως.2


    (248) ἀλοάω, -ῶ; (connected with ἅλως or ἀλωή, the floor on which grain is trodden or threshed out); to thresh, (Ammon. τὸ ἐπὶ τῇ ἅλῳ πατεῖν καὶ τρίβειν τὰς στάχυας): 1 Corinthians 9:9-10; 1 Timothy 5:18 (Deuteronomy 25:4). In secular authors from Aristophanes, Plato down.TGL ἀλοάω.2


    (249) ἄλογος, -ον, (λόγος, reason);TGL ἄλογος.2

    1. destitute of reason, brute: ζῶα, brute animals, Jude 1:10; 2 Peter 2:12 (Wis. 11:16; Xenophon, Hier. 7, 3, others).TGL ἄλογος.3

    2. contrary to reason, absurd: Acts 25:27 (Xenophon, Ages. 11, 1; Thucydides 6, 85; often in Plato, Isocrates, others).TGL ἄλογος.4


    (250) ἀλόη [on the accent see Chandler § 149), -ης, , (commonly ξυλαλόη, ἀγάλλοχον), Plutarch, the aloe, aloes: John 19:39. The name of an aromatic tree which grows in eastern India and Cochin China, and whose soft and bitter wood the Orientals used in fumigation and in embalming the dead (as, according to Herodotus, the Egyptians did), Hebrew אֲהָלִים and אֲהָלוֹת [see Mühlau and Volck under the words], Numbers 24:6; Psalms 45:9; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14.TGL ἀλόη.2

    Arabic: Alluwe ; Linn.: Excoecaria Agallochum . Cf. Winers RWB under the word Aloë [Löw § 235; BB. DD. ].TGL ἀλόη.3


    (251) ἅλς, ἁλός, , see ἅλας . See related Strong's entry Strong's 217 and Strong's 252.TGL ἅλς.2


    (252) ἁλυκός, -ή, -όν, salt (equivalent to ἁλμυρός): James 3:12. ([Hippocrates, Aristophanes] Plato, Tim., p. 65 e.; Aristotle, Theophrastus, others.)TGL ἁλυκός.2


    (253) ἄλυπος, -ον, (λύπη), free from pain or grief: Philippians 2:28. (Very often in Greek writings from Sophocles and Plato down.)TGL ἄλυπος.2


    (254) ἅλυσις, or as it is commonly written ἅλυσις [see WH's Appendix, p. 144], -εως, , (from the α privative and λύω, because a chain is ἄλυτος, i. e., not to be loosed [others from the root val, and allied with εἱλέω, to restrain, ἁλίζω, to collect, crowd; Curtius, § 660; Vanicek, p. 898]), a chain, bond, by which the body, or any part of it (the hands, feet), is bound: Mark 5:3; Acts 21:33; Acts 28:20; Revelation 20:1; ἐν ἁλύσει in chains, a prisoner, Ephesians 6:20; οὐκ ἐπαισχύνθη τὴν ἅλ. μου he was not ashamed of my bonds, i. e., did not desert me because I was a prisoner, 2 Timothy 1:16, specifically used of a manacle or handcuff, the chain by which the hands are bound together [yet cf. Meyer on Mark as below; per contra especially Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians, p. 8]: Mark 5:4; [Luke 8:29]; Acts 12:6 (From Herodotus down.)TGL ἅλυσις.2


    (255) ἀλυσιτελής, -ές (λυσιτελής, see λυσιτελέω ), unprofitable, (Xenophon, vectig. 4, 6); by litotes, hurtful, pernicious: Hebrews 13:17. (From [Hippocrates] Xenophon down.)TGL ἀλυσιτελής.2


    (256) Ἀλφαῖος [WH Ἁλφ., see their Introductory § 408), -αίου, (חַלְפַּי cf. חַגַּי Ἀγγαῖος, Haggai 1:1), Alphæus or Alpheus;TGL Ἀλφαῖος.2

    1. the father of Levi the publican: Mark 2:14, see Λευί , 4.TGL Ἀλφαῖος.3

    2. the father of James the less, so called, one of the twelve apostles: Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13. He seems to be the same person who in John 19:25 (cf. Matthew 27:56; Mark 15:40) is called Κλωπᾶς after a different pronunciation of the Hebrew חלפי accusative to which ח was changed into κ, as פֶּסַח φασέκ, 2 Chronicles 30:1. Cf. Ἰάκωβος , 2; [B. D. American edition under the word Alphæus; also Bp. Lightfoot's Commentary on Galatians, pp. 256, 267 (American edition, pp. 92, 103); Wetzel in Studien und Kritiken for 1883, p. 620f].TGL Ἀλφαῖος.4


    (257) ἅλων, -ωνος, , (in Sept. also , cf. Ruth 3:2; Job 39:12), equivalent to ἅλως, genitive ἅλω, a ground-plot or threshing-floor, i. e., a place in the field itself, made hard after the harvest by a roller, where the grain was threshed out: Matthew 3:12; Luke 3:17. In both these passages, by metonymy of the container for the thing contained, ἅλων is the heap of grain, the flooring, already indeed threshed out, but still mixed with chaff and straw, like Hebrew גֹּרֶן, Ruth 3:2; Job 39:12 (Sept. in each place ἅλῶνα); [others adhere to the primary meaning. Used by Aristotle, de vent. 3, Works, 2:973a 14].TGL ἅλων.2


    (258) ἀλώπηξ, -εκος, , a fox: Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58. Metaphorically, a sly and crafty man: Luke 13:32; (in the same sense often in the Greek writings, as Solon in Plutarch, Sol. 30, 2; Pindar Pythagoras 2, 141; Plutarch, Sulla 28, 5).TGL ἀλώπηξ.2


    (259) ἅλωσις, -εως, , (ἁλόω, ἁλίσκομαι, to be caught), a catching, capture: 2 Peter 2:12 εἰς ἅλωσιν to be taken, [some would here take the word actively: to take]. (From Pindar and Herodotus down.)TGL ἅλωσις.2


    (260) ἅμα [Sanskrit sa, sama ; English same ; Latin simul ; German sammt, etc.; Curtius, § 449; Vanicek, p. 972. From Homer down];TGL ἅμα.2

    1. adverb, at the same time, at once, together: Acts 24:26; Acts 27:40; Colossians 4:3; 1 Timothy 5:13; Philemon 1:22; all to a man, every one, Romans 3:12.TGL ἅμα.3

    2. preposition [Winers Grammar, 470 (439)], together with, with the dative: Matthew 13:29. ἅμα πρωι early in the morning: Matthew 20:1 (in Greek writings ἅμα τῷ ἡλίῳ, ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρα). In 1 Thessalonians 4:17 and 1 Thessalonians 5:10, where ἅμα is followed by σύν, ἅμα is an adverb (at the same time) and must be joined to the verb.TGL ἅμα.4

    [Synonym: ἅμα ὁμοῦ: the distinction given by Ammonius (de diff. voc. under the word) and others, that ἅμα is temporal, ὁμοῦ local, seems to hold in the main; yet see Romans 3:12, and cf. Hesychius under the word.]TGL ἅμα.5


    (261) ἀμαθής, -ές, genitive -ους, (μανθάνω, whence ἔμαθον, τὸ μάθος, cf. ἀληθής ), unlearned, ignorant: 2 Peter 3:16. (In Greek writings from Herodotus down.)TGL ἀμαθής.2


    (262) ἀμαράντινος, -ον, (from ἀμάραντος, as ῥόδινος made of roses, from ῤόδον, a rose; cf. ἀκάνθινος ), composed of amaranth (a flower, so called because it never withers or fades, and when plucked off revives if moistened with water; hence, it is a symbol of perpetuity and immortality [see Paradise Lost iii., 353ff]; Pliny, h. n. 21 (15), 23 [others 47]): στέφανος, 1 Peter 5:4. (Found besides only in Philostratus her. 19, p. 741; [and (conjecturally) in Boeckh, Corp. Inscriptions 155, 39, circa B. C. 340].)TGL ἀμαράντινος.2


    (263) ἀμάραντος, -ον, (from μαραίνω; cf. ἀμίαντος , ἄφαντος , etc.), not fading away, unfading, perennial; Vulg. immarcescibilis : (hence, the name of the flower [Dioscorides 4, 57, others]; see ἀμαράντινος ): 1 Peter 1:4. Found elsewhere only in Wis. 6:13; [ζωὴ ἀμάρ. Sibylline 8, 411; Boeckh, Corp. Inscriptions ii., p. 1124, no. 2942 c, 4; Lucian, Dom. c. 9].TGL ἀμάραντος.2


    (264) ἁμαρτάνω; future ἁμαρτήσω (Matthew 18:21; Romans 6:15; in the latter passage L T Tr WH give ἁμαρτήσωμεν for R G ἁμαρτήσομεν), in classical Greek ἁμαρτήσομαι; 1 aorist (later) ἡμάρτησα, Matthew 18:15; Romans 5:14, Romans 5:16 (cf. Winers Grammar, 82 (79); Buttmann, 54 (47)); 2 aorist ἥμαρτον; perfect ἡμάρτηκα; (according to a conjecture of Buttmann, Lexil. i., p. 137, from the α privative and μείρω, μείρομαι, μέρος, properly, to be without a share in, namely, the mark); properly, to miss the mark, (Homer, Iliad 8, 311, etc.; with the genitive of the thing missed, Homer, Iliad 10, 372; 4, 491; τοῦ σκοποῦ, Plato, Hipp. min., p. 375 a.; τῆς ὁδοῦ, Aristophanes Plutarch, 961, others); then to err, be mistaken; lastly to miss or wander from the path of uprightness and honor, to do or go wrong. ["Even the Sept. , although the Hebrew חָטָא also means primarily to miss, endeavor to reserve ἁμαρτ. exclusively for the idea of sin: and where the Hebrew signifies to miss one's aim in the literal sense, they avail themselves of expressive compounds, in particular ἐξαμαρτάνειν, Judges 20:16." Zezschwitz, Profangraec, u. Biblical Sprachgeist, p. 63f] In the N. T. to wander from the law of God, violate God's law, sin;TGL ἁμαρτάνω.2

    a. absolutely: Matthew 27:4; John 5:14; John 8:11; John 9:2; 1 John 1:10; 1 John 2:1; 1 John 3:6, 1 John 3:8; 1 John 5:18; Romans 2:12; Romans 3:23; Romans 5:12, Romans 5:14, Romans 5:16; Romans 6:15; 1 Corinthians 7:28, 1 Corinthians 7:36; 1 Corinthians 15:34; Ephesians 4:26; 1 Timothy 5:20; Titus 3:11; Hebrews 3:17; Hebrews 10:26 (ἑκουσίως); [2 Peter 2:4]; of the violation of civil laws, which Christians regard as also the transgression of divine law, 1 Peter 2:20.TGL ἁμαρτάνω.3

    b. ἁμαρτάνειν ἁμαρτίαν to commit (literally, sin) a sin, 1 John 5:16 (μεγάλην ἁμαρτίαν, Exodus 32:30. Hebrew חֲטָאָה חָטָא; αἰσχρὰν ἁμ. Sophocles Phil. 1249; μεγάλα ἁμαρτήματα ἁμαρτάνειν, Plato, Phaedo, p. 113 e.); cf. ἀγαπάω , under the end ἁμαρτάνειν εἴς τινα [Buttmann, 173 (150); Winer's Grammar, 233 (219)]: Matthew 18:15 (L T WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets εἰς σέ), Matthew 18:21; Luke 15:18, Luke 15:21; Luke 17:3 Rec. , 4; 1 Corinthians 8:12; τὶ εἰς Καίσαρα, Acts 25:8; εἰς τὸ ἴδιον σῶμα, 1 Corinthians 6:18 (εἰς αὑτούς τε καὶ εἰς ἄλλους, Plato, rep. 3, p. 396 a.; εἰς τὸ θεῖον, Plato, Phaedr., p. 242 c.; εἰς θεούς, Xenophon, Hell. 1, 7, 19, etc.; [cf. ἁμ . κυρίῳ θεῷ, Baruch 1:13 Baruch 2:5]); Hebraistically, ἐνώπιον (לִפְּנֵי) τινος [Buttmann, § 146, 1] in the presence of, before anyone, the one wronged by the sinful act being, as it were, present and looking on: Luke 15:18, Luke 15:21 (1 Samuel 7:6; Tobit 3:3, etc.; [cf. ἔναντι κυρἰου, Baruch 1:17]). [For references see ἁμαρτία . Compare: προαμαρτάνω.]TGL ἁμαρτάνω.4


    (265) ἁμάρτημα, -τος, τό, (from ἁμαρτέω equivalent to ἁμαρτάνω cf. ἀδίκημα , ἀλίσγημα ), a sin, evil deed, ["Differunt ἁμαρτία et τὸ ἁμάρτημα ut Latinorum peccatus et peccatum . Nam τὸ ἁμάρτημα et peccatum proprie malum facinus indicant; contra ἁμαρτία et peccatus primum peccationem , τὸ peccare, deinde peccatum, rem consequentem, valent ." Fritzsche; see ἁμαρτία , at the end; cf. also Trench, § lxvi.]: Mark 3:28, and (L T Tr text WH) Mark 3:29; Mark 4:12 (where G T Tr text WH omits; L Tr marginal reading brackets τὰ ἁμάρτ.); Romans 3:25; 1 Corinthians 6:18; 2 Peter 1:9 (R [L WH text Tr marginal reading] ἁμαρτιῶν). In secular authors from Sophocles and Thucydides down; [of bodily defects, Plato, Gorgias 479 a.; ἁμ. μνημονικόν, Cicero, ad Att. 13, 21; ἁμ. γραφικόν, Polybius 34, 3, 11; ὅταν μὲν παραλόγως βλάβη γένηται, ἀτύχημα· ὅταν δὲ μὴ παραλόγως, ἄνευ δὲ κακίας, ἁμάρτημα· ὅταν δὲ εἰδὼς μὲν μὴ προβουλεύσας δέ, ἀδίκημα, Aristotle, eth. Nic. 5, 10, p. 1135b, 16f].TGL ἁμάρτημα.2


    (266) ἁμαρτία, -ας, , (from 2 aorist ἁμαρτεῖν, as ἀποτυχία from ἀποτυχεῖν), a failing to hit the mark (see ἁμαρτάνω ). In Greek writings (from Aeschylus and Thucydides down). 1st, an error of the understanding (cf. Ackermann, Das Christl. im Plato, p. 59 Anm. 3 [English translation (S. R. Asbury, 1861), p. 57 n. 99]). 2nd, a bad action, evil deed.TGL ἁμαρτία.2

    In the N. T. always in an ethical sense, andTGL ἁμαρτία.3

    1. equivalent to τὸ ἁμαρτάνειν a sinning, whether it occurs by omission or commission, in thought and feeling or in speech and action (cf. Cicero, de fin. 3, 9): Romans 5:12, Romans 5:20; ὑφ’ ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι held down in sin, Romans 3:9; ἐπιμένειν τῇ ἁμαρτία, Romans 6:1; ἀποθνῄσκειν τῇ ἁμ. and ζῆν ἐν αὐτῇ, Romans 6:2; τὴν ἁμ. γινώσκειν, Romans 7:7; 2 Corinthians 5:21; νεκρὸς τῇ ἁμ. Romans 6:11; περὶ ἁμαρτίας to break the power of sin, Romans 8:3 [cf. Meyer]; σῶμα τῆς ἁμ. the body as the instrument of sin, Romans 6:6; ἀπάτη τῆς ἁμ. the craft by which sin is accustomed to deceive, Hebrews 3:13; ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἁμ. [ἀνομίας T Tr text WH text] the man so possessed by sin that he seems unable to exist without it, the man utterly given up to sin, 2 Thessalonians 2:3 [Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3 Note 2]. In this sense ἁμαρτία (equivalent to τὸ ἁμαρτάνειν) as a power exercising dominion over men (sin as a principle and power) is rhetorically represented as an imperial personage in the phrases ἁμ. βασιλεύει, κυριεύει, κατεργάζεται, Romans 5:21; Romans 6:12, Romans 6:14; Romans 7:17, Romans 7:20; δουλεύειν τῇ ἁμ. Romans 6:6; δοῦλος τῆς ἁμ. John 8:34 [WH brackets; G omits τῆς ἁμ.]; Romans 6:17; νόμος τῆς ἁμ. the dictate of sin or an impulse proceeding from it, Romans 7:23; Romans 8:2; δύναμις τῆς ἁμ. 1 Corinthians 15:56; (the prosopopæia occurs in Genesis 4:7 and, according to the reading ἁμαρτία, in Sir. 27:10). Thus, ἁμαρτία in sense, but not in signification, is the source whence the several evil acts proceed; but it never denotes vitiosity.TGL ἁμαρτία.4

    2. that which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act ( ἁμαρτία ἐστὶν ἀνομία, 1 John 3:4);TGL ἁμαρτία.5

    a. generally: James 1:15; John 8:46 (where ἁμαρτ. must be taken to mean neither error, nor craft by which Jesus is corrupting the people, but sin viewed generally, as is well shown by Lücke at the passage and Ullmann in the Studien und Kritiken for 1842, p. 667ff [cf. his Sündlosigkeit Jesu, p. 66ff (English translation of the 7th edition, p. 71f)]; the thought is, 'If anyone convicts me of sin, then you may lawfully question the truth and divinity of my doctrine, for sin hinders the perception of truth'); χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας so that he did not commit sin, Hebrews 4:15; ποιεῖν ἁμαρτίαν and τήν ἁμ. John 8:34; 1 John 3:8; 2 Corinthians 11:7; 1 Peter 2:22; ἔχειν ἁμαρτίαν to have sin as though it were one's odious private property, or to have done something needing expiation, equivalent to to have committed sin, John 9:41; John 15:22, John 15:24; John 19:11; 1 John 1:8 (so αἷμα ἔχειν, of one who has committed murder, Euripides, Or. 514); very often in the plural ἁμαρτίαι [in the Synoptative Gospels the singular occurs but once: Matthew 12:31]; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; [James 5:16 L T Tr WH]; Revelation 18:4, etc.; πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν, James 5:20; 1 Peter 4:8; ποιεῖν ἁμαρτίας, James 5:15; also in the expressions ἄφεσις ἁμαρτιῶν, ἀφιέναι τὰς ἁμ., etc. (see ἀφίημι , 1 d.), in which the word does not of itself denote the guilt or penalty of sins, but the sins are conceived of as removed so to speak from God's sight, regarded by him as not having been done, and therefore are not punished. έν ἁμαρτ. σὺ ἐγεννήθης ὅλος thou wast covered all over with sins when thou wast born i. e. didst sin abundantly before thou wast born, John 9:34; ἐν ταῖς ἁμ..ἀποθνῄσκειν to die loaded with evil deeds therefore unreformed, John 8:24; ἔτι ἐν ἁμαρτίαις εἶναι still to have one's sins, namely, unexpiated, 1 Corinthians 15:17.TGL ἁμαρτία.6

    b. some particular evil deed: τὴν ἁμ. ταύτην, Acts 7:60; πᾶσα ἁμαρτία, Matthew 12:31; ἁμαρτία πρὸς θάνατον, 1 John 5:16 (an offence of such gravity that a Christian lapses from the state of ζωή received from Christ into the state of θάνατος (cf. θάνατος , 2) in which he was before he became united to Christ by faith; cf. Lücke, DeWette [especially Westcott, at the passage]).TGL ἁμαρτία.7

    3. collectively, the complex or aggregate of sins committed either by a single person or by many: αἴρειν τήν ἁμ. τοῦ κόσμου, John 1:29 (see αἴρω , 3 c.); ἀποθνῄσκειν ἐν τῇ ἁμ. John 8:21 (see 2 a. under the end); περί ἁμαρτίας, namely, θυσίας [Winers Grammar, 583 (542): Buttmann, 393 (336)], expiatory sacrifices, Hebrews 10:6 (according to the usage of the Sept. , who sometimes so translate the Hebrew חֲטָאָה and חַטָּאת, e. g. Leviticus 5:11; Leviticus 7:27 (Leviticus 7:37); Psalms 39:7 (Psalms 40:7)); χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας having no fellowship with the sin which he is about [?] to expiate, Hebrews 9:28.TGL ἁμαρτία.8

    4. abstract for the concrete, equivalent to ἁμαρτωλός: Romans 7:7 ( νόμος ἁμαρτία, opposed to νόμος ἅγιος, Romans 7:12); 2 Corinthians 5:21 (τόν... ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησεν he treated him, who knew not sin, as a sinner). Cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. i. 289ff; [see ἁμάρτημα ; Trench, § lxvi.].TGL ἁμαρτία.9


    (267) ἀμάρτυρος, -ον, (μάρτυς), without witness or testimony, unattested: Acts 14:17. (Thucydides, Demosthenes, Josephus, Plutarch, Lucian, Herodian)TGL ἀμάρτυρος.2


    (268) ἁμαρτωλός, -όν, (from the form ἁμάρτω, as φείδωλός from φείδομαι), devoted to sin, a (masculine or feminine) sinner.TGL ἁμαρτωλός.2

    In the N. T. distinctions are so drawn that one is called ἁμαρτωλός who is,TGL ἁμαρτωλός.3

    a. not free from sin. In this sense all men are sinners; as, Matthew 9:13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:8, Luke 5:32; Luke 13:2; Luke 18:13; Romans 3:7; Romans 5:8, Romans 5:19; 1 Timothy 1:15; Hebrews 7:26.TGL ἁμαρτωλός.4

    b. pre-eminently sinful, especially wicked;TGL ἁμαρτωλός.5

    α. universally: 1 Timothy 1:9; Jude 1:15; Mark 8:38; Luke 6:32-34; Luke 7:37, Luke 7:39; Luke 15:7, Luke 15:10; John 9:16, John 9:24. John 9:31; Galatians 2:17; Hebrews 12:3; James 4:8; James 5:20; 1 Peter 4:18; ἁμαρτία itself is called ἁμαρτωλός, Romans 7:13.TGL ἁμαρτωλός.6

    β. specifically, of men stained with certain definite vices or crimes, e. g. the tax-gatherers: Luke 15:2; Luke 18:13; Luke 19:7; hence, the combination τελῶναι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοί, Matthew 9:10; Matthew 11:19; Mark 2:15; Luke 5:30; Luke 7:34; Luke 15:1. heathen, called by the Jews sinners κατ’ ἐξοχήν (1 Macc. 1:34; 1 Macc. 2:48, 62; Tobit 13:6): Matthew 26:45 [?]; Mark 14:41; Luke 24:7; Galatians 2:15. (The word is found often in the Sept. , as the equivalent of חֹטֵא and רָשָׁע, and in the O. T. Apocrypha; very seldom in Greek writings, as Aristotle, eth. Nic. 2, 9, p. 1109a, 33; Plutarch, de audiend. poët. 7, p. 25 c.)TGL ἁμαρτωλός.7


    (269) ἄμαχος, -ον, (μάχη), in Greek writings [from Pindar down] commonly not to be withstood, invincible; more rarely abstaining from fighting (Xenophon, Cyril 4, 1, 16; Hell. 4, 4, 9); in the N. T. twice metaphorically, not contentious: 1 Timothy 3:3; Titus 3:2.TGL ἄμαχος.2


    (270) ἀμάω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἤμησα; (from ἅμα together; hence, to gather together, cf. German sammeln; [others regard the beginning α as euphonic and the word as allied to Latin meto , English mow, thus making the sense of cutting primary, and that of gathering in secondary; cf. Vanicek, p. 673]); frequently in the Greek poets, to reap, mow down: τὰς χώρας, James 5:4.TGL ἀμάω.2


    (271) ἀμέθυστος, -ου, , amethyst, a precious stone of a violet and purple color (Exodus 28:19; according to Phavorinus so called διὰ τὸ ἀπείργειν τῆς μέθης [so Plutarch, quaest. conviv. iii. 1, 3, 6]): Revelation 21:20. [Cf. B. D. under the word.]TGL ἀμέθυστος.2


    (272) ἀμελέω, -ῶ; future ἀμελήσω; 1 aorist ἠμέλησα; (from ἀμελής, and this from α privative and μέλω to care for); very common in secular authors; to be careless of, to neglect: τινός, Hebrews 2:3; Hebrews 8:9; 1 Timothy 4:14; followed by an infinitive, 2 Peter 1:12 R G; without a case, ἀμελήσαντες (not caring for what had just been said [A. V. they made light of it]), Matthew 22:5.TGL ἀμελέω.2


    (273) ἄμεμπτος, -ον, (μέμφομαι to blame), blameless, deserving no censure (Tertullian irreprehensibilis ), free from fault or defect: Luke 1:6; Philippians 2:15; Philippians 3:6; 1 Thessalonians 3:13 [WH marginal reading ἀμέμπτως]; Hebrews 8:7 (in which nothing is lacking); in the Sept. equivalent to תָּם, Job 1:1, Job 1:8 etc. Common in Greek writings. [Cf. Trench, § ciii.]TGL ἄμεμπτος.2


    (274) ἀμέμπτως, adverb, blamelessly, so that there is no cause for censure: 1 Thessalonians 2:10; [1 Thessalonians 3:13 WH marginal reading]; 1 Thessalonians 5:23. [From Aeschylus down. Cf. Trench, § ciii.]TGL ἀμέμπτως.2


    (275) ἀμέριμνος, -ον, (μέριμνα), free from anxiety, free from care: Matthew 28:14; 1 Corinthians 7:32 (free from earthly cares). (Wis. 6:16; Wis. 7:23; Herodian, 2, 4, 3; 3, 7, 11; Anth. 9, 359, 5; [in passive sense, Sophocles Ajax 1206].)TGL ἀμέριμνος.2


    (276) ἀμετάθετος, -ον, (μετατίθημι), not transposed, not to be transferred; fixed, unalterable: Hebrews 6:18; τὸ ἀμετάθετον as a substantive, immutability, Hebrews 6:17. (3 Macc. 5:1; Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch)TGL ἀμετάθετος.2


    (277) ἀμετακίνητος, -ον, (μετακινέω), not to be moved from its place, unmoved; metaphorically, firmly persistent [A. V. unmovable]: 1 Corinthians 15:58. (Plato, epistle 7, p. 343 a.; Dionysius Halicarnassus 8, 74; [Josephus, contra Apion 2, 16, 9; 2, 32, 3; 2, 35, 4].)TGL ἀμετακίνητος.2


    (278) ἀμεταμέλητος, -ον, (μεταμέλομαι, μεταμέλει), not repented of, unregretted: Romans 11:29; σωτηρία, by litotes, salvation affording supreme joy, 2 Corinthians 7:10 [others connect it with μετάνοιαν]. (Plato, Polybius, Plutarch)TGL ἀμεταμέλητος.2


    (279) ἀμετανόητος, -ον, (μετανοέω, which see), admitting no change of mind (amendment), unrepentant, impenitent: Romans 2:5. (In Lucian, Abdic. 11 [passively], equivalent to ἀμεταμέλητος, which see; [Philo de praem. et poen. § 3].)TGL ἀμετανόητος.2


    (280) ἄμετρος, -ον, (μέτρον a measure), without measure, immense: 2 Corinthians 10:13, 2 Corinthians 10:15 (εἰς τὰ ἄμετρα καυχᾶσθαι to boast to an immense extent, i. e. beyond measure, excessively). (Plato, Xenophon, Anthol. iv., p. 170, and ii. 206, Jacobs edition)TGL ἄμετρος.2


    (281) ἀμήν, Hebrew אָמֵן;TGL ἀμήν.2

    1. verbal adjective (from אָמַן to prop; Niph. to be firm), firm, metaphorically, faithful: ἀμήν, Revelation 3:14 (where is added μάρτυς πιστὸς κ. ἀληθινός).TGL ἀμήν.3

    2. it came to be used as an adverb by which something is asserted or confirmed:TGL ἀμήν.4

    a. at the beginning of a discourse, surely, of a truth, truly; so frequent in the discourses of Christ in Matthew, Mark, and Luke: ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν 'I solemnly declare unto you,' e. g. Matthew 5:18; Mark 3:28; Luke 4:24. The repetition of the word (ἀμὴν ἀμήν), employed by John alone in his Gospel (twenty-five times), has the force of a superlative, most assuredly: John 1:51 (John 1:52); John 3:3.TGL ἀμήν.5

    b. at the close of a sentence; so it is, so be it, may it be fulfilled (γένοιτο, the Sept. Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15, etc.): Romans 1:25; Romans 9:5; Galatians 1:5; Ephesians 3:21; Philippians 4:20; 1 Timothy 1:17; Hebrews 13:21; 1 Peter 4:11; Revelation 1:6, and often; cf. Jeremiah 11:5; Jeremiah 35:6 (Jeremiah 28:6); 1 Kings 1:30. It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues into the Christian assemblies, that when he who had read or discoursed had offered up a solemn prayer to God, the others in attendance responded Amen, and thus made the substance of what was uttered their own: 1 Corinthians 14:16 (τὸ ἀμήν, the well-known response Amen), cf. Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15; Nehemiah 5:13; Nehemiah 8:6. 2 Corinthians 1:20 αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι... τὸ ναί, καὶ... τὸ ἀμήν, i. e. had shown themselves most sure. [Cf. B. D. under the word Amen.]TGL ἀμήν.6


    (282) ἀμήτωρ, -ορος, , , (μήτηρ), without a mother, motherless; in Greek writings:TGL ἀμήτωρ.2

    1. born without a mother, e. g. Minerva, Euripides, Phoen. 666f, others; God himself, inasmuch as he is without origin, Lactantius, instt. 4, 13, 2.TGL ἀμήτωρ.3

    2. bereft of a mother, Herodotus 4, 154, elsewhere.TGL ἀμήτωρ.4

    3. born of a base or unknown mother, Euripides, Ion 109 cf. 837.TGL ἀμήτωρ.5

    4. unmotherly, unworthy of the name of mother: μήτηρ ἀμήτωρ, Sophocles El. 1154. Cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. ii., 2, p. 305ff.TGL ἀμήτωρ.6

    5. in a significance unused by the Greeks, 'whose mother is not recorded in the genealogy': of Melchizedek, Hebrews 7:3; (of Sarah by Philo in de temul. § 14, and rer. div. haer. § 12; [cf. Bleek as above]); cf. the classic ἀνολυμπιάς.TGL ἀμήτωρ.7


    (283) ἀμίαντος, -ον, (μιαίνω), not defiled, unsoiled; free from that by which the nature of a thing is deformed and debased, or its force and vigor impaired: κοίτη pure, free from adultery, Hebrews 13:4; κληρονομία (without defect), 1 Peter 1:4; θρησκεία, James 1:27; pure from sin, Hebrews 7:26. (Also in the Greek writings; in an ethical sense, Plato, legg. 6, p. 777 e.; Plutarch, Periel. e. 39 βίος καθαρὸς καὶ ἀμίαντος.)TGL ἀμίαντος.2


    (284) Ἀμιναδάβ, , עַמִּינָדָב; (servant of the prince [others, my people are noble; but cf. B. D. under the word]), [A. V. Aminadab], the proper name of one of the ancestors of Christ (1 Chronicles 2:10 [A. V. Amminadab]): Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:33 [not WH. See B. D. under the word].TGL Ἀμιναδάβ.2


    (285) ἄμμος, -ου, , sand; according to a Hebrew comparison ἄμ. τῆς θαλάσσης and ἄμ. παρὰ τὸ χεῖλος τῆς θαλ. are used for an innumerable multitude, Romans 9:27; Hebrews 11:12; Revelation 20:8, equivalent to Revelation 12:18 (Revelation 13:1). According to the context sandy ground, Matthew 7:26. (Xenophon, Plato, Theophrastus often, Plutarch, the Sept. often.)TGL ἄμμος.2


    (286) ἀμνός, -οῦ, [from Sophocles and Aristophanes down], a lamb: Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19; τοῦ θεοῦ, consecrated to God, John 1:29, John 1:36. In these passages Christ is likened to a sacrificial lamb on account of his death, innocently and patiently endured, to expiate sin. See ἀρνίον .TGL ἀμνός.2


    (287) ἀμοιβή, -ῆς, , (from ἀμείβω, as ἀλοιφή from ἀλείφω, στοιβή from στείβω), a very common word with the Greeks, requital, recompense, in a good and a bad sense (from the significance of the middle ἀμείβομαι to requite, return like for like): in a good sense, 1 Timothy 5:4.TGL ἀμοιβή.2


    (288) ἄμπελος, -ου, , [from Homer down], a vine: Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:18; James 3:12. In John 15:1, John 15:4 Christ calls himself a vine, because, as the vine imparts to its branches sap and productiveness, so Christ infuses into his followers his own divine strength and life. ἄμπ. τῆς γῆς in Revelation 14:18 [Rec.st omits τῆς ἀμπ.], Revelation 14:19, signifies the enemies of Christ, who, ripe for destruction, are likened to clusters of grapes, to be cut off, thrown into the winepress, and trodden there.TGL ἄμπελος.2


    (289) ἀμπελουργός, -οῦ, , , (from ἄμπελος and ΕΡΓΩ), a vinedresser: Luke 13:7. (Aristophanes, Plutarch, Geoponica, others; the Sept. for כֹּרֵם.)TGL ἀμπελουργός.2


    (290) ἀμπελών, -ῶνος, , a vineyard: Matthew 20:1; Matthew 21:28, (Matthew 21:33), Matthew 21:39; Mark 12:1; Luke (Luke 13:6); Luke 20:9; 1 Corinthians 9:7. (Sept. ; Diodorus 4, 6; Plutarch, pro nobilit. c. 3.)TGL ἀμπελών.2


    (291) Ἀμπλίας [T Ἀμπλίατος, Tr WH L marginal reading Ἀμπλιᾶτος; hence, accent Ἀμπλιᾶς; cf. Lob. Pathol. Proleg., p. 505; Chandler § 32], -ου, , Amplias (a contraction from the Latin Ampliatus , which form appears in some authorities, cf. Winer's Grammar, 102 (97)), a certain Christian at Rome: Romans 16:8. [See Bp. Lightfoot on Phil., p. 174; cf. The Athenæum for March 4, 1882, p. 289f]TGL Ἀμπλίας.2

    Related entry: Ἀμπλίατος (Tdf.) or more correctly Ἀμπλιᾶτος (L marginal reading Tr WH) equivalent to Ἀμπλίας, which see.TGL Ἀμπλίας.3


    (292) ἀμύνω: 1 aorist middle ἠμυνάμην; [allied with Latin munio , moenia , etc., Vanicek, p. 731; Curtius, § 451]; in Greek writings [from Homer down] to ward off, keep off anything from anyone, τί τινι, accusative of the thing and the dative of person; hence, with a simple dative of the person, to aid, assist anyone (Thucydides 1, 50; 3, 67, elsewhere). Middle ἀμύνομαι, with accusative of person, to keep off, ward off, anyone from oneself; to defend oneself against anyone (so also 2 Macc. 10:17; Wis. 11:3; the Sept. Joshua 10:13); to take vengeance on anyone (Xenophon, an. 2, 3, 23; Josephus, Antiquities 9, 1, 2): Acts 7:24, where in thought supply τὸν ἀδικοῦντα [cf. Buttmann, 194 (168) note; Winer's Grammar, 258 (242)].TGL ἀμύνομαι.2


    (293) ἀμφίβληστρον, -ου, τό, (ἀμφιβάλλω), in Greek writings anything thrown around one to impede his motion, as chains, a garment; specifically, a net for fishing [casting-net]: Mark 1:16 R G L; Matthew 4:18. (Sept. ; Hesiod scut. 215; Herodotus 1, 141; Athen. 10, 72, p. 450.)TGL ἀμφίβληστρον.2

    [Synonym: see δίκτυον , and cf. Trench, § lxiv.; B. D. under the word net.]TGL ἀμφίβληστρον.3

    Related entry: ἀμφιβάλλω; to throw around, equivalent to περιβάλλω, of a garment (Homer Odyssey 14, 342); to cast to and fro now to one side now to the other: a net, Mark 1:16 G L T Tr WH [according to T Tr WH used absolutely; cf. οἱ ἀμϕιβολεῖς, Isaiah 19:8]. (Habakkuk 1:17)TGL ἀμφίβληστρον.4


    (294) ἀμφιέννυμι; perfect passive ἠμϕίεσμαι; (ἔννυμι); [from Homer down]; to put on, to clothe: Luke 12:28 (R G; cf. ἀμϕιέζω); Matthew 6:30; ἔν τινι [Buttman 191 (166)], Luke 7:25; Matthew 11:8.TGL ἀμφιέννυμι.2

    Related entry: ἀμφιέζω, equivalent to ἀμφιέννυμι; in Luke 7:28 ἀμφιέζει T Tr Cf. ἀμφιάζω.TGL ἀμφιέννυμι.3

    Related entry: ἀμφιάζω; [from ἀμφί, literally, to put around]; to put on, clothe: in Luke 12:28 L WH ἀμφιάζει for Rec. ἀμφιέννυσι. (A later Greek word; Sept. [2 Kings 17:9 Alex. ]; Job 29:14; [Job 31:19]; Job 40:5; Psalms 72:6 Symm. ; several times in Themistius; cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 112; [Veitch, under the word; Buttmann, 49 (42f); Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word, col. 201 c. quotes from Cram. Anecdot. Ox. vol. ii., p. 338, 31 τὸ μὲν ἀμφιέζω ἐστὶ κοινῶς, τὸ δὲ ἀμφιάζω Δωρικὸν, ὥσπερ τὸ ὑποπιέζω καὶ ὑποπιάζω].) Cf. ἀμφιέζω .TGL ἀμφιέννυμι.4


    (295) Ἀμφίπολις, -εως, , Amphipolis, the metropolis of Macedonia Prima [cf. B. D. under the word Macedonia]; so called, because the Strymon flowed around it [Thucydides 4, 102] formerly called έννέα ὁδοί (Thucydides 1,100): Acts 17:1 [see B. D. ].TGL Ἀμφίπολις.2


    (296) ἀμφόδον, -ου, τό, (ἀμφί, ὁδός), properly, a road round anything, a street [Hesychius ἄμφοδα· αἱ ῥύμαι. ἀγυιαί. δίοδοι (others, διέξοδοι διορυγμαί, elsewhere, πλατεία); Lex. in Bekker Anecdota i., p. 205, 14 Ἄμφοδον· ὥσπερ ἐκ τετραγώνου διαγεγραμμένη ὁδός. For examples see Sophocles Lexicon; Wetstein (1752) on Mark, the passage cited; manuscript D in Acts 19:28 (where see Tdf. 's note)]: Mark 11:4. (Jeremiah 17:27; Jeremiah 30:16 (Jeremiah 49:27), and in Greek writings.)TGL ἄμφοδον.2


    (297) ἀμφότεροι, -αι, , [from Homer down], both of two, both the one and the other: Matthew 9:17, etc.; τὰ ἀμφότερα, Acts 23:8; Ephesians 2:14.TGL ἀμφότεροι.2


    (298) ἀμώμητος, -ον, (μωμάομαι), that cannot be censured, blameless: Philippians 2:15 R G (cf. τέκνα μωμητά, Deuteronomy 32:5); 2 Peter 3:14. (Homer, Iliad 12, 109; [Hesiod, Pindar, others;] Plutarch, frat. amor. 18; often in Anthol. )TGL ἀμώμητος.2


    (299) ἄμωμος, -ον, (μῶμος), without blemish, free from faultiness, as a victim without spot or blemish: 1 Peter 1:19 (Leviticus 22:21); Hebrews 9:14; in both places allusion is made to the sinless life of Christ. Ethically, without blemish, faultless, unblamable: Ephesians 1:4; Ephesians 5:17; Colossians 1:22; Philippians 2:15 L T Tr WH; Jude 1:24; Revelation 14:5. (Often in Sept.; [Hesiod, Simon., Iambl.], Hdt. 2, 177; Aeschyl. Pers. 185; Theocr. 18, 25.)TGL ἄμωμος.2

    [Synonym: see Trench § 103; Tittmann 1:29f]TGL ἄμωμος.3


    (300) Ἀμών, , indeclinable, Amon (אָמוֹן artificer [but cf. B. D. ]), king of Judah, son of Manasseh, and father of Josiah: Matthew 1:10 [L T Tr WH -μώς. Cf. B. D. ].TGL Ἀμών.2


    (301) Ἀμώς, , Amos (אָמוֹץ strong), indeclinable proper name of one of Christ's ancestors: (Matthew 1:10 L T Tr WH); Luke 3:25.TGL Ἀμώς.2


    (302) ἄν, a particle indicating that something can or could occur on certain conditions, or by the combination of certain fortuitous causes. In Latin it has no equivalent; nor do the English haply, perchance, German wohl (wol), etwa , exactly and everywhere correspond to it. The use of this particle in the N. T., illustrated by copious examples from Greek writers, is shown by Winers Grammar, § 42; [cf. Buttmann, 216ff (186ff). Its use in classic Greek is fully exhibited (by Prof. Goodwin) in Liddell and Scott, under the word].TGL ἄν.2

    It is joined:TGL ἄν.3

    I. in the apodoses of hypothetical sentencesTGL ἄν.4

    1. with the imperfect, where the Latin uses the imperfect subjunctive, e. g. Luke 7:39 (ἐγίνωσκεν ἄν, sciret, he would know); Luke 17:6 (ἐλέγετε ἄν ye would say); Matthew 23:30 (non essemus, we should not have been); John 5:46; John 8:42; John 9:41; John 15:19; John 18:36; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Galatians 1:10; Galatians 3:21 [but WH marginal reading brackets]; Hebrews 4:8; Hebrews 8:4, Hebrews 8:7.TGL ἄν.5

    2. with the indicative aorist (where the Latin uses the pluperfect subjunctive like the future perfect subjunctive, I would have done it), to express what would have been, if this or that either were (εἰ with the imperfect in the protasis preceding), or had been (εἰ with the aorist or pluperfect preceding): Matthew 11:21 and Luke 10:13 (ἄν μετενόησαν they would have repented); Matthew 11:23; Matthew 12:7 (ye would not have condemned); Matthew 24:43 (he would have watched), Matthew 24:22 and Mark 13:20 (no one would have been saved, i. e. all even now would have to be regarded as those who had perished; cf. Winer's Grammar, 304 (286)); John 4:10 (thou wouldst have asked); John 14:2 (εἶπον ἄν I would have said so); John 14:28 (ye would have rejoiced); Romans 9:29 (we should have become); 1 Corinthians 2:8; Galatians 4:15 (R G); Acts 18:14. Sometimes the condition is not expressly stated, but is easily gathered from what is said: Luke 19:23 and Matthew 25:27 (I should have received it back with interest, namely, if thou hadst given it to the bankers).TGL ἄν.6

    3. with the pluperfect: John 11:21 [R Tr marginal reading] (οὐκ ἄν ἐτεθνήκει [L T Tr text WH ἀπέθανεν] would not have died, for which, in John 11:32, the aorist οὐκ ἄν ἀπέθανε); John 14:7 [not Tdf. ] (εἰ with the pluperfect preceding); 1 John 2:19 (they would have remained with us). Sometimes (as in Greek writings, especially the later) ἄν is omitted, in order to intimate that the thing wanted but little (imperfect) or had wanted but little (pluperfect or aorist) of being done, which yet was not done because the condition was not fulfilled (cf. Alexander Buttmann in the Studien und Kritiken for 1858, p. 489ff; [N. T. Gram., p. 225 (194)]; Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., 33; Winer's Grammar, § 42, 2, p. 305 (286)), e. g. John 8:39 (where the ἄν is spurious); John 15:22, John 15:24; John 19:11; Acts 26:32; Romans 7:7; Galatians 4:15 (ἄν before ἐδώκατε has been correctly expunged by L T Tr WH).TGL ἄν.7

    II. Joined to relative pronouns, relative adverbs, and adverbs of time and quality, it has the same force as the Latin cumque or cunque , -ever, -soever (German irgend, etwa ).TGL ἄν.8

    1. followed by a past tense of the indicative, when some matter of fact, something certain, is spoken of; where, "when the thing itself which is said to have been done is certain, the notion of uncertainty involved in ἄν belongs rather to the relative, whether pronoun or particle" (Klotz ad Der., p. 145) [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 42, 3 a.]; ὅσοι ἄν as many as: Mark 6:56 (ὅσοι ἄν ἥπτοντο [ἥψαντο L text T Tr text WH] αὐτοῦ as many as touched him [cf. Buttmann, 216 (187)]); Mark 11:24 (ὅσα ἄν προσευχόμενοι αἰτεῖσθε [Griesbach omits ἄν], but L text T Tr WH have rightly restored ὅσα προσεύχεσθε κ. αἰτεῖσθε). καθότι ἄν in so far or so often as, according as (German je nachdem gerade ): Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35. ὡς ἄν: 1 Corinthians 12:2 (in whatever manner ye were led [cf. Buttmann, § 139, 13; 383 (329f)]).TGL ἄν.9

    2. followed by a subjunctive,TGL ἄν.10

    a. the present, concerning that which may have been done, or is usually or constantly done (where the German uses mögen ); ἡνίκα ἄν whensoever, as often as: 2 Corinthians 3:15 L T Tr WH; ὅς ἄν whoever, be he who he may: Matthew 16:25 (L T Tr WH ἐάν); [Mark 8:35 (where T Tr WH future indicative; see WH's Appendix, p. 172)]; Luke 10:5 (L T Tr WH aorist); Luke 10:8; Galatians 5:17 (T Tr WH ἐάν, L brackets ἐάν); 1 John 2:5; 1 John 3:17; Romans 9:15 (Exodus 33:19); Romans 16:2; 1 Corinthians 11:27 etc. ὅστις ἄν: 1 Corinthians 16:2 [Tr WH ἐάν; WH marginal reading aorist]; Colossians 3:17 (L text Tr WH ἐάν). ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 7:12 (T WH ἐάν); Matthew 22:9 (L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὅπου ἄν whithersoever: Luke 9:57 (L Tr ἐάν); Revelation 14:4 (L Tr [T edition 7 not 8, WH] have adopted ὑπάγει, defended also by Buttmann, 228 (196)); James 3:4 (R G L Tr marginal reading in brackets). ὁσάκις ἄν how often soever: 1 Corinthians 11:25 (where L T Tr WH ἐάν). ὡς ἄν in what way soever: 1 Thessalonians 2:7 ([cf. Ellicott at the passage; Buttmann, 232 (200)], L T Tr WH ἐάν).TGL ἄν.11

    b. the aorist, where the Latin uses the future perfect; ὅς ἄν: Matthew 5:21, Matthew 5:22 (εἴπῃ whoever, if ever anyone shall have said); Matthew 5:31 (in Matthew 5:32 L T Tr WH read πᾶς ἀπολύων); Matthew 10:11; Matthew 26:48 (Tdf. ἐάν); Mark 3:29, Mark 3:35; Mark 9:41, etc. ὅστις ἄν: Matthew 10:33 [L Tr WH text omit ἄν]; Matthew 12:50; John 14:13 [Tr marginal reading WH present]; Acts 3:23 (Tdf. ἐάν), etc. ὅσοι ἄν: Matthew 21:22 (Treg. ἐάν); Matthew 23:3 (T WH ἐάν); Mark 3:28 (Tr WH ἐάν); Luke 9:5 (L T Tr WH present); John 11:22; Acts 2:39 (Lachmann οὕς); Acts 3:22. ὅπου ἄν: Mark 14:9 (T WH ἐάν); Mark 9:18 (L T Tr WH ἐάν). ἄχρις οὗ ἄν until (donec ): 1 Corinthians 15:25 Rec. ; Revelation 2:25. ἕως ἄν until (usque dum ): Matthew 2:13; Matthew 10:11; Matthew 22:44; Mark 6:10; Luke 21:32; 1 Corinthians 4:5, etc. ἡνίκα ἄν, of future time, not until then, when... or then at length, when...: 2 Corinthians 3:16 (T WH text ἐάν) [cf. Kühner, 2:951; Jelf, 2:565). ὡς ἄν as soon as [Buttmann, 232 (200)]: 1 Corinthians 11:34; Philippians 2:23. ἀφ’ οὗ ἄν ἐγερθῇ, Luke 13:25 (from the time, whatever the time is, when he shall have risen up). But ἐάν (which see) is also joined to the pronouns and adverbs mentioned, instead of ἄν; and in many places the manuscripts and editions fluctuate between ἄν and ἐάν (examples of which have already been adduced); [cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 96; WH's Appendix, p. 173 "predominantly ἄν is found after consonants, and ἐάν after vowels"]. Finally, to this head must be referred ὅταν (equivalent to ὅτε ἄν) with the indicative and much more often with the subjunctive (see ὅταν ), and ὅπως ἄν, although this last came to be used as a final conjunction in the sense, that, if it be possible: Luke 2:35; Acts 3:20 (Acts 3:19); Acts 15:17; Romans 3:4; see ὅπως , II 1 b. [Cf. Winers Grammar, 309 (290f); Buttmann, 234 (201).]TGL ἄν.12

    III. ἄν is joined to the optative [Winers Grammar, 303 (284); Buttmann, 217 (188)]; when a certain condition is laid down, as in wishes, I would that etc.: Acts 26:29 (εὐξαίμην [Tdf. εὐξάμην] ἄν, I could pray, namely, did it depend on me); in direct questions [Winers Grammar, the passage cited; Buttmann, 254 (219)]: Acts 8:31 (πῶς ἄν δυναίμην; i. e. on what condition, by what possibility, could I? cf. Xenophon, oec. 11, 5); Acts 17:18 (τί ἄν θέλοι... λέγειν what would he say? it being assumed that he wishes to utter some definite notion or other); Acts 2:12 R G; independent sentences and indirect questions in which the narrator introduces another's thought [Winers Grammar, § 42, 4; Buttmann, the passage cited]: Luke 1:62; Luke 6:11; Luke 9:46; [Luke 15:26 L brackets Tr WH; cf. Luke 18:36 L brackets Tr brackets WH marginal reading]; Acts 5:24; Acts 10:17; Acts 17:20 R G.TGL ἄν.13

    IV. ἄν is found without a mood in 1 Corinthians 7:5 (εἰ μή τι ἄν [WH brackets ἄν], except perhaps, namely, γένοιτο [but cf. Buttmann as below]). ὡς ἄν, adverbially, tanquam (so already the Vulg. ), as if: 2 Corinthians 10:9 (like ὥσπερ ἄν in Greek writings; cf. Kühner, 2:210 [§ 398 Anm. 4; Jelf, § 430]; Buttmann, 219 (189); ([Liddell and Scott, under the word, D. III.]).TGL ἄν.14

    ἄν contracted from ἐάν, if; followed by the subjunctive: John 20:23 [Lachmann ἐάν. Also by the (present) indicative in 1 John 5:15 Lachmann; see Buttman 223 (192); Winers Grammar 295 (277)]. Further, L T Tr WH have received ἄν in John 13:20; John 16:23; [so WH John 12:32; cf. Winers Grammar 291 (274); Buttman 72 (63)].TGL ἄν.15


    (303) ἀνά, preposition, properly, upward, up (cf. the adverb ἄνω, opposed to κατά and κάτω), denoting motion from a lower place to a higher [cf. Winer's Grammar, 398 (372) n.]; rare in the N. T. and only with the accusativeTGL ἀνά.2

    1. in the expressions ἀνά μέσον (or jointly ἀνάμεσον [so Rst Tr in Revelation 7:17]) into the midst, in the midst, amidst, among, between — with the genitive of place, Matthew 13:25; Mark 7:31; Revelation 7:17 [on this passage see μέσος , 2 at the end]; of person, 1 Corinthians 6:5, with which cf. Sir. 25:18 (17)ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ (Fritzsche, τῶν) πλησίον αὐτοῦ; cf. Winers Grammar, § 27, 1 at the end [Buttmann, 332 (285)] (Sir. 27:2; 1 Macc. 7:28 1 Macc. 13:40, etc.; in the Sept. for בֲּתוֹך, Exodus 26:28; Joshua 16:9; Joshua 19:1; Diodorus 2, 4 ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν χειλέων [see μέσος , 2]); ἀνὰ μέρος (Vulg. per partes ), in turn, one after another, in succession: 1 Corinthians 14:27 [where Rec.st writes ἀναμέρος] (Polybius 4, 20, 10 ἀνὰ μέρος ᾄδειν).TGL ἀνά.3

    2. joined to numerals, it has a distributive force [Winers Grammar, 398 (372); Buttmann, 331f (285)]: John 2:6 (ἀνὰ μετρητὰς δύο τρεῖς two or three metretæ apiece); Matthew 20:9 (ἔλαβον ἀνὰ δηνάριον they received each a denarius); Luke 9:3 [Tr brackets; WH omits ἀνά; Luke 9:14]; Luke 10:1 (ἀνὰ δύο [WH ἀνὰ δύο [δύο]] two by two); Mark 6:40 (L T Tr WH κατά); [Revelation 4:8]; and very often in Greek writings; cf. Winer's Grammar, 398 (372). It is used adverbially in Revelation 21:21 (ἀνὰ εἷς ἕκαστος, like ἀνὰ τέσσαρες, Plutarch, Aem. 32; cf. Winers Grammar, 249 (234); [Buttmann, 30 (26)]).TGL ἀνά.4

    3. Prefixed to verbs ἀνά signifies,TGL ἀνά.5

    a. upward, up, up to (Latin ad , German auf), as in ἀνακρούειν, ἀναβαίνειν, ἀναβάλλειν, ἀνακράζειν, etc.TGL ἀνά.6

    b. it corresponds to the Latin ad (German an), to [indicating the goal], as in ἀναγγέλλειν [others would refer this to d.], ἀνάπτειν.TGL ἀνά.7

    c. it denotes repetition, renewal, equivalent to denuo , anew, over again, as in ἀναγεννᾶν.TGL ἀνά.8

    d. it corresponds to the Latin re , retro , back, backward, as in ἀνακάμπτειν, ἀναχωρεῖν, etc. Cf. Winer's De verb. comp. Part iii., p. 3f.TGL ἀνά.9

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