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    Γαββαθᾶ — γωνία


    (1042) Γαββαθᾶ [-θά WH], , indeclinable, Gabbatha, Chaldean גַּבְּתָא, (Hebrew גַּב, the back); hence, a raised place, an elevation, (cf. C. F. A. Fritzsche, Ueber die Verdienste Tholucks as above with, p. 102f; Delitzsch in the Zeitschr. f. luth. Theol. for 1876, p. 605; [Wünsche, Neue Beiträge as above with p. 560]; but see the somewhat different opinion of Keim, Jesu von Nazara, iii. 365): John 19:13, where is added the rather loose interpretation λιθόστρωτον, i. e. a stone pavement, which some interpreters think was a portable pavement, or the square blocks such as the Roman generals carried with them, to be laid down not only under their seats in general, but also under those they occupied in administering justice (cf. Suetonius, Julius Caesar 46 and Casaubon at the passage). This opinion is opposed by the circumstance that John is not accustomed to add a Greek interpretation except to the Hebrew names of fixed Jewish localities, cf. John 5:2; John 9:7; John 19:17; and that this is so in the present case is evident from the fact that he has said εἰς τόπον, i. e. in a definite locality which had that name. Besides, it cannot be proved that that custom of the military commanders was followed also by the governors of provinces residing in cities. Doubtless the Chaldaic name was given to the spot from its shape, the Greek name from the nature of its pavement. Cf. below under λιθόστρωτον; Winers RWB under the word Lithostroton; [BB. DD. under the word Gabbatha; Tholuck, Beiträge zur Spracherklärung as above with p. 119ff].TGL Γαββαθᾶ.2


    (1043) Γαβριήλ, , (גַּבְרִיאֵל, from גֶּבֶר, strong man, hero, and אֵל, God), indeclinable, Gabriel, one of the angel-princes or chiefs of the angels (Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21): Luke 1:19, Luke 1:26; see ἀρχάγγελος [and references under the word ἄγγελος, at the end; BB. DD. under the word].TGL Γαβριήλ.2


    (1044) γάγγραινα, -ης, , (γράω or γραίνω to gnaw, eat), a gangrene, a disease by which any part of the body suffering from inflammation becomes so corrupted that, unless a remedy be seasonably applied, the evil continually spreads, attacks other parts, and at last eats away the bones: 2 Timothy 2:17 [where cf. Ellicott]. (Medical writings [cf. Wetstein at the passage cited]; Plutarch, discr. am. et adulat. c. 36.)TGL γάγγραινα.2


    (1045) Γάδ, , (גָד, fortune, cf. Genesis 30:11; [Genesis 49:19; on the meaning of the word see B. D. under the word]), indeclinable, Gad, the seventh son of the patriarch Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's maid: Revelation 7:5.TGL Γάδ.2


    (1046) Γαδαρηνός, -ή, -όν, (from the proper name Γαδαρά; cf. the adjective Ἀβιληνή, Μαγδαληνή), of Gadara, a Gadarene. Gadara was the capital of Peræa (Josephus, b. j. 4, 7, 3), situated opposite the southern extremity of the Lake of Gennesaret to the southeast, but at some distance from the lake on the banks of the river Hieromax (Pliny, h. n. 5, 16), 60 stadia from the city Tiberias (Josephus, Vita 65), inhabited chiefly by Gentiles (Josephus, Antiquities 17, 11, 4); cf. Winers RWB under the word Gadara; Rüetschi in Herzog iv., p. 636f; Kneucker in Schenkel ii. 313f; Riehm, HWB, p. 454; [BB. DD. under the word]. χώρα τῶν Γαδαρηνῶν the country of the Gadarenes, Gadaris: Mark 5:1 Rec. ; Luke 8:26 Rec. , 37 R G [but here περίχωρος τῶν Γ.], and in Matthew 8:28 T Tr WH; but the manuscripts differ in these passages; see Γερασηνοί and Γεργεσηνοί.TGL Γαδαρηνός.2


    (1047) γάζα, -ης, , a Persian word, adopted by the Greeks and Latins (Cicero, off. 2, 22), the royal treasury, treasure, riches, (Curtius 3, 13, 5 pecuniam regiam, quam gazam Persae vocant): Acts 8:27. ([Theophrastus], Polybius, Diodorus 17, 35 and 64; Plutarch, others. Sept. , 2 Esdr. 5:17; 2 Esdr. 7:20.)TGL γάζα.2


    (1048) Γάζα, -ης [Buttmann, 17 (15)], , (עַזָּה i. e. strong, fortified (cf. Valentia ); the ע being represented by γ, cf. עַמֹרָה, Γομόρρα), formerly a celebrated city of the Philistines, situated on a hill near the southern border of the land of Israel, between Raphia and Ascalon, twenty stadia ['at the most,' Arrian. exp. Alex. 2, 26; "seven," Strabo 16, 30] from the sea and eleven geographical miles from Jerusalem. It was fortified and surrounded by a massive wall. Although held by a Persian garrison, Alexander the Great captured it after a siege of two months, but did not destroy it ([Josephus, Antiquities 11, 8, 4]; Diodorus 17, 48; Plutarch, Alex. 25; Curtius 4, 6f). Afterwards, in the year B. C. 96, Alexander Jannæus, king of the Jews, took it, after a year's siege and destroyed it (Josephus, Antiquities 13, 13, 3). Gabinius rebuilt it (Josephus, the passage cited 14, 5, 3). Finally, the emperor Augustus gave it [B. C. 30] to Herod the Great (Josephus, the passage cited 15, 7, 3), after whose death it was annexed to Syria (Josephus, the passage cited 17, 11, 4). Modern Ghuzzeh [or Ghazzeh], an unfortified town, having an area of two English miles, with between fifteen and sixteen thousand inhabitants. Mentioned in the N. T. in Acts 8:26, where the words αὕτη ἐστὶν ἔρημος refer to ὁδός; Philip is bidden to take the way which is ἔρημος, solitary; cf. Meyer at the passage; [Winers Grammar, § 18, 9 N. 3; Buttmann, 104 (91)]. A full history of the city is given by Stark, Gaza u. d. philistäische Küste. Jena, 1852; a briefer account by Winers RWB [see also BB. DD. ] under the word Gaza; Arnold in Herzog iv., p. 671ff.TGL Γάζα.2


    (1049) γαζοφυλάκιον, -ου, τό, (from γάζα, which see, and φυλακή; hence, equivalent to θησαυροφυλάκιον, Hesychius), a repository of treasure, especially of public treasure, a treasury: Esther 3:9; 1 Esdr. 8:18, 44; 1 Macc. 3:28. In the Sept. used for לִשְׁכָּה and נִשְׁכָּה of apartments constructed in the courts of the temple, in which not only the sacred offerings and things needful for the temple service were kept, but in which also the priests, etc., dwelt: Nehemiah 13:7; Nehemiah 10:37; of the sacred treasury, in which not only treasure but also the public records (1 Macc. 14:49; cf. Grimm at the passage) were stored, and the property of widows and orphans was deposited (2 Macc. 3:10; cf. Grimm at the passage): 1 Macc. 14:49; 2 Macc. 3:6, 28, 40; 2 Macc. 4:42; 2 Macc. 5:18. Josephus speaks of both γαζοφυλάκια (plural) in the women's court of Herod's temple, b. j. 5, 5, 2; 6, 5, 2; and τὸ γαζοφ., Antiquities 19, 6, 1. In the N. T., in Mark 12:41, Mark 12:43; Luke 21:1; John 8:20 (ἐν τῷ γαζοφ., at, near, the treasury [yet cf. Winer's Grammar, § 48, a., the passage cited]), τὸ γαζ. seems to be used of that receptacle mentioned by the rabbis to which were fitted thirteen chests or boxes, שׁופָרות i. e. trumpets, so called from their shape, and into which were put the contributions made voluntarily or paid yearly by the Jews for the service of the temple and the support of the poor; cf. Lightfoot, Horae Hebrew et Talm., p. 536f; Lücke [Tholuck, or Godet] on John 8:20; [B. D. American edition under the word Treasury]. (Strabo 2, p. 319 [i. e. 7, 6, 1].)TGL γαζοφυλάκιον.2


    (1050) Γάϊος [WH Γάῖος (cf. Ι, ι)], -ου, , Gaius or Caius; the name of a ChristianTGL Γάϊος.2

    1. of Derbe: Acts 20:4.TGL Γάϊος.3

    2. of Macedonia: Acts 19:29.TGL Γάϊος.4

    3. of Corinth, Paul's host during his [second] sojourn there: Romans 16:23; 1 Corinthians 1:14.TGL Γάϊος.5

    4. of an unknown Christian, to whom the third Epistle of John was addressed: 3 John 1:1. [B. D. American edition under the word Gaius; Farrar, Early Days of Christianity, ii. 506.]TGL Γάϊος.6


    (1051) γάλα, -λακτος [cf. Latin lac ; Curtius, § 123], τό, [from Homer down], milk: 1 Corinthians 9:7. Metaphorically, of the less difficult truths of the Christian religion, 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:12 (Quintilian 2, 4, 5 "doctoribus hoc esse curae velim , ut teneras adhuc mentes more nutricum mollius alant et satiari velut quodam jucundioris disciplinae lacte patiantur ," [cf. Siegfried, Philo von Alex., p. 329, cf. p. 261]); of the word of God, by which souls newly regenerate are healthfully nourished unto growth in the Christian life, 1 Peter 2:2.TGL γάλα.2


    (1052) Γαλάτης, -ου, , a Galatian (see Γαλατία ): Galatians 3:1. (1 Macc. 8:2; 2 Macc. 8:20.)TGL Γαλάτης.2


    (1053) Γαλατία, -ας, , Galatia, Gallogræcia, a region of Asia Minor, bounded by Paphlagonia, Pontus, Cappadocia, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and Bithynia. It took its name from those Gallic tribes that crossed into Asia Minor B. C. 278, and after roaming about there for a time at length settled down permanently in the above-mentioned region, and intermarried with the Greeks. From B. C. 189 on, though subject to the Romans, they were governed by their own chiefs; but B. C. 24 [others, 25] their country was formally reduced to a Roman province, (cf. Livy 37, 8; 38, 16 and 18; Josephus, Antiquities 16, 6; Strabo 12, 5, 1, p. 567; Flor. 2, 11 [i. e. 1, 27]): Galatians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 16:1; 2 Timothy 4:10 [T Tr marginal reading Γαλλίαν]; 1 Peter 1:1. Cf. Grimm, Ueb. d. (keltische) Nationalität der kleinasiat. Galater, in the Studien und Kritiken for 1876, p. 199ff; replied to by K. Wieseler, Die deutsche Nationalität d. kleinas. Galater. Gütersl. 1877; [but see Hertzberg in the Studien und Kritiken for 1878, pp. 525-541; Bp. Lightfoot in his Commentary on Galatians, Dissertation i., also Introduction, § 1].TGL Γαλατία.2

    Related entry: Γαλλία, -ας, , Gallia: 2 Timothy 4:10 T Tr marginal reading by which is to be understood Galatia in Asia Minor or Γαλλία ἐῴα, App. b. 104:2, 49. [See especially Bp. Lightfoot, Commentaries on Galatians pp. 3, 31 (American edition pp. 11, 37).]TGL Γαλατία.3


    (1054) Γαλατικός, -ή, -όν, Galatian, belonging to Galatia: Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23.TGL Γαλατικός.2


    (1055) γαλήνη, -ης, , (adjective , , γαληνός calm, cheerful), calmness, stillness of the sea, a calm: Matthew 8:26; Mark 4:39; Luke 8:24. (From Homer down.)TGL γαλήνη.2


    (1056) Γαλιλαία, -ας, , Galilee, (from הַגָּלִילָה, 2 Kings 15:29; הַגָּלִיל, Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:32; גָּלִיל אֶרֶץ, 1 Kings 9:11, i. e. the circle or circuit, by which name even before the exile a certain district of northern Palestine was designated; Sept. Γαλιλαία); the name of a region of northern Palestine, bounded on the north by Syria, on the west by Sidon, Tyre, Ptolemais and their territories and the promontory of Carmel, on the south by Samaria and on the east by the Jordan. It was divided into Upper Galilee (extending from the borders of Tyre and Sidon to the sources of the Jordan), and Lower Galilee (which, lower and more level, embraced the lands of the tribes of Issachar and Zebulun and the part of Naphtali bordering on the Sea of Galilee): ἄνω καὶ κάτω Γαλιλαία (Josephus, b. j. 3, 3, 1, where its boundaries are given). It was a very fertile region, populous, having 204 towns and villages (Josephus, vita 45), and inasmuch as it had, especially in the upper part, many Gentiles among its inhabitants (Judges 1:30-33; Strabo 16, 34, p. 760), it was called, Matthew 4:15, Γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν (Isaiah 8:23 (Isaiah 9:1)), and, 1 Macc. 5:15, Γαλιλαία ἀλλοφύλων. Often mentioned in the Gospels, and three times in the Acts, viz., Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37; Acts 13:31. [Cf. Merrill, Galilee in the Time of Christ, Boston 1881.]TGL Γαλιλαία.2


    (1057) Γαλιλαῖος, -αία, -αῖον, Gallilæan, a native of Galilee: Matthew 26:69; Mark 14:70; Luke 13:1; Luke 22:59; Luke 23:6; John 4:45; Acts 1:11; Acts 2:7; Acts 5:37.TGL Γαλιλαῖος.2


    (1058) Γαλλίων, -ωνος, , Gallio, proconsul of Achaia, elder brother of L. Annaeus Seneca the philosopher. His original name was Marcus Annaeus Novatus, but after his adoption into the family of Junius Gallio the rhetorician, he was called Gallio: Acts 18:12, Acts 18:14, Acts 18:17. [Cf. B. D. American edition; Farrar, St. Paul, i. 566f.]TGL Γαλλίων.2


    (1059) Γαμαλιήλ, , (גַּמְלִיאֵל recompense of God [God, the Avenger, Fürst]; Numbers 1:10; Numbers 2:20), indeclinable, Gamaliel (distinguished by the Jews from his grandson of the same name by the title הַזָּקֵן, the elder), a Pharisee and doctor of the law, son of R. Simeon, grandson of Hillel, and teacher of the apostle Paul. He is said to have had very great influence in the Sanhedrin, and to have died eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem. A man of permanent renown among the Jews: Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3. Cf. Grätz, Gesch. d. Juden, iii., p. 289ff; Schenkel, BL. ii., p. 328ff; [especially Alex.'s Kitto under the word Gamaliel I. (cf. Farrar, St. Paul, i. 44 and except 5.)].TGL Γαμαλιήλ.2


    (1060) γαμέω, -ῶ; imperfect ἐγάμουν (Luke 17:27); 1 aorist ἔγημα (the classic form [Matthew 22:25 L T Tr WH]; Luke 14:20; 1 Corinthians 7:28a R G, 28b) and ἐγάμησα (the later form, Matthew 5:32; [Matthew 22:25 R G]; Mark 6:17; Mark 10:11; 1 Corinthians 7:9, (1 Corinthians 7:28a L T Tr WH], 1 Corinthians 7:33); perfect γεγάμηκα; 1 aorist passive ἐγαμήθην; (cf. Winers Grammar, 84 (80); Buttmann, 55 (48); Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. 134; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 742; [Veitch, under the word]);TGL γαμέω.2

    1. used of the man, as in Greek writings from Homer down, to lead in marriage, take to wife;TGL γαμέω.3

    a. with the addition of γυναῖκα or other accusative: Matthew 5:32 [here WH brackets the clause]; Matthew 19:9; Mark 6:17; Mark 10:11; Luke 14:20; Luke 16:18.TGL γαμέω.4

    b. without a case, absolutely to get married, to marry, [cf. Buttmann, 145 (127)]: Matthew 19:10; Matthew 22:25, Matthew 22:30; Matthew 24:38; Mark 12:25; Luke 17:27; Luke 20:34; 1 Corinthians 7:28, 1 Corinthians 7:33; (Aelian v. h. 4, 1; οἱ γεγαμηκότες, Xenophon, Cyril 1, 2, 4; opposed to ἄγαμοι, Xenophon, symp. 9, 7). Passive and middle γαμέομαί τινι, of women [Latin nubere alicui , cf. Buttmann, § 133, 8], to give oneself in marriage [Winer's Grammar, § 38, 3]: 1 aorist passive, Mark 10:12 (where L T Tr WH γαμήσῃ ἄλλον for R G γαμηθῇ ἄλλῳ); 1 Corinthians 7:39.TGL γαμέω.5

    2. contrary to Greek usage, the active γαμεῖν is used of women, to give oneself in marriage; andTGL γαμέω.6

    a. with the accusative: Mark 10:12 L T Tr WH (see above);TGL γαμέω.7

    b. absolutely: 1 Corinthians 7:28, 1 Corinthians 7:34: ( γαμήσασα, opposed to ἄγαμος); 1 Timothy 5:11, 1 Timothy 5:14.TGL γαμέω.8

    3. absolutely of both sexes: 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 Corinthians 7:9, 1 Corinthians 7:36 (γαμείτωσαν, namely, the virgin and he who seeks her to wife). In the O. T. γαμεῖν occurs only in 2 Macc. 14:25.TGL γαμέω.9

    γαμίζω; [passive, present γαμίζομαι; imperfect ἐγαμιζόμην]; (γάμος); to give a daughter in marriage: 1 Corinthians 7:38a [L T Tr WH, 1 Corinthians 7:38b] G L T Tr WH; passive: Matthew 22:30 L T Tr WH; [Matthew 24:38 T WH]; Mark 12:25; Luke 17:27; Luke 20:34 [WH marginal reading γαμίσκονται]. (The word is mentioned in Apoll. de constr. 3, 31 p. 280, 10 Bekker edition.) [Compare: ἐκγαμίζω.]TGL γαμέω.10


    (1061) γαμίσκω, equivalent to γαμίζω, which see [Matthew 24:38 Lachmann]; Passive [present γαμίσκομαι]; Mark 12:25 R G; Luke 20:34 L T Tr WH , [Luke 20:35 WH marginal reading; cf. Winers Grammar, 92 (88); and Tdf. 's note on Matthew 22:30]. (Aristotle, pol. 7, 14, 4 etc.) [Compare: ἐκγαμίσκω.]TGL γαμίζω.2

    Related entry: γαμίζω; [Passive, present γαμίζομαι; imperfect ἐγαμιζόμην]; (γάμος); to give a daughter in marriage: 1 Corinthians 7:38a [L T Tr WH, 1 Corinthians 7:38b] G L T Tr WH; passive: Matthew 22:30 L T Tr WH; [Matthew 24:38 T WH]; Mark 12:25; Luke 17:27; Luke 20:35 [WH marginal reading γαμίσκονται]. (The word is mentioned in Apoll. de constr. 3, 31 p. 280, 10 Bekker edition.) [Compare: ἐκγαμίζω.]TGL γαμίζω.3


    (1062) γάμος, -ου, , [probably from the root, gam, to bind, unite; Curtius, p. 546f], as in Greek writings from Homer down;TGL γάμος.2

    1. a wedding or marriage-festival: John 2:1; Revelation 19:7 (under the figure of a marriage here is represented the intimate and everlasting union of Christ, at his return from heaven, with his church); τὸ δεῖπνον τοῦ γάμου, Revelation 19:9 (a symbol of the future blessings of the Messiah's kingdom); especially a wedding-banquet, a marriage-feast: Matthew 22:8, Matthew 22:10 [here T WH Tr marginal reading νυμφών], Matthew 22:11, Matthew 22:12; plural (referring apparently to the several acts of feasting), Matthew 22:2, Matthew 22:9; Matthew 25:10; Luke 12:36; Luke 14:8 (cf. Winers Grammar, § 27, 3; Buttmann, 23 (21)).TGL γάμος.3

    2. marriage, matrimony: Hebrews 13:4.TGL γάμος.4


    (1063) γάρ, a conjunction, which according to its composition, γέ and ἄρα (equivalent to ἄρ), is properly a particle of affirmation and conclusion, denoting truly therefore, verily as the case stands, "the thing is first affirmed by the particle γέ, and then is referred to what precedes by the force of the particle ἄρα" (Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 232; cf. Kühner, ii., p. 724; [Jelf, § 786; Winers Grammar, 445f (415f)]). Now since by a new affirmation not infrequently the reason and nature of something previously mentioned are set forth, it comes to pass that, by the use of this particle, either the reason and cause of a foregoing statement is added, whence arises the causal or argumentative force of the particle, for (Latin nam , enim ; German denn); or some previous declaration is explained, whence γάρ takes on an explicative force: for, the fact is, namely (Latin videlicet , German nämlich). Thus the force of the particle is either conclusive, or demonstrative, or explicative and declaratory; cf. Rost in Passow's Lexicon, i., p. 535ff; Kühner, ii., pp. 724ff, 852ff; [cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word]. The use of the particle in the N. T. does not differ from that in the classics.TGL γάρ.2

    I. Its primary and original Conclusive force is seen in questions (in Greek writings also in exclamations) and answers expressed with emotion; where, according to the connexion, it may be freely represented by assuredly, verily, forsooth, why, then, etc.: ἐν γὰρ τούτῳ etc. ye profess not to know whence he is; herein then is assuredly a marvellous thing, why, herein etc. John 9:30; οὐ γάρ, ἀλλά etc. by no means in this state of things, nay verily, but etc. Acts 16:37; certainly, if that is the case, 1 Corinthians 8:11 L T Tr WH. It is joined to interrogative particles and pronouns: μὴ γὰρ etc. John 7:41 (do ye then suppose that the Christ comes out of Galilee? What, doth the Christ, etc.?); μὴ γὰρ... οὐκ, 1 Corinthians 11:22 (what! since ye are so eager to eat and drink, have ye not, etc.?); τίς γάρ, τί γάρ: Matthew 27:23 (τί γὰρ κακὸν ἐποίησεν, ye demand that he be crucified like a malefactor, Why, what evil hath he done?); Matthew 9:5 (your thoughts are evil; which then do ye suppose to be the easier, etc.?); Matthew 16:26; Matthew 23:17, Matthew 23:19; Luke 9:25; Acts 19:35; τί γάρ; for τί γάρ ἐστι, what then? i. e. what, under these circumstances, ought to be the conclusion? Philippians 1:18 [cf. Ellicott at the passage]; πῶς γάρ, Acts 8:31; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 245ff; Kühner, ii., p. 726; [Jelf, ii., p. 608]; Winer's Grammar, 447 (416). Here belongs also the vexed passage Luke 18:14 γὰρ ἐκεῖνος (so G T Tr marginal reading, but L WH Tr text παῤ ἐκεῖνον) or do ye suppose then that that man went down approved of God? cf. Winer's Grammar, 241 (226).TGL γάρ.3

    II. It adduces the Cause or gives the Reason of a preceding statement or opinion;TGL γάρ.4

    1. universally: Matthew 2:5; Matthew 6:24; Mark 1:22; Mark 9:6; Luke 1:15, Luke 1:18; Luke 21:4; John 2:25; Acts 2:25; Romans 1:9, Romans 1:11; 1 Corinthians 11:5; Hebrews 2:8; 1 John 2:19; Revelation 1:3, and very often. In John 4:44 γάρ assigns the reason why now at length Jesus betook himself into Galilee; for the authority denied to a prophet in his own country (Galilee), he had previously to seek and obtain among strangers; cf. John 4:45; Meyer [yet see edition 6 (Weiss)] at the passage; Strauss, Leben Jesu, i. 725 edition 3; Neander, Leben Jesu, p. 385f edition 1 [American translation, pp. 100, 168]; Ewald, Jahrbb. d. Biblical Wissensch. x., p. 108ff.TGL γάρ.5

    2. Often the sentences are connected in such a way that either some particular statement is established by a general proposition (`the particular by the universal'), as in Matthew 7:8; Matthew 13:12; Matthew 22:14; Mark 4:22, Mark 4:25; John 3:20; 1 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 5:13, etc.; or what has been stated generally, is proved to be correctly stated by a particular instance (`the universal by the particular'): Mark 7:10; Luke 12:52, Luke 12:58; Romans 7:2; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 12:8.TGL γάρ.6

    3. To sentences in which something is commanded or forbidden, γάρ annexes the reason why the thing must either be done or avoided: Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:20; Matthew 3:9; Matthew 7:2; Romans 13:11; Colossians 3:3; 1 Thessalonians 4:3; Hebrews 2:2, and very often. In Philippians 2:13 γάρ connects the verse with Philippians 2:12 thus: work out your salvation with most intense earnestness, for nothing short of this accords with God's saving efficiency within your souls, to whom you owe both the good desire and the power to execute that desire.TGL γάρ.7

    4. To questions, γάρ annexes the reason why the question is asked: Matthew 2:2 (we ask this with good reason, for we have seen the star which announces his birth); Matthew 22:28; Romans 14:10; 1 Corinthians 14:9; Galatians 1:10.TGL γάρ.8

    5. Frequently the statement which contains the cause is interrogative; τίς, τί γάρ: Luke 22:27; Romans 4:3; Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16; 1 Corinthians 7:16; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 12:7; τί γάρ for τί γάρ ἐστι, Romans 3:3 (cf. Fritzsche at the passage; [Ellicott on Philippians 1:18]); ἵνα τί γάρ, 1 Corinthians 10:29; ποία γάρ, James 4:14 [WH text omits; Tr brackets γάρ].TGL γάρ.9

    6. Sometimes in answers it is so used to make good the substance of a preceding question that it can be rendered yea, assuredly: 1 Corinthians 9:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:20; cf. Kühner, ii., p. 724.TGL γάρ.10

    7. Sometimes it confirms, not a single statement, but the point of an entire discussion: Romans 2:25 (it is no advantage to a wicked Jew, for etc.). On the other hand, it may so confirm but a single thought as to involve the force of asseveration and be rendered assuredly, yea: Romans 15:27 (εὐδόκησαν γάρ); so also καὶ γάρ, Philippians 2:27.TGL γάρ.11

    8. It is often said that the sentence of which γάρ introduces the cause, or renders the reason, is not expressed, but must be gathered from the context and supplied in thought. But that this ellipsis is wholly imaginary is clearly shown by Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 236f, cf. Winer's Grammar, 446f (415f). The particle is everywhere used in reference to something expressly stated. Suffice it to append a very few examples; the true nature of many others is shown under the remaining heads of this article: In Matthew 5:12 before γάρ some supply 'nor does this happen to you alone'; but the reason is added why a great reward in heaven is reserved for those who suffer persecution, which reason consists in this, that the prophets also suffered persecution, and that their reward is great no one can doubt. In Romans 8:18 some have supplied 'do not shrink from this suffering with Christ'; but on the use of γάρ here, see III. a. below. On Mark 7:28 [T Tr WH omit; L brackets γάρ], where before καὶ γάρ some supply 'but help me,' or 'yet we do not suffer even the dogs to perish with hunger,' see 10 b. below. In Acts 9:11 before γάρ many supply 'he will listen to thee'; but it introduces the reason for the preceding command.TGL γάρ.12

    9. When in successive statements γάρ is repeated twice or thrice, or even four or five times, eitherTGL γάρ.13

    a. one and the same thought is confirmed by as many arguments, each having its own force, as there are repetitions of the particle [Meyer denies the coordinate use of γάρ in the N. T., asserting that the first is argumentative, the second explicative, see his commentaries on the passage to follow, also on Romans 8:6]: Matthew 6:32; Romans 16:18; orTGL γάρ.14

    b. every succeeding statement contains the reason for its immediate predecessor, so that the statements are subordinate one to another: Mark 6:52; Matthew 16:25-27; John 3:19; John 5:21; Acts 2:15; Romans 4:13-15; Romans 8:2, Romans 8:5; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 1 Corinthians 9:15-17 (where five times in G L T Tr WH); 1 Corinthians 16:7; James 2:10, etc.; orTGL γάρ.15

    c. it is repeated in a different sense: Mark 9:39-41; Romans 5:6 (where cf. Winer's Grammar, 453 (422)); Romans 10:2-5 (four times); James 4:14 [WH text omits; Tr brackets the first γάρ, L WH marginal reading omit the second].TGL γάρ.16

    10. καὶ γάρ (on which cf. Kühner, ii., p. 854f; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417); [Ellicott on 2 Thessalonians 3:10]) isTGL γάρ.17

    a. for, and truly (etenim , namque , [the simple rendering for is regarded as inexact by many; cf. Meyer on 2 Corinthians 13:4 and see Hartung, Partikeln, i. 137f; Krüger, § 69, 32, 21]): Mark 14:70; Luke 22:37 [L Tr brackets γάρ]; 1 Corinthians 5:7; 1 Corinthians 11:9; 1 Corinthians 12:13.TGL γάρ.18

    b. for also, for even (nam etiam ): Matthew 8:9; Mark 10:45; Luke 6:32; John 4:45; 1 Corinthians 12:14, etc. In Mark 7:28 καὶ γάρ [R G L brackets] τὰ κυνάρια etc. the woman, by adducing an example, confirms what Christ had said, but the example is of such a sort as also to prove that her request ought to be granted. τὲ γάρ for indeed (German denn ja ): Romans 7:7; cf. Fritzsche at the passage; Winer's Grammar, 448 (417). ἰδοὺ γάρ, see under ἰδού .TGL γάρ.19

    III. It serves to explain, make clear, illustrate, a preceding thought or word: for equivalent to that is, namely;TGL γάρ.20

    a. so that it begins an exposition of the thing just announced [cf. Winer's Grammar, 454f (423f)]: Matthew 1:18 [R G]; Matthew 19:12; Luke 11:30; Luke 18:32. In Romans 8:18 γάρ introduces a statement setting forth the nature of the συνδοξασθῆναι just mentioned.TGL γάρ.21

    b. so that the explanation is intercalated into the discourse, or even added by way of appendix: Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16; Mark 2:15; Mark 5:42; Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 16:5. In Mark 16:4 the information ἦν γὰρ μέγας σφόδρα is added to throw light on all that has been previously said (in Mark 16:3) about the stone.TGL γάρ.22

    IV. As respects position: γάρ never occupies the first place in a sentence, but the second, or third, or even the fourth ( τοῦ θεοῦ γὰρ υἱός, 2 Corinthians 1:19 — according to true text). Moreover, "not the number but the nature of the word after which it stands is the point to be noticed," Hermann on Sophocles Phil. 1437.TGL γάρ.23


    (1064) γαστήρ, -ρός (poetic, -έρος), , in Greek authors from Homer down; in the Sept. for בֶּטֶן;TGL γαστήρ.2

    1. the belly; by metonymy, of the whole for a part,TGL γαστήρ.3

    2. Latin uterus , the womb: ἐν γαστρὶ ἔχειν to be with child [see ἔχω , I. 1 b.]: Matthew 1:18, Matthew 1:23; Matthew 24:19; Mark 13:17; Luke 21:23; 1 Thessalonians 5:3; Revelation 12:2; (in the Sept. for הָרָה, Genesis 16:4; Genesis 38:25; Isaiah 7:14, etc.; Herodotus 3, 32 and vit. Homer 2; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 18, p. 105; 3, 32, p. 177; Pausanias, Herodian, others); συλλαμβάνεσθαι ἐν γαστρί to conceive, become pregnant, Luke 1:31.TGL γαστήρ.4

    3. the stomach; by synecdoche a glutton, gormandizer, a man who is as it were all stomach, Hesiod theog. 26 (so also γάστρις, Aristophanes av. 1604; Aelian v. h. 1, 28; and Latin venter in Lucilius sat. 2, 24 edition Gerl. 'vivite ventres'): γαστέρες ἀργαί, Titus 1:12; see ἀργός , b.TGL γαστήρ.5


    (1065) γέ, an enclitic particle, answering exactly to no one word in Latin or English; used by the Biblical writers much more rarely than by Greek writers. How the Greeks use it, is shown by (among others) Hermann ad Vig., p. 822ff; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 272ff; Rost in Passow's Lexicon, i., p. 538ff; [Liddell and Scott, under the word; T. S. Evans in Journ. of class. and sacr. Philol. for 1857, pp. 187ff]. It indicates that the meaning of the word to which it belongs has special prominence, and therefore that that word is to be distinguished from the rest of the sentence and uttered with greater emphasis. This distinction "can be made in two ways, by mentioning either the least important or the most; thus it happens that γέ seems to have contrary significations: at least and even" (Hermann, the passage cited, p. 822).TGL γέ.2

    1. where what is least is indicated; indeed, truly, at least: διά γε τὴν ἀναίδειαν, Luke 11:8 (where, since the force of the statement lies in the substantive not in the preposition, the Greek should have read διὰ τήν γε ἀναίδ., cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 327; Rost, the passage cited, p. 542; [Liddell and Scott, under the word IV.]); διά γε τὸ παρέχειν μοι κόπον, at least for this reason, that she troubleth me [A. V. yet because etc.], Luke 18:5 (better Greek διὰ τό γε etc.).TGL γέ.3

    2. where what is most or greatest is indicated; even: ὅς γε the very one who etc., precisely he who etc. (German der es ja ist , welcher etc.), Romans 8:32; cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 305; Matthiae, Lex. Euripides i., p. 613f.TGL γέ.4

    3. joined to other particles it strengthens their force;TGL γέ.5

    a. ἀλλά γε [so most editions] or ἀλλάγε [Griesbach] (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 5, 2): Luke 24:21; 1 Corinthians 9:2; see ἀλλά , I. 10.TGL γέ.6

    b. ἄρα γε or ἄραγε, see ἄρα , 4. ἆρά γε, see ἆρα , 1.TGL γέ.7

    c. εἴγε [so G T, but L Tr WH εἴ γε; cf. Winers Grammar, as above; Lipsius Gram. Unters., p. 123], followed by the indicative if indeed, seeing that, "of a thing believed to be correctly assumed" (Herm. ad Vig., p. 831; cf. Fritzsche, Praeliminarien as above with p. 67ff; Anger, Laodicenerbrief, p. 46; [Winer's Grammar, 448 (417f). Others hold that Hermann's statement does not apply to the N. T. instances. According to Meyer (see notes on 2 Corinthians 5:3; Ephesians 3:2; Galatians 3:4) the certainty of the assumption resides not in the particle but in the context; so Ellicott (on Galatians, the passage cited; also Ephesians, the passage cited); cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited; Colossians 1:23. Hermann's canon, though assented to by Bornemann (Cyrop. 2, 2, 3, p. 132), Stallbaum (Meno, p. 36), others, is qualified by Bäumlein (Partikeln, p. 64f), who holds that γέ often has no other effect than to emphasize the condition expressed by εἰ; cf. also Winer Moulton edition, p. 561]), if, that is to say; on the assumption that, (see εἴπερ under the word εἰ, III. 13): Ephesians 3:2; Ephesians 4:21; Colossians 1:23; with καί added, if that also, if it be indeed, (German wenn denn auch ): εἴγε [L Tr WH marginal reading εἴ περ] καὶ ἐνδυσάμενοὶ, οὐ γυμνοὶ εὑρεθ. if indeed we shall be found actually clothed (with a new body), not naked, 2 Corinthians 5:3 (cf. Meyer at the passage); εἴγε καὶ εἰκῆ namely, τοσαῦτα ἐπάθετε, if indeed, as I believe, ye have experienced such benefits in vain, and have not already received harm from your inclination to Judaism, Galatians 3:4 [yet cf. Meyer, Ellicott, Bp. Lightfoot, others at the passage].TGL γέ.8

    d. εἰ δὲ μήγε [or εἰ δὲ μή γε Lachmann Treg. ] (also in Plato, Aristophanes, Plutarch, others; cf. Bornemann, Scholia ad Luc., p. 95; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 527), stronger than εἰ δὲ μή [Buttmann, 393 (336f); cf. Winer's Grammar, 583 (543); 605 (563); Meyer on 2 Corinthians 11:16],TGL γέ.9

    α. after affirmative sentences, but unless perchance, but if not: Matthew 6:1; Luke 10:6; Luke 13:9.TGL γέ.10

    β. after negative sentences, otherwise, else, in the contrary event: Matthew 9:17; Luke 5:36; Luke 14:32; 2 Corinthians 11:16.TGL γέ.11

    e. καίγε [so G T, but L Tr WH καί γε; cf. references under εἴγε above] (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 319; [Winers Grammar, 438 (408)]),TGL γέ.12

    α. and at least: Luke 19:42 [Tr text WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets].TGL γέ.13

    β. and truly, yea indeed, yea and: Acts 2:18; Acts 17:27 L T Tr WH.TGL γέ.14

    f. καίτοιγε [so G T WH, but L καίτοι γε, Tr καί τοι γε; cf. references under c. above. Cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 654; Winers Grammar, 444 (413)], although indeed, and yet indeed: John 4:2; also in Acts 14:17 [R G]; Acts 17:27 Rec.TGL γέ.15

    g. μενοῦνγε see in its place.TGL γέ.16

    h. μήτιγε, see μήτι [and in its place].TGL γέ.17

    Related entries: διάγε, see γέ, 1. μήγε, εἰ δὲ μήγε, see γέ, 3 d. τοίγε in καίτοιγε, see γέ, 3 f. ὅσγε, for ὅς γε, γέ, 2.TGL γέ.18


    (1066) Γεδεών, , indeclinable [in the Bible (cf. Buttmann, p. 15 (14)), and in Suidas (e. g. 1737 a.); but] in Josephus, Antiquities 5, 6 [3 and] 4 Γεδεών, -ῶνος, (גִּדְעוֹן cutting off, [others, tree-feller i. e. mighty warrior], from גָּדַע ), Gideon, a leader of the Israelites, who delivered them from the power of the Midianites (Judges 6:1-40): Hebrews 11:32 [where A. V. unfortunately follows the Greek spelling Gedeon].TGL Γεδεών.2


    (1067) γέεννα [others would accent γεέννα, deriving it through the Chaldee. In Mark 9:45 Rec.st γέενα], -ης [Buttmann, 17 (15)], , (from הִנֹּם גֵּי, Nehemiah 11:30; more fully בֶּן־הִנֹּם גֵּיא, Joshua 15:8; Joshua 18:16; 2 Chronicles 28:3; Jeremiah 7:32; בְּנֵי־הִנֹּם גֵּי, 2 Kings 23:10 K'ethibh; Chaldean גְּהִנָם, the valley of the son of lamentation, or of the sons of lamentation, the valley of lamentation, הִנֹּם being used for נִהֹם lamentation; see Hiller, Onomasticum; cf. Hitzig [and Graf] on Jeremiah 7:31; [Böttcher, De Inferis, i., p. 82ff]; accusative to the common opinion הִנֹּם is the name of a man), Gehenna, the name of a valley on the south and east of Jerusalem [yet apparently beginning on the West, cf. Joshua 15:8; Pressel in Herzog, under the word], which was so called from the cries of the little children who were thrown into the fiery arms of Moloch [which see], i. e. of an idol having the form of a bull. The Jews so abhorred the place after these horrible sacrifices had been abolished by king Josiah (2 Kings 23:10), that they cast into it not only all manner of refuse, but even the dead bodies of animals and of unburied criminals who had been executed. And since fires were always needed to consume the dead bodies, that the air might not become tainted by the putrefaction, it came to pass that the place was called γέεννα τοῦ πυρός [this common explanation of the descriptive genitive τοῦ πυρός is found in Rabbi David Kimchi (fl. circa A.D. 1200 ) on Psalms 27:13. Some suppose the genitive to refer not to purifying fires but to the fires of Moloch; others regard it as the natural symbol of penalty (cf. Leviticus 10:2; Numbers 16:35; 2 Kings 1:1-18; Psalms 11:6; also Matthew 3:11; Matthew 13:42; 2 Thessalonians 1:8, etc.). See Böttcher, as above, p. 84; Meyer (Thol.,) Wetstein on Matthew 5:22]; and then this name was transferred to that place in Hades where the wicked after death will suffer punishment: Matthew 5:22, Matthew 5:29; Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:5; Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45; James 3:6; γέεννα τοῦ πυρός, Matthew 5:22; Matthew 18:9; Mark 9:47 [R G Tr marginal reading brackets]; κρίσις τῆς γέεννης, Matthew 23:33; υἱὸς τῆς γέεννης, worthy of punishment in Gehenna, Matthew 23:15. Further, cf. Dillmann, Buch Henoch, 27, 1f, p. 131f; [B. D. American edition; Böttcher, as above, p. 80ff; Hamburger, Real-Encycl., Abth. I. under the word Hölle; Bartlett, Life and Death eternal, Appendix H.].TGL γέεννα.2


    (1068) Γεθσημανῆ, or Γεθσημανεί (T WH), or Γεθσημανεῖ (L Tr); [on the accent in manuscripts see Tdf. Proleg., p. 103; Winers Grammar, § 6, 1 m.; indeclinable Buttmann, 15 (14)], (from גִּת press, and שָׁמְנָא oil), Gethsemane, the name of a 'place' (χωρίον [an enclosure or landed property]) at the foot of the Mount of Olives, beyond the torrent Kidron: Matthew 26:36; Mark 14:32. [B. D. American edition, under the word.]TGL Γεθσημανί.2


    (1069) γείτων, -ονος, , , [from γῆ, hence, originally 'of the same land,' cf. Curtius § 132] from Homer down, a neighbor: Luke 14:12; Luke 15:6, Luke 15:9; John 9:8.TGL γείτων.2


    (1070) γελάω, -ῶ; future γελάσω (in Greek writings more common γελάσομαι [Buttmann, 53 (46); Winers Grammar, 84 (80)]); [from Homer down]; to laugh: Luke 6:21 (opposed to κλαίω), Luke 6:25. [Compare: καταγελάω.]TGL γελάω.2


    (1071) γέλως, -ωτος, , laughter: James 4:9. [From Homer down.]TGL γέλως.2


    (1072) γεμίζω: 1 aorist ἐγέμισα; passive, [present γεμίζομαι]; 1 aorist ἐγεμίσθην; (γέμω, which see); to fill, fill full;TGL γεμίζω.2

    a. absolutely in passive: Mark 4:37; Luke 14:23.TGL γεμίζω.3

    b. τί τινος, to fill a thing full of something: Mark 15:36; John 2:7; John 6:13; Revelation 15:8 (Aeschylus, Ag. 443; others); τὶ ἀπό τινος, of that which is used for filling, Luke 15:16 [not WH Tr marginal reading]; also in the same sense τὶ ἔκ τινος, Revelation 8:5; [cf. Luke 15:16 in WH marginal reading], (מִן מָלֵא, Exodus 16:32; Jeremiah 51:34, etc. [cf. Winers Grammar, § 30, 8 b.; Buttmann, 163 (143)]).TGL γεμίζω.4


    (1073) γέμω, defective verb, used only in present and imperfect [in N. T. only in present indicative and participle]; to be full, filled full;TGL γέμω.2

    a. τινός (as generally in Greek writings): Matthew 23:25 Lachmann, Matthew 23:27; Luke 11:39; Romans 3:14 (from Psalm 9:28 (Psalms 10:7)); Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:3 R G (see below), Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9.TGL γέμω.3

    b. ἔκ τινος: Matthew 23:25 (γέμουσιν ἐξ ἁρπαγῆς [L omits; Tr brackets ἐξ] their contents are derived from plunder; see γεμίζω , b. [and references there]).TGL γέμω.4

    c. Hebraistically (see πληρόω , 1 [cf. Buttmann, 164 (143); Winer's Grammar, § 30, 8 b.]), with accusative of the material, γέμοντα [Treg. γέμον τὰ] ὀνόματα βλασφημίας, Revelation 17:3 [L T Tr WH (see above and cf. Buttmann, 80 (70))].TGL γέμω.5


    (1074) γενεά, -ᾶς, , (ΓΕΝΩ, γίνομαι [cf. Curtius, p. 610]); Sept. often for דּוֹר; in Greek writings from Homer down;TGL γενεά.2

    1. a begetting, birth, nativity: Herodotus 3, 33; Xenophon, Cyril 1, 2, 8, etc.; [others make the collective sense the primary significance, see Curtius as above].TGL γενεά.3

    2. passively, that which has been begotten, men of the same stock, a family;TGL γενεά.4

    a. properly, as early as Homer; equivalent to מִשְׁפָּחַה, Genesis 31:3, etc. σῴζειν Ῥαχάβην κ. τὴν γενεὰν αὐτῆς, Josephus, Antiquities 5, 1, 5. the several ranks in a natural descent, the successive members of a genealogy: Matthew 1:17, (ἑβδόμη γενεὰ οὗτός ἐστιν ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου, Philo, vit. Moys. i. § 2).TGL γενεά.5

    b. metaphorically, a race of men very like each other in endowments, pursuits, character; and especially in a bad sense a perverse race: Matthew 17:17; Mark 9:19; Luke 9:41; Luke 16:8; [Acts 2:40].TGL γενεά.6

    3. the whole multitude of men living at the same time: Matthew 24:34; Mark 13:30; Luke 1:48 (πᾶσαι αἱ γενεαί); Luke 21:32; Philippians 2:15; used especially of the Jewish race living at one and the same period: Matthew 11:16; Matthew 12:39, Matthew 12:41, Matthew 12:45; Matthew 16:4; Matthew 23:36; Mark 8:12, Mark 8:38; Luke 11:29, Luke 11:32, Luke 11:50; Luke 17:25; Acts 13:36; Hebrews 3:10; ἄνθρωποι τῆς γενεᾶς ταύτης, Luke 7:31; ἄνδρες τῆς γεν. ταύ., Luke 11:31; τὴν δὲ γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται, who can describe the wickedness of the present generation, Acts 8:33 (from Isaiah 53:8 Sept. ) [but cf. Meyer, at the passage].TGL γενεά.7

    4. an age (i. e. the time ordinarily occupied by each successive generation), the space of from 30 to 33 years (Herodotus 2, 142, and others; Heraclitus in Plutarch, def. orac. c. 11), or χρόνος, ἐν γεννῶντα παρέχει τὸν ἐξ αὐτοῦ γεγεννημένον γεννήσας (Plutarch, the passage cited); in the N. T. common in plural: Ephesians 3:5 [Winers Grammar, § 31, 9 a.; Buttmann, 186 (161)]; παρῳχημέναις γενεαῖς in ages gone by, Acts 14:16; ἀπὸ τῶν γενεῶν for ages, since the generations began, Colossians 1:26; ἐκ γενεῶν ἀρχαίων from the generations of old, from ancient times down, Acts 15:21; εἰς γενεὰς γενεῶν unto generations of generations, through all ages, forever (a phrase which assumes that the longer ages are made up of shorter; see αἰών , 1 a.): Luke 1:50 R L (דּוֹרִים לְדוֹר, Isaiah 51:8); εἰς γενεὰς κ. γενεάς unto generations and generations, ibid. T Tr WH equivalent to וָדוֹר לְדוֹר, Psalms 89:2; Isaiah 34:17; very often in the Sept. ; [add, εἰς πάσας τὰς γενεὰς τοῦ αἰῶνος τῶν αἰώνων, Ephesians 3:21, cf. Ellicott at the passage] (γενεά is used of a century in Genesis 15:16, cf. Knobel at the passage, and on the senses of the word see the full remarks of Keim, iii. 206 [v. 245 English translation]).TGL γενεά.8


    (1075) γενεαλογέω, -ῶ: [present passive γενεαλογοῦμαι]; to act the genealogist (γενεά and λέγω), to recount a family's origin and lineage, trace ancestry (often in Herodotus; Xenophon, Plato, Theophrastus, Lucian, Aelian, others; [Sept. 1 Chronicles 5:2]); passive to draw one's origin, derive one's pedigree: ἔκ τινος, Hebrews 7:6.TGL γενεαλογέω.2


    (1076) γενεαλογία, -ας, , a genealogy, a record of descent or lineage (Plato, Crat., p. 396 c.; Polybius 9, 2, 1; Dionysius Halicarnassus Antiquities 1, 11; [others]. Sept. [editions Ald. , Complutensian] 1 Chronicles 7:5, 1 Chronicles 7:7; 1 Chronicles 9:22; [1 Chronicles 4:33 Complutensian; Ezra 8:1 ibid]); in plural of the orders of æons, according to the doctrine of the Gnostics: 1 Timothy 1:4; Titus 3:9; cf. DeWette on Titus 1:14 [substantially reproduced by Alford on 1 Timothy, the passage cited; see also Holtzmann, Pastoralbriefe, pp. 126f, 134f, 143].TGL γενεαλογία.2


    (1077) γενέσια, -ων, τά [cf. Winer's Grammar, 176 (166)] (from the adjective γενέσιος from γένεσις), a birthday celebration, a birthday feast: Mark 6:21; Matthew 14:6; (Alciphron epistles 3, 18 and 55; Dio Cassius, 47, 18, etc.; γενέσιος ἡμέρα, Josephus, Antiquities 12, 4, 7). The earlier Greeks used γενέσια of funeral commemorations, a festival commemorative of a deceased friend (Latin feriae denicales ), see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 103f; [Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 184; Winers Grammar, 24 (23)]. Cf. Keim, ii., p. 516 [iv. 223 English translation].TGL γενέσια.2


    (1078) γένεσις, -εως, , (ΓΕΝΩ [Curtius, § 128]), in Greek writings for the first time in Homer, Iliad 14, 201 [cf. 246];TGL γένεσις.2

    1. source, origin: βίβλος γενέσεώς τινος a book of one's lineage, i. e. in which his ancestry or his progeny are enumerated (equivalent to תּוֹלְדוֹת סֵפֶר, Genesis 5:1, etc.) [Matthew 1:1].TGL γένεσις.3

    2. used of birth, nativity, in Matthew 1:18 and Luke 1:14, for Rec. γέννησις (ἡμέραι τῆς γενέσεώς μου equivalent to ἀφ’ οὗ ἐγεννήθην, Judith 12:18 cf. 20); πρόσωπον τῆς γενέσεως his native (natural) face, James 1:23.TGL γένεσις.4

    3. of that which follows origin, viz. existence, life: τροχὸς τῆς γενέσεως the wheel [cf. English "machinery "] of life, James 3:6 (cf. Grimm on Sap. vii. 5); but others explain it the wheel of human origin which as soon as men are born begins to run, i. e. the course [cf. English "round "] of life.TGL γένεσις.5


    (1079) γενετή, -ῆς, , (ΓΕΝΩ, γίνομαι), (cf. German die Gewordenheit ), birth; hence, very often ἐκ γενετῆς from birth on (Homer, Iliad 24, 535; Aristotle, eth. Nic. 6, 13, 1, p. 1144b, 6 etc.; Polybius 3, 20, 4; Diodorus 5, 32, others; Sept. Leviticus 25:47): John 9:1.TGL γενετή.2


    (1080) γεννάω, -ῶ; future γεννήσω; 1 aorist ἐγέννησα; perfect γεγέννηκά; [passive, present γεννάομαι, -ῶμαι]; perfect γεγέννημαι; 1 aorist ἐγεννήθην; (from γέννα, poetic for γένος); in Greek writings from Pindar down; in the Sept. for יָלַד; to beget;TGL γεννάω.2

    1. properly: of men begetting children, Matthew 1:1-16; Acts 7:8, Acts 7:29; followed by ἐκ with the genitive of the mother, Matthew 1:3, Matthew 1:5, Matthew 1:6; more rarely of women giving birth to children, Luke 1:13, Luke 1:57; Luke 23:29; John 16:21; εἰς δουλείαν to bear a child unto bondage, that will be a slave, Galatians 4:24 ([Xenophon, de rep. Lac. 1, 3]; Lucian, de sacrif. 6; Plutarch, de liber. educ. 5; others; Sept. Isaiah 66:9; Isaiah 4:1-6 Macc. 10:2, etc.). Passive, to be begotten: τὸ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννηθέν that which is begotten in her womb, Matthew 1:20; to be born: Matthew 2:1, Matthew 2:4 [Winers Grammar, 266 (250); Buttmann, 203 (176)]; Matthew 19:12; Matthew 26:24; Mark 14:21; Luke 1:35; John 3:4; [Acts 7:20]; Romans 9:11; Hebrews 11:23; with the addition εἰς τὸν κόσμον, John 16:21; followed by ἐν with the dative of place, Acts 22:3; ἀπό τινος, to spring from one as father, Hebrews 11:12 [L WH marginal reading ἐγεννήθ. see Tdf. at the passage]; ἔκ τινος to be born of a mother, Matthew 1:16; ἐκ πορνείας, John 8:41; ἐξ αἱμάτων, ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρός, John 1:13; ἐκ τῆς σαρκός, John 3:6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.]; ἐν ἁμαρτίαις ὅλος, John 9:34 (see ἁμαρτία , 2 a.); εἴς τι, to be born for something, John 18:37; 2 Peter 2:12 [Tdf. γεγενημ. so Rec.st bez]; with an adjective: τυφλὸς γεγέννημαι, John 9:2, John 9:19, John 9:32; Ῥωμαῖος to be supplied, Acts 22:28; τῇ διαλέκτῳ, ἐν ἐγεννήθημεν, Acts 2:8; γεννηθεὶς κατὰ σάρκα begotten or born according to (by) the working of natural passion; κατὰ πνεῦμα according to (by) the working of the divine promise, Galatians 4:29, cf. Galatians 4:23.TGL γεννάω.3

    2. metaphorically,TGL γεννάω.4

    a. universally, to engender, cause to arise, excite: μάχας, 2 Timothy 2:23 (βλαβην, λύπην, etc. in Greek writings).TGL γεννάω.5

    b. in a Jewish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of life: ὑμᾶς ἐγέννησα I am the author of your Christian life, 1 Corinthians 4:15; Philemon 1:10 (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 "If one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scripture reckons this the same as though he had begotten him"; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]).TGL γεννάω.6

    c. after Psalms 2:7, it is used of God making Christ his son;TGL γεννάω.7

    α. formally to show him to be the Messiah (υἱὸν τοῦ θεοῦ), viz. by the resurrection: Acts 13:33.TGL γεννάω.8

    β. to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses [but compare the commentaries on the passages that follow]: Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 5:5.TGL γεννάω.9

    d. peculiarly, in the Gospel and First Epistle of John, of God conferring upon men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a new life consecrated to himself; absolutely 1 John 5:1; mostly in passive, ἐκ θεοῦ or ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν, γεγέννηται, γεγεννημένος, etc.: John 1:13; 1 John 2:29 [Rec.st γεγένηται]; 1 John 3:9; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:1,1 John 5:4,1 John 5:18; also ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος γεννᾶσθαι, John 3:6 [Rec.elz γεγενημ.], John 3:8; ἐξ ὕδατος καὶ πνεύματος (because that moral generation is effected in receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff's Lange, Godet, Westcott, on the words, and references under the word βάπτισμα, 3]), John 3:5; ἄνωθεν γεννᾶσθαι, John 3:3, John 3:7 (see ἄνωθεν , c.) equivalent to τέκνον θεοῦ γίνεσθαι, John 1:12. [Compare: ἀναγεννάω.]TGL γεννάω.10


    (1081) γέννημα, -τος, τό, (from γεννάω), that which has been begotten or born;TGL γέννημα.2

    a. as in the earlier Greek writings from Sophocles down, the offspring, progeny, of men or of animals: ἐχιδνῶν, Matthew 3:7; Matthew 12:34; Matthew 23:33; Luke 3:7; (γυναικῶν, Sir. 10:18).TGL γέννημα.3

    b. from Polybius [1, 71, 1 etc.] on [cf. Winer's Grammer 23], the fruits of the earth, products of agriculture, (in Sept. often γεννήματα τῆς γῆς): Luke 12:18 (where Tr [text WH] τὸν σῖτον); τῆς ἀμπέλου, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 22:18; cf. Lob ad Phryn. p. 286. Metaphorically fruit, reward, profit: τῆς δικαιοσύνης, 2 Corinthians 9:10, (Hosea 10:12; τῆς σοφίας, Sir. 1:17; 6:19). Further, see γένημα.TGL γέννημα.4

    Related entry: γένημα, -ατος, τό, (from γίνομαι), a form supported by the best manuscripts in Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; Luke 12:18; Luke 22:18; 2 Corinthians 9:10, and therefore adopted by T [see his Proleg., p. 79] Tr [L WH (see WH's Appendix, p. 148 and below)], printed by Griesbach only in Luke 12:18; 2 Corinthians 9:10, but given by no grammarian, and therefore attributed by Fritzsche (on Mark, p. 619f) to the carelessness of transcribers, — for Rec. [but in Luke, the passage cited Rst reads γενημ.] γέννημα, which see. In Mark 14:25 Lachmann has retained the common reading; [and in Luke 12:18 Tr text WH have σῖτον. In Ezekiel 36:30 manuscripts A B read γενήματα].TGL γέννημα.5


    (1082) Γεννησαρέτ [so G T Tr WH], -ρέθ [Lachmann in Matthew 14:34], [Γενησαρέτ Rec. in Mark 6:53; cf. Tdf. edition 2 Proleg., p. xxxv., edition 7 Proleg., p. liv. note8], (Targums גֲּנֵיסַר or גִּנּוסַר [according to Delitzsch (Römerbr. in d. Hebrew übers., p. 27) גִּנֵּיסַר, גִּנּוּסַר]; Γεννησάρ, 1 Macc. 11:67; Josephus, b. j. 2, 20, 6 etc.; Genesara, Pliny, 5, 15), Gennesaret, a very lovely and fertile region on the Sea of Galilee (Josephus, b. j. 3, 10, 7): γῆ Γεννησ. Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53; λίμνη Γεννησ. Luke 5:1, anciently כִּנֶּרֶת יָם, Numbers 34:11, or כִּנֲּרות יָם, Joshua 12:3, from the city כִּנֶּרֶת, Deuteronomy 3:17, which was near by; called in the Gospels θάλασσα τῆς Γαλιλαίας, Mark 1:16; Matthew 4:18; θάλασσα τῆς Τιβεριάδος, John 6:1; John 21:1. The lake, according to Josephus, b. j. 3, 10, 7, is 140 stadia long and 40 wide; [its extreme dimensions now are said to average 12 1/4 miles by 6 3/4 miles, and its level to be nearly 700 feet below that of the Mediterranean]. Cf. Rüetschi in Herzog v., p. 6f; Furrer in Schenkel ii., p. 322ff; [Wilson in "The Recovery of Jerusalem," Part ii.; Robinson, Phys. Geog. of the Holy Land, p. 199ff; BB. DD. For conjectures respecting the derivation of the word cf. Alex.'s Kitto under the end; Merrill, Galilee in the Time of Christ, § vii.].TGL Γεννησαρέτ.2


    (1083) γέννησις, -εως, , (γεννάω), a begetting, engendering (often so in Plato); nativity, birth: Rec. in Matthew 1:18 and Luke 1:14; see γένεσις , 2.TGL γέννησις.2


    (1084) γεννητός, -ή, -όν, (γεννάω), begotten, born (often in Plato; Diodorus 1, 6ff); after the Hebrew (אִשָּׁה יְלוּד, Job 14:1, etc.), γεννητοὶ γυναικῶν [Buttmann, 169 (147), born of women] is a periphrasis for men, with the implied idea of weakness and frailty: Matthew 11:11; Luke 7:28.TGL γεννητός.2


    (1085) γένος, -ους, τό, (ΓΕΝΩ, γίνομαι), race;TGL γένος.2

    a. offspring: τινός, Acts 17:28 (from the poet Aratus); Revelation 22:16.TGL γένος.3

    b. family: [Acts 4:6, see ἀρχιερεύς , 2 at the end]; Acts 7:13 [others refer this to c.]; Acts 13:26.TGL γένος.4

    c. stock, race: Acts 7:19; 2 Corinthians 11:26; Philippians 3:5; Galatians 1:14; 1 Peter 2:9; (Genesis 11:6; Genesis 17:14, etc. for עַם); nation (i. e. nationality or descent from a particular people): Mark 7:26; Acts 4:36; Acts 18:2, Acts 18:24.TGL γένος.5

    d. concrete, the aggregate of many individuals of the same nature, kind, sort, species: Matthew 13:47; Matthew 17:21 [T WH omit; Tr brackets the verse]; Mark 9:29; 1 Corinthians 12:10, 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 14:10.TGL γένος.6

    (With the same significations in Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL γένος.7


    (1086) Γεργεσηνός, -ή, -όν, Gergesene, belonging to the city Gergesa, which is assumed to have been situated on the eastern shore of Lake Gennesaret: Matthew 8:28 Rec. But this reading depends on the authority and opinion of Origen, who thought the variants found in his manuscripts Γαδαρηνῶν and Γερασηνῶν (see these words) must be made to conform to the testimony of those who said that there was formerly a certain city Gergesa near the lake. But Josephus knows nothing of it, and states expressly (Antiquities 1, 6, 2), that no trace of the ancient Gergesites [A. V. Girgashites, cf. B. D. under the word] (mentioned Genesis 15:20; Joshua 24:11) had survived, except the names preserved in the O. T.TGL Γερασηνός.2

    Hence, in Matthew 8:28 we must read Γαδαρηνῶν [so T Tr WH] and suppose that the jurisdiction of the city Gadara extended quite to the Lake of Gennesaret; but that Matthew (Matthew 8:34) erroneously thought that this city was situated on the lake itself.TGL Γερασηνός.3

    For in Mark 5:14; Luke 8:34, there is no objection to the supposition that the men came to Jesus from the rural districts alone.TGL Γερασηνός.4

    [But for the light thrown on this matter by modern research, see B. D. American edition under the word Gadara; Thomson, The Land and the Book, ii. 34ff; Wilson in "The Recovery of Jerusalem" p. 286f.]TGL Γερασηνός.5

    Related entry: Γερασηνός, -οῦ, , Gerasene, i. e. belonging to the ciry Gerasa (τὰ Γέρασα, Josephus b. j. 3, 3, 3): Matthew 8:28 [Lachmann]; Mark 5:1 [L T WH Tr text]; Luke 8:26 and Luke 8:37 [L Tr WH] according to very man manuscripts seen by Origen. But since Gerasa was a city situated in the southern part of Peræa (Josephus passage cited, cf. 4, 9, 1), or in Arabia (Orig. opp. iv. 140 ed. De la Rue), that cannot be referred to here; see Γαδαρηνός, and the next word.TGL Γερασηνός.6


    (1087) γερουσία, -ας, , (adjective γερούσιος, belonging to old men, γέρων), a senate, council of elders; used in secular authors of the chief council of nations and cities (ἐν ταῖς πόλεσι αἱ γερουσίαι, Xenophon, mem. 4, 4, 16; in the O. T. of the chief council not only of the whole people of Israel, Exodus 3:16, etc.; 1 Macc. 12:6, etc.; but also of cities, Deuteronomy 19:12, etc.); of the Great Council, the Sanhedrin of the Jews: Acts 5:21, where to τὸ συνέδριον is added καὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γερουσίαν τῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ and indeed (καί explicative) all the senate, to signify the full Sanhedrin. [Cf. Schürer, Die Gemeindeverfassung d. Juden in Rom in d. Kaiserzeit nach d. Inschriften dargestellt. Leips. 1879, p. 18f; Hatch, Bamp. Lects. for 1880, p. 64f.]TGL γερουσία.2


    (1088) γέρων, -οντος, , [from Homer down], an old man: John 3:4. [Synonym: cf. Augustine in Trench, § 107:2.]TGL γέρων.2


    (1089) γεύω: [cf. Latin gusto , German kosten; Curtius, § 131]; to cause to taste, to give one a taste of, τινά (Genesis 25:30). In the N. T. only the middle γεύομαι: future γεύσομαι; 1 aorist ἐγευσάμην;TGL γεύομαι.2

    1. to taste, try the flavor of: Matthew 27:34; contrary to better Greek usage (cf. Winers Grammar, § 30, 7 c. [and p. 36; Anthol. Pal. 6, 120]) with the accusative of the object: John 2:9.TGL γεύομαι.3

    2. to taste, i. e. perceive the flavor of, partake of, enjoy: τινος, Luke 14:24 (γεύσεταί μου τοῦ δείπνου, i. e. shall partake of my banquet); hence, as in Greek writings from Homer down, equivalent to to feel, make trial of, experience: τινός, Hebrews 6:4; ῤῆμα θεοῦ, Hebrews 6:5, (τῆς γνώσεως, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 36, 2). as in Chaldean, Syriac, and rabbinical writers, γεύεσθαι τοῦ θανάτου [Winer's Grammar, 33 (32)]: Matthew 16:28; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27; John 8:52; Hebrews 2:9; [cf. Wetstein on Matthew, the passage cited; Meyer on John, the passage cited; Bleek, Lünem., Alford on Hebrews, the passage cited], followed by ὅτι: 1 Peter 2:3 (Psalms 33:9 (Psalms 34:9)).TGL γεύομαι.4

    3. to take food, eat: absolutely, Acts 10:10; Acts 20:11; cf. Kypke, Observations, ii., p. 47; to take nourishment, eat — [but substantially as above], with the genitive μηδενός, Acts 23:14; with the ellipsis of a genitive denoting unlawful food, Colossians 2:21.TGL γεύομαι.5


    (1090) γεωργέω, -ῶ: [present passive γεωργοῦμαι]; (γεωργός, which see); to practise agriculture, to till the ground: τὴν γῆν (Plato, Theag., p. 121 b.; Eryx., p. 392 d.; [others]; 1 Esdr. 4:6; 1 Macc. 14:8); passive: Hebrews 6:7.TGL γεωργέω.2


    (1091) γεώργιον, -ου, τό, a (cultivated) field: 1 Corinthians 3:9 [A. V. husbandry (with margin tillage)]. (Proverbs 24:45 (Proverbs 24:30); Proverbs 31:16 (Prov. 29:34); Theag. in schol. Pindar Nem. 3, 21; Strabo 14, 5, 6, p. 671; [others].)TGL γεώργιον.2


    (1092) γεωργός, -οῦ, , (from γῆ and ΕΡΓΩ), from [Herodotus], Xenophon, and Plato down; a husbandman, tiller of the soil: 2 Timothy 2:6; James 5:7; several times in the Sept. ; used of a vine-dresser (Aelian nat. an. 7, 28; [Plato, Theaet., p. 178 d.; others]) in Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1, Mark 12:7, Mark 12:9; Luke 20:9, Luke 20:14, Luke 20:16; John 15:1.TGL γεωργός.2


    (1093) γῆ, genitive γῆς, , (contracted from γέα, poetic γαῖα), Sept. very often for אֶרֶץ and אֲדָמָה, earth;TGL γῆ.2

    1. arable land: Matthew 13:5, Matthew 13:8, Matthew 13:23; Mark 4:8, Mark 4:20, Mark 4:26, Mark 4:28, Mark 4:31; Luke 13:7; Luke 14:35 (Luke 14:34); John 12:24; Hebrews 6:7; James 5:7; Revelation 9:4; of the earthy material out of which a thing is formed, with the implied idea of frailty and weakness: ἐκ γῆς χοϊκός, 1 Corinthians 15:47.TGL γῆ.3

    2. the ground, the earth as a standing-place, (German Boden): Matthew 10:29; Matthew 15:35; Matthew 23:35; Matthew 27:51; Mark 8:6; Mark 9:20; Mark 14:35; Luke 22:44 [L brackets WH reject the passage]; Luke 24:5; John 8:6, John 8:8 [i. e. Rec. ]; Acts 9:4, Acts 9:8.TGL γῆ.4

    3. the main land, opposed to sea or water: Mark 4:1; Mark 6:47; Luke 5:3; Luke 8:27; John 6:21; John 21:8, John 21:11; Revelation 12:12.TGL γῆ.5

    4. the earth as a whole, the world (Latin terrarum orbis );TGL γῆ.6

    a. the earth as opposed to the heavens: Matthew 5:18, Matthew 5:35; Matthew 6:10; Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18; Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 2:14; John 12:32; Acts 2:19; Acts 4:24; 2 Peter 3:5, 2 Peter 3:7, 2 Peter 3:10, 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1; τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς the things and beings that are on the earth, Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:16 [T WH omit; L Tr brackets τά]; involving a suggestion of mutability, frailty, infirmity, alike in thought and in action, Matthew 6:19; τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς (equivalent to τὰ ἐπίγεια, Philippians 3:19) terrestrial goods, pleasures, honors, Colossians 3:2 (opposed to τὰ ἄνω); τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς the members of your earthly body, as it were the abode and instruments of corrupt desires, Colossians 3:5; ὢν ἐκ τῆς γῆς... λαλεῖ (in contrast with Christ as having come from heaven) he who is of earthly (human) origin, has an earthly nature, and speaks as his earthly origin and nature prompt, John 3:31.TGL γῆ.7

    b. the inhabited earth, the abode of men and animals: Luke 21:35; Acts 1:8; Acts 10:12; Acts 11:6; Acts 17:26; Hebrews 11:13; Revelation 3:10; αἴρειν ζωην τινος or τινὰ ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, Acts 8:33; Acts 22:22; κληρονομεῖν τὴν γῆν (see κληρονομέω , 2), Matthew 5:5 (Matthew 5:4); πῦρ βάλλειν ἐπὶ [Rec. εἰς] τὴν γῆν, i. e. among men, Luke 12:49, cf. Luke 12:51 and Matthew 10:34; ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς among men, Luke 18:8; John 17:4.TGL γῆ.8

    5. a country, land enclosed within fixed boundaries, a tract of land, territory, region; simply, when it is plain from the context what land is meant, as that of the Jews: Luke 4:25; Luke 21:23; Romans 9:28; James 5:17; with a gentile noun added [then, as a rule, anarthrous, Winer's Grammar, 121 (114f)]: γῆ Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 2:20; Ἰούδα, Matthew 2:6; Γεννησαρέτ, Matthew 14:34; Mark 6:53; Σοδόμων κ. Γομόρρων, Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:24; Χαλδαίων, Acts 7:4; Αἴγυπτος, (see Αἴγυπτος ); Ἰουδαία γῆ, John 3:22; with the addition of an adjective: ἀλλοτρία, Acts 7:6; ἐκείνη, Matthew 9:26, Matthew 9:31; with the genitive of person one's country, native land, Acts 7:3.TGL γῆ.9


    (1094) γῆρας, -αος (-ως), Ionic γήρεος, dative γήρεï, γήρει, τό, [from Homer down], old age: Luke 1:36 ἐν γήρει G L T Tr WH for Rec. ἐν γήρᾳ, a form found without variant in Sir. 25:3; [also Psalms 91:15 (Psalms 92:15); cf. Genesis 15:15 Alex. ; Genesis 21:7; Genesis 25:8; 1 Chronicles 29:28 ibid.; Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 10:1-33, 1 Corinthians 10:7 variant; cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 117]; Fritzsche on Sir. 3:12; Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 155; Winers Grammar, [36 and] 64 (62); [Buttmann, 15 (14)].TGL γῆρας.2


    (1095) γηράσκω or γηράω: 1 aorist ἐγήρὰσα; from Homer down; [cf. Winers Grammar, 92 (88); Donaldson, New Crat. § 387]; to grow old: John 21:18; of things, institutions, etc., to fail from age, be obsolescent: Hebrews 8:13 (to be deprived of force and authority; [here associated with παλαιούμενος — the latter (used only of things) marking the lapse of time, while γηράσκων carries with it a suggestion of the waning strength, the decay, incident to old age (cf. Schmidt, chapter 46, 7; Theophrastus, caus. pl. 6, 7, 5): "that which is becoming old and faileth for age" etc.]).TGL γηράσκω.2


    (1096) γίνομαι (in Ionic prose writings and in common Greek from Aristotle, on for Attic γίγνομαι); [imperfect ἐγινόμην]; future γενήσομαι; 2 aorist ἐγενόμην (often in 3 person singular optative γένοιτο; [participle γενάμενος, Luke 24:22 Tdf. edition 7]), and, with no difference in significance, 1 aorist passive ἐγενήθην, rejected by the Atticists (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 108f; [Thomas Magister, Ritschl edition, p. 75, 6f]), not rare in later Greek, common in the Sept. (Acts 4:4; 1 Thessalonians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 15:10, etc.), imperative γενηθήτω (Matthew 6:10; Matthew 15:28, etc.); perfect γεγένημαι and γέγονα, 3 person plural γέγοναν L T Tr WH in Romans 16:7 and Revelation 21:6 (cf. [Tdf. Proleg., p. 124; WHs Appendix, p. 166; Sophocles Lexicon, p. 37f; Curtius, Das Verbum, 2:187]; Winers Grammar, 36 and 76f (73f); Mullach, p. 16; Buttmann, 43 (37f)), [participle γεγονώς]; pluperfect 3 person singular ἐγεγόνει (John 6:17 [not Tdf. ]; Acts 4:22 [where L T Tr WH γεγόνει, cf. Winers Grammar, § 12, 9; Buttmann, 33 (29); Tdf. s note on the passage]); to become, andTGL γίνομαι.2

    1. to become, i. e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being: absolutely, John 1:15, John 1:30 (ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν); John 8:58 (πρὶν Ἀβραὰμ γενέσθαι); 1 Corinthians 15:37 (τὸ σῶμα τὸ γενησόμενον); ἔκ τινος, to be born, Romans 1:3 (ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυΐδ); Galatians 4:4 (ἐκ γυναικός); Matthew 21:19 (μηκέτι ἐκ σοῦ καρπὸς γένηται, come from); of the origin of all things, Hebrews 11:3; διά τινος, John 1:3, John 1:10. to rise, arise, come on, appear, of occurrences in nature or in life: as γίνεται βροντή, John 12:29; ἀστραπή, Revelation 8:5; σεισμός, [Revelation 6:12; Revelation 11:13]; Revelation 16:18; γαλήνη, Matthew 8:26; Mark 4:39; Luke 8:24; λαῖλαψ, Mark 4:37; γογγυσμός, Acts 6:1; ζήτησις, John 3:25 [followed by ἐκ of origin; στάσις καὶ ζήτησις], Acts 15:2 [Griesbach questions ζήτ., Rec. reads συζήτ.]; πόλεμος, Revelation 12:7; βασιλεία [or αἱ β.] κτλ., Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10; χαρά, Acts 8:8, and in many other examples. Here belong also the phrases γίνεται ἡμέρα it becomes day, day comes on, Luke 4:42; Luke 6:13; Luke 22:66; Acts 12:18; Acts 16:35; Acts 23:12; Acts 27:29, Acts 27:33, Acts 27:39; γ. ὀψέ evening comes, Mark 11:19, equivalent to γ. ὀψία, Matthew 8:16; Matthew 14:15, Matthew 14:23; Matthew 16:2 [T brackets WH reject the passage]; Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:17; John 6:16, etc.; πρωΐα, Matthew 27:1; John 21:4; νύξ, Acts 27:27 [cf. under the word ἐπιγίν. 2]; σκοτία, John 6:17 [not Tdf. ]. Hence,TGL γίνομαι.3

    2. to become equivalent to to come to pass, happen, of events;TGL γίνομαι.4

    a. universally: Matthew 5:18; Matthew 24:6, Matthew 24:20, Matthew 24:34; Luke 1:20; Luke 12:54; Luke 21:28; John 1:28; John 13:19, etc.; τοῦτο γέγονεν, ἵνα etc. this hath come to pass that etc., Matthew 1:22; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 26:56; τὰ γενόμενα or γινόμενα, Matthew 18:31; Matthew 27:54; Matthew 28:11; Luke 23:48; [cf. τὰ γενόμενα ἀγαθά, Hebrews 9:11 L WH text Tr marginal reading]; τὸ γενόμενον, Luke 23:47; τὸ γεγονός, Mark 5:14; Luke 24:12 [T omits; L Tr brackets; WH reject the verse]; Acts 4:21; τὸ ῥῆμα τὸ γεγονός, Luke 2:15; τὰ μέλλοντα γίνεσθαι, Luke 21:36; Acts 26:22; τὴν ἀνάστασιν ἤδη γεγονέναι, 2 Timothy 2:18; θανάτου γενομένου a death having taken place (German nach erfolgtem Tode ), Hebrews 9:15. μὴ γένοιτο, a formula especially frequent in Paul (and in Epictetus, cf. Schweigh. Index Graec. in Epictetus, p. 392), Far be it! God forbid! [cf. Morison, Exposition of Romans 3:1-31, p. 31f]: Luke 20:16; Romans 3:4, Romans 3:6, Romans 3:31; Romans 6:2, Romans 6:15; Romans 7:7, Romans 7:13; Romans 9:14; Romans 11:1, Romans 11:11; 1 Corinthians 6:15; Galatians 2:17; Galatians 3:21 (equivalent to חָלִילָה, Joshua 22:29, etc.); cf. Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 204f; τί γέγονεν, ὅτι etc. what has come to pass, that etc. equivalent to for what reason, why? John 14:22 (τί ἐγένετο, ὅτι... Ecclesiastes 7:11 (Ecclesiastes 7:10); τί ἐστιν, ὡς etc., Euripides, Troad. 889).TGL γίνομαι.5

    b. Very common in the first three Gospels, especially that of Luke, and in the Acts, is the phrase καὶ ἐγένετο (וַיְהִי followed by וְ); cf. Winers Grammar, § 65, 4 e. [also § 44, 3 c.], and especially Buttmann, § 141, 6.TGL γίνομαι.6

    α . καὶ ἐγένετο καί with a finite verb: Mark 2:15 ([Tr text καὶ γίνεται], T WH καὶ γίν. [followed by the accusative and infinitive]); Luke 2:15 [R G L brackets Tr brackets]; Luke 8:1; Luke 14:1; Luke 17:11; Luke 19:15; Luke 24:15 [WH brackets καί]; followed by καὶ ἰδού, Matthew 9:10 [T omits καί before ἰδ.]; Luke 24:4.TGL γίνομαι.7

    β . much more often καί is not repeated: Matthew 7:28; Mark 4:4; Luke 1:23; [Luke 2:15 T WH], Luke 2:46; Luke 6:12; Luke 7:11; Luke 9:18, Luke 9:33; Luke 11:1; Luke 19:29; Luke 24:30.TGL γίνομαι.8

    γ . καὶ ἐγέν. followed by the accusative with an infinitive: Mark 2:23 [Winer's Grammar, 578 (537) note]; Luke 6:1, Luke 6:6 [R G ἐγέν. δὲ καί].TGL γίνομαι.9

    c. In like manner ἐγένετο δέTGL γίνομαι.10

    α . followed by καί with a finite verb: Luke 5:1; Luke 9:28 [WH text omits; L brackets καί, Luke 9:51; Luke 10:38 R G T, L Tr marginal reading brackets καί]; Acts 5:7.TGL γίνομαι.11

    β . ἐγένετο δέ followed by a finite verb without καί: Luke 1:8; Luke 2:1, Luke 2:6; [Luke 6:12 R G L]; Luke 8:40 [WH Tr text omit ἐγέν.]; Luke 9:37; Luke 11:14, Luke 11:27.TGL γίνομαι.12

    γ . ἐγενετο δέ followed by the accusative with an infinitive: Luke 3:21; [Luke 6:1, Luke 6:6 L T Tr WH, Luke 6:12 T Tr WH]; Luke 16:22; Acts 4:5; Acts 9:3 [without δέ], Acts 9:32, Acts 9:37; Acts 11:26 R G; Acts 14:1; [Acts 16:16; Acts 19:1]; Acts 28:8, [Acts 28:17].TGL γίνομαι.13

    δ . ἐγέν. δέ [ὡς δὲ ἐγέν.) followed by τοῦ with an infinitive: Acts 10:25 (Rec. omits τοῦ), cf. Meyer at the passage and Winers Grammar, 328 (307); [Buttmann, 270 (232)].TGL γίνομαι.14

    d. with the dative of person to occur or happen to one, befall one: followed by an infinitive, Acts 20:16; ἐὰν γένηται (namely, αὐτῷ) εὑρεῖν αὐτό, if it happen to him, Matthew 18:13; ἐμοὶ δὲ μὴ γένοιτο καυχᾶσθαι far be it from me to glory, Galatians 6:14 (Genesis 44:7, Genesis 44:17; 1 Kings 20:3 (1 Kings 21:3); Alciphron, epistles 1, 26); followed by the accusative with an infinitive it happened to me, that etc.: Acts 11:26 L T Tr WH [but the accusative implied]; Acts 22:6, Acts 22:17, [cf. Winers Grammar, 323 (303); Buttmann, 305 (262)]; with adverbs, go, fare (German ergehen): εὖ, Ephesians 6:3 (μὴ γένοιτό σοι οὕτω κακῶς, Aelian v. h. 9, 36). with specification of the thing befalling one: τί γέγονεν [L T Tr text WH ἐγέν.] αὐτῷ, Acts 7:40 (from Exodus 32:1); ἐγένετο [L T Tr WH ἐγίνετο] πάσῃ ψυχῇ φόβος fear came upon, Acts 2:43Mark 4:11; Mark 9:21; Luke 19:9; John 5:14; John 15:7; Romans 11:25; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 1:8 [G L T Tr WH omit the dative]; 2 Timothy 3:11; 1 Peter 4:12; with the ellipsis of ἡμῖν, John 1:17. ἐγένετο (αὐτῷ) γνώμη a purpose occurred to him, he determined, Acts 20:3 [Buttmann, 268 (230), but T Tr WH read ἐγέν. γνώμης; see below, 5 e. α]. followed by prepositions: ἐπ’ αὐτῇ upon (German bei or an ) her, Mark 5:33 [R G L brackets]; εἴς τινα, Acts 28:6.TGL γίνομαι.15

    3. to arise, appear in history, come upon the stage: of men appearing in public, Mark 1:4; John 1:6 [on which two passages compare Winers Grammar, 350 (328); Buttmann, 308f (264f)]; 2 Peter 2:1; γεγόνασι, have arisen and now exist, 1 John 2:18.TGL γίνομαι.16

    4. to be made, done, finished: τὰ ἔργα, Hebrews 4:3; διὰ χειρῶν, of things fabricated, Acts 19:26; of miracles to be performed, wrought: διὰ τῶν χειρῶν τινος, Mark 6:2; διά τινος, Acts 2:43; Acts 4:16, Acts 4:30; Acts 12:9; ὑπό τινος, Luke 9:7 (R L [but the latter brackets ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ]); Luke 13:17; Luke 23:8; γενόμενα εἰς Καφαρν. done unto (on) Capernaum i. e. for its benefit (Winers Grammar, 416 (388); [cf. Buttmann, 333 (286)]), Luke 4:23 [Rec. ἐν τῇ Κ.] of commands, decisions, purposes, requests, etc. to be done, executed: Matthew 6:10; Matthew 21:21; Matthew 26:42; Mark 11:23; Luke 14:22; Luke 23:24; Acts 21:14; γενήσεται λόγος will be accomplished the saying, 1 Corinthians 15:54. joined to nouns implying a certain action: ἀπώλεια γέγονε, Mark 14:4; ἀπογραφή, Luke 2:2; ἐπαγγελία γενομένη ὑπὸ θεοῦ given by God, Acts 26:6; ἀνάκρισις, Acts 25:26; νόμου μετάθεσις, Hebrews 7:12; ἄφεσις, Hebrews 9:22. of institutions, laws, etc. to be established, enacted: τὸ σάββατον ἐγένετο, the institution of the Sabbath, Mark 2:27; νόμος, Galatians 3:17; οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως hath not been so ordained, Matthew 19:8. of feasts, marriages, entertainments, to be kept, celebrated: τὸ πάσχα, Matthew 26:2 (equivalent to נַעֲשֶׂה, 2 Kings 23:22); τὸ σάββατον, Mark 6:2; τὰ ἐγκαίνια, John 10:22; [γενεσίοις γενομένοις (cf. Winers Grammar, § 31, 9 b.; R G γενεσίων ἀγομένων), Matthew 14:6], (τὰ Ὀλυμπια, Xenophon, Hell. 7, 4, 28; Ἴσθμια, 4, 5, 1); γάμος, John 2:1. οὕτως γένηται ἐν ἐμοί so done with me, in my case, 1 Corinthians 9:15.TGL γίνομαι.17

    5. to become, be made, "in passages where it is specified who or what a person or thing is or has been rendered, as respects quality, condition, place, rank, character" (Wahl, Clavis Apocr. V. T., p. 101).TGL γίνομαι.18

    a. with a predicate added, expressed by a substantive or an adjective: οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται, Matthew 4:3; Luke 4:3; ὕδωρ οἶνον γεγενημένον, John 2:9; ἀρχιερεὺς γενόμενος, Hebrews 6:20; διάκονος, Colossians 1:25; λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο, John 1:14; ἀνήρ, 1 Corinthians 13:11, and many other examples; χάρις οὐκέτι γίνεται χάρις grace ceases to have the nature of grace, can no longer be called grace, Romans 11:6; ἄκαρπος γίνεται, Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:19; — in Matthew 17:2; Luke 8:17; John 5:6, and many other places. contextually, to show oneself, prove oneself: Luke 10:36; Luke 19:17; Luke 24:19; Romans 11:34; Romans 16:2; 2 Corinthians 1:18 Rec. ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 2:7; Hebrews 11:6, etc.; especially in exhortations: γίνεσθε, Matthew 10:16; Matthew 24:44; Luke 6:36; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 3:15; μὴ γίνου, John 20:27; μὴ γίνεσθε, Matthew 6:16; Ephesians 5:7, Ephesians 5:17; 1 Corinthians 10:7; μὴ γινώμεθα, Galatians 5:26; hence, used declaratively, equivalent to to be found, shown: Luke 13:2 (that it was shown by their fate that they were sinners); Romans 3:4; 2 Corinthians 7:14; — γίνομαί τινί τις to show oneself (to be) someone to one: 1 Corinthians 9:20, 1 Corinthians 9:22.TGL γίνομαι.19

    b. with an interrogative pronoun as predicate: τί Πέτρος ἐγένετο what had become of Peter, Acts 12:18 [cf. use of τί ἐγέν. in Act. Phil. in Hell. § 23, Tdf. Acta apost. apocr., p. 104].TGL γίνομαι.20

    c. γίνεσθαι ὡς or ὡσεί τινα to become as or like to one: Matthew 10:25; Matthew 18:3; Matthew 28:4; Mark 9:26; Luke 22:44 [L brackets WH reject the passage]; Romans 9:29 (from Isaiah 1:9); 1 Corinthians 4:13; Galatians 4:12.TGL γίνομαι.21

    d. γίνεσθα εἴς τι to become i. e. be changed into something, come to be, issue in, something (German zu etwas werden ): ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:7 — all after Psalm 117:22 (Psalms 118:22). Luke 13:19 (εἰς δένδρον μέγα); John 16:20; Acts 5:36; Romans 11:9 (from Psalms 68:23: (Psalms 68:23)); 1 Thessalonians 3:5; Revelation 8:11; Revelation 16:19, etc. (equivalent to לְ הָיָה; but the expression is also classic; cf. Winers Grammar, § 29, 3 a.; Buttmann, 150 (131)).TGL γίνομαι.22

    e. γίνεσθαι with Cases;TGL γίνομαι.23

    α . with the genitive to become the property of anyone, to come into the power of a person or thing, [cf. Winers Grammar, § 30, 5; especially Buttmann, 162 (142)]: Luke 20:14 [L marginal reading ἔσται], Luke 20:33; Revelation 11:15; [γνώμης, Acts 20:3 T Tr WH (cf. ἐλπίδος μεγάλης γίν. Plutarch, Phocylides , 23, 4)]; προφητεία ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως οὐ γίνεται no one can explain prophecy by his own mental power (it is not a matter of subjective interpretation), but to explain it one needs the same illumination of the Holy Spirit in which it originated, for etc. 2 Peter 1:20. γενέσθαι with a genitive indicating one's age, (to be) so many years old: Luke 2:42; 1 Timothy 5:9.TGL γίνομαι.24

    β . with the dative [cf. Winer's Grammer 210f (198)]: γίνεσθαι ἀνδρί to become a man's wife, Romans 7:3 (הָיָה לְאִישׁ, Leviticus 22:12; Ruth 1:12, etc.).TGL γίνομαι.25

    f. joined to prepositions with their substantives; ἔν τινι, to come or pass into a certain state [cf. Buttmann, 330 (284)]: ἐν ἀγωνίᾳ, Luke 22:44 [L brackets WH reject the passage]; ἐν ἐκστάσει, Acts 22:17; ἐν πνεύματι, Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2; ἐν δόξῃ [R. V. came with (in) glory], 2 Corinthians 3:7; ἐν παραβάσει, 1 Timothy 2:14; ἐν ἑαυτῷ, to come to himself, recover reason, Acts 12:11 (also in Greek writings; cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 749); ἐν Χριστῷ, to be brought to the fellowship of Christ, to become a Christian, Romans 16:7; ἐν ὁμοιώματι ἀνθρώπων, to become like men, Philippians 2:7; ἐν λόγῳ κολακείας [R. V. were we found using] flattering speech, 1 Thessalonians 2:5. ἐπάνω τινός to be placed over a thing, Luke 19:19. μετά τινος or σύν τινι to become one's companion, associate with him: Mark 16:10; Acts 7:38; Acts 20:18; ὑπό τινα to be made subject to one, Galatians 4:4. [Cf. h. below.]TGL γίνομαι.26

    g. with specification of the terminus of motion or the place of rest: εἰς with the accusative of place, to come to some place, arrive at something, Acts 20:16; Acts 21:17; Acts 25:15; ὡς ἐγένετο... εἰς τὰ ὦτα μου when the voice came into my ears, Luke 1:44; εἰς with the accusative of person, of evils coming upon one, Revelation 16:2 R G; of blessings, Galatians 3:14; 1 Thessalonians 1:5 [Lachmann πρός; Acts 26:6 L T Tr WH]; γενέσθαι ἐπὶ τοῦ τόπου, Luke 22:40; ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, John 6:21 [Tdf. ἐπὶ τὴν γ.]; ὧδε, John 6:25 (ἐκεῖ, Xenophon, an. 6, 3 [5], 20; [cf. Buttmann, 71]); ἐπί with the accusative of place, Luke 24:22; Acts 21:35; [John 6:21 Tdf. ]; ἐγένετο διωγμὸς ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, Acts 8:1; ἐγένετο φόβος or θάμβος ἐπὶ πάντας, Luke 1:65; Luke 4:36; Acts 5:5, Acts 5:11; [ἔκστασις, Acts 10:10 (Rec. ἐπέπεσεν)]; ἕλκος κακόν κ. πονηρὸν ἐπὶ τ. ἀνθρώπους, Revelation 16:2 L T Tr WH; ἐγένετο ῤῆμα ἐπί τινα, λόγος or φωνὴ πρός τινα (came to): Luke 3:2; John 10:35; Acts 7:31 [Rec. ]; Acts 10:13, (Genesis 15:1, Genesis 15:4; Jeremiah 1:2, Jeremiah 1:11; Jeremiah 13:8; Ezekiel 6:1; Hosea 1:1); [ἐπαγγελία, Acts 13:32; Acts 26:6 Rec. ]; κατά with the accusative of place, Luke 10:32 [Tr WH omit]; Acts 27:7, (Xenophon, Cyril 7, 1, 15); κατά with the genitive: τὸ γενόμενον ῤῆμα καθ’ ὅλης τῆς Ἰουδαίας the matter the report of which spread throughout all Judæa, Acts 10:37; πρός τινα, 2 John 1:12 (Rec. ἐλθεῖν); 1 Corinthians 2:3; σύν τινι, to be joined to one as an associate, Luke 2:13 (Xenophon, Cyril 5, 3, 8); ἐγγὺς γίνεσθαι, Ephesians 2:13; τινός, John 6:19;TGL γίνομαι.27

    h . [with ἐκ of the source (see 1 above): Mark 1:11 (Tdf. omits ἐγέν.); Mark 9:7 (T Tr marginal reading WH); Luke 3:22; Luke 9:35; Acts 19:34]; γίνεσθαι ἐκ μέσου, to be taken out of the way, 2 Thessalonians 2:7; γενέσθαι ὁμοθυμαδόν, of many come together in one place, Acts 15:25 cf. Acts 2:1 [but only in R G; γενομένοις ὁμοθυμαδόν in Acts 15:25 may mean either having become of one mind, or possibly having come together with one accord. On the alleged use of γίνομαι in the N. T. as interchangeable with εἰμί see Fritzschior. Opuscc., p. 284 note. Compare: ἀπο-, δια-, ἐπι-, παρα-, συμ- παρα-, προγίνομαι.]TGL γίνομαι.28


    (1097) γινώσκω (Attic γιγνώσκω, see γίνομαι at the beginning; from ΓΝΟΩ, as βιβρώσκω from ΒΡΟΩ); [imperfect ἐγίνωσκον]; future γνώσομαι; 2 aorist ἔγνων (from ΓΝΩΜΙ), imperative γνῶθι, γνώτω, subjunctive γνῷ (3 person singular γνοῖ, Mark 5:43; Mark 9:30; Luke 19:15 L T Tr WH, for R G γνῷ [Buttmann, p. 46 (40); cf. δίδωμι at the beginning]), infinitive γνῶναι, participle γνούς; perfect ἔγνωκα (John 17:7; 3 person plural ἔγνωκαν for ἐγνώκασι, see references in γίνομαι at the beginning); pluperfect ἐγνώκειν; passive [present 3 person singular γινώσκεται (Mark 13:28 Tr marginal reading)]; perfect ἐγνωσμαι; 1 aorist ἐγνώσθην; future γνωσθήσομαι; in Greek writings from Homer down; Sept. for יָדַע; Latin nosco , novi (i. e. gnosco, gnovi );TGL γινώσκω.2

    I. universally:TGL γινώσκω.3

    1. to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of; passive to become known: with the accusative, Matthew 22:18; Mark 5:43; Acts 21:34; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 2:4; Colossians 4:8; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, etc. Passive, Matthew 10:26; Acts 9:24; Philippians 4:5, etc.; [impersonally, γινώσκεται, Mark 13:28 Tr marginal reading T 2, 7]; τὶ ἔκ τινος, Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:44; 1 John 4:6; τινὰ or τὶ ἔν τινι, to find a sign in a thing by which to know, to recognize in or by something, Luke 24:35; John 13:35; 1 John 4:2; κατὰ τί γνώσομαι τοῦτο, the truth of this promise, Luke 1:18 (Genesis 15:8); περὶ τῆς διδαχῆς, John 7:17. often the object is not added, but is readily understood from what precedes: Matthew 9:30; Matthew 12:15 (the consultation held by the Pharisees); Mark 7:24 (he would have no one know that he was present): Mark 9:30; Romans 10:19, etc.; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 4:1; John 5:6; John 12:9, etc.; followed by the interrogative τί, Matthew 6:3; Luke 16:4; ἀπό τινος to learn from one, Mark 15:45. with the accusative of person to recognize as worthy of intimacy and love, to own; so those whom God has judged worthy of the blessings of the gospel are said ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ γινώσκεσθαι, 1 Corinthians 8:3; Galatians 4:9, [on both cf. Winers Grammar, § 39, 3 Note 2; Buttmann, 55 (48)]; negatively, in the sentence of Christ οὐδέποτε ἔγνων ὑμᾶς, I never knew you, never had any acquaintance with you, Matthew 7:23. to perceive, feel: ἔγνω τῷ σώματι, ὅτι etc. Mark 5:29; ἔγνων δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, Luke 8:46.TGL γινώσκω.4

    2. to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of;TGL γινώσκω.5

    a. to understand: with the accusative, τὰ λεγόμενα, Luke 18:34; ἀναγινώσκεις, Acts 8:30; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 21:45; John 8:27; 2 Corinthians 13:6; Galatians 3:7; James 2:20; followed by interrog, τί, John 10:6; John 13:12, John 13:28; κατεργάζομαι οὐ γινώσκω I do not understand what I am doing, my conduct is inexplicable to me, Romans 7:15.TGL γινώσκω.6

    b. to know: τὸ θέλημα, Luke 12:47; τὰς καρδίας, Luke 16:15; τὸν μὴ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν ignorant of sin, i. e. not conscious of having committed it, 2 Corinthians 5:21; ἐπιστολή γινωσκομένη καὶ ἀναγινωσκομένη, 2 Corinthians 3:2; τινά, to know one, his person, character, mind, plans: John 1:48 (John 1:49); John 2:24; Acts 19:15; 2 Timothy 2:19 (from Numbers 16:5); followed by ὅτι, John 21:17; Philippians 1:12; James 1:3; 2 Peter 1:20; followed by the accusative with an infinitive Hebrews 10:34; followed by an indirect question, Revelation 3:3; ἑλληνιστὶ γινώσκ., to know Greek (graece scire , Cicero, de fin. 2, 5): Acts 21:37 (ἐπίστασθαι συριστί, Xenophon, Cyril 7, 5, 31; graece nescire , Cicero, pro Flac. 4, 10); ἴστε (Rec. ἐστε) γινώσκοντες ye know, understanding etc. [R. V. ye know of a surety, etc.], Ephesians 5:5; see Winers Grammar, 355 (333); [cf. Buttmann, 51 (44); 314 (269)]. imperative γινώσκετε know ye: Matthew 24:32, Matthew 24:43; Mark 13:29; Luke 10:11; John 15:18; Acts 2:36; Hebrews 13:23; 1 John 2:29.TGL γινώσκω.7

    3. by a Hebraistic euphemism [cf. Winer's Grammar, 18], found also in Greek writings from the Alexandrian age down, γινώσκω is used of the carnal connection of male and female, rem cum aliquo or aliqua habere (cf. our have a (criminal) intimacy with): of a husband, Matthew 1:25; of the woman, Luke 1:34; (Genesis 4:1, Genesis 4:17; Genesis 19:8; 1 Samuel 1:19, etc.; Judith 16:22; Callimachus epigr. 58, 3; often in Plutarch; cf. Vögelin, Plutarch, Brut., p. 10ff; so also Latin cognosco , Ovid . met. 4, 596; novi , Justin Martyr, hist. 27, 3, 11).TGL γινώσκω.8

    II. In particular γινώσκω, to become acquainted with, to know, is employed in the N. T. of the knowledge of God and Christ, and of the things relating to them or proceeding from them;TGL γινώσκω.9

    a. τὸν θεόν, the one, true God, in contrast with the polytheism of the Gentiles: Romans 1:21; Galatians 4:9; also τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεόν, John 17:3 cf. 1 John 5:20; τὸν θεόν, the nature and will of God, in contrast with the false wisdom of both Jews and Gentiles, 1 Corinthians 1:21; τὸν πατέρα, the nature of God the Father, especially the holy will and affection by which he aims to sanctify and redeem men through Christ, John 8:55; John 16:3; 1 John 2:3, 1 John 2:14 (1 John 2:13); 1 John 3:1,1 John 3:6; 1 John 4:8; a peculiar knowledge of God the Father is claimed by Christ for himself, John 10:15; John 17:25; γνῶθι τὸν κύριον, the precepts of the Lord, Hebrews 8:11; τὸ θέλημα (of God), Romans 2:18; νοῦν κυρίου, Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16; τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 2:8; τὰς ὁδοὺς τοῦ θεοῦ, Hebrews 3:10 (from Psalms 94:10 (Psalms 95:10)).TGL γινώσκω.10

    b. Χριστόν, his blessings, Philippians 3:10; in Χριστὸν ἐγνωκέναι κατὰ σάρκα, 2 Corinthians 5:16, Paul speaks of that knowledge of Christ which he had before his conversion, and by which he knew him merely in the form of a servant, and therefore had not yet seen in him the Son of God. According to John's usage, γινώσκειν, ἐγνωκέναι Χριστόν denotes to come to know, to know, his Messianic dignity (John 17:3; John 6:69); his divinity (τὸν ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς, 1 John 2:13 cf. John 1:10), his consummate kindness toward us, and the benefits redounding to us from fellowship with him (in Christ's words γινώσκομαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἐμῶν, John 10:14 [according to the critical texts γινώσκουσίν με τὰ ἐμά]); his love of God (John 14:31); his sinless holiness (1 John 3:6). John unites πιστεύειν and γινώσκειν, at one time putting πιστεύειν first: John 6:69 [cf. Schaff's Lange or Meyer at the passage]; but at another time γινώσκειν: John 10:38 (according to R G, for which L T Tr WH read ἵνα γνῶτε καί γινώσκητε [R. V. know and understand]); John 17:8 [L brackets κ. ἔγν.]; 1 John 4:16 (the love of God).TGL γινώσκω.11

    c. γ. τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος the things which proceed from the Spirit, 1 Corinthians 2:14; τὸ πνεῦμα τ. ἀληθείας καὶ τὸ πν. τῆς πλάνης, 1 John 4:6; τὰ μυστήρια τῆς βασιλείας τῶν οὐρανῶν, Matthew 13:11; τὴν ἀλήθειαν, John 8:32; 2 John 1:1; absolutely, of the knowledge of divine things, 1 Corinthians 13:12; of the knowledge of things lawful for a Christian, 1 Corinthians 8:2.TGL γινώσκω.12

    [SYNONYMS: γινώσκειν, εἰδέναι, ἐπίστασθαι, συνιέναι: In classic usage (cf. Schmidt, chapter 13), γινώσκειν, distinguished from the rest by its original inchoative force, denotes a discriminating apprehension of external impressions, a knowledge grounded in personal experience. εἰδέναι, literally, 'to have seen with the mind's eye,' signifies a clear and purely mental perception, in contrast both to conjecture and to knowledge derived from others. ἐπίστασθαι primarily expresses the knowledge obtained by proximity to the thing known (cf. our understand, German verstehen); then knowledge viewed as the result of prolonged practice, in opposition to the process of learning on the one hand, and to the uncertain knowledge of a dilettante on the other. συνιέναι implies native insight, the soul's capacity of itself not only to lay hold of the phenomena of the outer world through the senses, but by combination (σύν and ἰέναι) to arrive at their underlying laws. Hence, συνιέναι may mark an antithesis to sense-perception; whereas γινώσκειν marks an advance upon it. As applied e. g. to a work of literature, γινώσκειν expresses an acquaintance with it; ἐπίστασθαι the knowledge of its contents; συνιέναι the understanding of it, a comprehension of its meaning. γινώσκειν and εἰδέναι most readily come into contrast with each other; if εἰδέναι and ἐπίστασθαι are contrasted, the former refers more to natural, the latter to acquired knowledge. In the N. T., as might be expected, these distinctions are somewhat less sharply marked. Such passages as John 1:26, John 1:31, John 1:48 (John 1:49); John 7:27; John 21:17; 2 Corinthians 5:16; 1 John 5:20 may seem to indicate that, sometimes at least, γινώσκω and οἶδα are nearly interchangeable; yet see John 3:10, John 3:11; John 8:55 (yet cf. John 17:25); 1 John 2:29 (know... perceive), and the characteristic use of εἰδέναι by John to describe our Lord's direct insight into divine things: John 3:11; John 5:32 (contrast John 5:42); John 7:29; John 8:55; John 12:50, etc; cf. Bp. Lightfoot's note on Galatians 4:9; Green, 'Critical Notes' etc., p. 75 (on John 8:55); Westcott on John 2:24. γινώσκω and ἐπίσταμαι are associated in Acts 19:15 (cf. Green, as above, p. 97); οἶδα and γινώσκω in 1 Corinthians 2:11; Ephesians 5:5; οἶδα and ἐπίσταμαι in Jude 1:10. Compare: ἀνα-, δια-, ἐπι-, κατα-, προγινώσκω.]TGL γινώσκω.13


    (1098) γλεῦκος, -ους, τό, must, the sweet juice pressed from the grape; Nicander , alex. 184, 299; Plutarch, others; Job 32:19; sweet wine: Acts 2:13. [Cf. BB. DD. under the word Wine.]TGL γλεῦκος.2


    (1099) γλυκύς, -εῖα, -ύ, sweet: James 3:11 (opposed to πικρόν); James 3:12 (opposed to ἁλυκόν); Revelation 10:9 [Revelation 10:10]. [From Homer down.]TGL γλυκύς.2


    (1100) γλῶσσα, -ης, , [from Homer down], the tongue;TGL γλῶσσα.2

    1. the tongue, a member of the body, the organ of speech: Mark 7:33, Mark 7:35; Luke 1:64; Luke 16:24; 1 Corinthians 14:9; James 1:26; James 3:5, James 3:6, James 3:8; 1 Peter 3:10; 1 John 3:18; [Revelation 16:10]. By a poetic and rhetorical usage, especially Hebraistic, that member of the body which is chiefly engaged in some act has ascribed to it what belongs to the man; the tongue is so used in Acts 2:26 (ἠγαλλιάσατο γλῶσσά μου); Romans 3:13; Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:11 (the tongue of every man); of the little tongue-like flames symbolizing the gift of foreign tongues, in Acts 2:3.TGL γλῶσσα.3

    2. a tongue, i. e. the language used by a particular people in distinction from that of other nations: Acts 2:11; hence, in later Jewish usage (Isaiah 66:18; Daniel 3:4; Daniel 5:19 Theodotion; Daniel 6:25; Daniel 7:14 Theodotion; Judith 3:8) joined with φυλή, λαός, ἔθνος, it serves to designate people of various languages [cf. Winer's Grammar, 32], Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 10:11; Revelation 11:9; Revelation 13:7; Revelation 14:6; Revelation 17:15. λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γλώσσαις to speak with other than their native i. e. in foreign tongues, Acts 2:4, cf. Acts 2:6-11; γλώσσαις λαλεῖν καιναῖς to speak with new tongues which the speaker has not learned previously, Mark 16:17 [but Tr text WH text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καιναῖς]; cf. De Wette on Acts, p. 27ff [correct and supplement his references by Meyer on 1 Corinthians 12:10; cf. also B. D. under the word Tongues, Gift of]. From both these expressions must be carefully distinguished the simple phrases λαλεῖν γλώσσαις, γλώσσαις λαλεῖν, λαλεῖν γλώσσῃ, γλώσσῃ λαλεῖν (and προσεύχεσθαι γλώσσῃ, 1 Corinthians 14:14), to speak with (in) a tongue (the organ of speech), to speak with tongues; this, as appears from 1 Corinthians 14:7, is the gift of men who, rapt in an ecstasy and no longer quite masters of their own reason and consciousness, pour forth their glowing spiritual emotions in strange utterances, rugged, dark, disconnected, quite unfitted to instruct or to influence the minds of others: Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 13:1; 1 Corinthians 14:2, 1 Corinthians 14:4-6, 1 Corinthians 14:13, 1 Corinthians 14:18, 1 Corinthians 14:23, 1 Corinthians 14:27, 1 Corinthians 14:39. The origin of the expression is apparently to be found in the fact, that in Hebrew the tongue is spoken of as the leading instrument by which the praises of God are proclaimed ( τῶν θείων ὕμνων μελῳδός, 4 Macc. 10:21, cf. Psalm 34:28 (Psalms 35:28); Psalms 65:17 (Psalms 66:17); Psalms 70:24 (Psalms 71:24); Psalms 125:2 (Psalms 126:2); Acts 2:26; Philippians 2:11; λαλεῖν ἐν γλώσσῃ, Psalms 38:4 (Psalms 39:4), and that according to the more rigorous conception of inspiration nothing human in an inspired man was thought to be active except the tongue, put in motion by the Holy Spirit (καταχρῆται ἕτερος αὐτοῦ τοῖς φωνητηρίοις ὀργάνοις, στόματι καὶ γλώττῃ πρὸς μήνυσιν ὧν ἂν θέλῃ, Philo, rer. div. haer. § 53 [i. 510, Mang. edition]); hence, the contrast διὰτοῦνοὸς [critical editions τῷ νοἲ) λαλεῖν, 1 Corinthians 14:19 cf. 1 Corinthians 14:9. The plural in the phrase γλώσσαις λαλεῖν, used even of a single person (1 Corinthians 14:5), refers to the various motions of the tongue. By metonymy, of the cause for the effect, γλῶσσαι tongues are equivalent to λόγοι ἐν γλώσσῃ (1 Corinthians 14:19) words spoken in a tongue (Zungenvorträge): 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 14:22; γένη γλωσσῶν, 1 Corinthians 12:10, 1 Corinthians 12:28, of which two kinds are mentioned viz. προσευχή and ψαλμός, 1 Corinthians 14:15; γλῶσσαν ἔχω, something to utter with a tongue, 1 Corinthians 14:26. [On 'Speaking with Tongues' see, in addition to the discussions above referred to, Wendt in the 5th edition of Meyer on Acts (Acts 2:4); Heinrici, Korinthierbriefe, i., 372ff; Schaff, Hist. of the Chr. Church, i. 234-245 (1882); Farrar, St. Paul, i. 95ff.]TGL γλῶσσα.4


    (1101) γλωσσόκομον, -ου, τό, (for the earlier γλωσσοκομεῖον or γλωσσοκόμιον [Winer's Grammar, 24 (23), 94 (90); yet see Boeckh, Corpus inscriptions 2448, 8:25, 31], from γλῶσσα and κομέω to tend);TGL γλωσσόκομον.2

    a. a case in which to keep the mouth-pieces of wind instruments.TGL γλωσσόκομον.3

    b. a small box for other uses also; especially a casket, purse to keep money in: John 12:6; John 13:29; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 98f. (For אָרון a chest, 2 Chronicles 24:8, 2 Chronicles 24:10; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 1, 2; Plutarch, Longin , others.)TGL γλωσσόκομον.4


    (1102) γναφεύς, -έως, , (also [earlier] κναφεύς, from γνάπτω or κνάπτω to card), a fuller: Mark 9:3. (Herodotus, Xenophon, and following; Sept. Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 36:2; 2 Kings 18:17.)TGL γναφεύς.2


    (1103) γνήσιος, , -ον, (by syncope for γενήσιος from γίνομαι, γεν-, [cf. Curtius, § 128]), legitimately born, not spurious; genuine, true, sincere: Philippians 4:3; 1 Timothy 1:2; Titus 1:4; τὸ τῆς ἀγάπης γνήσιον equivalent to τὴν γνησιότητα [A. V. the sincerity], 2 Corinthians 8:8. (From Homer down.)TGL γνήσιος.2


    (1104) γνησίως, adverb, genuinely, faithfully, sincerely: Philippians 2:20. [From Euripides down.]TGL γνησίως.2


    (1105) γνόφος, -ου, , (for the earlier [and poetic] δνόφος, akin to νέφος [so Buttmann Lexil. 2:266; but see Curtius, pp. 704f, 706, cf. 535; Vanicek, p. 1070]), darkness, gloom: Hebrews 12:18. (Aristotle, de mund. c. 2 at the end, p. 392b, 12; Lucian, de mort. Peregr. 43; Dio Chrysostom; Sept. also for עָנָן a cloud, Deuteronomy 4:11, etc. and for עֲרָפֶל 'thick cloud,' Exodus 20:21, etc.; [Trench, § c.].)TGL γνόφος.2


    (1106) γνώμη, -ης, , (from γινώσκω);TGL γνώμη.2

    1. the faculty of knowing, mind, reason.TGL γνώμη.3

    2. that which is thought or known, one's mind;TGL γνώμη.4

    a. view, judgment, opinion: 1 Corinthians 1:10; Revelation 17:13.TGL γνώμη.5

    b. mind concerning what ought to be done,TGL γνώμη.6

    aa. by oneself, resolve, purpose, intention: ἐγένετο γνώμη [T Tr WH γνώμης, see γίνομαι 5 e. α.] τοῦ ὑποστρέφειν, Acts 20:3 [Buttmann, 268 (230)].TGL γνώμη.7

    bb. by others, judgment, advice: διδόναι γνώμην, 1 Corinthians 7:25 [1 Corinthians 7:40]; 2 Corinthians 8:10.TGL γνώμη.8

    cc. decree: Revelation 17:17; χωρὶς τῆς σῆς γνώμης, without thy consent, Philemon 1:14.TGL γνώμη.9

    (In the same senses in Greek writings; [cf. Schmidt, chapter 13, 9; Meyer on 1 Corinthians 1:10].)TGL γνώμη.10


    (1107) γνωρίζω; future γνωρίσω (John 17:26; Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7), Attic -ιῶ (Colossians 4:9 [L WH γνωρίσω; Buttmann, 37 (32); WH's Appendix, p. 163]); 1 aorist ἐγνώρισα; passive [present γνωρίζομαι]; 1 aorist ἐγνωρίσθην; in Greek writings from Aeschylus down [see at the end]; Sept. for הודִיעַ and Chaldean הודַע;TGL γνωρίζω.2

    1. transitive, to make known: τί, Romans 9:22; τί τινι, Luke 2:15; John 15:15; John 17:26; Acts 2:28; 2 Corinthians 8:1; Ephesians 3:5, Ephesians 3:10 [passive in these two examples]; Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7, Colossians 4:9; 2 Peter 1:16; τινὶ τὸ μυστήριον, Ephesians 1:9; Ephesians 3:3 [G L T Tr WH read the passive]; Ephesians 6:19; τινὶ ὅτι, 1 Corinthians 12:3; τινί τι, ὅτι equivalent to τινὶ ὅτι τι, Galatians 1:11; followed by τί interrogative Colossians 1:27; περί τινος, Luke 2:17 L T Tr WH; γνωριζέσθω πρὸς τὸν θεόν be brought to the knowledge of God, Philippians 4:6; γνωρίζεσθαι εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνη to be made known unto all the nations, Romans 16:26; contextually and emphatically equivalent to to recall to one's mind, as though what is made known had escaped him, 1 Corinthians 15:1; with the accusative of person [(Plutarch, Fab. Max. 21, 6)], in passive, to become known, be recognized: Acts 7:13 Tr text WH text.TGL γνωρίζω.3

    2. intransitive, to know: τί αἱρήσομαι, οὐ γνωρίζω, Philippians 1:22 [WH marginal reading punctuate τί αἱρ.; οὐ γν.; some refer this to 1 (R. V. marginal reading I do not make known), cf. Meyer at the passage. In earlier Greek γνωρίζω signifies either 'to gain a knowledge of,' or 'to have thorough knowledge of.' Its later (and N. T.) causative force seems to be found only in Aeschylus Prom. 487; cf. Schmidt vol. i., p. 287; Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians, the passage cited. Compare: ἀνα, διαγνωρίζω].TGL γνωρίζω.4


    (1108) γνῶσις, -εως, , (γινώσκω), [from Thucydides down], knowledge: with the genitive of the object, σωτηρίας, Luke 1:77; τοῦ θεοῦ, the knowledge of God, such as is offered in the gospel, 2 Corinthians 2:14, especially in Paul's exposition of it, 2 Corinthians 10:5; τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν προσώπῳ Χριστοῦ, 2 Corinthians 4:6; Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, of Christ as a saviour, Philippians 3:8; 2 Peter 3:18; with subjunctive genitive τοῦ θεοῦ, the knowledge of things which belongs to God, Romans 11:33. γνῶσις, by itself, signifies in general intelligence, understanding: Ephesians 3:19; the general knowledge of the Christian religion, Romans 15:14; 1 Corinthians 1:5; the deeper, more perfect and enlarged knowledge of this religion, such as belongs to the more advanced, 1 Corinthians 12:8; 1 Corinthians 13:2, 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 14:6; 2 Corinthians 6:6; 2 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Corinthians 11:6; especially of things lawful and unlawful for Christians, 1 Corinthians 8:1, 1 Corinthians 8:7, 1 Corinthians 8:10; the higher knowledge of Christian and divine things which false teachers boast of, ψευδώνυμος γνῶσις, 1 Timothy 6:20 [cf. Holtzmann, Pastoralbriefe, p. 132f]; moral wisdom, such as is seen in right living, 2 Peter 1:5; and in contact with others: κατὰ γνῶσιν, wisely, 1 Peter 3:7. objective knowledge: what is known concerning divine things and human duties, Romans 2:20; Colossians 2:3; concerning salvation through Christ, Luke 11:52. Where γνῶσις and σοφία are used together the former seems to be knowledge regarded by itself, the latter wisdom as exhibited in action: Romans 11:33; 1 Corinthians 12:8; Colossians 2:3.TGL γνῶσις.2

    ["γν. is simply intuitive, σοφ. is ratiocinative also; γν. applies chiefly to the apprehension of truths, σοφ. superadds the power of reasoning about them and tracing their relations." Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited. To much the same effect Fritzsche (on Romans, the passage cited), "γν. perspicientia veri , σοφ. sapientia aut mentis sollertia, quæ cognita intellectaque veritate utatur, ut res efficiendas efficiat. " Meyer (on 1 Corinthians, the passage cited) nearly reverses Lightfoot's distinction; elsewhere, however (e. g. on Colossians, the passage cited, cf. 9), he and others regard σοφ. merely as the more general, γν. as the more restricted and special term. Cf. Lightfoot as above; Trench, § lxxv.]TGL γνῶσις.3


    (1109) γνώστης, -ου, , (a knower), an expert; a connoisseur: Acts 26:3. (Plutarch, Flam c. 4; θεός τῶν κρύπτῶν γνώστης, Hist. Susanna, verse 42; of those who divine the future, 1 Samuel 28:3, 1 Samuel 28:9, etc.)TGL γνώστης.2


    (1110) γνωστός, -ή, -όν, known: Acts 9:42; τινί, John 18:15; Acts 1:19; Acts 15:18 R L; Acts 19:17; Acts 28:22; γνωστὸν ἔστω ὑμῖν be it known to you: Acts 2:14; Acts 4:10; Acts 13:38; Acts 28:28; contextually, notable, Acts 4:16; γνοωστὸν ποιεῖν to make known, disclose: Acts 15:17 G T Tr WH [others construe γνωστ. as predicate of ταῦτα: R. V. marginal reading who doeth these things which were known; cf. Meyer at the passage]. τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ, either that which may be known of God, or equivalent to γνῶσις τοῦ θεοῦ, for both come to the same thing: Romans 1:19; cf. Fritzsche at the passage and Winer's Grammar, 235 (220) [and Meyer (edited by Weiss) at the passage]. plural οἱ γνωστοί acquaintance, intimates, Psalms 30:12 (Psalms 31:12); [Psalm 87:9, 19 (Psalms 88:9, 19)]; Nehemiah 5:10; Luke 2:44; Luke 23:49. (In Greek writings from Aeschylus down.)TGL γνωστός.2


    (1111) γογγύζω; imperfect ἐγόγγυζον; 1 aorist ἐγόγγυσα; to murmur, mutter, grumble, say anything in a low tone (according to Pollux and Phavorinus used of the cooing of doves, like the τονθρύζω and τονθορύζω of the more elegant Greek writings; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 358; [Winers Grammar, 22; Bp. Lightfoot on Philippians 2:14]); hence, of those who confer together secretly, τὶ περί τινος, John 7:32; of those who discontentedly complain: 1 Corinthians 10:10; πρός τινα, Luke 5:30; μετ’ ἀλλήλων, John 6:43; κατά τινος, Matthew 20:11; περί τινος, John 6:41, John 6:61. (Sept. ; Antoninus 2, 3; Epictetus diss. 1, 29, 55; 4, 1, 79; [others].)TGL γογγύζω.2

    [Compare: διαγογγύζω.]TGL γογγύζω.3


    (1112) γογγυσμός, -οῦ, , (γογγύζω, which see), a murmur, murmuring, muttering; applied toTGL γογγυσμός.2

    a. secret debate: περί τινος, John 7:12.TGL γογγυσμός.3

    b. secret displeasure, not openly avowed: πρός τινα, Acts 6:1; in plural χωρὶς or ἄνευ γογγυσμῶν without querulous discontent, without murmurings, i. e. with a cheerful and willing mind, Philippians 2:14; 1 Peter 4:9 (where L T Tr WH read the singular). (Exodus 16:7; Wis. 1:10f; Antoninus 9, 37.)TGL γογγυσμός.4


    (1113) γογγυστής, -οῦ, , a murmurer, (Vulg. , Augustine, murmurator ), one who discontentedly complains (against God; for μεμψίμοιροι is added): Jude 1:16. [Proverbs 26:21 Theodotion, Proverbs 26:22 Symm. ; Proverbs 26:20, Proverbs 26:22 Graecus Venetus ]TGL γογγυστής.2


    (1114) γόης, -ητος, , (γοάω to bewail, howl);TGL γόης.2

    1. a wailer, howler: Aeschylus choëph. 823 [Hermann, and others γοητής].TGL γόης.3

    2. a juggler, enchanter, (because incantations used to be uttered in a kind of howl).TGL γόης.4

    3. a deceiver, impostor: 2 Timothy 3:13; (Herodotus, Euripides, Plato, and subsequent writers).TGL γόης.5


    (1115) Γολγοθά [Tr WH, or -θᾶ R G L T (see Tdf. Proleg., p. 102; Kautzsch, p. 10); also -όθ L WH marginal reading in John 19:17; accusative -ᾶν Tdf. in Mark 15:22 (WH -άν, see their Appendix, p. 160), elsewhere indeclinable, Winers Grammar, 61 (60)], Golgotha, Chaldean גֻּלְגָלְתָא, Heb. גֻּלְגֹּלֶת (from גָּלַל to roll), i. e. κρανίον, a skull [Latin calvaria ], the name of a place outside of Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified; so called, apparently, because its form resembled a skull: Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17. Cf. Tobler, Golgatha. St. Gall. 1851; Furrer in Schenkel ii. 506ff; Keim, Jesus von Naz. iii. 404f; [Porter in Alex.'s Kitto under the word; F. Howe, The true Site of Calvary, N. Y., 1871].TGL Γολγοθᾶ.2


    (1116) Γόμορρα [or Γομόρρα, cf. Chandler § 167], -ας, , and -ων, τά, [cf. Buttmann, 18 (16); Tdf. Proleg., p. 116; WHs Appendix, p. 156], Gomorrah (עַמֹרָה, cf. עַזָּה Gaza), the name of a city in the eastern part of Judæa, destroyed by the same earthquake [cf. B. D. under the word Sea, The Salt] with Sodom and its neighbor cities: Genesis 19:24. Their site is now occupied by the Asphaltic Lake or Dead Sea [cf. BB. DD. , see under the words, Gomorrah and Sodom]: Matthew 10:15; Mark 6:11 R L in brackets; Romans 9:29; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 1:7.TGL Γόμορρα.2


    (1117) γόμος, -ου, , (γέμω);TGL γόμος.2

    a. the lading or freight of a ship, cargo, merchandise conveyed in a ship: Acts 21:3, (Herodotus 1, 194; [Aeschylus], Demosthenes, others; [in the Sept. the load of a beast of burden, Exodus 23:5; 2 Kings 5:17]).TGL γόμος.3

    b. any merchandise: Revelation 18:11.TGL γόμος.4


    (1118) γονεύς, -έως, , (ΓΕΝΩ, γέγονα), [Homer h. Cer., Hesiod, others]; a begetter, parent; plural οἱ γονεῖς the parents: Luke 2:41, Luke 2:43 L text T Tr WH; [Luke 8:56]; Luke 21:16; John 9:2, John 9:3, John 9:20, John 9:22, John 9:23; 2 Corinthians 12:14; Romans 1:30; Ephesians 6:1; Colossians 3:20; 2 Timothy 3:2; accusative plural γονεῖς: Matthew 10:21; [Matthew 19:29 Lachmann marginal reading]; Luke 2:27; [Luke 18:29]; Mark 13:12; [John 9:18]; on this form cf. Winers Grammar, § 9, 2; [Buttmann, 14 (13)].TGL γονεύς.2


    (1119) γόνυ, γόνατος, τό, [from Homer down], the knee: Hebrews 12:12; τιθέναι τὰ γόνατα to bend the knees, kneel down, of persons supplicating: Luke 22:41; Acts 7:60; Acts 9:40; Acts 20:36; Acts 21:5; of [mock] worshippers, Mark 15:19, so also προσπίπτειν τοῖς γόνασί τινος, Luke 5:8 (of a suppliant in Euripides, Or. 1332); κάμπτειν τὰ γόνατα to bow the knee, of those worshipping God or Christ: τινί, Romans 11:4; πρός τινα, Ephesians 3:14; reflexively, γόνυ κάμπτει τινί, to i. e. in honor of one, Romans 14:11 (1 Kings 19:18); ἐν ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ, Philippians 2:10 (Isaiah 45:23).TGL γόνυ.2


    (1120) γονυπετέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist participle γονυπετήσας; (γονυπετής, and this from γόνυ and ΠΕΤΩ equivalent to πίπτω); to fall on the knees, the act of one imploring aid, and of one expressing reverence and honor: τινί, Matthew 17:14 Rec. ; τινά, ibid. G L T Tr WH; Mark 1:40 R G Tr text brackets WH brackets; Mark 10:17; cf. Winers Grammar, 210 (197); [Buttmann, 147f (129)]; ἔμπροσθέν τινος, Matthew 27:29. (Polybius, Heliodorus; ecclesiastical writings.)TGL γονυπετέω.2


    (1121) γράμμα, -τος, τό, (γράφω), that which has been written;TGL γράμμα.2

    1. a letter i. e. the character: Luke 23:38 [R G L brackets Tr marginal reading brackets]; Galatians 6:11.TGL γράμμα.3

    2. any writing, a document or record;TGL γράμμα.4

    a. a note of hand, bill, bond, account, written acknowledgment of debt (as scriptio in Varro sat. Men. 8, 1 [cf. Edersheim ii., 268ff]): Luke 16:6. ([Josephus, Antiquities 18, 6, 3], in L text T Tr WH plural τὰ γράμματα; so of one document also in Antiph., p. 114 (30); Demosthenes, p. 1034, 16; Vulg. cautio ).TGL γράμμα.5

    b. a letter, an epistle: Acts 28:21; (Herodotus 5, 14; Thucydides 8, 50; Xenophon, Cyril 4, 5, 26, etc.).TGL γράμμα.6

    c. τὰ ἱερὰ γράμματα the sacred writings (of the O. T.; [so Josephus, Antiquities prooem. § 3; 10, 10, 4 at the end; contra Apion 1, 10; Philo, de vit. Moys. 3, 39; de praem. et poen. § 14; leg. ad Gai. § 29, etc. — but always τὰ . γ.]): 2 Timothy 3:15 [here T WH omit; L Tr brackets τά]; γράμμα equivalent to the written law of Moses, Romans 2:27; Μωϋσέως γράμματα, John 5:47. Since the Jews so clave to the letter of the law that it not only became to them a mere letter but also a hindrance to true religion, Paul calls it γράμμα in a disparaging sense, and contrasts it with τὸ πνεῦμα i. e. the divine Spirit, whether operative in the Mosaic law, Romans 2:29, or in the gospel, by which Christians are governed, Romans 7:6; 2 Corinthians 3:6 [but in 2 Corinthians 3:7 R G T WH read the plural written in letters, so L marginal reading Tr marginal reading].TGL γράμμα.7

    3. τὰ γράμματα, like the Latin litterae , English letters, equivalent to learning: Acts 26:24; εἰδέναι, μεμαθηκέναι γρ. (cf. German studirt haben ), of sacred learning, John 7:15. (μανθάνειν, ἐπίστασθαι, etc., γράμματα are used by the Greeks of the rudiments of learning; cf. Passow, i. p. 571; [Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. a.].)TGL γράμμα.8


    (1122) γραμματεύς, -έως, (accusative plural -εῖς, Winers Grammar, § 9, 2; [Buttmann, 14 (13)]), , (γράμμα), Sept. for סֹפֵר and שֹׁטֵר;TGL γραμματεύς.2

    1. in secular authors and here and there in the O. T. [e. g. 2 Samuel 8:17; 2 Samuel 20:25; 2 Kings 19:2; 2 Kings 25:19; Psalms 44:2 (Psalms 45:2)], a clerk, scribe, especially a public scribe, secretary, recorder, whose office and influence differed in different states: Acts 19:35 (Sir. 10:5); [cf. Lightfoot in The Contemporary Review for 1878, p. 294; Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus, Appendix, Inscriptions from the Great Theatre, p. 49 n.],TGL γραμματεύς.3

    2. in the Bible, a man learned in the Mosaic law and in the sacred writings, an interpreter, teacher: Matthew 23:34; 1 Corinthians 1:20 (called also νομικός in Luke 10:25, and νομοδιδάσκαλος in Luke 5:17; [Meyer (on Matthew 22:35), while denying any essential difference between γραμματεύς and νομικός (cf. Luke 11:52, Luke 11:53 — yet see critical texts), regards the latter name as the more specific (a jurisconsult) and Classic, γρ. as the more general (a learned man) and Hebraistic; it is also the more common in the Apocrypha, where νομ. occurs only 4 Macc. 5:3. As teachers they were called νομοδιδάσκαλοι. Cf. B. D. under the word Lawyer, also under the word Scribes I. 1 note]); Jeremiah 8:8 (cf. Jeremiah 2:8); Nehemiah 8:1; Nehemiah 12:26, Nehemiah 12:36; Nehemiah 2:1-20 Esdr. 7:6, 11, and especially Sir. 38:24, 31ff; Sir. 39:1-11. The γραμματεῖς explained the meaning of the sacred oracles, Matthew 2:4 [γρ. τοῦ λαοῦ, Joshua 1:10; 1 Macc. 5:42; cf. Sir. 44:4]; Matthew 17:10; Mark 9:11; Mark 12:35; examined into the more difficult and subtile questions of the law, Matthew 9:3; Mark 2:6; Mark 12:28; added to the Mosaic law decisions of various kinds thought to elucidate its meaning and scope, and did this to the detriment of religion, Matthew 5:20; Matthew 15:1; Matthew 23:2; Mark 7:1; cf. Luke 11:46. Since the advice of men skilled in the law was needed in the examination of causes and the solution of difficult questions, they were enrolled in the Sanhedrin; and accordingly in the N. T. they are often mentioned in connection with the priests and elders of the people: Matthew 21:15; Matthew 26:3 R G; Mark 11:18, Mark 11:27; Mark 14:1; Mark 15:1; Luke 19:47; Luke 20:1; Luke 22:2. Cf. Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 25 ii.; Klöpper in Schenkel v. 247ff; [and thorough articles in BB. DD. under the word Scribes; cf. W. Robertson Smith, The O. T. in the Jewish Ch., Lect. iii.]:TGL γραμματεύς.4

    3. universally, a religious teacher: γραμματεὺς μαθητευθεὶς εἰς τὴν βασιλ. τῶν οὐρ. a teacher so instructed that from his learning and ability to teach advantage may redound to the kingdom of heaven, Matthew 13:52 [but G T Tr WH read μαθ. τῇ βασιλείᾳ (L ἐν τ. β.); and many interpret made a disciple unto the kingdom of heaven (which is personified); see μαθητεύω , at the end].TGL γραμματεύς.5


    (1123) γραπτός, -ή, -όν, written: Romans 2:15. [Gorgias, Apology Palam., p. 190 under the end; the Sept. ; others.]TGL γραπτός.2


    (1124) γραφή, -ῆς, , (γράφω, cf. γλυφή and γλύφω);TGL γραφή.2

    a. a writing, thing written, [from Sophocles down]: πᾶσα γραφή every scripture namely, of the O. T., 2 Timothy 3:16; plural γραφαὶ ἅγιαι, holy scriptures, the sacred books (of the O. T.), Romans 1:2; προφητικαί, Romans 16:26; αἱ γραφαὶ τῶν προφητῶν, Matthew 26:56.TGL γραφή.3

    b. γραφή, the Scripture κατ’ ἐξοχήν, the holy scripture (of the O. T.), — and used to denote either the book itself, or its contents [some would restrict the singular γραφή always to a particular passage; see Bp. Lightfoot on Galatians 3:22]: John 7:38; John 10:35; Acts 8:32; Romans 4:3; Galatians 3:22; Galatians 4:30; James 2:8; 1 Peter 2:6; 2 Peter 1:20; also in plural αἱ γραφαί: Matthew 21:42; Matthew 26:54; Mark 14:49; Luke 24:27; John 5:39; Acts 17:2, Acts 17:11; Acts 18:24, Acts 18:28; 1 Corinthians 15:3; once αἱ γραφαί comprehends also the books of the N. T. already begun to be collected into a canon, 2 Peter 3:16; by metonymy, γραφή is used for God speaking in it: Romans 9:17; Galatians 4:30; γραφή is introduced as a person and distinguished from God in Galatians 3:8. εἰδέναι τὰς γραφάς, Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24; συνιέναι, Luke 24:45.TGL γραφή.4

    c. a certain portion or section of holy Scripture: Mark 12:10; Luke 4:21; John 19:37; Acts 1:16. [Cf. B. D. under the word Scripture.]TGL γραφή.5


    (1125) γράφω; [imperfect ἔγραφον]; future γράψω; 1 aorist ἔγραψα; perfect γέγραφα; passive [present γράφομαι]; perfect γέγραμμαι; [pluperfect 3 person singular ἐγέγραπτο, Revelation 17:8 Lachmann]; 2 aorist ἐγράφην; (properly, to grave, scrape, scratch, engrave; cf. German graben, eingraben ; γράψεν δὲ οἱ ὀστέον ἄχρις αἰχμή, Homer, Iliad 17, 599; σήματα γράψας ἐν πίνακι, ibid. 6, 169; hence, to draw letters), to write;TGL γράφω.2

    1. with reference to the form of the letters; to delineate (or form) letters on a tablet, parchment, paper, or other material: τῷ δακτύλῳ ἔγραφεν εἰς τὴν γῆν made figures on the ground, John 8:6 Rec. ; οὕτω γράφω so I am accustomed to form my letters, 2 Thessalonians 3:17; πηλίκοις γράμμασι ἔγραψα with how large (and so, ill-formed [?]) letters I have written, Galatians 6:11; cf. Winer, Rückert, Hilgenfeld at the passage [for the views of those who regard ἔγρ. as covering the close of the Epistle only, see Bp. Lightfoot and Meyer; cf. Winers Grammar, 278 (261); Buttmann, 198 (171f)].TGL γράφω.3

    2. with reference to the contents of the writing;TGL γράφω.4

    a. to express in written characters, followed by the words expressed: ἔγραψε λέγων· Ἰωάννης ἐστὶ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, Luke 1:63; μὴ γράφε· βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων κτλ., John 19:21; γράψον· μακάριοι κτλ., Revelation 14:13. γράφω τι, John 19:22; passive Revelation 1:3; τὶ ἐπί τι, Revelation 2:17; Revelation 19:16; τὶ ἐπί τινα, Revelation 3:12; ἐπί τινος, Revelation 14:1.TGL γράφω.5

    b. to commit to writing (things not to be forgotten), write down, record: Revelation 1:19 (γράψον εἶδες); Revelation 10:4; γράφειν εἰς βιβλίον, Revelation 1:11; ἐπὶ τὸ βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς, Revelation 17:8; γεγραμμ. ἐν τ. βιβλίῳ [or τῇ βίβλῳ], ἐν τοῖς βιβλίοις, Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:12, Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27; Revelation 22:18, Revelation 22:19; τὰ ὀνόματα ὑμῶν ἐγράφη [ἐν- (ἐγ- Tr see N, ν) γέγρ. T Tr WH] ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, i. e. that ye have been enrolled with those for whom eternal blessedness has been prepared, Luke 10:20; γράφειν τί τινι, to record something for someone's use, Luke 1:3.TGL γράφω.6

    c. ἐγράφη and γέγραπται (in the Synoptists and Paul), and γεγραμμένον ἐστί (in John), are used of those things which stand written in the sacred books (of the O. T.); absolutely γέγραπται, followed by the quotation from the sacred vol.: Matthew 4:4, Matthew 4:6, Matthew 4:10; Matthew 21:13; Mark 7:6; Mark 11:17; Mark 14:27; Luke 4:8; Luke 19:46; καθὼς γέγραπται, Acts 15:15, very often in Paul, as Romans 1:17; Romans 2:24; Romans 3:4 [see below]; 1 Corinthians 1:31; 1 Corinthians 2:9; 2 Corinthians 8:15; 2 Corinthians 9:9; καθάπερ γέγρ., Romans 11:8 T Tr WH; [Romans 3:4 T Tr WH]; γέγραπται γάρ, Matthew 26:31; Luke 4:10; Acts 23:5; Romans 12:19; Romans 14:11; 1 Corinthians 3:19; Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:13 Rec. ; Galatians 4:22, Galatians 4:27; λόγος γεγραμμένος, 1 Corinthians 15:54; κατὰ τὸ γεγραμμένον, 2 Corinthians 4:13; γεγραμμένον ἐστί, John 2:17; John 6:31; John 12:14; ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, 1 Corinthians 10:11; ἐγράφη δἰ ἡμᾶς for our sake, Romans 4:24; 1 Corinthians 9:10; with the name of the author of the written words or of the books in which they are found: γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ ψαλμῶν, Acts 1:20; ἐν βίβλῳ τῶν προφητῶν, Acts 7:42; ἐν τῷ πρώτῳ [R WH δευτέρῳ] ψαλμῷ, Acts 13:33; ἐν Ἠσαΐᾳ, Mark 1:2 [not Rec. ], etc. τινά or τί to write of, i. e. in writing to mention or refer to a person or a thing: ὃν ἔγραψε Μωϋσῆς whom Moses had in mind in writing of the Messiah, or whose likeness Moses delineated, John 1:45 (John 1:46); Μωϋσῆς γράφει τὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ νόμου, Moses, writing the words ὅτι ποιήσας αὐτά κτλ., points out the righteousness which is of the law, Romans 10:5. γέγραπται, γράφειν, etc. περί τινος, concerning one: Matthew 26:24; Mark 14:21; John 5:46; Acts 13:29; ἐπὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, that it should find fulfilment in him, Mark 9:12 [cf. ἵνα , II. 2b.]; ἐπ’ αὐτῷ, on him i. e. of him (cf. Winer's Grammar, 393 (368) [and ἐπί, Buttmann, 2f. β.]), John 12:16; τὰ γεγραμμένα τῷ υἱῷ τοῦ ἀνθρ. written for him, allotted to him in Scripture, i. e. to be accomplished in his career, Luke 18:31; cf. Winers Grammar, § 31, 4; [yet cf. Buttmann, 178 (154)]; Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ὑμῖν ἵνα etc. Moses in the Scripture commanded us that etc. [cf. Buttmann, 237 (204)], Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28.TGL γράφω.7

    d. γράφειν τινί to write to one, i. e. by writing (in a written epistle) to give information, directions, etc. to one: Romans 15:15; 2 Corinthians 2:4, 2 Corinthians 2:9 [dative implied]; 2 Corinthians 7:12; Philemon 1:21; 2 Peter 3:15; 1 John 2:12; δἰ ὀλίγων, 1 Peter 5:12; διὰ μέλανος καὶ καλάμου, 3 John 1:13; followed by the words written or to be written in the letter: Acts 15:23; Revelation 2:1, Revelation 2:8, Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:18; Revelation 3:1, Revelation 3:7, Revelation 3:14; γράφειν τινί τι, 1 Corinthians 14:37; 2 Corinthians 1:13; 2 Corinthians 2:3 [L T Tr WH omit the dative]; Galatians 1:20; 1 Timothy 3:14; 1 John 1:4 [R G L]; 1 John 2:1; περί τινος, 1 John 2:26; Acts 25:26; 2 Corinthians 9:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:1; Jude 1:3; διὰ χειρός τινος, to send a letter by one, Acts 15:23 [see χείρ ]; γράφειν τινί, followed by an infinitive, by letter to bid one do a thing, Acts 18:27; followed by μή with an infinitive (to forbid, write one not to etc.), 1 Corinthians 5:9, 1 Corinthians 5:11.TGL γράφω.8

    3. to fill with writing (German beschreiben): βιβλίον γεγραμμένον ἔσωθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν a volume written within and behind, on the back, hence, on both sides, Revelation 5:1 (Ezekiel 2:10); cf. Düsterdieck [Alford, others] at the passageTGL γράφω.9

    4. to draw up in writing, compose: βιβλίον, Mark 10:4; John 21:25 [Tdf. omit the verse; see WH's Appendix at the passage]; τίτλον, John 19:19; ἐπιστολήν, Acts 23:25; 2 Peter 3:1; ἐντολήν τινι to write a commandment to one, Mark 10:5; 1 John 2:7; 2 John 1:5. [Compare: ἀπο-, ἐγ-, ἐπι-, κατα-, προγράφω.]TGL γράφω.10

    Related entry: ἐνγράφω, see ἐν, III. 2 and 3.TGL γράφω.11

    Related entry: καταγράφω: imperfect 3 person singular κατέγραφεν; to draw (forms or figures), to delineate: John 8:6 manuscript D etc. which T Tr WH (text) would substitute for R G ἔγραφεν. (Pausan. 1, 28, 2. Differently in other Greek writings.) [Perhaps it may be taken in John under the passage cited in a more general sense: to mark (cf. Pollux 9, 7, 104, etc.).]TGL γράφω.12


    (1126) γραώδης, -ες, (from γραῦς an old woman, and εἶδος), old-womanish, anile [A. V. old wives’]: 1 Timothy 4:7. (Strabo 1, p. 32 [p. 44, Sieben. edition]; Galen; others.)TGL γραώδης.2


    (1127) γρηγορέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἐγρηγόρησα; (from ἐγρήγορα, to have been roused from sleep, to be awake, perfect of ἐγείρω; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 118f; Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 158; [Winers Grammar, 26 (25); 92 (88)]); to watch;TGL γρηγορέω.2

    1. properly: Matthew 24:43; Matthew 26:38, Matthew 26:40; Mark 13:34; Mark 14:34, Mark 14:37; Luke 12:37, Luke 12:39 R G L Tr text WH text. As to sleep is often equivalent to to die, so once, 1 Thessalonians 5:10, γρηγ. means to live, be alive on earth.TGL γρηγορέω.3

    2. Metaphorically, to watch i. e. give strict attention to, be cautious, active: — to take heed lest through remissness and indolence some destructive calamity suddenly overtake one, Matthew 24:42; Matthew 25:13; Mark 13:35, [Mark 13:37]; Revelation 16:15; or lest one be led to forsake Christ, Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; or lest one fall into sin, 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 1 Corinthians 16:13; 1 Peter 5:8; Revelation 3:2; or be corrupted by errors, Acts 20:31; ἔν τινι, to be watchful in, employ the most punctilious care in a thing: Colossians 4:2. (Sept. ; [Baruch 2:9; 1 Macc. 12:27; Aristotle, plant. 1, 2, p. 816b, 29, 37]; Josephus, Antiquities 11, 3, 4; Achilles Tatius; others)TGL γρηγορέω.4

    [Synonym: see ἀγρυπνέω . Compare: διαγρηγορέω.]TGL γρηγορέω.5


    (1128) γυμνάζω; [perfect passive participle γεγυμνασμένος]; (γυμνός); common in Greek writings from Aeschylus down;TGL γυμνάζω.2

    1. properly, to exercise naked (in the palæstra).TGL γυμνάζω.3

    2. to exercise vigorously, in any way, either the body or the mind: ἑαυτὸν πρὸς εὐσέβειαν, of one who strives earnestly to become godly, 1 Timothy 4:7; γεγυμνασμένος exercised, Hebrews 5:14; Hebrews 12:11; καρδίαν γεγυμν. πλεονεξίας (Rec. πλεονεξίαις), a soul that covetousness or the love of gain has trained in its crafty ways, 2 Peter 2:14; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 30, 4.TGL γυμνάζω.4


    (1129) γυμνασία, -ας, , (γυμνάζω);TGL γυμνασία.2

    a. properly, the exercise of the body in the palæstra.TGL γυμνασία.3

    b. any exercise whatever: σωματικὴ γυμνασία, the exercise of conscientiousness relative to the body, such as is characteristic of ascetics and consists in abstinence from matrimony and certain kinds of food, 1 Timothy 4:8. (4 Macc. 11:19. In Greek writings from Plato, legg. i., p. 648 c. down.)TGL γυμνασία.4


    (1130) γυμνητεύω (γυμνΐτεύω L T Tr WH; [cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 81; Winer's Grammar, 92 (88)]); (γυμνήτης); [A. V. literally to be naked, i. e.] to be lightly or poorly clad: 1 Corinthians 4:11. (So in Dio Chrysostom 25, 3 and other later writings; to be a light-armed soldier, Plutarch, Aem. 16; Dio Cassius, 47, 34, 2.)TGL γυμνητεύω.2


    (1131) γυμνός, -ή, -όν, in the Sept. for עֵירֹם. and עָרום, naked, not covered;TGL γυμνός.2

    1. properly,TGL γυμνός.3

    a. unclad, without clothing: Mark 14:52; Revelation 3:17; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 17:16; τὸ γυμνόν, substantively, the naked body: ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ, Mark 14:51; cf. Fritzsche at the passage; (τὰ γυμνά, Lucian, nav. 33).TGL γυμνός.4

    b. ill-clad: Matthew 25:36, Matthew 25:38, Matthew 25:43; Acts 19:16 (with torn garments); James 2:15; (Job 22:6; Job 24:10; Job 26:6).TGL γυμνός.5

    c. clad in the undergarment only (the outer garment or cloak being laid aside): John 21:7; (1 Samuel 19:24; Isaiah 20:2; Hesiod Works, 389; often in Attic; so nudus , Vergil Georg. 1, 299).TGL γυμνός.6

    d. of the soul, whose garment is the body, stripped of the body, without a body: 2 Corinthians 5:3 (Plato, Crat c. 20, p. 403 b. ψυχὴ γυμνὴ τοῦ σώματος).TGL γυμνός.7

    2. metaphorically,TGL γυμνός.8

    a. naked, i. e. open, laid bare: Hebrews 4:13 (γυμνὸς ᾅδης ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, Job 26:6; examples from Greek authors, see in Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 1, p. 585).TGL γυμνός.9

    b. only, mere, bare, equivalent to ψιλός (like Latin vudus ): γυμνὸς κόκκος, mere grain, not the plant itself, 1 Corinthians 15:37 (Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 24, 5 σπέρματα πεσόντα εἰς τὴν γῆν ξηρὰ καὶ γυμνὰ διαλύεται).TGL γυμνός.10


    (1132) γυμνότης, -ητός, , (γυμνός), nakedness: of the body, Revelation 3:18 (see αἰσχύνη , 3); used of want of clothing, Romans 8:35; 2 Corinthians 11:27. (Deuteronomy 28:48; Antoninus 11, 27.)TGL γυμνότης.2


    (1133) γυναικάριον, -ου, τό, (diminutive from γυνή), a little woman; used contemptuously in 2 Timothy 3:6 [A. V. silly women; cf. Latin muliercula ]. (Diocles com. in Bekker Anecd., p. 87, 4; Antoninus 5, 11; occasionally in Epictetus) On diminutive ending in ἀριον see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 180; Fritzsche on Mark, p. 638; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 24, 96 (91)].TGL γυναικάριον.2


    (1134) γυναικεῖος, -εία, -εῖον, of or belonging to a woman, feminine, female: 1 Peter 3:7. (From Homer down; Sept. )TGL γυναικεῖος.2


    (1135) γυνή, -αικός, ;TGL γυνή.2

    1. universally, a woman of any age, whether a virgin, or married, or a widow: Matthew 9:20; Matthew 13:33; Matthew 27:55; Luke 13:11; Acts 5:14, etc.; μεμνηστευμένη τινὶ γυνή, Luke 2:5 R G; ὕπανδρος γυνή, Romans 7:2; γυνὴ χήρα, Luke 4:26 (1 Kings 7:2 (1 Kings 7:14); 1 Kings 17:9; femina vidua , Nepos, praef. 4).TGL γυνή.3

    2. a wife: 1 Corinthians 7:3, 1 Corinthians 7:10, 1 Corinthians 7:18; Ephesians 5:22, etc.; γυνή τινος, Matthew 5:31; Matthew 19:3, Matthew 19:5; Acts 5:1, Acts 5:7; 1 Corinthians 7:2; Ephesians 5:28; Revelation 2:20 [G L WH marginal reading], etc. of a betrothed woman: Matthew 1:20, Matthew 1:24. γυνὴ τοῦ πατρός his step-mother: 1 Corinthians 5:1 (אָב אֵשֶׁת, Leviticus 18:8). ἔχειν γυναῖκα: Matthew 14:4; Matthew 22:28; Mark 6:18; Mark 12:23; Luke 20:33; see ἔχω , I. 2 b. at the end. γύναι, as a form of address, may be used — either in indignation, Luke 22:57; or in admiration, Matthew 15:28; or in kindness and favor, Luke 13:12; John 4:21; or in respect, John 2:4; John 19:26, (as in Homer, Iliad 3, 204; Odyssey 19, 221; Josephus, Antiquities 1, 16, 3).TGL γυνή.4


    (1136) Γώγ, , (גּוֹג), indeclinable proper name, Gog, king of the land of Magog [which see in BB. DD. ], who it is said in Ezekiel 38:1-23f will come from the remote north, with innumerable hosts of his own nation as well as of allies, and will attack the people of Israel, re-established after the exile; but by divine interposition he will be utterly destroyed.TGL Γώγ.2

    Hence, in Revelation 20:8 Γώγ and Μαγώγ are used collectively to designate the nations that at the close of the millennial reign, instigated by Satan, will break forth from the four quarters of the earth against the Messiah's kingdom, but will be destroyed by fire from heaven.TGL Γώγ.3


    (1137) γωνία, -ας, , [from Herodotus down], an angle, i. e.TGL γωνία.2

    a. an external angle, corner (German Ecke): τῶν πλατειῶν, Matthew 6:5; κεφαλὴ γωνίας, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 2:7 (פִּנָּה רֹאשׁ, Psalm 117:22 (Psalms 118:22), the head of the corner, i. e. the cornerstone, (ἀκρογωνιαῖος, which see); αἱ τέσσαρες γωνίαι τῆς γῆς, the four extreme limits of the earth, Revelation 7:1; Revelation 20:8.TGL γωνία.3

    b. like German Winkel, Latin angulus , English (internal) corner, equivalent to a secret place: Acts 26:26 (so Plato, Gorgias, p. 485 d. βίον βιῶναι ἐν γωνίᾳ, Epictetus diss. 2, 12, 17; [for other examples see Wetstein on Acts, the passage cited; Stallbaum on Plato, the passage cited]).TGL γωνία.4

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