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    κρείττων — κωφός


    (2909) κρείττων and (1 Corinthians 7:38; Philippians 1:23; in other places the reading varies between the two forms, especially in 1 Corinthians 7:9 (here T Tr WH L text κρείττων); 1 Corinthians 11:17; Hebrews 6:9 (here and in the preceding passage L T Tr WH κρείσσων; see WH 's Appendix, p. 148f; cf. Sigma) κρείσσων, κρεισσονος, neuter κρεισσονου (comparitive of κρατύς, see κράτιστος , cf. Kühner, i., p. 436; (Buttmann , 27 (24))) (from Homer down), better; i. e.TGL κρείττων.2

    a. more useful, more serviceable: 1 Corinthians 11:17; 1 Corinthians 12:31 R G ; Hebrews 11:40; Hebrews 12:24; with πολλῷ μᾶλλον, added, Philippians 1:23 (cf. μᾶλλον , 1 b.); κρεῖσσον (adverb) ποιεῖν, 1 Corinthians 7:38; κρεῖττον ἐστιν, it is more advantageous, followed by an infinitive, 1 Corinthians 7:9; 2 Peter 2:21 (cf. Buttmann , 217 (188); Winer s Grammar, § 41 a. 2 a).TGL κρείττων.3

    b. more excellent: Hebrews 1:4; Hebrews 6:9; Hebrews 7:7, Hebrews 7:19, Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:23; Hebrews 10:34; Hebrews 11:16, Hebrews 11:35; κρεῖττον, followed by an infinitive, 1 Peter 3:17.TGL κρείττων.4


    (2910) κρεμάννυμι, also κρεμαννύω (scarcely classic (Veitch , under the word)), κρεμάω κρέμω (still later (ibid.)), and (the Sept. Job 26:7 and Byzantine writings) κρεμάζω (in the N. T. the present does not occur): 1 aorist ἐκρέμασα; 1 aorist passive ἐκρεμασθην; from Homer down; the Sept. for תָּלָה; to hang up, suspend: τί ἐπί τί (Rec. ), περί; τί (L T Tr WH ) (εἰς τί, Tdf. editions 2, 7), Matthew 18:6; τινα ἐπί ξύλου, Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39 (Genesis 40:19, Genesis 40:22; Deuteronomy 21:22; Esther 6:4, etc.); simply κρεμασθεις, of one crucified, Luke 23:39. Middle κρέμαμαι (for κρεμαννυμαι, cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 224); intransitive, to be suspended, to hang: followed by ἐκ with the genitive of the thing, Acts 28:4 (see ἐκ , I. 3): ἐπί ξύλου, of one hanging on a cross, Galatians 3:13; tropically, ἐν τίνι, Matthew 22:40, where the meaning is, all the Law and the Prophets (i. e. the teaching of the O. T. on morality) is summed up in these two precepts. (Compare: ἐκκρέμαμαι.)TGL κρεμάννυμι.2


    (2911) κρημνός, κρημνοῦ, (from κρεμάννυμι), a steep (place), a precipice: Matthew 8:32; Mark 5:13; Luke 8:33. (2 Chronicles 25:12; Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL κρημνός.2


    (2912) Κρής, , plural Κρῆτες, a Cretan, an inhabitant of the island of Crete: Acts 2:11; Titus 1:12 (cf. Farrar, St. Paul, 2:534).TGL Κρής.2


    (2913) Κρήσκης (cf. Buttmann , 17 (15)), , Latin Crescens, an unknown man: 2 Timothy 4:10.TGL Κρήσκης.2


    (2914) Κρήτη, Κρήτης, , Crete, the largest and most fertile island of the Mediterranean archipelago or Aegean Sea, now called Candia: Acts 27:7, Acts 27:12, Acts 27:21; Titus 1:5. (Dict. of Geog. or McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word .)TGL Κρήτη.2


    (2915) κριθή, κριθῆς, (in Greek writings (from Homer down) only in plural αἱ κριθαί), the Sept. for שְׂעֹרָה, barley: Revelation 6:6 κριθῆς R G , κριθῶν L T Tr WH .TGL κριθή.2


    (2916) κρίθινος, κριθινη, κρίθινον (κριθή), of barley, made of barley: ἄρτοι (2 Kings 4:42, cf. Judges 7:13), John 6:9, John 6:13. ((Hippon. , others.))TGL κρίθινος.2


    (2917) κρίμα (G T WH ) or κρίμα (L Tr (more commonly)) (on the accent cf. Winer s Grammar, p. 50; Lipsius , Grammat. Untersuch., p. 40f (who gives the preference to κρίμα, as do Alexander Buttmann (1873) 78 (64); Cobet (N. T. ad fid. etc., p. 49f); Fritzsche (Romans, vol. i., 96, 107); others; "videtur antiquitati Graecae , Alexandrinae aetati placuisse ," Tdf. Proleg. to the Sept. edition 4, p. xxx.; on the accent in extant manuscripts see Tdf. Proleg., p. 101; cf. especially Lobeck, Paralip., p. 418)), κρίματος, τό (from κρίνω, which see; as κλίμα from κλίνω) (Aeschylus down), the Sept. very often for מִשְׁפָּט;TGL κρίμα.2

    1. a decree: plural, τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 11:33 (others here (with A. V. ) judgments; cf. Weiss in Meyer at the passage) (Psalm 118:75 (Psalms 119:75)).TGL κρίμα.3

    2. judgment; i. e. condemnation of wrong, the decision (whether severe or mild) which one passes on the faults of others: κρίματι τίνι κρίνειν, Matthew 7:2. In a forensic sense, the sentence of a judge: with a genitive of the punishment to which one is sentenced, θανάτου, Luke 24:20; especially the sentence of God as judge: τό κρίμα... εἰς κατάκριμα, the judgment (in which God declared sin to be punishable with death) issued in condemnation, i. e. was condemnation to all who sinned and therefore paid the penalty of death Romans 5:16; especially where the justice of God in punishing is to be shown, κρίμα denotes condemnatory sentence, penal judgment, sentence, 2 Peter 2:3; Jude 1:4; with the genitive of the one who pronounces judgment, τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 2:2; λαμβάνεσθαι κρίμα, Matthew 23:13-14Rec. ; Mark 12:40; Luke 20:47; Romans 13:2; James 3:1; the one on whom God passes judgment is said ἔχειν κρίμα, 1 Timothy 5:12; (βαστάζειν τό κρίμα, to bear the force of the condemnatory judgment in suffering punishment (see βαστάζω , 2), Galatians 5:10; κρίμα ἐσθίειν ἑαυτῷ, so to eat as to incur the judgment or punishment of God, 1 Corinthians 11:29; εἰς κρίμα συνέρχεσθαι, to incur the condemnation of God, 34; εἶναι ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ κρίματι, to lie under the same condemnation, pay the same penalty, Luke 23:40; with the genitive of the one on whom condemnation is passed, Romans 3:8; 1 Timothy 3:6; Revelation 17:1. the judgment which is formed or passed: by God, through what Christ accomplished on earth, εἰς κρίμα ἐγώ εἰς τόν κόσμον τοῦτον ἦλθον, where by way of explanation is added ἵνα κτλ., to this end, that etc. John 9:39; τό κρίμα ἄρχεται, the execution of judgment as displayed in the infliction of punishment, 1 Peter 4:17; the last or final judgment is called τοῦ κρίματος τοῦ μέλλοντος, Acts 24:25; κρίματος αἰωνίου, eternally in force, Hebrews 6:2; the vindication of one's right, κρίνειν τό κρίμα τίνος ἐκ τίνος, to vindicate one's right by taking vengeance or inflicting punishment on another, Revelation 18:20 ((R. V. God hath judged your judgment on her), see ἐκ , I. 7); equivalent to the power and business of judging: κρίμα διδόναι τίνι, Revelation 20:4.TGL κρίμα.4

    3. a matter to be judicially decided, a lawsuit, a case in court: κρίματα ἔχειν μετά τίνος, 1 Corinthians 6:7.TGL κρίμα.5


    (2918) κρίνον, κρίνου, τό, a lily: Matthew 6:28; Luke 12:27. (From Herodotus down.)TGL κρίνον.2


    (2919) κρίνω; future κρίνω; 1 aorist ἔκρινα; perfect κέκρικα; 3 person singular pluperfect, without augment (Winer s Grammar, § 12, 9; (Buttmann , 33 (29))), κεκρίκει (Acts 20:16 G L T Tr WH ); passive, present κρίνομαι; imperfect ἐκρινομην; perfect κεκριμαι; 1 aorist ἐκριθην (cf. Buttmann , 52 (45)); 1 future κριθήσομαι; the Sept. for שָׁפַט, and also for דּוּן and רִיב; Latin cerno , i. e.TGL κρίνω.2

    1. to separate, put asunder; to pick out, select, choose (Homer , Herodotus , Aeschylus , Sophocles , Xenophon , Plato , others; μετά νεανίσκων ἀρίστων κεκριμένων (chosen, picked), 2 Macc. 13:15; κεκρίμενοι ἄρχοντες, Josephus , Antiquities 11, 3, 10); hence,TGL κρίνω.3

    2. to approve, esteem: ἡμέραν παῥ ἡμέραν, one day above another, i. e. to prefer (see παρά , III. 2 b.), Romans 14:5 (so τί πρό τίνος, Plato , Phil., p. 57 e.; τόν Ἀπολλῶ πρό Μαρσυου, rep. 3, p. 399{e}.); πᾶσαν ἡμέραν, to esteem every day, i. e. hold it sacred, ibid.TGL κρίνω.4

    3. to be of opinion, deem, think: ὀρθῶς ἔκρινας, thou hast decided (judged) correctly, Luke 7:43; followed by an infinitive Acts 15:19; followed by a direct question, 1 Corinthians 11:13; τοῦτο, ὅτι etc. to be of opinion etc. 2 Corinthians 5:14; followed by the accusative with an infinitive Acts 16:15; τινα or τί followed by a predicate accusative, κρίνειν τινα ἄξιον τίνος, to judge one (to be) worthy of a thing, Acts 13:46; ἄπιστον κρίνεται, Acts 26:8.TGL κρίνω.5

    4. to determine, resolve, decree: τί, 1 Corinthians 7:37 (κρῖναι τί καί πρόθεσθαι, Polybius 3, 6, 7; τό κρίθεν, which one has determined on, one's resolve, 5, 52, 6; 9, 13, 7; τοῖς κριθεισι ἐμμένειν δεῖ, Epictetus diss. 2, 15, 7ff); δόγματα, passive (the decrees that had been ordained (cf. A. V. )), Acts 16:4; τοῦτο κρίνατε, followed by an infinitive preceded by the article τό, Romans 14:13; also with ἐμαυτῷ added, for myself i. e. for my own benefit (lest I should prepare grief for myself by being compelled to grieve you), 2 Corinthians 2:1; followed by an infinitive, Acts 20:16; Acts 25:25; 1 Corinthians 2:2 G L T Tr WH ((see below)); 1 Corinthians 5:3; Titus 3:12 (1 Macc. 11:33; 3Macc. 1:6 3Macc. 6:30; Judith 11:13; Wis. 8:9; Diodorus 17, 95; Josephus , Antiquities 7, 1, 5; 12, 10, 4; 13, 6, 1); with τοῦ prefixed, 1 Corinthians 2:2 Rec. ((see above)); followed by the accusative with an infinitive Acts 21:25 (2 Macc. 11:36); with τοῦ prefixed, Acts 27:1 (cf. Buttmann , § 140, 16 δ.); (κρίνεται τίνι, it is one's pleasure, it seems good to one, 1 Esdr. 6:20f (21f); 1 Esdras 8:90 (92)).TGL κρίνω.6

    5. to judge;TGL κρίνω.7

    a. to pronounce an opinion concerning right and wrong;TGL κρίνω.8

    α. in a forensic sense ((differing from δικάζειν, the official term, in giving prominence to the intellectual process, the sifting and weighing of evidence)), of a human judge: τινα, to give a decision respecting one, John 7:51; κατά τόν νόμον, John 18:31; Acts 23:3; Acts 24:6 Rec. ; the substance of the decision is added in an infinitive, Acts 3:13; passive to be judged, i. e. summoned to trial that one's case may be examined and judgment passed upon it, Acts 25:10; Acts 26:6; Romans 3:4 (from Psalms 50:6 (Psalms 51:4)); περί with the genitive of the thing, Acts 23:6; Acts 24:21; (Acts 25:20); with addition of ἐπί and the genitive of the judge, before one, Acts 25:9. Where the context requires, used of a condemnatory judgment, equivalent to to condemn: simply, Acts 13:27.TGL κρίνω.9

    β. of the judgment of God or of Jesus the Messiah, deciding between the righteousness and the unrighteousness of men: absolutely, John 5:30; John 8:50; δικαίως, 1 Peter 2:23; ἐν δικαιοσύνη,Revelation 19:11; τινα, 1 Corinthians 5:13; passive James 2:12; ζῶντας καί νεκρούς, 2 Timothy 4:1; 1 Peter 4:5; νεκρούς, passive, Revelation 11:18 (Buttmann , 260 (224)); τήν οἰκουμένην, the inhabitants of the world, Acts 17:31 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 389 (364)); τόν κόσμον, Romans 3:6; τά κρυπτά τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Romans 2:16; κρίνειν τό κρίμα τίνος ἐκ τίνος (see κρίμα , 2 under the end), Revelation 18:20, cf. Revelation 6:10; κρίνειν κατά τό ἑκάστου ἔργον, 1 Peter 1:17; τούς νεκρούς ἐκ τῶν γεγραμμένων ἐν τοῖς βιβλίοις κατά τά ἔργα αὐτῶν, passive, Revelation 20:12; with the accusative of the substance of the judgment, thou didst pronounce this judgment, ταῦτα ἔκρινας, Revelation 16:5; contextually, used specifically of the act of condemning and decreeing (or inflicting) penalty on one: τινα, John 3:18; John 5:22; John 12:47; Acts 7:7; Romans 2:12; 1 Corinthians 11:31; 2 Thessalonians 2:12; Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 13:4; 1 Peter 4:6 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 630 (585)); James 5:9 (where Rec. κατάκριμα); Revelation 18:8; Revelation 19:2 (Wis. 12:10, 22); τόν κόσμον, opposed to σῴζειν, John 3:17; John 12:47; of the devil it is said ἄρχων τοῦ κόσμου τούτου κέκριται, because the victorious cause of Christ has rendered the supreme wickedness of Satan evident to all, and put an end to his power to dominate and destroy, John 16:11.TGL κρίνω.10

    γ. of Christians as hereafter to sit with Christ at the judgment: τόν κόσμον, 1 Corinthians 6:2; ἀγγέλους, 1 Corinthians 6:3 (cf. ἄγγελος , 2 under the end; yet see Meyer edition Heinrici ad the passages cited).TGL κρίνω.11

    b. to pronounce judgment; to subject to censure; of those who act the part of judges or arbiters in the matters of common life, or pass judgment on the deeds and words of others: universally, and without case, John 8:16, John 8:26; κατά τί, John 8:15; κατ' ὄψιν, John 7:24; ἐν κρίματι τίνι κρίνειν, Matthew 7:2; τινα, passive (with the nominative of person), Romans 3:7; ἐκ τοῦ στόματος σου κρίνω σε, out of thine own mouth (i. e. from what thou hast just said) will I take the judgment that must be passed on thee, Luke 19:22; τί, 1 Corinthians 10:15; passive, 1 Corinthians 10:29; τό δίκαιον, Luke 12:57; followed by εἰ, whether, Acts 4:19; with the accusative of the substance of the judgment: τί i. e. κρίσιν τινα, 1 Corinthians 4:5; κρίσιν κρίνειν (Plato , rep. 2, p. 360 d.) δικαίαν (cf. Buttmann , § 131, 5), John 7:24 (ἀληθινήν καί δικαίαν, Tobit 3:2; κρίσεις ἀδίκους, Susanna 53); of the disciplinary judgment to which Christians subject the conduct of their fellows, passing censure upon them as the facts require, 1 Corinthians 5:12; of those who judge severely (unfairly), finding fault with this or that in others, Matthew 7:1; Luke 6:37; Romans 2:1; τινα, Romans 2:1, Romans 2:3; Romans 14:3, Romans 14:10, Romans 14:13; followed by ἐν with the dative of the thing, Colossians 2:16; Romans 14:22; hence equivalent to to condemn: Romans 2:27; James 4:11.TGL κρίνω.12

    6. Hebraistically equivalent to to rule, govern; to preside over with the power of giving judicial decisions, because it was the prerogative of kings and rulers to pass judgment: Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30 (τόν λαόν, 2 Kings 15:5; 2 Kings 1:1-18 Macc. 9:73; Josephus , Antiquities 5, 3, 3; οἱ κρίνοντες τήν γῆν, Psalms 2:10; Sap. i. 1; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, iii., p. 1463f).TGL κρίνω.13

    7. Passive and middle to contend together, of warriors and combatants (Homer , Diodorus , others); to dispute (Herodotus 3, 120; Aristophanes nub. 66); in a forensic sense, to go to law, have a suit at law: with the dative of the person with whom (Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 1 g.), Matthew 5:40 (Job 9:3; Job 13:19; Euripides , Med. 609); followed by μετά with the genitive of the person with whom one goes to law, and ἐπί; with the genitive of the judge, 1 Corinthians 6:1-20: (1), 6. (Compare: ἀνακρίνω, ἀποκρίνω, ἀνταποκρίνω (ἀνταποκρίνομαι), διακρίνω, ἐνκρίνω, ἐπικρίνω, κατακρίνω, συνκρίνω, ὑποκρίνω (ὑποκρίνομαι), συνυποκρίνω (συνυποκρίνομαι).)TGL κρίνω.14


    (2920) κρίσις, κρίσεως, , the Sept. for דִּין, רִיב (a suit), but chiefly for מִשְׁפָּט; in Greek writings ((from Aeschylus and Herodotus down))TGL κρίσις.2

    1. a separating, sundering, separation; a trial, contest.TGL κρίσις.3

    2. selection.TGL κρίσις.4

    3. judgment; i. e. opinion or decision given concerning anything, especially concerning justice and injustice, right and wrong;TGL κρίσις.5

    a. universally: John 8:16; 1 Timothy 5:24 (on which see ἐπακολουθέω ); Jude 1:9; 2 Peter 2:11; κρίσιν κρίνειν (see κρίνω , 5 b.), John 7:24.TGL κρίσις.6

    b. in a forensic judgment sense, of the of God or of Jesus the Messiah: universally, James 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; Hebrews 10:27; plur, Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2; of the last judgment: Hebrews 9:27; ἡμέρα κρίσεως (Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:22, Matthew 11:24; Matthew 12:36; Mark 6:11 R L in brackets; 2 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 3:7) or τῆς κρίσεως (1 John 4:17), the day appointed for the judgment, see ἡμέρα , 3; εἰς κρίσιν μεγάλης ἡμέρας, Jude 1:6; ὥρα τῆς κρίσεως αὐτοῦ, i. e. τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 14:7; ἐν τῇ κρίσει, at the time of the judgment, when the judgment shall take place, Matthew 12:41; Luke 10:14; Luke 11:31; κρίσιν ποιεῖν κατά πάντων, to execute judgment against (i. e. to the destruction of) all, Jude 1:15. Specifically, sentence of condemnation, damnatory judgment, condemnation and punishment: Hebrews 10:27; 2 Peter 2:4; with the genitive of the person condemned and punished, Revelation 18:10; κρίσις αὐτοῦ ἤρθη, the punishment appointed him was taken away, i. e. was ended, Acts 8:33 from Isaiah 53:8, the Sept. ; πίπτειν εἰς κρίσιν (Rst εἰς ὑπόκρισιν), to become liable to condemnation, James 5:12; αἰώνιος κρίσις, eternal damnation, Mark 3:29 (Rec. ); κρίσις τῆς γηννης, the judgment condemning one to Gehenna, the penalty of Gehenna, i. e. to be suffered in hell, Matthew 23:33. In John's usage κρίσις denotesTGL κρίσις.7

    α. that judgment which Christ occasioned, in that wicked men rejected the salvation he offered, and so of their own accord brought upon themselves misery and punishment: αὕτη ἐστιν κρίσις, ὅτι etc. judgment takes place by the entrance of the light into the world and the batted which men have for this light, John 3:19; κρίσιν, to execute judgment, John 5:27; ἔρχεσθαι εἰς κρίσιν, to come into the state of one condemned, John 5:24; κρίσις τοῦ κόσμου τούτου, the condemnatory sentence passed upon this world, in that it is convicted of wickedness and its power broken, John 12:31; περί κρίσεως, of judgment passed (see κρίνω , 5 a. β. at the end), John 16:8, John 16:11.TGL κρίσις.8

    β. the last judgment, the damnation of the wicked: ἀνάστασις κρίσεως, followed by condemnation, John 5:29 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 2 β.).TGL κρίσις.9

    γ. both the preceding notions are combined in John 5:30; κρίσις πᾶσα, the whole business of judging (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 548 (510)), ibid. 22. Cf. Groos, Der Begriff der κρίσις bei Johannes (in the Studien und Kritiken for 1868, pp. 244-273).TGL κρίσις.10

    4. Like the Chaldean דִּינָא (Daniel 7:10, Daniel 7:26; cf. German Gericht) equivalent to the college of judges (a tribunal of seven men in the several cities of Palestine; as distinguished from the Sanhedrin, which had its seat at Jerusalem (cf. Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 23, ii.; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii. 287)): Matthew 5:21 (cf. Deuteronomy 16:18; 2 Chronicles 19:6; Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 14; b. j. 2, 20, 5).TGL κρίσις.11

    5. Like the Hebrew מִשְׁפָּט (cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, iii., p. 1464b (also the Sept. in Genesis 18:19, Genesis 18:25; Isaiah 5:7; Isaiah 56:1; Isaiah 59:8; Jeremiah 17:11; Jeremiah 1:1-19 Macc. 7:18; and other passages referred to in Gesenius, the passage cited)), right, justice: Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42; what shall have the force of right, ἀπαγγέλλειν τίνι, Matthew 12:18; a just cause, Matthew 12:20 (on which see ἐκβάλλω , 1 g.).TGL κρίσις.12


    (2921) Κρίσπος, Κρισπου, , Crispus, the ruler of a synagogue at Corinth, Acts 18:8; baptized by Paul, 1 Corinthians 1:14.TGL Κρίσπος.2


    (2922) κριτήριον, κριτηρίου, τό (from κριτηρ, equivalent to κριτής);TGL κριτήριον.2

    1. properly, the instrument or means of trying or judging anything; the rule by which one judges (Plato , Plutarch , others).TGL κριτήριον.3

    2. the place where judgment is given; the tribunal of a judge; a bench of judges: plural, 1 Corinthians 6:2; James 2:6 (the Sept. ; Plato , Polybius , Plutarch , others).TGL κριτήριον.4

    3. in an exceptional usage, the matter judged, thing to be decided, suit, case: plural 1 Corinthians 6:4 (this sense is denied by many; cf. e. g. Meyer on 1 Corinthians 6:2).TGL κριτήριον.5


    (2923) κριτής, κριτοῦ, (κρίνω) (from Aeschylus and Herodotus down), the Sept. chiefly for שֹׁפֵט; a judge;TGL κριτής.2

    1. universally, one who passes, or arrogates to himself, judgment on anything: with the genitive of the object, James 4:11; with the genitive of quality (see διαλογισμός , 1), James 2:4; in a forensic sense, of the one who tries and decides a case (cf. δικαστής , at the end): Matthew 5:25; Luke 12:14 L T Tr WH , 58; (xviii. 2); with the genitive of quality (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 10; Winer 's Grammar, § 34, 3b.), τῆς ἀδικίας, Luke 18:6; with the genitive of the object (a thing), an arbiter, Acts 18:15; of a Roman procurator administering justice, Acts 24:10; of God passing judgment on the character and deeds of men, and rewarding accordingly, Hebrews 12:23; James 4:12; also of Christ returning to sit in judgment, Acts 10:42; 2 Timothy 4:8; James 5:9; in a peculiar sense, of a person whose conduct is made the standard for judging another and convicting him of wrong: with the genitive of the object (a person), Matthew 12:27; Luke 11:19.TGL κριτής.3

    2. like the Hebrew שֹׁפֵט, of the leaders or rulers of the Israelites: Acts 13:20 (Judges 2:16, Judges 2:18; Ruth 1:1; Sir. 10:1f, 24, etc.).TGL κριτής.4


    (2924) κριτικός, κριτικη, κριτικον (κρίνω), relating to judging, fit for judging, skilled in judging (Plato , Plutarch , Lucian , others): with the genitive of the object, ἐνθυμήσεων καί ἐννοιῶν καρδίας, tracing out and passing judgment on the thoughts of the mind, Hebrews 4:12.TGL κριτικός.2


    (2925) κρούω; 1 aorist participle κρουσας; to knock: τήν θύραν, to knock at the door, Luke 13:25; Acts 12:13 (Aristophanes eccles. 317, 990; Xenophon , symp. 1, 11; Plato , Prot., p. 310 a.; 314 d.; symp. 212 c.; but κόπτειν τήν θύραν is better, according to Phryn. with whom Lobeck agrees, p. 177 (cf. Schmidt (chapter 113, 9), who makes κόπτειν to knock with a heavy blow, κρούειν to knock with the knuckles)); without τήν θύραν (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 593 (552)), Matthew 7:7; Luke 11:9, Luke 11:10; Luke 12:36; Acts 12:16; Revelation 3:20 (on which see θύρα , c. .).TGL κρούω.2


    (2926) κρύπτη (so Relz G L T Tr K C) (but some prefer to write it κρύπτη (so WH , Meyer, Bleek, etc., Chandler § 183; cf. Tdf. on Luke as below)), κρυπτης, , a crypt, covered way, vault, cellar: εἰς κρύπτην, Luke 11:33 (Athen. 5 (4), 205 a. equivalent to κρυπτός περίπατος, p. 206; (Josephus , b. j. 5, 7, 4 at the end; Strabo 17, 1, 37); Sueton. Calig. 58; Juvenal 5, 106; Vitruv. 6, 8 (5); others). Cf. Meyer at the passage cited; Winer 's Grammar, 238 (223).TGL κρύπτη.2


    (2927) κρυπτός, κρύπτη, κρυπτόν (κρύπτω) (from Homer down), hidden, concealed, secret: Matthew 10:26; Mark 4:22; Luke 8:17; Luke 12:2 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 441 (410)); κρυπτός τῆς καρδίας ἄνθρωπος, the inner part of man, the soul, 1 Peter 3:4; neuter, ἐν τῷ κρύπτω, in secret, Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6, Matthew 6:18 Rec. ; ἐν κρύπτω, privately, in secret, John 7:4, John 7:10; John 18:20; ἐν κρύπτω Ἰουδαῖος, he who is a Jew inwardly, in soul and not in circumcision alone, Romans 2:29; τά κρυπτά τοῦ σκότους (the hidden things of darkness i. e.) things covered by darkness, 1 Corinthians 4:5; τά κρυπτά τῶν ἀνθρώπων, the things which men conceal, Romans 2:16; τά κρυπτά τῆς καρδίας, his secret thoughts, feelings, desires, 1 Corinthians 14:25; τά κρυπτά τῆς αἰσχύνης (see αἰσχύνη , 1), 2 Corinthians 4:2; εἰς κρυπτόν into a secret place, Luke 11:33 in some editions of Rec. , but see κρύπτη .TGL κρυπτός.2


    (2928) κρύπτω: 1 aorist ἔκρυψα; passive, perfect 3 person singular κέκρυπται, participle κεκρυμμένος; 2 aorist ἐκρύβην (so also in the Sept. , for the earlier ἐκρυφην, cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 377; Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 212; (Veitch , under the word)); (cf. καλύπτω ; from Homer down); the Sept. for הֶחְבִּיא, הִסְתִּיר, צָפַן, טָמַן, כִּחֵד, כִּסָּה; to hide, conceal;TGL κρύπτω.2

    a. properly: τί, Matthew 13:44 and L T Tr WH in Matthew 25:18; passive, Hebrews 11:23; Revelation 2:17; κρυβῆναι equivalent to to be hid, escape notice, Matthew 5:14; 1 Timothy 5:25; ἐκρύβη (quietly withdrew (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 38, 2 a.)) ἐκρύβη καί ἐξῆλθεν, i. e. departed secretly, John 8:59 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 469 (437)); κρύπτω τί ἐν with the dative of place, Matthew 25:25; passive Matthew 13:44; κέκρυπται... ἐν τῷ Θεῷ, is kept laid up with God in heaven, Colossians 3:3; τί εἰς τί, Luke 13:21 (R G L ἐνέκρυψεν); ἑαυτόν εἰς with the accusative of place, Revelation 6:15; τινα ἀπό προσώπου τίνος to cover (and remove (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 6 b.; 66, 2 d.)) from the view of anyone, i. e. to take away, rescue, from the sight, Revelation 6:16; ἐκρύβη ἀπ' αὐτῶν, withdrew from them, John 12:36 (in Greek authors generally κρύπτειν τινα τί; cf. ἀποκρύπτω , b.).TGL κρύπτω.3

    b. metaphorically, to conceal (that it may not become known): κεκρυμμένος, clandestine, John 19:38; τί ἀπό τίνος (the genitive of person), Matthew 11:25 L T Tr WH ; (Luke 18:34); κεκρυμμένα things hidden i. e. unknown, used of God's saving counsels, Matthew 13:35; ἀπ' ὀφθαλμῶν τίνος, Luke 19:42 (cf. Buttmann , § 146, 1 at the end Compare: ἀποκρύπτω, ἐνκρύπτω, περικρύπτω.)TGL κρύπτω.4


    (2929) κρυσταλλίζω; (κρύσταλλος, which see); to be of crystalline brightness and transparency; to shine like crystal: Revelation 21:11. (Not found elsewhere.)TGL κρυσταλλίζω.2


    (2930) κρύσταλλος, κρυστάλλου, (from κρύος ice; hence properly, anything congealed (cf. Latincrusta ) and transparent) (from Homer down), crystal: a kind of precious stone, Revelation 4:6; Revelation 22:1; (cf. B. D. under the word . On its gender cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word II.)TGL κρύσταλλος.2


    (2931) κρυφῇ (L WH κρυφῇ; cf. εἰκῇ , at the beginning), adverb, (κρύπτω), secretly, in secret: Ephesians 5:12. (Pindar , Sophocles , Xenophon ; the Sept. .)TGL κρυφῇ.2


    (2932) κτάομαι, κτῶμαι; future κτήσομαι (Luke 21:19 L Tr WH ); 1 aorist ἐκτησάμην; (from Homer down); the Sept. for קָנָה; to acquire, get or procure a thing for oneself (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 260 (244)); (perfect κέκτημαι, to possess (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 274 (257) note); not found in the N. T.): τί, Matthew 10:9; Acts 8:20; ὅσα κτῶμαι, all my income, Luke 18:12; with the genitive of price added (Winer 's Grammar, 206 (194)), πολλοῦ, Acts 22:28; with ἐκ and the genitive of price (see ἐκ , II. 4), Acts 1:18; τό ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος ἐν ἁγιασμῷ καί τιμή, to procure for himself his own vessel (i. e. for the satisfaction of the sexual passion; see σκεῦος , 1) in sanctification and honor, i. e. to marry a wife (opposed to the use of a harlot; the words ἐν ἁγιασμῷ καί τιμή are added to express completely the idea of marrying in contrast with the baseness of procuring a harlot as his 'vessel'; cf. κτᾶσθαι γυναῖκα, of marrying a wife, Ruth 4:10; Sir. 36:29 (Sir. 33:26); Xenophon , symp. 2, 10), 1 Thessalonians 4:4; τάς ψυχάς ὑμῶν, the true life of your souls, your true lives, i. e. eternal life (cf. the opposite ζημιουσθαι τήν ψυχήν αὐτοῦ under ζημιόω), Luke 21:19; cf. Meyer at the passage and Winer 's Grammar, p. 274 (257).TGL κτάομαι.2


    (2933) κτῆμα, κτηματος, τό (from κτάομαι, as χρῆμα from χράομαι), a possession: as in Greek writers, of property, lands, estates, etc., Matthew 19:22; Mark 10:22; Acts 2:45; Acts 5:1.TGL κτῆμα.2


    (2934) κτῆνος, κτήνους, τό (from κτάομαι; hence, properly, a possession, property, especially in cattle); a beast, especially a beast of burden: Luke 10:34; plural, Acts 23:24; Revelation 18:13; it seems to be used for quadrupeds as opposed to fishes and birds in 1 Corinthians 15:39; so for בְּהֵמָה, Genesis 1:25; Genesis 2:20. (Cf. Homer hymn. 30, 10; of swine in Polybius 12, 4, 14.)TGL κτῆνος.2


    (2935) κτήτωρ, κτητορος, (κτάομαι), a possessor: Acts 4:34. (Diodorus excpt., p. 599, 17; Clement of Alexandria ; Byzantine writings.)TGL κτήτωρ.2


    (2936) κτίζω: 1 aorist ἔκτισα; perfect passive ἐκτισμαι; 1 aorist passive ἐκτίσθην; the Sept. chiefly for בָּרָא; properly, to make habitable, to people, a place, region, island (Homer , Herodotus , Thucydides , Diodorus , others); hence to found, a city, colony, state, etc. (Pindar and following; 1 Esdr. 4:53). In the Bible, to create: of God creating the world, man, etc., Mark 13:19; 1 Corinthians 11:9; Colossians 1:16 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 272 (255)); Colossians 3:10; Ephesians 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:3; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 10:6 (Deuteronomy 4:32; Ecclesiastes 12:1; often in O. T. Apocrypha, as Judith 13:18; Wis. 2:23 Wis. 11:18 (Wisdom 11:17); 3Macc. 2:9; (Josephus , Antiquities 1, 1, 1; Philo de decal. § 20)); absolutely, κτίσας, the creator, Romans 1:25; (Matthew 19:4 Tr WH ); equivalent to to form, shape, i. e. (for substance) completely to change, to transform (of the moral or new creation of the soul, as it is called), κτισθέντες ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἐπί ἔργοις ἀγαθοῖς, in intimate fellowship with Christ constituted to do good works (see ἐπί , B. 2 a. ζ.), Ephesians 2:10; τούς δύο εἰς ἕνα καινόν ἐνθρωπον, ibid. 15; τόν κτισθέντα κατά Θεόν, formed after God's likeness (see κατά , II. 3 c. δ.), Ephesians 4:24 (καρδίαν καθαράν κτίσον ἐν ἐμοί, Psalms 50:12 (Psalms 51:12)).TGL κτίζω.2


    (2937) κτίσις, κτίσεως, (κτίζω), in Greek writings the act of founding, establishing, building, etc.; in the N. T. (Vulg. everywhere creatura (yet Hebrews 9:11 creatio ))TGL κτίσις.2

    1. the act of creating, creation: τοῦ κόσμου, Romans 1:20.TGL κτίσις.3

    2. equivalent to κτίσμα, creation i. e. thing created (cf. Winer s Grammar, 32); usedTGL κτίσις.4

    a. of individual things and beings, a creature, a creation: Romans 1:25; Hebrews 4:13; any created thing, Romans 8:39; after a rabbinical usage (by which a man converted from idolatry to Judaism was called חֲדָשָׁה בִּרִיָה (cf. Schöttgen , Horae Hebr 1:328, 704f)), καινή κτίσις is used of a man regenerated through Christ, Galatians 6:15; 2 Corinthians 5:17.TGL κτίσις.5

    b. collectively, the sum or aggregate of created things: Revelation 3:14 (on which see ἀρχή , 3; ( κτίσις τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Teaching of the Twelve etc. c. 16 [ET])); ὅλῃ κτίσις, Wis. 19:6; πᾶσα κτίσις, Judith 16:14; and without the article (cf. Grimm on 3 Macc. (3 Macc 2:2), p. 235; (Lightfoot on Col. as below)), πᾶσα κτίσις, Colossians 1:15; Colossians 3:1-25Macc. 2:2; Judith 9:12; σωτήρ πάσης κτίσεως, Acta Thomae, p. 19 edition Thilo (sec. 10, p. 198, Tdf. edition) (see πᾶς , I. 1 c.); ἀπ' ἀρχῆς κτίσεως, Mark 10:6; Mark 13:19; 2 Peter 3:4; οὐ ταύτης τῆς κτίσεως, not of this order of created things, Hebrews 9:11; accusative to the demands of the context, of some particular kind or class of created things or beings: thus of the human race, πάσῃ τῇ κτίσει, Mark 16:15; ἐν πάσῃ (Rec. adds τῇ) κτίσει τῇ ὑπό τόν οὐρανοῦ, among men of every race, Colossians 1:23; the aggregate of irrational creatures, both animate and inanimate (what we call nature), Romans 8:19-2. (Wis. 5:17 (Wisdom 5:18); Wisdom 16:24); πᾶσα κτίσις, Romans 8:22; where cf. Reiche, Philippi, Meyer, Rükert, others (Arnold in Bapt. Quart. for Apr. 1867, pp. 143-153).TGL κτίσις.6

    3. an institution, ordinance: 1 Peter 2:13; cf. Huther at the passage ((Pindar , others.))TGL κτίσις.7


    (2938) κτίσμα, κτισματος, τό (κτίζω); thing founded; created thing; (Vulg. creatura ) (A. V. creature): 1 Timothy 4:4; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 8:9 (Wis. 9:2 Wis. 13:5); contextually and metaphorically, κτίσμα Θεοῦ, transformed by divine power to a moral newness of soul, spoken of true Christians as created anew by regeneration (others take it here unrestrictedly), James 1:18 (see ἀπαρχή , metaphorically, a.; also κτίζω under the end, κτίσις, 2 a.); τά ἐν ἀρχή κτισματα Θεοῦ, of the Israelites, Sir. 36:20 (15). ((Strabo , Dionysius Halicarnassus ))TGL κτίσμα.2


    (2939) κτίστης (on the accent, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 6, 1 h. (cf. 94 (89); especially Chandler §§ 35, 36)), κτιστου, (κτίζω), a founder; a creator (Aristotle , Plutarch , others): of God, 1 Peter 4:19 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 122 (116)); (Judith 9:12; Sir. 24:8; 2 Macc. 1:24, etc.).TGL κτίστης.2


    (2940) κυβείᾳ (κυβία T WH ; see Iota), κυβειας, (from κυβεύω, and this from κύβος a cube, a die), dice-playing (Xenophon , Plato , Aristotle , others); tropically, κυβείᾳ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, the deception (A. V. sleight) of men, Ephesians 4:14, because dice-players sometimes cheated and defrauded their fellow-players.TGL κυβεία.2


    (2941) κυβέρνησις, κυβερνήσεως, (κυβερνάω (Latingubernare , to govern)), a governing, government: 1 Corinthians 12:28 (others would take it tropically here, and render it wise counsels (R. V. marginal reading); so Hesychius : κυβερνήσεις. προνοητικαι ἐπίστημαι καί φρονησεις; cf. Schleusner, Thesaurus in the Sept. , under the word, and to the references below add Proverbs 11:14; Job 37:12 Symm. ); (Proverbs 1:5; Proverbs 24:6; Pindar , Plato , Plutarch , others).TGL κυβέρνησις.2


    (2942) κυβερνήτης, κυβερνητου, (κυβερνάω (`to steer'; see the preceding word)); from Homer down; steersman, helmsman, sailing-master; (A. V. master, ship-master): Acts 27:11; Revelation 18:17. (Ezekiel 27:8, Ezekiel 27:27.)TGL κυβερνήτης.2


    (2943) κυκλόθεν (κύκλος (see κύκλῳ )), adverb round about, from all sides, all round: Revelation 4:8; κυκλόθεν τίνος, Revelation 4:3, and Rec. in Revelation 5:11. (Lysias , p. 110, 40 (olea sacr. 28); Qu. Smyrn. 5, 16; Nonnus , Dionysius 36, 325; the Sept. often for מִסָּבִיב, סָבִיב סָבִיב, and simply סָבִיב; many examples from the Apocrypha are given in Wahl, Claris Apocryphorum, etc., under the word.)TGL κυκλόθεν.2


    (2944) κυκλόω, κύκλῳ: 1 aorist ἐκύκλωσα; passive, present participle κυκλουμενος; 1 aorist participle κυκλωθεις; (κύκλος); the Sept. chiefly for סָבַב;TGL κυκλόω.2

    1. to go round, lead round (Pindar , Euripides , Polybius , others).TGL κυκλόω.3

    2. to surround, encircle, encompass: of persons standing round, τινα, John 10:24 (Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ἐκύκλευσαν (which see)); Acts 14:20; of besiegers (often so in secular authors and in the Sept. ), Luke 21:20; Hebrews 11:30, and R G Tr in Revelation 20:9. (Compare: περικυκλόω.)TGL κυκλόω.4


    (2945) κύκλῳ (dative of the substantive κύκλος, a ring, circle (cf. English cycle)); from Homer down; the Sept. times without number for סָבִיב, also for מִסָּבִיב and סָבִיב סָבִיב; in a circle, around, round about, on air sides: Mark 3:34; Mark 6:6; οἱ κυκλωαγροι, the circumjacent country (see ἀγρός , c.), Mark 6:36 (here WH (rejected) marginal reading gives ἔγγιστα); Luke 9:12; ἀπό Ἰερουσαλήμ καί κύκλῳ, and in the region around, Romans 15:19; τίνος, around anything (Xenophon , Cyril 4, 5, 5; Polybius 4, 21, 9, others; Genesis 35:5; Exodus 7:24, etc.): Revelation 4:6; Revelation 5:11 (here R κυκλόθεν); Revelation 7:11.TGL κύκλῳ.2


    (2946) κύλισμα, κυλισματος, τό (κυλίω, which see), thing rolled: with epexegetical genitive βορβόρου, rolled (wallowed) mud or mire, 2 Peter 2:22 (R G L Tr marginal reading). The great majority take the word to mean 'wallowing-place', as if it were the same as κυλίστρα (Vulg. in volutabro luti ). But just as τό ἐξέραμα signifies the vomit, thing vomited, and not the place of vomiting; so τό κύλισμα denotes nothing else than the thing rolled or wallowed. But see (the following word, and) βόρβορος.TGL κυλισμός.2


    (2947) κυλίω: (for κυλινδω more common in earlier writings), to roll; passive imperfect 3 person singular ἐκυλίετο; to be rolled, to wallow: Mark 9:20. ((Aristotle , h. a. 5, 19, 18, etc.; Dionysius Halicarnassus ; the Sept. ); Polybius 26, 10, 16; Aelian n. a. 7, 33; Epictetus diss. 4, 11, 29.) (Compare: ἀνακυλίω, αποκυλίω, προσκυλίω.)TGL κυλίω.2


    (2948) κυλλός, κυλλή, κυλλόν (akin to κύκλος, κυλίω, Latincircus, curvus , etc.; Curtius , § 81);TGL κυλλός.2

    1. crooked; of the members of the body (Hippocrates , Aristophanes av. 1379): as distinguished from χωλός, it seems to be injured or disabled in the hands (but doubted by many), Matthew 15:30, Matthew 15:31 (but here Tr marginal reading brackets κυλλούς and WH read it in marginal reading only).TGL κυλλός.3

    2. maimed, mutilated (οὕς, Hippocrates , p. 805 (iii., p. 186, Kühn edition)): Matthew 18:8; Mark 9:43.TGL κυλλός.4


    (2949) κῦμα, κυματος, τό (from κυέῶ to swell; Curtius , § 79; from Homer down), a wave (cf. English swell), especially of the sea or of a lake: Matthew 8:24; Matthew 14:24; Mark 4:37; Acts 27:41 (R G Tr text brackets); κύματα ἄγρια, properly, Wis. 14:1; with θαλάσσης added, of impulsive and restless men, tossed to and fro by their raging passions, Jude 1:13. (Synonym: cf. κλύδων .)TGL κῦμα.2


    (2950) κύμβαλον, κυμβαλου, τό (from κυμβος, , a hollow (cf. cup, cupola, etc.; Vanicek , p. 164)), a cymbal, i. e. a hollow basin of brass, producing (when two are struck together) a musical sound (see B. D. , under the word ; Stainer, Music of the Bible, chapter ix.): 1 Corinthians 13:1. (1 Chronicles 13:8; 1 Chronicles 15:16, 1 Chronicles 15:19, 1 Chronicles 15:28; Psalms 150:5. Pindar , Xenophon , Diodorus , Josephus , others.)TGL κύμβαλον.2


    (2951) κύμινον, κυμινου, τό, cumin (or cummin), German Kümmel, (for כַּמֹּן, Isaiah 28:25, Isaiah 28:27): Matthew 23:23. (Theophrastus , Dioscorides , Plutarch , others) (Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 443.)TGL κύμινον.2


    (2952) κυνάριον, κυναριου, τό (diminutive of κύων, equivalent to κυνίδιον, which Phryn. prefers; see Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 180; cf. γυναικάριον ),a little dog: Matthew 15:26; Mark 7:27 (Xenophon , Plato , Theophrastus , Plutarch , others.)TGL κυνάριον.2


    (2953) Κύπριος, Κυπριου, , a Cyprian or Cypriote, i. e. a native or an inhabitant of Cyprus: Acts 4:36; Acts 11:20; Acts 21:16 (2 Macc. 4:29). ((Herodotus , others.))TGL Κύπριος.2


    (2954) Κύπρος, Κύπρου, , Cyprus, a very fertile and delightful island of the Mediterranean, lying between Cilicia and Syria: Acts 11:19; Acts 13:4; Acts 15:39; Acts 21:3; Acts 27:4 (1 Macc. 15:23; 2 Macc. 10:13). (BB. DD. , under the word; Lewin, St. Paul, i. 120ff.)TGL Κύπρος.2


    (2955) κύπτω: 1 aorist participle κύψας; (from κυβη the head (cf. Vanicek , p. 164; especially Curtius , index under the word)); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for קָדַד; to bow the head, bend forward, stoop down: Mark 1:7; with κάτω added (Aristophanes vesp. 279), John 8:6, John 8:8. (Compare: ἀνακύπτω, παρακύπτω, συγκύπτω.)TGL κύπτω.2


    (2956) Κυρηναῖος, Κυρηναίου, (Κυρήνη, which see), a Cyrenaean (A. V. (R. V. Acts 6:9) Cyrenian), a native of Cyrene: Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26; Acts 6:9; Acts 11:20; Acts 13:1. ((Herodotus , others.))TGL Κυρηναῖος.2


    (2957) Κυρήνη, Κυρηνης, , Cyrene, a large and very flourishing city of Libya Cyrenaica or Pentapolitana, about 11 Roman miles from the sea. Among its inhabitants were great numbers of Jews, whom Ptolemy I. had brought thither, and invested with the rights of citizens: Acts 2:10. (BB. DD. , under the word).TGL Κυρήνη.2


    (2958) Κυρήνιος (Lachmann Κυρινος (Κυρεῖνος Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading (see εἰ , ))), Κυρηνίου, , Quirin(-i)us (in full, Publius Sulpicius Quirinus (correctly Quirinius; see Woolsey in Bib. Sacr. for 1878, pp. 499-513)), a Roman consul A. U. C. 742; afterward (not before the year 759) governor of Syria (where perhaps he may previously have been in command, 751-752). While filling that office after Archelaus had been banished and Judaea had been reduced to a province of Syria, he made the enrolment mentioned in Acts 5:37 (cf. Josephus , Antiquities 18, 1, 1). Therefore Luke in his Gospel 2:2 has made a mistake (yet see added references below) in defining the time of this enrolment. For in the last years of Herod the Great, not Quirinius but Sentius Saturninus was governor of Syria. His successor, A. U. C. 750, was Quintilius Varus; and Quirinius (who died in the year 774) succeeded Varus. Cf. Winer s RWB, see under the words, Quirinins and Schatzung; Strauss, Die Halben u. die Ganzen (Berl. 1865), p. 70ff; Hilgenfeld in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theologie for 1865, p. 480ff; Keim , i., 399f (English translation, ii. 115); Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgeschichte, p. 161f; Weizsäicker in Schenkel see p. 23ff; (Keil, Comm. üb. Mark. u. Luk., p. 213ff; McClellan, New Testament etc., i., p. 392ff; and Woolsey in B. D. American edition, under the word , and at length in Bib. Sacr. for Apr. 1870, p. 291ff).TGL Κυρήνιος.2


    (2959) κυρία, κυρίας, , Cyria, a Christian woman to whom the Second Epistle of John is addressed: 2 John 1:1, 2 John 1:5 (G L T K C (and WH marginal reading in 2 John 1:1)). This proper name is not uncommon in other writers also; cf. Lücke, Comm. üb. die Brr. des John 3:1-36rd edition, p. 444. (But R Tr others κυρία, regarding the word as an appellative, lady; (αἱ γυναῖκες εὐθύς ἀπό τεσσαρεσκαίδεκα ἐτῶν ὑπό τῶν ἀνδρῶν κυριαι καλοῦνται, Epictetus enchir. 40). Cf. Westcott on 2 John as above).TGL κυρία.2


    (2960) κυριακός, κυριακῇ, κυριακόν, a Biblical and ecclesiastical word (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 34, 3 and Sophocles Lexicon, under the word), of or belonging to the Lord;TGL κυριακός.2

    1. equivalent to the genitive of the author τοῦ κυρίου, thus κυριακόν ἐιπνον, the supper instituted by the Lord, 1 Corinthians 11:20; λόγια κυριακα, the Lord's sayings, Papias quoted in Eus. h. e. 3, 39, 1.TGL κυριακός.3

    2. relating to the Lord, κυριακῇ ἡμέρα, the day devoted to the Lord, sacred to the memory of Christ's resurrection, Revelation 1:10 (cf. 'κυριακῇ κυρίου, Teaching 14, 1 [ET] (where see Harnack Harris, p. 105 sq.); cf. B. D. , under the word; Lightfoot Ignatius ad Magn. [ET], p. 129; Müller on the Epistle of Barnabas 15, 9 [ET]); γραφαί κυριακαι the writings concerning the Lord, i. e. the Gospels, Clement of Alexandria , others (Cf. Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word.)TGL κυριακός.4


    (2961) κυριεύω; future κυριεύσω; 1 aorist subjunctive 3 person singular κυριεύσῃ; (κύριος); to be lord of, to rule over, have dominion over: with the genitive of the object (cf. Buttmann , 169 (147)), Luke 22:25; Romans 14:9; 2 Corinthians 1:24; absolutely, οἱ κυριεύοντες, supreme rulers, kings, 1 Timothy 6:15; of things and forces equivalent to to exercise influence upon, to have power over: with the genitive of the object, θάνατος, Romans 6:9; ἁμαρτία, 14; νόμος, Romans 7:1. (Xenophon , Aristotle , Polybius , and following, the Sept. for מָשַׁל (etc.).) (Compare: κατακυριεύω.)TGL κυριεύω.2


    (2962) κύριος, κυρίου, (properly, an adjective κύριος, κυρία, κύριον, also of two term.; properly equivalent to ἔχων κῦρος, having power or authority) (from Pindar down), he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has the power of deciding; master, lord; usedTGL κύριος.2

    a. universally, of the possessor and disposer of a thing, the owner (the Sept. for אָדון, בַּעַל): with the genitive of the thing, as τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος, Matthew 20:8; Matthew 21:40; Mark 12:9; Luke 20:15; τοῦ θερισμοῦ, Matthew 9:38; Luke 10:2; τῆς οἰκίας, the master, Mark 13:35 (Judges 19:12); τοῦ πωλου, Luke 19:33; τοῦ σαββάτου, possessed of the power to determine what is suitable to the sabbath, and of releasing himself and others from its obligations, Matthew 12:8; Mark 2:28; Luke 6:5. with the genitive of a person, one who has control of the person, the master (A. V. lord); in the household: δούλου, παιδίσκης, οἰκονόμου, Matthew 10:24; Luke 12:46; Luke 14:21; Luke 16:3, Luke 16:5; Acts 16:16, Acts 16:19, etc.; absolutely, opposed to οἱ δοῦλοι, Ephesians 6:5, Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 4:1, etc.; in the state, the sovereign, prince, chief: the Roman emperor ((on this use of κύριος see at length Woolsey in Bib. Sacr. for July 1861, pp. 595-608; Bp. Lghtft. on Ign., mart. Polyc. 8, p. 959)), Acts 25:26; once angels are called κύριοι, as those to whom, in the administration of the universe, departments are intrusted by God (see ἄγγελος , 2): 1 Corinthians 8:5.TGL κύριος.3

    b. κύριος is a title of honor, expressive of respect and reverence, with which servants salute their master, Matthew 13:27; Matthew 25:20, Matthew 25:22; Luke 13:8; Luke 14:22, etc.; the disciples salute Jesus their teacher and master, Matthew 8:25; Matthew 16:22; Luke 9:54; Luke 10:17, Luke 10:40; Luke 11:1; Luke 22:33, Luke 22:38; John 11:12; John 13:6, John 13:9, John 13:13; John 21:15-17, John 21:20, etc., cf. 20:18; Luke 24:34; his followers salute Jesus as the Messiah, whose authority they acknowledge (by its repetition showing their earnestness (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 65, 5 a.)), κύριε, κύριε, Matthew 7:21; and R G in Luke 13:25; employed, too, by a son in addressing his father, Matthew 21:30; by citizens toward magistrates, Matthew 27:63; by anyone who wishes to honor a man of distinction, Matthew 8:2, Matthew 8:6, Matthew 8:8; Matthew 15:27; Mark 7:28; Luke 5:12; Luke 13:25; John 4:11, John 4:15, John 4:19; John 5:7; John 12:21; John 20:15; Acts 9:5; Acts 16:30; Acts 22:8.TGL κύριος.4

    c. this title is givenTGL κύριος.5

    α. to God, the ruler of the universe (so the Sept. for אֲדֹנָי, אֱלוהַּ, אֱלֹהִים, יְהוָה, and יָהּ; (the term κύριος is used of the gods from Pindar and Sophocles down, but "the address κύριε, used in prayer to God, though frequent in Epictetus does not occur (so far as I am aware) in any heathen writing before the apostolic times; sometimes we find κύριε Θεός, and once (2, 7, 12) he writes κύριε ἐλέησόν (Lightfoot on Philippians, p. 314 note{3}))) — both with the article, κύριος: Matthew 1:22 (R G ); Matthew 5:33; Mark 5:19; Luke 1:6, Luke 1:9, Luke 1:28, Luke 1:46; Acts 7:33; Acts 8:24; Acts 11:21; 2 Timothy 1:16, 2 Timothy 1:18 (but see ἔλεος , 3); Hebrews 8:2; James 4:15; James 5:15; Jude 1:5 (R G ), etc.; and without the article (cf. Winer s Grammar, 124 (118); Buttmann , 88f (77f)): Matthew 21:9; Matthew 27:10; Mark 13:20; Luke 1:17, Luke 1:38, Luke 1:58, Luke 1:66; Luke 2:9, Luke 2:23, Luke 2:26, Luke 2:39; Acts 7:49; Hebrews 7:21; Hebrews 12:6; 1 Peter 1:25; 2 Peter 2:9; Jude (5 T Tr text WH text), 9; κύριος τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καί τῆς γῆς, Matthew 11:25; Luke 10:21; Acts 17:24; κύριος τῶν κυριευόντων, 1 Timothy 6:15; κύριος Θεός, see Θεός , 3, p. 288a (and below); κύριος Θεός παντοκράτωρ, Revelation 4:8; κύριος σαβαώθ, Romans 9:29; ἄγγελος and ἄγγελος κυρίου, Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:19; Matthew 28:2; Luke 1:11; Luke 2:9; Acts 5:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 12:7; πνευαμα κυρίου, Luke 4:18; Acts 8:39; with prepositions: ὑπό (R G add the article) κυρίου, Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; παρά κυρίου, Matthew 21:42 and Mark 12:11, from Psalm 117:23 (Psalms 118:23); παρά κυρίῳ, 2 Peter 3:8.TGL κύριος.6

    β. to the Messiah; and thatTGL κύριος.7

    αα. to the Messiah regarded universally: Luke 1:43; Luke 2:11; Matthew 21:3; Matthew 22:45; Mark 11:3; Mark 12:36; Luke 19:34; Luke 20:44.TGL κύριος.8

    ββ. to Jesus as the Messiah, since by his death he acquired a special ownership in mankind, and after his resurrection was exalted to a partnership in the divine administration (this force of the word when applied to Jesus appears especially in Acts 10:36; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 7:22; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Philippians 2:9-11): Ephesians 4:5; with the article κύριος, Mark 16:19; Acts 9:1; Romans 14:8; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 1 Corinthians 6:13; 1 Corinthians 7:10, 1 Corinthians 7:12, 1 Corinthians 7:34; 1 Corinthians 9:5, 1 Corinthians 9:14; 1 Corinthians 10:22; 1 Corinthians 11:26; (1 Corinthians 16:22 G L T Tr WH ); Philippians 4:5; (2 Timothy 4:22 T Tr WH ); Hebrews 2:3 (cf. Hebrews 2:7); James 5:7, etc. after his resurrection Jesus is addressed by the title κύριος μου καί Θεός μου, John 20:28. ἀπό τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Corinthians 11:23; 2 Corinthians 5:6; πρός τόν κύριον 2 Corinthians 5:8; κύριος Ἰησοῦς, Acts 1:21; Acts 4:33; Acts 16:31; Acts 20:35; 1 Corinthians 11:23; (1 Corinthians 16:23 T Tr WH ); 2 Corinthians 1:14; (2 Timothy 4:22 Lachmann); Revelation 22:20; κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, 1 Corinthians 16:22 (R ; 23 R G L ); 2 Corinthians 13:13 (14) (WH brackets Χριστός); Ephesians 1:2; 2 Timothy 4:22 (R G ), etc.; κύριος ἡμῶν, 1 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 1:8; Hebrews 7:14; 2 Peter 3:15; Revelation 11:15, etc.; with Ἰησοῦς added (L T Tr WH in 1 Thessalonians 3:11 and 1 Thessalonians 3:13); Hebrews 13:20; Revelation 22:21 (L T Tr (yet without ἡμῶν)); so with Χριστός, Romans 16:18 (G L T Tr WH ); and Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, 1 Thessalonians 1:3 (cf. Buttmann , 155 (136)); 1 Thessalonians 3:11 (R G ), 1 Thessalonians 3:13 (Rec. ); 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 2 Thessalonians 2:14, 2 Thessalonians 2:16; 2 Thessalonians 3:6 ((ἡμῶν)); 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Corinthians 1:3; Galatians 6:18 (WH brackets ἡμῶν); Ephesians 1:3; Ephesians 6:24; Romans 16:24 (R G ); 1 Timothy 6:3, 1 Timothy 6:14; Philemon 1:25 (T WH omit ἡμῶν); Philippians 4:23 (G L T Tr WH omit ἡμῶν), etc.; Ἰησοῦς Χριστός κύριος ἡμῶν, Romans 1:4; and Χριστός Ἰησης κύριος (ἡμῶν), Colossians 2:6; Ephesians 3:11; 1 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 1:2; κύριος καί σωτήρ, 2 Peter 3:2 (cf. Buttmann , 155 (136)); with Ἰησοῦς Χριστός added, 2 Peter 3:18; without the article, simply κύριος: 1 Corinthians 7:22, 1 Corinthians 7:25; 1 Corinthians 10:21; 1 Corinthians 16:10; 2 Corinthians 3:17; 2 Corinthians 12:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; James 5:11; 2 Peter 3:10; κύριος κυρίων, i. e. Supreme Lord (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 36, 2; (Buttmann , § 123, 12)): Revelation 19:16 (cf. in α. above; of God, Deuteronomy 10:17); with prepositions: ἀπό κυρίου, Colossians 3:24; κατά κύριον, 2 Corinthians 11:17; πρός κύριον, 2 Corinthians 3:16; σύν κυρίῳ, 1 Thessalonians 4:17; ὑπό κύριον, 2 Thessalonians 2:13; on the phrase ἐν κυρίῳ, frequent in Paul, and except in his writings found only in Revelation 14:13, see ἐν , I. 6 b., p. 211b. The appellation κύριος, applied to Christ, passed over in Luke and John even into historic narrative, where the words and works of Jesus prior to his resurrection are related: Luke 7:13; Luke 10:1; Luke 11:39; Luke 12:42; Luke 13:15; Luke 17:5; Luke 22:31 (R G L Tr brackets); John 4:1 (here T Tr marginal reading Ἰησοῦς); John 6:23; John 11:2. There is nothing strange in the appearance of the term in the narrative of occurrences after his resurrection: Luke 24:34; John 20:2, John 20:18, John 20:20, John 20:25; John 21:7, John 21:12.TGL κύριος.9

    d. There are some who hold that Paul (except in his quotations from the O. T. viz. Romans 4:8; Romans 9:28; Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 3:20; 1 Corinthians 10:26; 2 Corinthians 6:17; 2 Corinthians 10:17; 2 Timothy 2:19) uses the title κύριος everywhere not of God, but of Christ. But, to omit instances where the interpretation is doubtful, as 1 Corinthians 7:25; 2 Corinthians 8:21; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:16 ( κύριος τῆς εἰρήνης, cf. Θεός τῆς εἰρήνης, 1 Thessalonians 5:23; but most of the blessings of Christianity are derived alike from God and from Christ), it is better at least in the words ἑκάστῳ ὡς κύριος ἔδωκεν, 1 Corinthians 3:5, to understand God as referred to on account of what follows, especially on account of the words κατά τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ τήν δοθεῖσαν μοι in 1 Corinthians 3:10. On the other hand, κρινόμενοι ὑπό τοῦ κυρίου in 1 Corinthians 11:32 must certainly, I think, be taken of Christ, on account of 1 Corinthians 10:22, cf. 1 Corinthians 10:21. Cf. Gabler, Kleinere theol. Schriften, Bd. i., p. 186ff; Winer , De sensu vocum κύριος et κύριος in actis et epistolis apostolorum. Erlang. 1828; Wesselus Scheffer, diss. theol. exhibens disquisitionem de vocis κύριος absolute positae in N. T. usu. Lugd. 1846 (a monograph I have not seen); (Stuart in the Bib. Repos. for Oct. 1831, pp. 733-776; cf. Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 76; Cremer , Biblical-theol. Lex. under the word; Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis for June and December, 1881, p. 126ff, June and December, 1883, p. 101f On the use of a capital initial, see WH . Introductory § 414). The word does not occur in the (Epistle to Titus (critical editions), the) First Epistle of John (nor in the Second or the Third; for in 2 John 1:3 κυρίου is dropped by the critical editors. Synonym: see δεσπότης , at the end).TGL κύριος.10


    (2963) κυριότης, κυριότητος, ( κύριος), dominion, power, lordship; in the N. T. one who possesses dominion (see ἐξουσία , 4 c. β.; cf. German Herrschaft (or Milton's dominations); in Tacitus , ann. 13, 1 dominationes is equivalent to dominantes), so used of angels (κύριοι, 1 Corinthians 8:5; see κύριος , a. at the end): Ephesians 1:21; 2 Peter 2:10; Jude 1:8; plural Colossians 1:16. (Ecclesiastical (e. g. 'Teaching ' c. 4 [ET]) and Byzantine writings.)TGL κυριότης.2


    (2964) κυρόω, κύρω: 1 aorist infinitive κυρῶσαι; perfect passive participle κεκυρωμενος; (κῦρος the head, that which is supreme, power, influence, authority); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; to make valid; to confirm publicly or solemnly, to ratify: διαθήκην, passive Galatians 3:15; ἀγάπην εἰς τινα, to make a public decision that love be shown to a transgressor by granting him pardon, 2 Corinthians 2:8. (Compare: προκυρόω.)TGL κυρόω.2


    (2965) κύων, κυνός; in secular authors of the common gender, in the N. T. masculine; Hebrew כֶּלֶב; a dog; properly: Luke 16:21; 2 Peter 2:22; metaphorically (in various (but always reproachful) senses; often so even in Homer ) a man of impure mind, an impudent man (cf. Lightfoot on Phil. l. s.): Matthew 7:6; Philippians 3:2; Revelation 22:15, in which last passage others less probably understand sodomites (like כִּלָבִים in Deuteronomy 23:18 (19)) (cf. B. D. , under the word ).TGL κύων.2


    (2966) κῶλον, κωλου, τό; in Greek writings from Aeschylus down a member of the body, particularly the more external and prominent members, especially the feet; in the Sept. (Leviticus 26:30; Numbers 14:29, Numbers 14:32; 1 Samuel 17:46; Isaiah 66:24) for פֶּגֶר and פְּגָרִים, a dead body, carcase, inasmuch as the members of a corpse are loose and fall apart: so the plural in Hebrews 3:17 from Numbers 14:29, Numbers 14:32 (A. V. carcases).TGL κῶλον.2


    (2967) κωλύω; imperfect 1 person plural ἐκωλύομεν (Mark 9:38 T Tr text WH ); 1 aorist ἐκώλυσα; passive, present κωλύομαι; 1 aorist ἐκωλύθην; (from κόλος, lopped, clipped; properly, to cut off, cut short, hence) to hinder, prevent, forbid; (from Pindar down); the Sept. for כָּלָא, twice (viz. 1 Samuel 25:26; 2 Samuel 13:13) for מָנַע : τινα followed by an infinitive (Winer 's Grammar, § 65, 2 β.; cf. Buttmann , § 148,13), Matthew 19:14; Luke 23:2; Acts 16:6; Acts 24:23; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; Hebrews 7:23; τί κωλύει με βαπτισθῆναι; what doth binder me from being (to be) baptized? Acts 8:36; the infinitive is omitted, as being evident from what has gone before, Mark 9:38; Mark 10:14; Luke 9:49; Luke 11:52; Luke 18:16; Acts 11:17; Romans 1:13; 3 John 1:10; αὐτόν is lacking, because it has preceded, Luke 9:50; the accusative is lacking, because easily supplied from the context, 1 Timothy 4:3; as often in Greek writings, construction with τινα τίνος, to keep one from a thing, Acts 27:43; with the accusative of the thing, τήν παραφρονίαν, to restrain, check, 2 Peter 2:16; τό λαλεῖν γλωσαις, 1 Corinthians 14:39; τί, followed by τοῦ μή, can anyone hinder the water (which offers itself), that these should not be baptized? Acts 10:47; in imitation of the Hebrew כָּלָא followed by מִן of the person and the § of the thing, to withhold a thing from anyone, i. e. to deny or refuse one a thing: Luke 6:29 (Buttmann , § 132, 5) (τό μνημεῖον ἀπό σου, Genesis 23:6). (Compare: διακωλύω.)TGL κωλύω.2


    (2968) κώμη, κόμης, (akin to κεῖμαι, κοιμάω, properly, the common sleeping-place to which laborers in the fields return; Curtius , § 45 (related is English home)) (from Hesiod , Herodotus down), a village: Matthew 9:35; Matthew 10:11; Mark 11:2; Luke 5:17; Luke 9:52 (here Tdf. πόλιν), and often in the Synoptative Gospels; John 11:1, John 11:30; with the name of the city near which the villages lie and to whose municipality they belong: Καισαρείας, Mark 8:27 (often so in the Sept. for בְּנות with the name of a city; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 220{a} (B. D. , under the word , 7); also for חַצְרֵי and חַצְרות with the name of a city); by metonymy, the inhabitants of villages, Acts 8:25; used also of a small town, as Bethsaida, Mark 8:23, Mark 8:26, cf. Mark 8:22; John 1:45; of Bethlehem, John 7:42; for עִיר, Joshua 10:39; Joshua 15:9 (Complutensian LXX); Isaiah 42:11. (B. D. , under the word Villages .)TGL κώμη.2


    (2969) κωμόπολις, κωμοπολεως, , a village approximating in size and number of inhabitants to a city, a village-city, a town (German Marktflecken): Mark 1:38. (Strabo ; (Joshua 18:28 Aq. Theod. (Field)); often in the Byzantine writings of the middle ages.)TGL κωμόπολις.2


    (2970) κῶμος, κωμου, (from κεῖμαι; accordingly equivalent to German Gelag; cf. Curtius , § 45); from (Homer h. Merc., Theognis ) Herodotus down; a revel, carousal, i. e. in the Greek writings properly, a nocturnal and riotous procession of half-drunken and frolicsome fellows who after supper parade through the streets with torches and music in honor of Bacchus or some other deity, and sing and play before the houses of their male and female friends; hence, used generally, of feasts and drinking-parties that are protracted till late at night and indulge in revelry; plural (revellings): Romans 13:13; Galatians 5:21; 1 Peter 4:3. (Wis. 14:23; 2 Macc. 6:4.) (Trench , § lxi.)TGL κῶμος.2


    (2971) κώνωψ, κωνωπος, , a gnat ((Aeschylus ), Herodotus , Hippocrates , others); of the wine-gnat or midge that is bred in (fermenting and) evaporating wine (Aristotle , h. an. 5, 19 (p. 552{b}, 5; cf. Bochart, Hierozoicon, iii. 444; Buxtorf, Lex. talm. etc. 921 (474{a} Fischer edition))): Matthew 23:24.TGL κώνωψ.2


    (2972) Κώς, genitive Κῶ, , Cos (A. V. Coos) (now Stanco or Stanchio (which has arisen from a slurred pronunciation of ἐς ταν Κῶ (modern Greek) like Stambul from ἐς ταν πόλιν. (Hackett))), a small island of the Aegean Sea, over against the cities of Cnidus and Halicarnassus, celebrated for its fertility and especially for its abundance of wine and grain: Acts 21:1, where for the Rec. Κῶν Griesbach (followed by subsequent editors) has restored Κῶ, as in 1 Macc. 15:23; see Matthiae , § 70 note 3; Winer s Grammar, § 8, 2 a.; (Buttmann , 21 (19); WH 's Appendix, p. 157). Cf. Kuester, De Co insula, Halicarnassus 1833; ("but the best description is in Ross, Reisen nach Kos as above with (Halle, 1852)" (Howson); cf. Lewin, St. Paul, 2:96).TGL Κῶς.2


    (2973) Κωσάμ, (from קָסַם, to divine (but cf. B. D. )), Cosam. one of Christ's ancestors: Luke 3:28.TGL Κωσάμ.2


    (2974) κωφός, κωφη, κωφόν (κόπτω to beat, pound), blunted, dull; properly, βέλος, Homer , Iliad 11, 390; henceTGL κωφός.2

    a. blunted (or lamed) in tongue; dumb: Matthew 9:32; Matthew 12:22; Matthew 15:30; Luke 1:22; Luke 11:14 (Herodotus and following; the Sept. for אִלֵּם Habakkuk 2:18).TGL κωφός.3

    b. blunted, dull, in hearing; deaf: Matthew 11:5; Mark 7:32, Mark 7:37; Mark 9:25; Luke 7:22 (Homer h. Merc. 92; Aeschylus , Xenophon , Plato , and following; the Sept. for חֵרֵשׁ, Exodus 4:11; Isaiah 43:8; Psalms 37:14 (Psalms 38:14), etc.).TGL κωφός.4

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