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    Βάαλ — βοήθεια


    (896) Βαάλ [so accented also by Pape (Eigenn. under the word), Kuenen and Cobet (Rom. as below); but L T (yet the name of the month, 1 Kings 6:5 (1 Kings 6:38), Βαάλ) Tr WH etc. Βάαλ; so Etym. Magn. 194, 19; Suidas 1746 a. etc. Dindorf in Stephanus' Thesaurus, under the word Βάαλ or Βαάλ], , , an indeclinable noun (Hebrew בַּעַל, Chaldean בּל contracted from בְּעֵל), lord: Romans 11:4. This was the name of the supreme heavenly divinity worshipped by the Shemitic nations (the Phœnicians, Canaanites, Babylonians, Assyrians), often also by the Israelites themselves, and represented by the Sun: τῇ Βαάλ, Romans 11:4. Cf. Winers RWB [and BB. DD. ] under the word and J. G. Müller in Herzog i., p. 637ff; Merx in Schenkel i., 322ff; Schlottmann in Riehm, p. 126f. Since in this form the supreme power of nature generating all things, and consequently a male deity, was worshipped, with which the female deity Astarte was associated, it is hard to explain why the Sept. in some places say Βαάλ (Numbers 22:41; Judges 2:13; 1 Kings 16:31; 1 Kings 19:18, etc.), in others Βαάλ (Hosea 2:8; 1 Samuel 7:4, etc. [yet see Dillmann, as below, p. 617]). Among the various conjectures on this subject the easiest is this: that the Sept. called the deity Βαάλ in derision, as weak and impotent, just as the Arabs call idols goddesses and the rabbis אֱלֹהות; so Gesenius in Rosenmüller's Repert. i., p. 139 and Tholuck on Romans, the passage cited; [yet cf. Dillmann, as below, p. 602; for other opinions and references see Meyer at the passage; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 27, 6 N. 1. But Prof. Dillmann shows (in the Monatsbericht d. Akad. zu Berlin, 16 Juni 1881, p. 601ff), that the Jews (just as they abstained from pronouncing the word Jehovah) avoided uttering the abhorred name of Baal (Exodus 23:13). As a substitute in Aramaic they read טעות, דחלא or פתכרא, and in Greek αἰσχύνη (cf. 1 Kings 18:19, 1 Kings 18:25). This substitute in Greek was suggested by the use of the feminine article. Hence, we find in the Sept. , Β. everywhere in the prophetic books Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Hosea, etc., while in the Pentateuch it does not prevail, nor even in Judges, Samuel, Kings (except 1 Samuel 7:4; 2 Kings 21:3). It disappears, too (when the worship of Baal had died out) in the later versions of Aq. , Symm. , etc. The apostle's use in Romans, the passage cited accords with the sacred custom; cf. the substitution of the Hebrew בֹּשֶׁת in Ish-bosheth, Mephi-bosheth, etc. 2 Samuel 2:8, 2 Samuel 2:10; 2 Samuel 4:4 with 1 Chronicles 8:33, 1 Chronicles 8:34, also 2 Samuel 11:21 with Judges 6:32; etc.]TGL Βάαλ.2


    (897) Βαβυλών, -ῶνος, , (Hebrew בָּבֶל from בָּלַל to confound, according to Genesis 11:9; cf. Aeschylus Pers. 52 Βαβυλὼν δ’ πολύχρυσος πάμμικτον ὄχλον πέμπει σύρδην. But more correctly, as it seems, from בַּל בָּאב the gate i. e. the court or city of Belus [Assyrian Bâb-Il the Gate of God; (perhaps of Il, the supreme God); cf. Schrader, Keilinschr. u. d. Alt. Test. 2te Aufl., p. 127f; Oppert in the Zeitsch. d. Deutsch. Morg. Gesellschaft, viii., p. 595]), Babylon, formerly a very celebrated and large city, the residence of the Babylonian kings, situated on both banks of the Euphrates. Cyrus had formerly captured it, but Darius Hystaspis threw down its gates and walls, and Xerxes destroyed [?] the temple of Belus. At length the city was reduced almost to a solitude, the population having been drawn off by the neighboring Seleucia, built on the Tigris by Seleucus Nicanor. [Cf. Prof. Rawlinson in B. D. under the word and his Herodotus, vol. i. Essays vi. and viii., vol. ii. Essay iv.] The name is used in the N. T.TGL Βαβυλών.2

    1. of the city itself: Acts 7:43; 1 Peter 5:13 (where some have understood Babylon, a small town in Egypt, to be referred to; but in opposition cf. Mayerhoff, Einl. in die petrin. Schriften, p. 126ff; [cf. 3 at the end below]).TGL Βαβυλών.3

    2. of the territory, Babylonia: Matthew 1:11, Matthew 1:17; [often so in Greek writings].TGL Βαβυλών.4

    3. allegorically, of Rome as the most corrupt seat of idolatry and the enemy of Christianity: Revelation 14:8 [here Rec.elz Βαβουλών]; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2,Revelation 18:10,Revelation 18:21 (in the opinion of some 1 Peter 5:13 also; [cf. 1 at the end, above]).TGL Βαβυλών.5


    (898) βαθμός, -οῦ, , (from the obsolete βάω equivalent to βαίνω, like σταθμός [from ἵστημι]), threshold, step; of a grade of dignity and wholesome influence in the church [R. V. standing], 1 Timothy 3:13 [cf. Ellicott at the passage]. (Used by [Sept. 1 Samuel 5:5; 2 Kings 20:9; also Sir. 6:36]; Strabo [Plutarch], Lucian, Appian, Artemidorus Daldianus, [others]; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 324.)TGL βαθμός.2


    (899) βάθος, -εος (-ους), τό, (connected with the obsolete verb βάζω, βάω [but cf. Curtius, § 635; Vanicek, p. 195); cf. βαθύς , βάσσων, and βυθός, βύσσός; German Boden), depth, height, — [accusative, as measured down or up];TGL βάθος.2

    1. properly: Matthew 13:5; Mark 4:5; Romans 8:39 (opposed to ὕψωμα); Ephesians 3:18 (opposed to ὕψος); of 'the deep' sea (the 'high seas'), Luke 5:4.TGL βάθος.3

    2. metaphorically: κατὰ βάθους πτωχεία αὐτῶν, deep, extreme, poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2; τὰ βάθη τοῦ θεοῦ the deep things of God, things hidden and above man's scrutiny, especially the divine counsels, 1 Corinthians 2:10 (τοῦ Σατανᾶ, Revelation 2:24 Rec. ; καρδίας ἀνθρώπου, Judith 8:14; [τὰ β. τῆς θείας γνώσεως, Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 40, 1 (cf. Lightfoot at the passage)]); inexhaustible abundance, immense amount, πλούτου, Romans 11:33 (so also Sophocles Aj. 130; βαθὺς πλοῦτος, Aelian v. h. 3, 18; κακῶν [Aeschylus Pers. 465, 712]; Euripides, Hel. 303; Sept. Proverbs 18:3).TGL βάθος.4


    (900) βαθύνω: [imperfect ἐβάθυνον]; (βαθύς); to make deep: Luke 6:48, where ἔσκαψε καὶ ἐβάθυνε is not used for βαθέως ἔσκαψε, but ἐβάθυνε expresses the continuation of the work, [he dug and deepened i. e. went deep]; cf. Winers Grammar, § 54, 5. (In Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL βαθύνω.2


    (901) βαθύς, -εῖα, -ύ, [cf. βάθος], deep; properly: John 4:11. metaphorically: ὕπνος, a deep sleep, Acts 20:9 (Sir 22:7; often also in Greek writings); ὄρθρος (see βαθέως), Luke 24:1 ([Aristophanes vesp. 216]; Plato Crito 43 a.; Polyaenus 4, 9, 1; ἔτι βαθέος ὄρθρου, Plato Prot. 310 a. [cf. also Philo de mutat. nom. § 30; de vita Moys. i. § 32]); τὰ βαθέα τοῦ Σατανᾶ, Revelation 2:24 (G L T Tr WH; cf. βάθος).TGL βαθύς.2

    βαθέως, adverb, deeply: ὄρθρου βαθέως namely, ὄντος (cf. Bernhardy, p. 338), deep in the morning, at early dawn, Luke 24:1 L T Tr WH; so Meyer at the passage. But βαθέως here is more correctly taken as the Attic form of the genitive from βαθύς, which see; cf. Buttmann, 26 (23); [Lob. Phryn., p. 247).TGL βαθύς.3


    (902) βάΐον [others also βάϊον (or even βαῖον, Chandler edition 1, p. 272); on its derivation (from the Egyptian) cf. Stephanus' Thesaurus under the word βαΐς), -ου, τό, a palm-branch; with τῶν φοινίκων added [so Test xii. Patr. test. Naph. § 5] (after the fashion of οἰκοδεσπότης τῆς οἰκίας, ὑποπόδιον τῶν ποδῶν, [cf. Winer's Grammar, 603 (561)]), John 12:13. (A biblical and ecclesiastical word: 1 Macc. 13:51; Song of Solomon 7:8 Symm. ; Leviticus 23:40 unknown translation. In the Greek church Palm-Sunday is called κυριακὴ τῶν βαΐων. Cf. Fischer, De vitiis Lexicons of the N. T., p. 18ff; [Sturz, Dial. Maced. etc., p. 88f; especially Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word].)TGL βαΐον.2


    (903) Βαλαάμ, , indeclinable (in Sept. for בִּלְעָם, according to Gesenius ["perhaps"] from בַּל and עָם non-populus, i. e. foreign; according to Jo. Simonis equivalent to עָם בֶּלַע a swallowing up of the people; in Josephus, Βάλαμος), Balaam (or Bileam), a native of Pethor a city of Mesopotamia, endued by Jehovah with prophetic power. He was hired by Balak (see Βαλάκ ) to curse the Israelites; and influenced by the love of reward, he wished to gratify Balak; but he was compelled by Jehovah's power to bless them (Numbers 22:1-41; Deuteronomy 23:5; Joshua 13:22; Joshua 24:9; Micah 6:5). Hence, the later Jews saw in him a most abandoned deceiver: Revelation 2:14; 2 Peter 2:15; Jude 1:11. Cf. Winers RWB [and BB. DD. ] under the word.TGL Βαλαάμ.2


    (904) Βαλάκ, , indeclinable, (בָּלַק empty [so Gesenius in his Thesaurus, but in his later works he adopts (with Fürst, and others) an active sense 'one who makes empty,' 'a devastator,' 'spoiler'; see B. D. American edition, under the word]), Balak, king of the Moabites (Numbers 22:2 and elsewhere): Revelation 2:14.TGL Βαλάκ.2


    (905) βαλάντιον and βαλλάντιον (so L T Tr WH; cf. [Tdf. Proleg., p. 79]; Fritzsche on Mark, p. 620; Winers Grammar, p. 43; Passow, Lex. [also Liddell and Scott] under the word), -ου, τό, a money-bag, purse: Luke 10:4; Luke 12:33; Luke 22:35 (Sept. Job 14:17 cf. [Simonides 181]; Aristophanes ran. 772; Xenophon, symp. 4, 2; Plato, Gorgias, p. 508 e.; Herodian, 5, 4, 4 [3, Bekker edition], and other writings.)TGL βαλλάντιον.2


    (906) βάλλω; future βάλῶ; perfect βέβληκα; 2 aorist ἔβαλον (3 person plural ἔβαλον in Luke 23:34; Acts 16:23, ἔβαλαν, the Alex. form, in Acts 16:37 L T Tr WH; [Revelation 18:19 Lachmann, see WH's Appendix, p. 165 and] for references ἀπέρχομαι at the beginning); passive [present βάλλομαι]; perfect βέβλημαι; pluperfect ἐβεβλήμην; 1 aorist ἐβλήθην; 1 future βληθήσομαι; to throw — either with force, or without force yet with a purpose, or even carelessly;TGL βάλλω.2

    1. with force and effort: βάλλειν τινὰ ῥαπίσμασι to smite one with slaps, to buffet, Mark 14:65 Rec. (an imitation of the phrases, τινὰ βάλλειν λίθοις, βελεσι, τόξοις, etc., κακοῖς, ψόγῳ, σκώμμασι, etc., in Greek writings; cf. Passow, i., p. 487; [Liddell and Scott, under the word I. 1 and 3]; for the Rec. ἔβαλλον we must read with Fritzsche and Schott ἔβαλον, from which arose ἔλαβον, adopted by L T Tr WH; βαλεῖν and λαβεῖν are often confounded in manuscripts; cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 5:6; [Scrivener, Introduction, p. 10]); βάλλειν λίθους ἐπί τινι or τινα, John 8:59 (John 7:53-53); χοῦν ἐπὶ τὰς κεφαλάς, Revelation 18:19 [WH marginal reading ἐπέβ.]; κονιορτὸν εἰς τὸν ἀέρα, Acts 22:23; τὶ εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν, Mark 9:42; Revelation 8:8; Revelation 18:21; εἰς τὸ πῦρ, Matthew 3:10; Matthew 18:8; Luke 3:9; Mark 9:22; John 15:6; εἰς κλίβανον, Matthew 6:30; Luke 12:28; εἰς γέενναν, [Matthew 5:29], Matthew 5:30 [R G]; Mark 9:47; εἰς τ. γῆν, Revelation 8:5, Revelation 8:7; Revelation 12:4, Revelation 12:9, Revelation 12:13; εἰς τ. ληνόν, Revelation 14:19; εἰς τ. λιμνήν, Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10, Revelation 20:14; εἰς τ. ἄβυσσον, Revelation 20:3; absolutely and in the passive to be violently displaced from a position gained, Revelation 12:10 L T Tr WH. an attack of disease is said βάλλειν τινὰ εἰς κλίνην, Revelation 2:22; passive to lie sick abed, be prostrated by sickness: βέβλημαι ἐπὶ κλίνης, Matthew 9:2; Mark 7:30 [R G L marginal reading]; with ἐπὶ κλίνης omitted, Matthew 8:6, Matthew 8:14, cf. Luke 16:20; τινὰ εἰς φυλακήν, to cast one into prison, Matthew 5:25; Matthew 18:30; Luke 12:58; Luke 23:19 [R G L], Luke 23:25; John 3:24; Acts 16:23, Acts 16:37; Revelation 2:10; [β. ἐπί τινα τὴν χεῖρα or τάς χεῖρας to lay hand or hands on one, apprehend him, John 7:44 L Tr WH, also 30 L marginal reading]; δρέπανον εἰς γῆν to apply with force, thrust in, the sickle, Revelation 14:19; μάχαιραν βάλλειν (to cast, send) ἐπὶ τ. γῆν, Matthew 10:34, which phrase gave rise to another found in the same passage, viz., εἰρήνην βάλλ. ἐπὶ τ. γῆν, to cast (send) peace; ἔξω, to cast out or forth: Matthew 5:13; Matthew 13:48; Luke 14:35 (Luke 14:34); 1 John 4:18; John 15:6; ἑαυτὸν κάτω to cast oneself down: Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:9; ἑαυτὸν εἰς τ. θάλασσαν, John 21:7; passive in a reflexive sense [Buttmann, 52 (45)], βλήθητι, Matthew 21:21; Mark 11:23; τὶ ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ to cast a thing from oneself, throw it away: Matthew 5:29; Matthew 18:8; ὕδωρ ἐκ τοῦ στόματος, Revelation 12:15 (cast out of his mouth, Luther schoss aus ihrem Munde ); ἐνώπιον with the genitive of place, to cast before (eagerly lay down), Revelation 4:10; of a tree casting its fruit because violently shaken by the wind, Revelation 6:13. Intransitive, to rush (throw oneself [cf. Winers Grammar, 251 (236); 381 (357) note1; Buttmann, 145 (127)]): Acts 27:14; (Homer, Iliad 11, 722; 23, 462, and other writings; [cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word III. 1]).TGL βάλλω.3

    2. without force and effort; to throw or let go of a thing without caring where it falls: κλῆρον to cast a lot into the urn [B. D. under the word Lot], Matthew 27:35; Mark 15:24; Luke 23:34; John 19:24 from Psalm 21:19 (Psalms 22:19); (κύβους, Plato, legg. 12, p. 968 e. and in other writings). to scatter: κόπρια [Rec.st κοπρίαν], Luke 13:8; seed ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, Mark 4:26; εἰς κῆπον, Luke 13:19. to throw, cast, into: ἀργύριον εἰς τὸν κορβανᾶν [L marginal reading Tr marginal reading κορβᾶν], Matthew 27:6; χαλκόν, δῶρα, etc., εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον, Mark 12:41-44; Luke 21:1-4, cf. John 12:6. βᾴλλειν τί τινι, to throw, cast, a thing to: τὸν ἄρτον τοῖς κυναρίοις, Matthew 15:26; Mark 7:27; ἔμπροσθέν τινος, Matthew 7:6; ἐνώπιόν τινος, Revelation 2:14 (see σκάνδαλον , b. β.); to give over to one's care uncertain about the result: ἀργύριον τοῖς τραπεζίταις, to deposit, Matthew 25:27. of fluids, to pour, to pour in: followed by εἰς, Matthew 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37; John 13:5, (οἶνον εἰς τὸν πιθον, Epictetus 4, 13, 12; of rivers, ῥόον εἰς ἅλα, Ap. Rhod. 2, 401, etc.; Sept. Judges 6:19 [Ald. , Complutensian]); to pour out, ἐπί τινος, Matthew 26:12.TGL βάλλω.4

    3. to move, give motion to, not with force yet with attention and for a purpose; εἴς τι, to put into, insert: Mark 7:33 (τοὺς δακτύλους εἰς τὰ ὦτα); John 20:25, John 20:27; John 18:11; χαλίνους εἰς τὸ στόμα James 3:3; to let down, cast down: John 5:7; Matthew 4:18 [cf. Mark 1:16 Rec. ]; Matthew 17:27. Metaphorically: εἰς τὴν καρδίαν τινός, to suggest, John 13:2 (τί ἐν θυμῷ τινος, Homer, Odyssey 1, 201; 14, 269; εἰς νοῦν, schol. ad Pindar Pythagoras 4, 133; others; ἐμβάλλειν εἰς νοῦν τινι, Plutarch, vit. Timol c. 3). [Compare: ἀμφι-, ἀνα-, ἀντι-, ἀπο-, δια-, ἐκ-, ἐμ-, παρεμ-, ἐπι-, κατα-, μετα-, παρα-, περι-, προ-, συμ-, ὑπερ-, ὑποβάλλω.]TGL βάλλω.5


    (907) βαπτίζω; [imperfect ἐβάπτιζον]; future βαπτίσω; 1 aorist ἐβάπτισα; passive [present βαπτίζομαι]; imperfect ἐβαπτιζόμην; perfect participle βεβαπτισμένος; 1 aorist ἐβαπτίσθην; 1 future βαπτισθήσομαι; 1 aorist middle ἐβαπτισάμην; (frequently [?] from βάπτω, like βαλλίζω from βάλλω); here and there in Plato, Polybius, Diodorus, Strabo, Josephus, Plutarch, others.TGL βαπτίζω.2

    I.TGL βαπτίζω.3

    1. properly, to dip repeatedly, to immerge, submerge (of vessels sunk, Polybius 1, 51, 6; 8, 8, 4; of animals, Diodorus 1, 36).TGL βαπτίζω.4

    2. to cleanse by dipping or submerging, to wash, to make clean with water; in the middle and the 1 aorist passive to wash oneself, bathe; so Mark 7:4 [where WH text ῥαντίσωνται]; Luke 11:38 (2 Kings 5:14 ἐβαπτίσατο ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ, for טָבַל; Sir. 31:30 (Sir. 34:30); Judith 12:7).TGL βαπτίζω.5

    3. metaphorically, to overwhelm, as ἰδιώτας ταῖς ἐισφοραῖς, Diodorus 1, 73; ὀφλήμασι, Plutarch, Galba 21; τῇ συμφορᾷ βεβαπτισμένος, Heliodorus Aeth. 2, 3; and alone, to inflict great and abounding calamities on one: ἐβάπτισαν τὴν πόλιν, Josephus, b. j. 4, 3, 3; ἀνομία με βαπτίζει, Isaiah 21:4 Sept. hence, βαπτίζεσθαι βάπτισμα (cf. Winers Grammar, 225 (211); [Buttmann, 148 (129)]; cf. λούεσθαι τὸ λουτρόν, Aelian de nat. an. 3, 42), to be overwhelmed with calamities, of those who must bear them, Matthew 20:22 Rec. ; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50 (cf. the German etwas auszubaden haben , and the use of the word e. g. respecting those who cross a river with difficulty, ἕως τῶν μαστῶν οἱ πεζοὶ βαπτιζόμενοι διέβαινον, Polybius 3, 72, 4; [for examples see Sophocles' Lexicon under the word; also T. J. Conant, Baptizein, its meaning and use, N. Y. 1864 (printed also as an Appendix to their revised version of the Gospel of Matthew by the "American Bible Union"); and especially four works by J. W. Dale entitled Classic, Judaic, Johannic, Christic, Baptism, Phil. 1867ff; D. B. Ford, Studies on the Bapt. Quest. (including a review of Dr. Dale's works), Bost. 1879]).TGL βαπτίζω.6

    II. In the N. T. it is used particularly of the rite of sacred ablution, first instituted by John the Baptist, afterward by Christ's command received by Christians and adjusted to the contents and nature of their religion (see βάπτισμα , 3), viz., an immersion in water, performed as a sign of the removal of sin, and administered to those who, impelled by a desire for salvation, sought admission to the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom; [for patristic references respecting the mode, ministrant, subjects, etc. of the rite, cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word; Dict. of Chris. Antiq. under the word Baptism].TGL βαπτίζω.7

    a. The word is used absolutely, to administer the rite of ablution, to baptize (Vulg. baptizo ; Tertullian tingo , tinguo [cf. mergito , de corona mil. § 3]): Mark 1:4; John 1:25, John 1:28; John 3:22, John 3:26; John 4:2; John 10:40; 1 Corinthians 1:17; with the cognate noun τὸ βάπτισμα, Acts 19:4; βαπτίζων substantively equivalent to βαπτιστης, Mark 6:14 [Mark 6:24 T Tr WH]. τινά, John 4:1; Acts 8:38; 1 Corinthians 1:14, 1 Corinthians 1:16. Passive to be baptized: Matthew 3:13, Matthew 3:16; Mark 16:16; Luke 3:21; Acts 2:41; Acts 8:12, Acts 8:13, [Acts 8:36]; Acts 10:47; Acts 16:15; 1 Corinthians 1:15 L T Tr WH; 1 Corinthians 10:2 L T Tr marginal reading. WH marginal reading. Passive in a reflexive sense [i. e. middle, cf. Winers Grammar, § 38, 3], to allow oneself to be initiated by baptism, to receive baptism: [Luke 3:7, Luke 3:12); Luke 7:30; Acts 2:38; Acts 9:18; Acts 16:33; Acts 18:8; with the cognate noun τὸ βάπτισμα added, Luke 7:29; 1 aorist middle, 1 Corinthians 10:2 (L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ἐβαπτίσθησαν [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 38, 4 b.]); Acts 22:16. followed by a dative of the thing with which baptism is performed, ὕδατι, see bb. below.TGL βαπτίζω.8

    b. with prepositions;TGL βαπτίζω.9

    aa. εἰς, to mark the element into which the immersion is made: εἰς τὸν Ἰορδάνην, Mark 1:9. to mark the end: εἰς μετάνοιαν, to bind one to repentance, Matthew 3:11; εἰς τὸ Ἰωάννου βάπτισμα, to bind to the duties imposed by John's baptism, Acts 19:3 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 397 (371)]; εἰς ὄνομά τινος, to profess the name (see ὄνομα , 2) of one whose follower we become, Matthew 28:19; Acts 8:16; Acts 19:5; 1 Corinthians 1:13, 1 Corinthians 1:15; εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, to obtain the forgiveness of sins, Acts 2:38; εἰς τὸν Μωυσῆν, to follow Moses as a leader, 1 Corinthians 10:2. to indicate the effect: εἰς ἕν σῶμα, to unite together into one body by baptism, 1 Corinthians 12:13; εἰς Χριστόν, εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ, to bring by baptism into fellowship with Christ, into fellowship in his death, by which fellowship we have died to sin, Galatians 3:27; Romans 6:3 [cf. Meyer on the latter passive, Ellicott on the former].TGL βαπτίζω.10

    bb. ἐν, with the dative of the thing in which one is immersed: ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ, Mark 1:5; ἐν τῷ ὕδατι, John 1:31 (L T Tr WH ἐν ὕδ., but compare Meyer at the passage [who makes the article deictic]). of the thing used in baptizing: ἐν ὕδατι, Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8 [T WH Tr marginal reading omit; Tr text brackets ἐν]; John 1:26, John 1:33; cf. Buttmann, § 133, 19; [cf. Winers Grammar, 412 (384); see ἐν , I. 5 d. α.]; with the simple dative, ὕδατι, Luke 3:16; Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16. ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, to imbue richly with the Holy Spirit (just as its large bestowment is called an outpouring): Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:8 [L Tr brackets ἐν]; Luke 3:16; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16; with the addition καὶ πυρί to overwhelm with fire (those who do not repent), i. e. to subject them to the terrible penalties of hell, Matthew 3:11. ἐν ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου, by the authority of the Lord, Acts 10:48.TGL βαπτίζω.11

    cc. Passive ἐπὶ [L Tr WH ἐν] τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, relying on the name of Jesus Christ, i. e. reposing one's hope on him, Acts 2:38.TGL βαπτίζω.12

    dd. ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν on behalf of the dead, i. e. to promote their eternal salvation by undergoing baptism in their stead, 1 Corinthians 15:29; cf. [Winers Grammar, 175 (165); 279 (262); 382 (358); Meyer (or Beet) at the passage]; especially Neander at the passage; Rückert, Progr. on the passage, Jen. 1847; Paret in Ewald's Jahrb. d. biblical Wissensch. ix., p. 247; [cf. B. D. under the word Baptism XII. Alex.'s Kitto ibid. VI.].TGL βαπτίζω.13


    (908) βάπτισμα, -τος, τό, (βαπτίζω), a word peculiar to N. T. and ecclesiastical writings, immersion, submersion;TGL βάπτισμα.2

    1. used tropically of calamities and afflictions with which one is quite overwhelmed: Matthew 20:22 Rec. ; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50 (see βαπτίζω , I. 3).TGL βάπτισμα.3

    2. of John's baptism, that purificatory rite by which men on confessing their sins were bound to a spiritual reformation, obtained the pardon of their past sins and became qualified for the benefits of the Messiah's kingdom soon to be set up: Matthew 3:7; Matthew 21:25; Mark 11:30; Luke 7:29; Luke 20:4; Acts 1:22; Acts 10:37; Acts 18:25; [Acts 19:3]; βάπτ. μετανοίας, binding to repentance [Winer's Grammar, 188 (177)], Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3; Acts 13:24; Acts 19:4.TGL βάπτισμα.4

    3. of Christian baptism; this, according to the view of the apostles, is a rite of sacred immersion, commanded by Christ, by which men confessing their sins and professing their faith in Christ are born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, come into the fellowship of Christ and the church (1 Corinthians 12:13), and are made partakers of eternal salvation; [but see article "Baptism" in BB. DD. , McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, Schaff-Herzog ]: Ephesians 4:5; Colossians 2:12 [L marginal reading Tr -μῷ which see]; 1 Peter 3:21; εἰς τὸν θάνατον, Romans 6:4 (see βαπτίζω, II. b. aa. at the end). [Trench, § xcix.]TGL βάπτισμα.5


    (909) βαπτισμός, -οῦ, , (βαπτίζω), a washing, purification effected by means of water: Mark 7:4, Mark 7:8 [R G L Tr in brackets] (ξεστῶν καὶ ποτηρίων); of the washings prescribed by the Mosaic law, Hebrews 9:10. βαπτισμῶν διδαχῆς equivalent to διδαχῆς περὶ βαπτισμῶν, Hebrews 6:2 [where L text, WH text, βαπτ. διδαχήν], which seems to mean an exposition of the difference between the washings prescribed by the Mosaic law and Christian baptism. (Among secular writings Josephus alone, Antiquities 18, 5, 2, uses the word, and of John's baptism; [respecting its interchange with βάπτισμα cf. examples in Sophocles Lexicon, under the word 2 and Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 2:12, where L marginal reading Tr read βαπτισμός; cf. Trench, § xcix.].)TGL βαπτισμός.2


    (910) βαπτιστής, -οῦ, , (βαπτίζω), a baptizer; one who administers the rite of baptism; the surname of John, the forerunner of Christ: Matthew 3:1; Matthew 11:11; [Matthew 14:2, Matthew 14:8; Matthew 16:14; Matthew 17:13]; Mark 6:24 [T Tr WH τοῦ βαπτίζοντος], Mark 6:25; Mark 8:28; Luke 7:20, Luke 7:28 [T Tr WH omit], Luke 7:33; Luke 9:19; also given him by Josephus, Antiquities 18, 5, 2, and found in no other secular writings [Joh. d. Täufer by Breest (1881), Köhler (1884).]TGL βαπτιστής.2


    (911) βάπτω: [future βάψω, John 13:26 T Tr WH]; 1 aorist ἔβαψα; perfect passive participle βεβαμμένος; in Greek writings from Homer down; in the Sept. for טָבַל;TGL βάπτω.2

    a. to dip, dip in, immerse: τί, John 13:26 [but in 26a Lachmann ἐμβάψας, as in 26b L text R G]; followed by a genitive of the thing into which the object is dipped (because only a part of it is touched by the act of dipping), Luke 16:24 (cf. ἅπτεσθαί τινος, λούεσθαι ποταμοῖο, Homer, Iliad 5, 6; 6, 508; cf. Buttmann, § 132, 25; [Winers Grammar, § 30, 8. c.]).TGL βάπτω.3

    b. to dip into dye, to dye, color: ἱμάτιον αἵματι, Revelation 19:13 [Tdf. περιρεραμμένον, see under the word περιρραίνω ; WH ῥεραντισμένον, see ῤαντίζω ]. (Herodotus 7, 67; Anth. 11, 68; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 6, 1.) [Compare: ἐμβάπτω.]TGL βάπτω.4

    Related entry: περιρραίνω (Tdf. περιρ., with one ρ; see Ρ, ρ): perfect passive participle περιρερυμμένος (cf. Μ, μ); (περί and ῥαίνω to sprinkle); to sprinkle around, besprinkle: ἱμάτιον, passive, Revelation 19:13 Tdf. [others βεβαμμένον (exc. WH ῤεραντισμένον, see ῥαντίζω, and their App. at the passage)]. (Aristophanes, Menander, Philo, Plutarch, others; Sept.)TGL βάπτω.5


    (912) Βαραββᾶς, -ᾶ, , (from בַּר son, and אַבָּא father, hence, son of a father i. e. of a master [cf. Matthew 23:9]), a captive robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of Christ: Matthew 27:16 (where manuscripts mentioned by Origen, and some other authorities, place Ἰησοῦν before Βαραββᾶν, approved by Fritzsche, DeWette, Meyer, Bleek, others; [cf. WH Appendix and Tdf. s note at the passage; also Treg. Printed Text, etc., p. 194f]), Matthew 27:20, Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:7, Mark 15:11, Mark 15:15; Luke 23:18; John 18:40.TGL Βαραββᾶς.2


    (913) Βαράκ, , indeclinable (בָּרָק lightning), Barak, a commander of the Israelites (Judges 4:6, Judges 4:8): Hebrews 11:32. [BB. DD. ]TGL Βαράκ.2


    (914) Βαραχίας, -ου, , [בֶּרֶכְיָה, Jehovah blesses], Barachiah in Matthew 23:35 said to have been the father of the Zachariah slain in the temple; cf. Ζαχαρίας .TGL Βαραχίας.2


    (915) βάρβαρος, -ον;TGL βάρβαρος.2

    1. properly, one whose speech is rude, rough, harsh, as if repeating the syllables βαρβάρ (cf. Strabo 14, 2, 28, p. 662; ὠνοματοπεποίηται λέξις, Etym. Magn. [188, 11 (but Gaisf. reads βράγχος for βάρβαρος); cf. Curtius, § 394; Vanicek, p. 561]); hence,TGL βάρβαρος.3

    2. one who speaks a foreign or strange language which is not understood by another (Herodotus 2, 158 βαρβάρους πάντας οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τοὺς μὴ σφίσι ὁμογλώσσους, Ovid . trist. 5, 10, 37 barbarus hic ego sum , quia non intelligor ulli ); so 1 Corinthians 14:11.TGL βάρβαρος.4

    3. The Greeks used βάρβαρος of any foreigner ignorant of the Greek language and the Greek culture, whether mental or moral, with the added notion, after the Persian war, of rudeness and brutality. Hence, the word is applied in the N. T., but not reproachfully, in Acts 28:2, Acts 28:4, to the inhabitants of Malta [i. e. Μελίτη, which see], who were of Phœnician or Punic origin; and to those nations that had, indeed, some refinement of manners, but not the opportunity of becoming Christians, as the Scythians, Colossians 3:11 [but cf. Bp. Lightfoot at the passage]. But the phrase Ἕλληνές τε καὶ βάρβαροι forms also a periphrasis for all peoples, or indicates their diversity yet without reproach to foreigners (Plato, Theaet., p. 175 a.; Isocrates, Euag c. 17, p. 192 b.; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 2, 1 and in other writings); so in Romans 1:14. (In Philo de Abr. § 45 under the end of all nations not Jews. Josephus, b. j. prooem. 1 reckons the Jews among barbarians.) Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 2:21, p. 61; [Bp. Lightfoot on Col. as above; B. D. under the word Barbarian].TGL βάρβαρος.5


    (916) βαρέω, -ῶ: to burden, weigh down, depress; in the N. T. found only in the passive, viz., present participle βαρούμενοι, imperative βαρείσθω; 1 aorist ἐβαρήθην; perfect participle βεβαρημένος; the better writings do not use the present; they use only the participles, βεβαρηώς and βεβαρημένος; see Matth. § 227; Winers Grammar, 83 (80); [Buttmann, 54 (47); Veitch, under the word]. Used simply: to be weighed down, oppressed, with external evils and calamities, 2 Corinthians 1:8; of the mental oppression which the thought of inevitable death occasions, 2 Corinthians 5:4; ὀφθαλμοὶ βεβαρημένοι, namely, ὕπνῳ, weighed down with sleep, Mark 14:40 (L T Tr WH καταβαρυνόμενοι); Matthew 26:43; with ὕπνῳ added, Luke 9:32; ἐν (בְּ) κραιπάλῃ, Luke 21:34 Rec. βαρυνθῶσιν [see βαρύνω ] (Homer, Odyssey 19, 122 οἴνῳ βεβαρηότες, Diodorus Siculus 4, 38 τῇ νόσῳ); μὴ βαρείσθω let it not be burdened, namely, with their expense, 1 Timothy 5:16, (ἐισφοραῖς, Dio Cassius, 46, 32). [Compare: ἐπι-, καταβαρέω.]TGL βαρέω.2

    Related entry: καταβαρύνω: equivalent to καταβαρέω (which see); present passive participle καταβαρυνόμενος, Mark 14:40 L T Tr WH; see βαρέω. (Sept.; Theophrastus and others.)TGL βαρέω.3


    (917) βαρέως, adverb (βαρύς, which see), heavily, with difficulty: Matthew 13:15; Acts 28:27, (Isaiah 6:10). [From Herodotus on.]TGL βαρέως.2


    (918) Βαρθολομαῖος, -ου, , (תָּלְמַי בַּר son of Tolmai), Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles of Christ: Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13. [See Ναθαναήλ and BB. DD. ]TGL Βαρθολομαῖος.2


    (919) Βαριησοῦς, , (בַּר son, יֵשׁוּעַ Jesus), Bar-Jesus, a certain false prophet: Acts 13:6 [where Tdf. -σοῦ; see his note. Cf. Ἐλύμας ].TGL Βαριησοῦ.2


    (920) Βαριωνᾶς, -ᾶ [cf. Buttmann, 20 (17f)], , (from בַּר son, and יוֹנָה Jonah [others יוֹחָנָן i. e. Johanan, Jona, John; cf. Meyer on John 1:42 (John 1:43) and Lightfoot as below]), Bar-Jonah [or Bar-Jonas], the surname of the apostle Peter: Matthew 16:17 [L T WH; in John 1:42 (John 1:43); John 21:15 son of John; see Lightfoot Fresh Revision, etc., p. 159 note (American edition, p. 137 note)]; see in Βάρ and Ἰωνᾶς, 2.TGL Βαριωνᾶ.2


    (921) Βαρνάβας, [Buttmann, 20 (18)], , (בַּר son, and נָבָא; according to Luke's interpretation υἱὸς παρακλήσεως, i. e. excelling in the power τῆς παρακλήσεως, Acts 4:36; see παράκλησις , 5), Barnabas, the surname of Joses [better Joseph], a Levite, a native of Cyprus. He was a distinguished teacher of the Christian religion, and a companion and colleague of Paul: Acts 9:27; Acts 11:22, [Acts 11:25 Rec. ], Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25; Acts 13:1-52; 1 Corinthians 9:6; Galatians 2:1, Galatians 2:9, Galatians 2:13; Colossians 4:10.TGL Βαρναβᾶς.2


    (922) βάρος, -εος, τό, heaviness, weight, burden, trouble: load, ἐπιτιθέναι τινί (Xenophon, oec. 17, 9), to impose upon one difficult requirements, Acts 15:28; βάλλειν ἐπί τινα, Revelation 2:24 (where the meaning is, 'I put upon you no other injunction which it might be difficult to observe'; cf. Düsterdieck at the passage); βαστάζειν τὸ βάρος τινός, i. e. either the burden of a thing, as τὸ βάρος τῆς ἡμέρας the wearisome labor of the day Matthew 20:12, or that which a person bears, as in Galatians 6:2 (where used of troublesome moral faults; the meaning is, 'bear one another's faults'). αἰώνιον βάρος δόξης a weight of glory never to cease, i. e. vast and transcendent glory (blessedness), 2 Corinthians 4:17; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3; (πλούτου, Plutarch, Alex. M. 48). weight equivalent to authority: ἐν βάρει εἶναι to have authority and influence, 1 Thessalonians 2:7 (1 Thessalonians 2:7) (so also in Greek writings; cf. Wesseling on Diodorus Siculus 4, 61; [examples in Suidas under the word]). [Synonyms: see ὄγκος .]TGL βάρος.2


    (923) Βαρσαβᾶς [-σαββᾶς L T Tr WH; see WH's Appendix, p. 159], -ᾶ [Buttmann, 20 (18)], , Barsabas [or Barsabbas] (i. e. son of Saba [others, Zaba]);TGL Βαρσαβᾶς.2

    1. the surname of a certain Joseph: Acts 1:23, [B. D. under the word Joseph Barsabas].TGL Βαρσαβᾶς.3

    2. the surname of a certain Judas: Acts 15:22, (B. D. under the word Judas Barsabas].TGL Βαρσαβᾶς.4


    (924) Βαρτίμαιος [Tdf. -μαῖος, yet cf. Chandler § 253], -ου, , (son of Timæus), Bartimæus, a certain blind man: Mark 10:46.TGL Βαρτιμαῖος.2


    (925) βαρύνω: to weigh down, overcharge: Luke 21:34 (1 aorist passive subjunctive) βαρυνθῶσιν Rec. [cf. Winers Grammar, 83 (80); Buttmann, 54 (47)], for βαρηθῶσιν; see βαρέω . [Compare: καταβαρύνω.]TGL βαρύνω.2


    (926) βαρύς, -εῖα, -ύ, heavy;TGL βαρύς.2

    1. properly, i. e. heavy in weight: φορτίον, Matthew 23:4 (in Matthew 11:30 we have the opposite, ἐλαφρόν).TGL βαρύς.3

    2. metaphorically,TGL βαρύς.4

    a. burdensome: ἐντολή, the keeping of which is grievous, 1 John 5:3.TGL βαρύς.5

    b. severe, stern: ἐπιστολή, 2 Corinthians 10:10 [others, imposing, impressive, cf. Wetstein at the passage].TGL βαρύς.6

    c. weighty, i. e. of great moment: τὰ βαρύτερα τοῦ νόμου the weightier precepts of the law, Matthew 23:23; αἰτιάματα [better αἰτιώματα (which see)], Acts 25:7.TGL βαρύς.7

    d. violent, cruel, unsparing, [A. V. grievous]: λύκοι, Acts 20:29 (so also Homer, Iliad 1:89; Xenophon, Ages. 11, 12).TGL βαρύς.8


    (927) βαρύτιμος, -ον, (βαρύς and τιμή), of weighty (i. e. great) value, very precious, costly: Matthew 26:7 [R G Tr text WH] (so Strabo 17, p. 798; selling at a great price, Heliodorus 2, 30 [variant]; possessed of great honor, Aeschylus suppl. 25 [but Dindorf (Lexicon under the word) gives here (after a schol.) severely punishing]).TGL βαρύτιμος.2


    (928) βασανίζω: [imperfect ἐβασάνιζον]; 1 aorist ἐβασάνισα; passive [present βασανίζομαι]; 1 aorist ἐβασανίσθην; 1 future βασανισθήσομαι; (βάσανος);TGL βασανίζω.2

    1. properly, to test (metals) by the touchstone.TGL βασανίζω.3

    2. to question by applying torture.TGL βασανίζω.4

    3. to torture (2 Macc. 7:13); hence,TGL βασανίζω.5

    4. universally, to vex with grievous pains (of body or mind), to torment: τινά, Matthew 8:29; Mark 5:7; Luke 8:28; 2 Peter 2:8; Revelation 11:10; passively, Matthew 8:6; Revelation 9:5; Revelation 20:10; of the pains of childbirth, Revelation 12:2 (cf. Anthol. 2, p. 205, Jacobs edition); with ἐν and the dative of the material in which one is tormented, Revelation 14:10.TGL βασανίζω.6

    5. Passive to be harassed, distressed; of those who at sea are struggling with a head wind, Mark 6:48; of a ship tossed by the waves, Matthew 14:24. (In Greek writings from Herodotus down. Often in O. T. Apocrypha.)TGL βασανίζω.7


    (929) βασανισμός, -οῦ, , (βασανίζω, which see);TGL βασανισμός.2

    1. a testing by the touchstone or by torture.TGL βασανισμός.3

    2. torment, torture;TGL βασανισμός.4

    a. the act of tormenting: Revelation 9:5.TGL βασανισμός.5

    b. the state or condition of those tormented: Revelation 18:7, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:15; κάπνος τοῦ βασανισμοῦ αὐτῶν the smoke of the fire by which they are tormented, Revelation 14:11. (4 Macc. 9:6; 11:2; [others]; bad wine is called βασανισμός by Alexis in Athen. 1, 56, p. 30 f.)TGL βασανισμός.6


    (930) βασανιστής, -οῦ, , (βασανίζω), one who elicits the truth by the use of the rack, an inquisitor, torturer, ([Antiphon, others]; Demosthenes, p. 978, 11; Philo in Flacc. § 11 end; [de concupisc. § 1; quod omn. prob. book 16; Plutarch, an vitios. ad infel. suff. § 2]); used in Matthew 18:34 of a jailer (δεσμοφύλαξ Acts 16:23), doubtless because the business of torturing was also assigned to him.TGL βασανιστής.2


    (931) βάσανος, -ου, , [Curtius, p. 439];TGL βάσανος.2

    a. the touchstone [called also basanite, Latin lapis Lydius ], by which gold and other metals are tested.TGL βάσανος.3

    b. the rack or instrument of torture by which one is forced to divulge the truth.TGL βάσανος.4

    c. torture, torment, acute pains: used of the pains of disease, Matthew 4:24; of the torments of the wicked after death, ἐν βασάνοις ὑπάρχειν, Luke 16:23 (Wis. 3:1; 4 Macc. 13:14); hence, τόπος τῆς βασάνου is used of Gehenna, Luke 16:28. (In Greek writings from [Theognis], Pindar down.)TGL βάσανος.5


    (932) βασιλεία, -ας, , (from βασιλεύω; to be distinguished from βασίλεια a queen; cf. ἱερεία priesthood from ἱερεύω, and ἱέρεια a priestess from ἱερεύς), [from Herodotus down];TGL βασιλεία.2

    1. royal power, kingship, dominion, rule: Luke 1:33; Luke 19:12, Luke 19:15; Luke 22:29; John 18:36; Acts 1:6; Hebrews 1:8; 1 Corinthians 15:24; Revelation 17:12; of the royal power of Jesus as the triumphant Messiah, in the phrase ἔρχεσθαι ἐν τῇ βασαὐτοῦ, i. e. to come in his kingship, clothed with this power: Matthew 16:28; Luke 23:42 [εἰς τὴν β. L marginal reading Tr marginal reading WH text]; of the royal power and dignity conferred on Christians in the Messiah's kingdom: Revelation 1:6 (according to Tr text WH marginal reading ἐποίησεν ἡμῖν or L ἡμῶν [yet R G T WH text Tr marginal reading ἡμᾶς] βασιλείαν [Rec. βασιλεῖς]); τοῦ θεοῦ, the royal power and dignity belonging to God, Revelation 12:10.TGL βασιλεία.3

    2. a kingdom i. e. the territory subject to the rule of a king: Matthew 12:25; Matthew 24:7; Mark 3:24; Mark 6:23; Mark 13:8; Luke 11:17; Luke 21:10; plural: Matthew 4:8; Luke 4:5; Hebrews 11:33.TGL βασιλεία.4

    3. Frequent in the N. T. in reference to the Reign of the Messiah are the following phrases: βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ (דֶאֱלָהָא מַלְכוּתָא, Targ. Isaiah 40:9; Micah 4:7), properly, the kingdom over which God rules; βασιλεία τοῦ Χριστοῦ (דִמְשִׁיחָא מַלְכוּת, Targ. Jonath. ad Isaiah 53:10), the kingdom of the Messiah, which will be founded by God through the Messiah and over which the Messiah will preside as God's vicegerent; βασ. τῶν οὐρανῶν, only in Matthew, but very frequently [some 33 times], the kingdom of heaven, i. e. the kingdom which is of heavenly or divine origin and nature (in rabbinical writings מַלְכוּת הַשָׁמַיִם [מַלְכוּת הַשָׁ׳׳ — probably the article should be stricken out; cf. Prof. Geo. F. Moore in the Andover Review for July 1887, p. 105] is the rule of God, the theocracy viewed universally, not the Messianic kingdom); sometimes simply βασιλεία: Matthew 4:23, etc.; James 2:5; once βασ. τοῦ Δαυείδ, because it was supposed the Messiah would be one of David's descendants and a king very like David, Mark 11:10; once also βασ. τοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ, Ephesians 5:5. Relying principally on the prophecies of Daniel — who had declared it to be the purpose of God that, after four vast and mighty kingdoms had succeeded one another and the last of them shown itself hostile to the people of God, at length its despotism should be broken, and the empire of the world pass over for ever to the holy people of God (Daniel 2:44; Daniel 7:14, Daniel 7:18, Daniel 7:27) — the Jews were expecting a kingdom of the greatest felicity, which God through the Messiah would set up, raising the dead to life again and renovating earth and heaven; and that in this kingdom they would bear sway for ever over all the nations of the world. This kingdom was called the kingdom of God or the kingdom of the Messiah; and in this sense must these terms be understood in the utterances of the Jews and of the disciples of Jesus when conversing with him, as Matthew 18:1; Matthew 20:21; Mark 11:10; Luke 17:20; Luke 19:11. But Jesus employed the phrase kingdom of God or of heaven to indicate that perfect order of things which he was about to establish, in which all those of every nation who should believe in him were to be gathered together into one society, dedicated and intimately united to God, and made partakers of eternal salvation. This kingdom is spoken of as now begun and actually present, inasmuch as its foundations have already been laid by Christ and its benefits realized among men that believe in him: Matthew 11:12; Matthew 12:28; Matthew 13:41 (in this passage its earthly condition is spoken of, in which it includes bad subjects as well as good); Luke 17:21; 1 Corinthians 4:20; Romans 14:17 (where the meaning is, 'the essence of the kingdom of God is not to be found in questions about eating and drinking'); Colossians 1:13. But far more frequently the kingdom of heaven is spoken of as a future blessing, since its consummate establishment is to be looked for on Christ's solemn return from the skies, the dead being called to life again, the ills and wrongs which burden the present state of things being done away, the powers hostile to God being vanquished: Matthew 6:10; Matthew 8:11; Matthew 26:29; Mark 9:1; Mark 15:43; Luke 9:27; Luke 13:28; Luke 14:15; Luke 22:18; 2 Peter 1:11; also in the phrases εἰσέρχεσθαι εἰς τ. βασ. τ. οὐρανῶν or τ. θεοῦ: Matthew 5:20; Matthew 7:21; Matthew 18:3; Matthew 19:23, Matthew 19:24; Mark 9:47; Mark 10:23, Mark 10:24, Mark 10:25; Luke 18:24 [T Tr text WH εἰσπορεύονται], Luke 18:25; John 3:5; Acts 14:22; κληρονόμος τῆς βασιλείας, James 2:5; κληρονομεῖν τ. β. τ. θ.; see d. below. By a singular use βασ. τοῦ κυρίου ἐπουράνιος God's heavenly kingdom, in 2 Timothy 4:18, denotes the exalted and perfect order of things which already exists in heaven, and into which true Christians are ushered immediately after death; cf. Philippians 1:23; Hebrews 12:22. The phrase βασ. τῶν οὐρανῶν or τοῦ θεοῦ, while retaining its meaning kingdom of heaven or of God, must be understood, according to the requirements of the context,TGL βασιλεία.5

    a. of the beginning, growth, potency, of the divine kingdom: Matthew 13:31-33; Mark 4:30; Luke 13:18.TGL βασιλεία.6

    b. of its fortunes: Matthew 13:24; Mark 4:26.TGL βασιλεία.7

    c. of the conditions to be complied with in order to reception among its citizens: Matthew 18:23; Matthew 20:1; Matthew 22:2; Matthew 25:1.TGL βασιλεία.8

    d. of its blessings and benefits, whether present or future: Matthew 13:44; Luke 6:20; also in the phrases ζητεῖν τὴν βασ. τ. θεοῦ, Matthew 6:33 [L T WH omit τ. θεοῦ]; Luke 12:31 [αὐτοῦ L text T Tr WH]; δέχεσθαι τ. βασ. τ. θ. ὡς παιδίον, Mark 10:15; Luke 18:17; κληρονομεῖν τ. β. τ. θ. Matthew 25:34; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Corinthians 15:50; Galatians 5:21; see in κληρονομέω , 2.TGL βασιλεία.9

    e. of the congregation of those who constitute the royal 'city of God': ποιεῖν τινας βασιλείαν, Revelation 1:6 G T WH text Tr marginal reading [cf. 1 above]; Revelation 5:10 (here R G βασιλεῖς, so R in the preceding passage), cf. Exodus 19:6. Further, the following expressions are noteworthy: of persons fit for admission into the divine kingdom it is said αὐτῶν or τοιούτων ἐστὶν βασ. τῶν οὐρ. or τοῦ θεοῦ: Matthew 5:3, Matthew 5:10; Matthew 19:14; Mark 10:14; Luke 18:16. διδόναι τινὶ τ. βασ. is used of God, making men partners of his kingdom, Luke 12:32; παραλαμβάνειν of those who are made partners, Hebrews 12:28. διὰ τὴν βασ. τ. οὐρ. to advance the interests of the heavenly kingdom, Matthew 19:12; ἕνεκεν τῆς βασ. τ. θ. for the sake of becoming a partner in the kingdom of God, Luke 18:29. Those who announce the near approach of the kingdom, and describe its nature, and set forth the conditions of obtaining citizenship in it, are said διαγγέλλειν τ. βασ. τ. θ. Luke 9:60; εὐαγγελίζεσθαι τὴν β. τ. θ. Luke 4:43; Luke 8:1; Luke 16:16; περὶ τῆς βασ. τ. θ. Acts 8:12; κηρύσσειν τὴν βασ. τ. θ. Luke 9:2; Acts 20:25; Acts 28:31; τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασ. Matthew 4:23; Matthew 9:35; Matthew 24:14; with the addition of τοῦ θεοῦ, Mark 1:14 R L brackets. ἤγγικεν βασ. τ. οὐρ. or τοῦ θεοῦ, is used of its institution as close at hand: Matthew 3:2; Matthew 4:17; Mark 1:15; Luke 10:9, Luke 10:11. it is said ἔρχεσθαι i. e. to be established, in Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2; Luke 17:20; Mark 11:10. In accordance with the comparison which likens the kingdom of God to a palace, the power of admitting into it and of excluding from it is called κλεῖς τῆς β. τ. οὐρ. Matthew 16:19; κλείειν τὴν β. τ. οὐρ. to keep from entering, Matthew 23:13 (Matthew 23:14). υἱοὶ τῆς βασ. are those to whom the prophetic promise of the heavenly kingdom extends: used of the Jews, Matthew 8:12; of those gathered out of all nations who have shown themselves worthy of a share in this kingdom, Matthew 13:38. (In the O. T. Apocrypha βασ. τοῦ θεοῦ denotes God's rule, the divine administration, Wis. 6:5; Wis. 10:10; Tobit 13:1; so too in Psalms 102:19 (Psalms 103:19); Psalms 104:11-13 (Psalms 105:11-13); Daniel 4:33; Daniel 6:26; the universe subject to God's sway, God's royal domain, Song of the Three Children 32; βασιλεία, simply, the O. T. theocratic commonwealth, 2 Macc. 1:7.) Cf. Fleck, De regno divino, Lipsius 1829; Baumg.-Crusius, Biblical Theol., p. 147ff; Tholuck, Die Bergrede Christi, 5te Aufl., p. 55ff [on Matthew 5:3]; Cölln, Biblical Theol. i., p. 567ff, ii., p. 108ff; Schmid, Biblical Theol. des N. T., p. 262ff edition 4; Baur, Neutest. Theol., p. 69ff; Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 13; [also in his Leben Jesu, book 4, chapter 2]; Schürer [Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 29 (especially par. 8) and references there; also] in the Jahrbb. für protest. Theol., 1876, pp. 166-187 (cf. Lipsius ibid. 1878, p. 189); [B. D. American edition, under the word Kingdom of Heaven, and references there. Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. 264ff.]TGL βασιλεία.10


    (933) βασίλειος (rarely -εία), -ειον, royal, kingly, regal: 1 Peter 2:9. As a substantive, τὸ βασίλειον (Xenophon, Cyril 2, 4, 3; Proverbs 18:19, Sept. ; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 12, 4), and much more often (from Herodotus 1, 30 down) in plural τὰ βασίλεια (Sept. Esther 1:9, etc.), the royal palace: Luke 7:25 [A. V. kings courts].TGL βασίλειος.2


    (934) βασίλειος (rarely -εία), -ειον, royal, kingly, regal: 1 Peter 2:9. As a substantive, τὸ βασίλειον (Xenophon, Cyril 2, 4, 3; Proverbs 18:19, Sept. ; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 12, 4), and much more often (from Herodotus 1, 30 down) in plural τὰ βασίλεια (Sept. Esther 1:9, etc.), the royal palace: Luke 7:25 [A. V. kings courts].TGL βασίλειος.2


    (935) βασιλεύς, -έως, , leader of the people, prince, commander, lord of the land, king; universally: οἱ βασιλεῖς τῆς γῆς, Matthew 17:25; Revelation 16:14 [L T Tr WH omit τῆς γῆς], etc.; τῶν ἐθνῶν, Luke 22:25; of the king of Egypt, Acts 7:10, Acts 7:18; Hebrews 11:23, Hebrews 11:27; of David, Matthew 1:6; Acts 13:22; of Herod the Great and his successors, Matthew 2:1; Luke 1:5; Acts 12:1; Acts 25:13; of a tetrarch, Matthew 14:9; Mark 6:14, Mark 6:22 (of the son of a king, Xenophon, oec. 4, 16; "reges Syriae , regis Antiochi pueros , scitis Romae nuper fuisse ," Cicero, Verr. 2:4, 27, cf. de senectute 17, 59; [Vergil Aen. 9, 223]); of a Roman emperor, 1 Timothy 2:2; 1 Peter 2:17, cf. Revelation 17:9 (Revelation 17:10), (so in secular writings in the Roman age, as in Josephus, b. j. 5, 13, 6; Herodian, 2, 4, 8 [4 Bekker]; of the son of the emperor, ibid. 1, 5, 15 [5 Bekker]); of the Messiah, βασιλεύς τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Matthew 2:2, etc.; τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Mark 15:32; John 1:49 (John 1:50); John 12:13; of Christians, as to reign over the world with Christ in the millennial kingdom, Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10 (Rec. in both passages and Griesbach in the latter; see βασιλεία , 3 e.); of God, the supreme ruler over all, Matthew 5:35; 1 Timothy 1:17 (see αἰών , 2); Revelation 15:3; βασιλεὺς βασιλέων, Revelation 17:14 [but here, as in Revelation 19:16 of the victorious Messiah]; βασ. τῶν βασιλευόντων, 1 Timothy 6:15, (2 Macc. 13:4; 3 Macc. 5:35; Enoch 9, 4; [84, 2; Philo de decal. § 10]; cf. [κύριος τῶν βασ. Daniel 2:47]; κύριος τ. κυρίων, Deuteronomy 10:17; Psalms 135:3 (Psalms 136:3; [so of the king of the Parthians, Plutarch, Pomp. § 38, 1]).TGL βασιλεύς.2

    Related entry: [βασιλίσκος, -ου, , (diminutive of βασιλεύς) a petty king; a reading noted by WH in their (rejected) marginal reading of John 4:46, John 4:49. (Polybius, others)]TGL βασιλεύς.3


    (936) βασιλεύω; future βασιλεύσω; 1 aorist ἐβασίλευσα; (βασιλεύς); — in Greek writings [from Homer down] with the genitive or dative, in the sacred writings, after the Hebrew (עַל מָשַׁל), followed by ἐπί with the genitive of place, Matthew 2:22 (where L T WH omit; Tr brackets ἐπί); Revelation 5:10; followed by ἐπί with the accusative of the person, Luke 1:33; Luke 19:14, Luke 19:27; Romans 5:14; [cf. Winers Grammar, 206 (193f); Buttmann, 169 (147)] — to be king, to exercise kingly power, to reign: universally, 1 Timothy 6:15; Luke 19:14, Luke 19:27; of the governor of a country, although not possessing kingly rank, Matthew 2:22; of God, Revelation 11:15, Revelation 11:17; Revelation 19:6; of the rule of Jesus, the Messiah, Luke 1:33; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Revelation 11:15; of the reign of Christians in the millennium, Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:6; Revelation 22:5; hence Paul transfers the word to denote the supreme moral dignity, liberty, blessedness, which will be enjoyed by Christ's redeemed ones: Romans 5:17 (cf. DeWette and Thol. at the passage); 1 Corinthians 4:8. Metaphorically, to exercise the highest influence, to control: Romans 5:14, Romans 5:17, Romans 5:21; Romans 6:12. The aorist ἐβασίλευσα denotes I obtained royal power, became king, have come to reign, in 1 Corinthians 4:8 [cf. Winers Grammar, 302 (283); Buttmann, 215 (185)]; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 19:6 (as often in the Sept. and secular writings; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc., p. 11; Breitenbach or Kühner, on Xenophon, mem. 1, 1, 18; on the aorist to express entrance into a state, see Bernhardy, p. 382; Krüger, § 53, 5, 1; [Kühner, § 386, 5; Goodwin § 19 N. 1]). [Compare: συμβασιλεύω.]TGL βασιλεύω.2


    (937) βασιλικός, -ή, -όν, of or belonging to a king, kingly, royal, regal; of a man, the officer or minister of a prince, a courtier: John 4:46, John 4:49 (Polybius 4, 76, 2; Plutarch, Sol. 27; often in Josephus). subject to a king: of a country, Acts 12:20. befitting or worthy of a king, royal: ἐσθής, Acts 12:21. Hence, metaphorically, principal, chief: νόμος, James 2:8 (Plato, Min., p. 317 c. τὸ ὀρθὸν νόμος ἐστὶ βασιλικός, Xenophon, symp. 1, 8 βασιλικὸν κάλλος; 4 Macc. 14:2).TGL βασιλικός.2


    (938) βασίλισσα, -ης, , queen: Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; Acts 8:27; Revelation 18:7. (Xenophon, oec. 9, 15; Aristotle, oec. 9 [in Bekker, Anecd. i., p. 84; cf. fragment 385 (from Pollux 8, 90), p. 1542a, 25]; Polybius 23, 18, 2 [excerpt Vales. 7], and often in later writings; Sept. ; Josephus; the Atticists prefer the forms βασιλίς and βασίλεια; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 225; [on the termination, corresponding to the English -ess, cf. Winers Grammar, 24; Buttmann, 73; Sophocles Lexicon, p. 37; Sturz, De dial. Maced. et Alex., p. 151ff; Curtius, p. 653].)TGL βασίλισσα.2


    (939) βάσις, -εως, , (ΒΑΩ, βαίνω);TGL βάσις.2

    1. a stepping, walking (Aeschylus, Sophocles, others).TGL βάσις.3

    2. that with which one steps, the foot: Acts 3:7 (Plato, Tim., p. 92 a. and others; Wis. 13:18).TGL βάσις.4


    (940) βασκαίνω: 1 aorist ἐβάσκανα, on which form cf. Winers Grammar, [75 (72)]; 83 (80); [Buttmann, 41 (35); Lob. ad Phryn., p. 25f; Paralip., p. 21f]; (βάζω, βάσκω [φάσκω] to speak, talk); τινά [Winer's Grammar, 223 (209)];TGL βασκαίνω.2

    1. to speak ill of one, to slander, traduce him, (Demosthenes 8, 19 [94, 19]; Aelian v. h. 2, 13, etc.).TGL βασκαίνω.3

    2. to bring evil on one by feigned praise or an evil eye, to charm, bewitch one, (Aristotle, probl. 20, 34 [p. 926b, 24]; Theocritus, 6, 39; Aelian nat. an. 1, 35); hence, of those who lead away others into error by wicked arts (Diodorus 4, 6): Galatians 3:1. Cf. Schott [or Bp. Lightfoot] at the passage; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 462.TGL βασκαίνω.4


    (941) βαστάζω; imperfect 3rd person singular ἐβάσταζεν; future βαστάσω; 1 aorist ἐβάστασα; passive present infinitive βαστάζεσθαι; imperfect 3rd person singular ἐβαστάζετο;TGL βαστάζω.2

    1. to take up with the hands: λίθους, John 10:31, (λᾶαν, Homer, Odyssey 11, 594; τὴν μάχαιραν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς, Josephus, Antiquities 7, 11, 7).TGL βαστάζω.3

    2. to take up in order to carry or bear; to put upon oneself (something) to be carried; to bear what is burdensome: τὸν σταυρόν, John 19:17; Luke 14:27 (see σταυρός 2 a. and b.); Metaphorically: βαστάζειν τι, to be equal to understanding a matter and receiving it calmly, John 16:12 (Epictetus ench. 29, 5); φορτίον, Galatians 6:5; βαστάσει τὸ κρίμα, must take upon himself the condemnation of the judge, Galatians 5:10 (מִשְׁפָּט נָשָׂא, Micah 7:9). Hence, to bear, endure: Matthew 20:12; Acts 15:10 (ζυγόν); Romans 15:1; Galatians 6:2; Revelation 2:2 (Epictetus diss. 1, 3, 2; Anthol. 5, 9, 3; in this sense the Greeks more commonly use φέρειν.)TGL βαστάζω.4

    3. simply to bear, carry: Matthew 3:11; Mark 14:13; Luke 7:14; Luke 22:10; Revelation 17:7; passive, Acts 3:2; Acts 21:35. τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐνώπιον ἐθνῶν, so to bear it that it may be in the presence of Gentiles, i. e. by preaching to carry the knowledge of my name to the Gentiles, Acts 9:15. to carry on one's person: Luke 10:4; Galatians 6:17 [cf. Ellicott at the passage]; of the womb carrying the fœtus, Luke 11:27; to sustain, i. e., uphold, support: Romans 11:18.TGL βαστάζω.5

    4. by a use unknown to Attic writers, to bear away, carry off: νόσους, to take away or remove by curing them, Matthew 8:17 (Galen de compos. medicam. per gen. 2, 14 [339, Bas. edition] ψώρας τε θεραπεύει καὶ ὑπώπια βαστάζει) [others refer the use in Matthew, the passage cited to 2; cf. Meyer]. John 12:6 (ἐβασταζε used to pilfer [R. V. text took away; cf. our 'shoplifting', though perhaps this lift is a different word, see Skeat, under the word]); John 20:15 (Polybius 1, 48, 2 ἄνεμος τοὺς πύργους τῇ βίᾳ βαστάζει, Apollodorus Bibl. 2, 6, 2; 3, 4, 3; Athen. 2, 26, p. 46 f.; 15, 48, p. 693 e.; very many instances from Josephus are given by Krebs, Observations, p. 152ff). [Synonyms: cf. Schmidt, chapter 105.]TGL βαστάζω.6


    (942) βάτος, -ου, , and (in Mark 12:26 G L T Tr WH) , (the latter according to Moeris , Attic; the former Hellenistic; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 532; Winers Grammar, 63 (62) [cf. 36; Buttmann, 12 (11)]), [from Homer down], a thorn or bramble-bush [cf. B. D. , under the word Bush]: Luke 6:44; Acts 7:30, Acts 7:35; ἐπὶ τοῦ (τῆς) βάτου at the Bush, i. e. where it tells about the Bush, Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37; cf. Fritzsche on Romans 11:2; [B. D. , under the word Bible IV. 1].TGL βάτος.2


    (943) βάτος, -ου, , Hebrew בַּת a bath [A. V. measure], a Jewish measure of liquids containing 72 sextarii [between 8 and 9 gallons], (Josephus, Antiquities 8, 2, 9): Luke 16:6 [see B. D. under the word Weights and Measures II. 2].TGL βάτος.2


    (944) βάτραχος, -ου, , a frog (from Homer [i. e. Batrach., and Herodotus] down): Revelation 16:13.TGL βάτραχος.2


    (945) βαττολογέω [T WH βατταλ. (with א B, see WH's Appendix, p. 152)], -ῶ: 1 aorist subjunctive βαττολογήσω;TGL βατταλογέω.2

    a. to stammer, and, since stammerers are accustomed to repeat the same sounds,TGL βατταλογέω.3

    b. to repeat the same things over and over, to use many and idle words, to babble, prate; so Matthew 6:7, where it is explained by ἐν τῇ πολυλογίᾳ, (Vulg. multum loqui ; [A. V. to use vain repetitions]); cf. Tholuck at the passage. Some suppose the word to be derived from Battus, a king of Cyrene, who is said to have stuttered (Herodotus 4, 155); others from Battus, an author of tedious and wordy poems; but comparing βατταρίζειν, which has the same meaning, and βάρβαρος (which see), it seems far more probable that the word is onomatopoetic. (Simplicius, in Epictetus [ench. 30 at the end], p. 340, Schweigh edition.)TGL βατταλογέω.4


    (946) βδέλυγμα, -τος, τό, (βδελύσσομαι), a biblical and ecclesiastical word; in the Sept. mostly for תּועֵבָה, also for שִׁקוּץ and שֶׁקֶץ, a foul thing (loathsome on account of its stench), a detestable thing; (Tertullian abominamentum ); Luth. Greuel ; [A. V. abomination];TGL βδέλυγμα.2

    a. universally: Luke 16:15.TGL βδέλυγμα.3

    b. in the O. T. often used of idols and things pertaining to idolatry, to be held in abomination by the Israelites; as 1 Kings 11:6 (1 Kings 11:5); 1 Kings 20:26 (1 Kings 21:26); 2 Kings 16:3; 2 Kings 21:2; 2 Kings 1:1-18 Esdr. 7:13; Wis. 12:23; Wis. 14:11; hence in the N. T. in Revelation 17:4 of idol-worship and its impurities; ποιεῖν βδέλυγμα κ. ψεῦδος, Revelation 21:27.TGL βδέλυγμα.4

    c. the expression τὸ βδ. τῆς ἐρημώσεως the desolating abomination [others take the genitive, others; e. g. Meyer as a genitive epexegetical] in Matthew 24:15; Mark 13:14 (1 Macc. 1:54), seems to designate some terrible event in the Jewish war by which the temple was desecrated, perhaps that related by Josephus, b. j. 4, 9, 11ff (Sept. Daniel 11:31; Daniel 12:11, βδ. (τῆς) ἐρημώσεως for מְשֹׁמֵם שִׁקּוּץ and שֹׁמֵם שִ״, Daniel 9:27 βδ. τῶν ἐρημώσεων for שִׁקוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם the abomination (or abominations) wrought by the desolator, i. e. not the statue of Jupiter Olympius, but a little idol-altar placed upon the altar of whole burnt offerings; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc., p. 31; Hengstenberg, Authentie des Daniel, p. 85f; [the principal explanations of the N. T. phrase are noticed in Dr. James Morison's Commentary on Matthew, the passage cited].)TGL βδέλυγμα.5


    (947) βδελυκτός, -ή, -όν, (βδελύσσομαι), abominable, detestable: Titus 1:16. (Besides only in Proverbs 17:15; Sir. 41:5; 2 Macc. 1:27; [cf. Philo de victim. offer. § 12 under the end].)TGL βδελυκτός.2


    (948) βδελύσσω: (βδέω quietly to break wind, to stink);TGL βδελύσσω.2

    1. to render foul, to cause to be abhorred: τὴν ὀσμήν, Exodus 5:21; to defile, pollute: τὰς ψυχάς, τ. ψυχήν, Leviticus 11:43; Leviticus 20:25; Leviticus 1:1-17 Macc. 1:48; perfect passive participle ἐβδελυγμένος abominable, Revelation 21:8, (Leviticus 18:30; Proverbs 8:7; Job 15:16; 3 Macc. 6:9; βδελυσσόμενος, 2 Macc. 5:8). In native Greek writings neither the active nor the passive is found.TGL βδελύσσω.3

    2. βδελύσσομαι; deponent middle (1 aorist ἐβδελυξάμην often in the Sept. [Josephus, b. j. 6, 2, 10]; in Greek writings deponent passive, and from Aristophanes down); properly, to turn oneself away from on account of the stench; metaphorically, to abhor, detest: τί, Romans 2:22.TGL βδελύσσω.4


    (949) βέβαιος, -αία (Winers Grammar, 69 (67); Buttmann, 25 (22)), -αιον (ΒΑΩ, βαίνω), [from Aeschylus down], stable, fast, firm; properly: ἄγκυρα, Hebrews 6:19; metaphorically, sure, trusty: ἐπαγγελία, Romans 4:16; κλῆσις καὶ ἐκλογή, 2 Peter 1:10; λόγος προφητικός, 2 Peter 1:19; unshaken, constant, Hebrews 3:14; ἐλπίς, 2 Corinthians 1:7 (2 Corinthians 1:6) (4 Macc. 17:4); παρρησία, Hebrews 3:6 (but WH Tr marginal reading in brackets); valid and therefore inviolable, λόγος, Hebrews 2:2; διαθήκη, Hebrews 9:17. (With the same meanings in Greek writings from Herodotus down.)TGL βέβαιος.2


    (950) βεβαιόω, -ῶ; future βεβαιώσω; 1 aorist ἐβεβαίωσα; passive [present βεβαιοῦμαι]; 1 aorist ἐβεβαιώθην; (βέβαιος); to make firm, establish, confirm, make sure: τὸν λόγον, to prove its truth and divinity, Mark 16:20; τὰς ἐπαγγελίας make good the promises by the event, i. e. fulfil them, Romans 15:8 (so also in Greek writings as Diodorus 1, 5); passive: τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:6; σωτηρία... εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐβεβαιώθη, a constructio praegnans [Winer's Grammar, § 66, 2 d.] which may be resolved into εἰς ἡμᾶς παρεδόθη καὶ ἐν ἡμῖν βέβαιος ἐγένετο, Hebrews 2:3 cf. Hebrews 2:2; see βέβαιος . of men made steadfast and constant in soul: Hebrews 13:9; 1 Corinthians 1:8 (βεβαιώσει ὑμᾶς ἀνεγκλήτους will so confirm you that ye may be unreprovable [Winer's Grammar, § 59, 6 at the end]); 2 Corinthians 1:21 (βεβαιῶν ἡμᾶς εἰς Χριστόν, causing us to be steadfast in our fellowship with Christ; cf. Meyer at the passage); ἐν τῇ πίστει, Colossians 2:7 [L T Tr WH omit ἐν]. (In Greek writings from Thucydides and Plato down.) [Compare: διαβεβαιόομαι.]TGL βεβαιόω.2


    (951) βεβαίωσις, -εως, , (βεβαιόω), confirmation: τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, Philippians 1:7; εἰς βεβαίωσιν to produce confidence, Hebrews 6:16. (Wis. 6:19. Thucydides, Plutarch, Dio Cass., [others])TGL βεβαίωσις.2


    (952) βέβηλος, -ον, (ΒΑΩ, βαίνω, βηλός threshold);TGL βέβηλος.2

    1. accessible, lawful to be trodden; properly, used of places; hence,TGL βέβηλος.3

    2. profane, equivalent to חֹל [i. e. unhallowed, common], Leviticus 10:10; 1 Samuel 21:4; opposed to ἅγιος (as in [Ezekiel 22:26]; Philo, vit. Moys. iii., § 18): 1 Timothy 4:7; 1 Timothy 6:20; 2 Timothy 2:16; of men, profane i. e. ungodly: 1 Timothy 1:9; Hebrews 12:16. (Often in Greek writings from Aeschylus down.) [Cf. Trench, § 101.]TGL βέβηλος.4


    (953) βεβηλόω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἐβεβήλωσα; (βέβηλος); to profane, desecrate: τὸ σάββατον, Matthew 12:5; τὸ ἱερόν, Acts 24:6. (Often in the Sept. for חִלֵּל; Judith 9:8; 1 Macc. 2:12, etc.; Heliodorus 2, 25.)TGL βεβηλόω.2


    (954) Βεελζεβούλ and, as written by some [yet no Greek] authorities, Βεελζεβούβ [cod. B Βεεζεβούλ, so manuscript א except in Mark 3:22; adopted by WH, see their Appendix, p. 159; cf. Buttmann, 6], , indeclinable, Beelzebul or Beelzebub, a name of Satan, the prince of evil spirits: Matthew 10:25; Matthew 12:24, Matthew 12:27; Mark 3:22; Luke 11:15, Luke 11:18, Luke 11:19.TGL Βεελζεβούλ.2

    The form Βεελζεβούλ is composed of זְבוּל (rabbinical Hebrew for זֶבֶל dung) and בַּעַל, lord of dung or of filth, i. e. of idolatry; cf. Lightfoot on Matthew 12:21. The few who follow Jerome in preferring the form Βεελζεβούβ derive the name from זְבוּב בַּעַל, lord of flies, a false god of the Ekronites (2 Kings 1:2) having the power to drive away troublesome flies, and think the Jews transferred the name to Satan in contempt. Cf. Winers RWB under the word Beelzebub: and J. G. M(üller) in Herzog vol. i., p. 768ff; [BB. DD. ; cf. also Meyer and Dr. James Morison on Matthew 10:25; some, as Weiss (on Mark, the passage cited; Biblical Theol. § 23 a.), doubt alike whether the true derivation of the name has yet been hit upon, and whether it denotes Satan or only some subordinate 'Prince of demons'. But see Baudissin in Herzog ed. 2, vol. ii. p. 209f.; Kautzsch, Gram. d. Bibl.-Aram. p. 9].TGL Βεελζεβούλ.3

    (Besides only in ecclesiastical writings, as Evang. Nicod. c. 1f.)TGL Βεελζεβούλ.4


    (955) Βελίαλ, , (בְּלִיַעַל worthlessness, wickedness), Belial, a name of Satan, 2 Corinthians 6:15 in Rec.bez elz L. But Βελιάρ (which see) is preferable [see WHs Appendix, p. 159; Buttmann, 6].TGL Βελίαλ.2

    Related entry: βελίαρ, , indeclinable, Beliar, a name of Satan in 2 Corinthians 6:15 Rec.st G T Tr WH, etc. This form is either to be ascribed (as most suppose) to the harsh Syriac pronunciation of the word βελίαλ (which see), or must be derived from בֵּל יַעַר lord of the forest, i. e. who rules over forests and deserts, (cf. Sept. Isaiah 13:21; Matthew 12:43; [BB. DD. under the word Belial, especially Alex.'s Kitto]). Often in ecclesiastical writings.TGL Βελίαλ.3


    (956) βέλος, -εος, τό, (βάλλω), a missile, a dart, javelin, arrow: Ephesians 6:16. [From Homer down.]TGL βέλος.2

    βελόνη, -ης, , (βέλος);TGL βέλος.3

    a. the point of a spear.TGL βέλος.4

    b. a needle: Luke 18:25 L T Tr WH; see ῥαϕἰς. ([Batr. 130], Aristophanes, Aeschines, Aristotle, others; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 90.)TGL βέλος.5


    (957) βελτίων, -ον, genitive -ονος, better; neuter adverbially in 2 Timothy 1:18 [Winers Grammar, 242 (227); Buttmann, 27 (24). Sophocles, Thucydides, others].TGL βελτίων.2


    (958) Βενιαμίν [-μειν L T Tr WH; see WH's Appendix, p. 155, and under the word εἰ, ι], , (בִּנְיָמִין, i. e. בֶּן־יָמִין, son of the right hand, i. e. of good fortune, Genesis 35:18), Benjamin, Jacob's twelfth son; φυλὴ Βενιαμίν the tribe of Benjamin: Acts 13:21; Romans 11:1; Philippians 3:5; Revelation 7:8.TGL Βενιαμ(ε)ίν.2


    (959) Βερνίκη, -ης, , (for Βερενίκη, and this the Macedonic form [cf. Sturz, De dial. Mac., p. 31] of Φερενίκη [i. e. victorious]), Bernice or Berenice, daughter of Herod Agrippa the elder. She married first her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis, and after his death Polemon, king of Cilicia. Deserting him soon afterwards, she returned to her brother Agrippa, with whom previously when a widow she was said to have lived incestuously. Finally she became for a time the mistress of the emperor Titus (Josephus, Antiquities 19, 5, 1; 20, 7, 1 and 3; Tacitus, hist. 2, 2 and 81; Suetonius, Titus 7): Acts 25:13, Acts 25:23; Acts 26:30. Cf. Hausrath in Schenkel i., p. 396f; [Farrar, St. Paul, ii. 599f].TGL Βερνίκη.2


    (960) Βέροια, -ας, , (also Βέρροια [i. e. well-watered]), Beræa, a city of Macedonia, near Pella, at the foot of Mount Bermius: Acts 17:10, Acts 17:13.TGL Βέροια.2


    (961) Βεροιαῖος, , -ον, Beræan: Acts 20:4.TGL Βεροιαῖος.2


    (962) Βηθαβαρά, -ᾶς, [-ρᾶ Rec.bez st, indeclinable], , (עֲבָרָה בֵּית place of crossing, i. e. where there is a crossing or ford, cf. German Furthhausen), Bethabara: John 1:28 Rec. [in Rec.elz of 1st decl., but cf. Winers Grammar, 61 (60)]; see [WH's Appendix at the passage and] Βηθανία, 2.TGL Βηθαβαρά.2


    (963) Βηθανία, -ας, , (עֲנִיָּה בֵּית house of depression or misery [cf. B. D. American edition]), Bethany;TGL Βηθανία.2

    1. a town or village beyond the Mount of Olives, fifteen furlongs from Jerusalem: John 11:1, John 11:18; John 12:1; Matthew 21:17; Matthew 26:6; Luke 19:29 [here WH give the accusative -νία (see their Appendix, p. 160), cf. Tr marginal reading]; Luke 24:50; Mark 11:1, Mark 11:11; Mark 14:3; now a little Arab hamlet, of from 20 to 30 families, called el-'Azirîyeh or el-'Azîr (the Arabic name of Lazarus); cf. Robinson i. 431f; [BB. DD. under the word].TGL Βηθανία.3

    2. a town or village on the east bank of the Jordan, where John baptized: John 1:28 L T Tr WH [see the preceding word]. But Origen, although confessing that in his day nearly all the manuscripts read ἐν Βηθανίᾳ, declares that when he journeyed through those parts he did not find any place of that name, but that Bethabara was pointed out as the place where John had baptized; the statement is confirmed by Eusebius and Jerome also, who were well acquainted with the region. Hence it is most probable that Bethany disappeared after the Apostles' time, and was restored under the name of Bethabara; cf. Lücke at the passage, p. 391ff [Cf. Prof. J. A. Paine in Phila. S. S. Times for Apr. 16, 1881, p. 243f.]TGL Βηθανία.4


    (964) Βηθεσδά, , indeclinable (Chaldean חֶסְדָּא בֵּית, i. e. house of mercy, or place for receiving and caring for the sick), Bethesda, the name of a pool near the sheep-gate at Jerusalem, the waters of which had curative powers: John 5:2 [here L marginal reading WH marginal reading read Βηθσαϊδά, T WH text Βηθζαθά (which see)].TGL Βηθεσδά.2

    What locality in the modern city is its representative is not clear; cf. Winers RWB under the word; On the recent identification of the pool ('twin pools') of Bethesda, near the church of St. Anne, see Pal. Explor. Fund for July, 1888. Arnold in Herzog ii., p. 117f; Robinson i. 330f, 342f; [B. D. under the word; "The Recovery of Jerusalem" (see index)].TGL Βηθεσδά.3

    Related entry: βηθζαθά, , (perhaps from Chaldean בֵּית זַיְתָא house of olives; not, as some suppose, בֵּית חֲרַתָא house of newness, German Neuhaus, since it cannot be shown that the Hebrew ח is ever represented by the Greek ζ), Bethzatha: John 5:2 T [WH text] after manuscripts א L D and other authorities (no doubt a corrupt reading, yet approved by Keim ii. p. 177, [see also WH. Appendix at the passage]), for Rec. βηθεσδά, which see. [Cf. Kautzsch, Gram. d. Bibl.-Aram. p. 9.]TGL Βηθεσδά.4


    (965) Βηθλεέμ, , [indeclinable] (in Josephus not only so [Antiquities 8, 10, 1], but also Βηθλεέμη, -ης, Antiquities 6, 8, 1; 11, 7; [7, 1, 3]; ἀπὸ Βηθλέμων, 5, 2, 8; ἐκ Βηθλεέμων, 5, 9, 1; [cf. 7, 13; 9, 2]), Bethlehem, (לֶחֶם בֵּית house of bread), a little town, named from the fertility of its soil, six Roman miles south of Jerusalem; now Beit Lachm, with about 3,000 ["5,000," Baedeker] inhabitants: Matthew 2:1, Matthew 2:5, Matthew 2:8, Matthew 2:16; Luke 2:4, Luke 2:15; John 7:42. Cf. Winers RWB, under the word; Robinson i., p. 470ff; Raumer, p. 313ff; Tobler, Bethlehem in Palästina as above with 1849; [Socin (i. e. Baedeker), Handbook. etc., under the word; Porter (i. e. Murray) ibid.; BB. DD. ].TGL Βηθλέεμ.2


    (966) Βηθσαϊδά [WH -σαιδά; see Ι, ι] and (Matthew 11:21 R G T WH) -δάν, , indeclinable but with accusative [which may, however, be only the alternate form just given; cf. WH's Appendix, p. 160] Βηθσαϊδάν [Buttmann, 17 (16f); Winer's Grammar 61 (60); Tdf. Proleg., p. 119f), (Syriac Hunting/Fishing House i. e. house or place of hunting or fishing), Bethsaida;TGL Βηθσαϊδά.2

    1. a small city (πόλις, John 1:44 (John 1:45)) or a village (κώμη Mark 8:22, Mark 8:23) on the western shore of the Lake of Gennesaret: John 1:44 (John 1:45); Matthew 11:21; Mark 6:45; Luke 10:13 [here L marginal reading Tr marginal reading Βηδσαϊδά; cf. Tdf. Proleg. as above]; John 12:21 (where τῆς Γαλιλαίας is added).TGL Βηθσαϊδά.3

    2. a village in lower Gaulanitis on the eastern shore of Lake Gennesaret, not far from the place where the Jordan empties into it. Philip the tetrarch so increased its population that it was reckoned as a city, and was called Julius in honor of Julia, the daughter of the emperor Augustus (Josephus, Antiquities 18, 2, 1; Pliny, h. n. 5, 15). Many think that this city is referred to in Luke 9:10, on account of Mark 6:32, Mark 6:45; John 6:1; others that the Evangelists disagree. Cf. Winers RWB under the word; Raumer, p. 122f; [BB. DD. under the word.TGL Βηθσαϊδά.4

    3. In John 5:2 Lachmann marginal reading WH marginal reading read Βηθσαϊδά; see under the word Βηθεσδά .]TGL Βηθσαϊδά.5


    (967) Βηθφαγή [but Lachmann uniformly, Treg. in Matthew and Mark and R G in Matthew -γῆ (Buttmann, 15; Winers Grammar, 52 (51); cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 103); in Matthew 21:1 Tdf. edition 7 -σφαγή], , indeclinable (from בֵּית and פַּג house of unripe figs), Bethphage, the name of a country-seat or hamlet (Eusebius calls it κώμη, Jerome villula ), on the Mount of Olives, near Bethany: Matthew 21:1; Mark 11:1 R G Tr text WH text, but Tr marginal reading in brackets; Luke 19:29.TGL Βηθφαγή.2

    [BB. DD. under the word]TGL Βηθφαγή.3


    (968) βῆμα, -τος, τό, (from ΒΑΩ, βαίνω) [from Homer (h. Merc.), Pindar down];TGL βῆμα.2

    1. a step, pace: βῆμα ποδός the space which the foot covers, a foot-breadth, Acts 7:5 (for כַּף־רֶגֶל, Deuteronomy 2:5, cf. Xenophon, an. 4, 7, 10; Cyril 7, 5, 6).TGL βῆμα.3

    2. a raised place mounted by steps; a platform, tribune: used of the official seat of a judge, Matthew 27:19; John 19:13; Acts 18:12, Acts 18:16; Acts 25:6, Acts 25:10, [Acts 25:17]; of the judgment-seat of Christ, Romans 14:10 (L T Tr WH τοῦ θεοῦ); 2 Corinthians 5:10; of the structure, resembling a throne, which Herod built in the theater at Cæsarea, and from which he used to view the games and make speeches to the people, Acts 12:21; (of an orator's pulpit, 2 Macc. 13:26; Nehemiah 8:4. Xenophon, mem. 3, 6, 1; Herodian, 2, 10, 2 [1, Bekker edition]).TGL βῆμα.4


    (969) βήρυλλος, -ου, , , beryl, a precious stone of a pale green color (Pliny, h. n. 37, 5 (20) [i. e. 37, 79]): Revelation 21:20. (Tobit 13:17; neuter βηρύλλιον, equivalent to שֹׁהַם, Exodus 28:20; Exodus 36:20 (Exodus 39:13)). Cf. Winers RWB under the word Edelsteine, 11; [especially Riehm, HWB, ibid. 3 and 12].TGL βήρυλλος.2


    (970) βία, -ας, ;TGL βία.2

    1. strength, whether of body or of mind: Homer and subsequent writers.TGL βία.3

    2. strength in violent action, force: μετὰ βίας by the use of force, with violence, Acts 5:26; Acts 24:7 [Rec. ]; shock τῶν κυμάτων, Acts 27:41 [R G, but Tr text brackets; others omit τῶν κυμάτων]; διὰ τ. βίαν τοῦ ὄχλου, the crowd pressing on so violently, Acts 21:35. [Synonym: see δύναμις , at the end.]TGL βία.4


    (971) βιάζω: (βία); to use force, to apply force; τινά, to force, inflict violence on, one; the active is very rare and almost exclusively poetic [from Homer down]; passive [Buttmann, 53 (46)] in Matthew 11:12 βασιλεία τ. οὐρ. βιάζεται, the kingdom of heaven is taken by violence, carried by storm, i. e. a share in the heavenly kingdom is sought for with the most ardent zeal and the intensest exertion; cf. Xenophon, Hell. 5, 2, 15 (23) πόλεις τὰς βεβιασμένας; [but see Weiss, James Morison, Norton, in the place cited]. The other explanation: the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence namely, from its enemies, agrees neither with the time when Christ spoke the words, nor with the context; cf. Fritzsche, DeWette, Meyer, at the passage. Middle, βιάζομαι followed by εἴς τι to force one's way into a thing, (ἐς τὴν Ποτίδαιαν, Thucydides 1, 63; ἐς τὸ ἔξω, 7, 69; εἰς τὴν παρεμβολήν, Polybius 1, 74, 5; εἰς τὰ ἐντός, Philo, vit. Moys. i., § 19; εἰς τὸ στρατόπεδον, Plutarch, Otho 12, etc.): εἰς τ. βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ, to get a share in the kingdom of God by the utmost earnestness and effort, Luke 16:16. [Compare: παραβιάζομαι.]TGL βιάζω.2


    (972) βίαιος, , -ον, (βία), violent, forcible: Acts 2:2 [A. V. mighty]. (In Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL βίαιος.2


    (973) βιαστής, -οῦ, , (βιάζω);TGL βιαστής.2

    1. strong, forceful: Pindar Ol. 9, 114 [75]; Pythagoras 4, 420 [236; but Pindar only uses the form βιατάς, so others].TGL βιαστής.3

    2. using force, violent: Philo, agric. § 19. In Matthew 11:12 those are called βιασταί by whom the kingdom of God βιάζεται, i. e. who strive to obtain its privileges with the utmost eagerness and effort.TGL βιαστής.4


    (974) βιβλαρίδιον, -ου, τό, (diminutive of the diminutive βιβλάριον from βίβλος), a little book: Revelation 10:2, Revelation 10:8 [L Tr WH βιβλίον, Tdf. 2 and 7 βιβλιδάριον, which see], Revelation 10:9-11. Not found in secular authors [Hermas, vis. 2, 4, 3]; cf. Winer's Grammar, 96 (91).TGL βιβλαρίδιον.2

    Related entry: βιβλιδάριον, -ου, τό, (from βιβλίδιον, like ἱματιδάριον from ἱματίδιον), a little book: Revelation 10:8 Tdf. [editions 2 and] 7. (Aristophanes frag. 596.)TGL βιβλαρίδιον.3


    (975) βιβλίον, -ου, τό, (diminutive of βίβλος), a small book, a scroll: Luke 4:17, Luke 4:20; John 20:30; Galatians 3:10; 2 Timothy 4:13, etc.; a written document; a sheet on which something has been written, β. ἀποστασίου [bill of divorcement]: Matthew 19:7; Mark 10:4; see ἀποστάσιον , 1. βιβλίον ζωῆς, the list of those whom God has appointed to eternal salvation: Revelation 13:8 [Rec. τῇ βίβλῳ]; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 21:27; see ζωή , 2 b. [From Herodotus down.]TGL βιβλίον.2


    (976) βίβλος, -ου, , (or rather βύβλος [but the form βίβλ. is more common when it denotes a writing], the plant called papyrus, Theophrastus, hist. plant. 4, 8, 2f; [Pliny, h. n. 13, 11f (21f)]; from its bark [rather, the cellular substance of its stem (for it was an endogenous plant)] paper was made [see Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 433f; especially Dureau de la Malle in the Mémoires de l'Acad. d. Inscriptions etc. tom. 19 part 1 (1851), pp. 140-183, and (in correction of current misapprehensions) Prof. E. Abbot in the Library Journal for Nov. 1878, p. 323f, where other references are also given]), a written book, a roll or scroll: Matthew 1:1; Luke 3:4; Mark 12:26; Acts 1:20; τῆς ζωῆς, Philippians 4:3; Revelation 3:5, etc.; see βιβλίον . [From Aeschylus down.]TGL βίβλος.2


    (977) βιβρώσκω: perfect βέβρωκα; to eat: John 6:13. (In Greek writings from Homer down; often in the Sept .)TGL βιβρώσκω.2

    Related entry: βρώσκω, unused present whence perfect βέβρωκα; see βιβρώσκω.TGL βιβρώσκω.3


    (978) Βιθυνία, -ας, , Bithynia, a province of Asia Minor, bounded by the Euxine Sea, the Propontis, Mysia, Phrygia, Galatia, Paphlagonia: Acts 16:7; 1 Peter 1:1. [Cf. B. D. under the word; Dict. of Greek and Rom. Geog. under the word; Conybeare and Howson, St. Paul, etc., chapter 8.]TGL Βιθυνία.2


    (979) βίος, -ου, , [from Homer down];TGL βίος.2

    a. life extensively, i. e. the period or course of life [see below and Trench, § xxvii.]: Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4; 1 John 2:16; 1 Peter 4:3 [Rec. ].TGL βίος.3

    b. (as often in Greek writings from Hesiod, Works, 230, 575; Herodotus, Xenophon) that by which life is sustained, resources, wealth [A. V. living]: Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43 [WH omits; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause]; Luke 15:12, Luke 15:30; Luke 21:4; 1 John 3:17 [goods]. (For לֶחֶם in Proverbs 31:14 (Prov. 29:32).)TGL βίος.4

    [Synonyms: βίος, ζωή: ζ. existence (having death as its antithesis); β. the period, means, manner, of existence. Hence the former is more naturally used of animals, the latter of men; cf. zoology, biography. N. T. usage exalts ζωή, and so tends to debase βίος. But see Bp. Lightfoot Ign. ad Romans 7:1-25.]TGL βίος.5


    (980) βιόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist infinitive βιῶσαι; for which in Attic the 2 aorist infinitive βιῶναι is more common, cf. Winers Grammar, 84 (80); [Buttmann, 54 (48); Veitch, or Liddell and Scott, under the word]; (βίος); [from Homer down]; to spend life, to live: τὸν χρόνον, to pass the time, 1 Peter 4:2; (Job 29:18; ἡμέρας, Xenophon, mem. 4, 8, 2). [Synonym: see βίος , at the end.]TGL βιόω.2


    (981) βίωσις, -εως, , manner of living and acting, way of life: Acts 26:4.TGL βίωσις.2

    (Sir. prolog. 10 διὰ τῆς ἐννόμου βιώσεως; not found in secular authors.)TGL βίωσις.3


    (982) βιωτικός, -ή, -όν, pertaining to life and the affairs of this life: Luke 21:34; 1 Corinthians 6:3. (The word, not used in Attic, first occurs in Aristotle, h. a. 9, 17, 2 [p. 616b, 27]; χρεῖαι βιωτικαί is often used, as Polybius 4, 73, 8; Philo, vit. Moys. iii. § 18 at the end; Diodorus 2, 29; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 31. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 354f.)TGL βιωτικός.2


    (983) βλαβερός, -ά, -όν, (βλάπτω), hurtful, injurious (Xenophon, mem. 1, 5, 3 opposed to ὠφέλιμος): 1 Timothy 6:9 ἐπιθυμίαι βλαβεραί, cf. ἡδοναὶ βλ. Xenophon, mem. 1, 3, 11. (Often in Greek writings from Homer [i. e. h. Merc. 36 (taken from Hesiod, Works, 365)] down; once in the Sept. , Proverbs 10:26.)TGL βλαβερός.2


    (984) βλάπτω: future βλάψω; 1 aorist ἔβλαψα; to hurt, harm, injure: τινά, Mark 16:18; Luke 4:35. (Very often in Greek writings from Homer down; Tobit 12:2; 2 Macc. 12:22, etc.)TGL βλάπτω.2


    (985) βλαστάνω, 3 person singular present subjunctive βλαστᾷ from the form βλαστάω, Mark 4:27 L T Tr WH (cf. Buttmann, 55 (48); [Ecclesiastes 2:6; Hermas, sim. 4, 1f]); 1 aorist ἐβλάστησα (cf. Winers Grammar, 84 (80); [Buttmann, the passage cited]);TGL βλαστάνω.2

    1. intransitively, to sprout, bud, put forth leaves: Mark 4:27; Matthew 13:26; Hebrews 9:4; (Numbers 17:8; Joel 2:22, etc.; in Greek writings from Pindar down).TGL βλαστάνω.3

    2. in later Greek writings transitively, to produce: τὸν καρπόν, James 5:18. (Genesis 1:11, etc.)TGL βλαστάνω.4


    (986) Βλάστος [i. e. a sprout], -οῦ, , Blastus, the chamberlain of king Herod Agrippa I.: Acts 12:20 [cf. Meyer at the passage].TGL Βλάστος.2


    (987) βλασφημέω, -ῶ; imperfect ἐβλασφήμουν; 1 aorist ἐβλασφήμησα; passive [present βλασφημοῦμαι]; 1 future βλασφημηθήσομαι; (βλάσφημος, which see); to speak reproachfully, rail at, revile, calumniate (Vulg. blasphemo ); absolutely: Luke 22:65; Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6; Acts 26:11; 1 Timothy 1:20; 1 Peter 4:4; with accusative of person or thing (as in later Greek, Josephus, Plutarch, Appian, etc.): Matthew 27:39; Mark 3:28 L T Tr WH; Mark 15:29; Luke 23:39; Titus 3:2; James 2:7; Jude 1:10; with the cognate noun βλασφημίαν, to utter blasphemy (Plato, legg. 7, p. 800 c.; see ἀγαπάω at the end), Mark 3:28 R G (where L T Tr WH ὅσα for ὅσας, see above); [followed by ἐν, 2 Peter 2:12; cf. Alexander Buttmann as at end, and see ἀγνοέω , a.]. Passive βλασφημοῦμαι to be evil spoken of, reviled, railed at: Romans 3:8; Romans 14:16; 1 Corinthians 4:13 (T WH Tr marginal reading δυσφημούμενοι); 1 Corinthians 10:30; Titus 2:5; 2 Peter 2:2; τὸ ὄνομά τινος, Romans 2:24; 1 Timothy 6:1. Specifically, of those who by contemptuous speech intentionally come short of the reverence due to God or to sacred things (for גִדֵּף, 2 Kings 19:6, 2 Kings 19:22 cf. 2 Kings 19:4; cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 10:34); absolutely: Matthew 9:3; Matthew 26:65; Mark 2:7 L T Tr WH; [John 10:36]; τὸν θεόν, Revelation 16:11, Revelation 16:21; τὴν θεάν, Acts 19:37 (G L T Tr WH τὴν θεόν); τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ, Revelation 13:6; Revelation 16:9; τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ θεοῦ (βλασφημεῖται), 1 Peter 4:14 Rec. ; δόξας, Jude 1:8; 2 Peter 2:10 (see δόξα , III. 3 b. γ.); εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγ. Mark 3:29; Luke 12:10 (εἰς θεούς, Plato, rep. 2, p. 381 e.). The earlier Greeks say βλασφ. εἴς τινα, περί or κατά τινος; [on the N. T. constructions cf. Winers Grammar, 222 (208); 629 (584); Buttmann, 146 (128)].TGL βλασφημέω.2

    Related entry: δυσφημέω, -ῶ: [present passive δυσφημοῦμαι]; (δύσφημος); to use ill words, defame; passive to be defamed, 1 Corinthians 4:13 T WH Tr marginal reading (1 Macc. 7:41; in Greek writings from Aeschylus Agam. 1078 down.)TGL βλασφημέω.3


    (988) βλασφημία, -ας, , railing, reviling (Vulg. blasphemia );TGL βλασφημία.2

    a. universally, slander, detraction, speech injurious to another's good name: Matthew 12:31; Matthew 15:19; Mark 3:28; Mark 7:22; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:4; Jude 1:9 (κρίσις βλασφημίας, equivalent to κρίσις βλάσφημος in 2 Peter 2:11, a judgment pronounced in reproachful terms); Revelation 2:9.TGL βλασφημία.3

    b. specifically, impious and reproachful speech injurious to the divine majesty: Matthew 26:65; Mark 2:7 [R G]; Mark 14:64; Luke 5:21; John 10:33; Revelation 13:5 [not Lachmann]; ὄνομα or ὀνόματα βλασφημίας equivalent to βλάσφημα (cf. Winers Grammar, § 34, 3 b.; [Buttmann, § 132, 10]): Revelation 13:1; Revelation 17:3 [R G Tr, see γέμω ]; τοῦ πνεύματος, genitive of the object, Matthew 12:31; πρὸς τὸν θεόν, Revelation 13:6. (Euripides, Plato, Demosthenes, others; for נֶאָצָה Ezekiel 35:12.) [BB. DD. under the word Blasphemy; Campbell, Diss. on the Gospels, diss. 9, part 2.]TGL βλασφημία.4


    (989) βλάσφημος, -ον, (βλάξ sluggish, stupid, and φήμη speech, report [others, βλάπτω (which see) and φ.]), speaking evil, slanderous, reproachful, railing, abusive: Acts 6:11 (ῤήματα βλάσφημα εἰς Μωυσῆν καὶ τὸν θεόν); [Acts 6:13 Rec. (. βλ. κατὰ τοῦ τόπου τοῦ ἁγίου)]; 2 Peter 2:11 (see βλασφημία , a.); Revelation 13:5 [Lachmann]; βλάσφημος as a substantive, a blasphemer: 1 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:2. (Isaiah 66:3; Wis. 1:6; Sir. 3:16; 2 Macc. 9:28; [2 Maccabees 10:36 (cf. 4)]; in Greek writings from Demosthenes down.)TGL βλάσφημος.2


    (990) βλέμμα, -τος, τό, (βλέπω); a look, glance: βλέμματι κ. ἀκοῇ, in seeing and hearing, 2 Peter 2:8 [cf. Warfield in Presbyt. Rev. for 1883, p. 629ff]. (Euripides, Aristophanes, Demosthenes, Plutarch, others.)TGL βλέμμα.2


    (991) βλέπω; [imperfect ἔβλεπον]; future βλέψω; 1 aorist ἔβλεψα; [present passive βλέπομαι]; Sept. for רָאָה, פָּנָה, חָזָה, הִבִּיט; in Greek writings from Aeschylus down; to see, discern:TGL βλέπω.2

    1. With the bodily eye;TGL βλέπω.3

    a. to be possessed of sight, have the power of seeing, opposed to τυφλός: Matthew 12:22; Matthew 13:16; Matthew 15:31; John 9:7, John 9:15, John 9:19, John 9:25; Acts 9:9; Romans 11:8, Romans 11:10; Revelation 3:18, etc. (Sophocles Oed. Col. 73; Aristophanes Plutarch, 15; Xenophon, mem. 1, 3, 4; Aelian v. h. 6, 12, etc. Exodus 4:11; Exodus 23:8, etc. Tobit 11:15). τὸ βλέπειν sight, the power of seeing, Luke 7:21 (G L T Tr WH omit τό).TGL βλέπω.4

    b. to perceive by the use of the eyes, to see, look, descry;TGL βλέπω.5

    α. absolutely: βλεπόντων αὐτῶν while they were looking, Acts 1:9; [Acts 22:11 Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading]; ἔρχου καὶ βλέπε, Rec. in Revelation 6:1, Revelation 6:3, Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:7.TGL βλέπω.6

    β. with the accusative of person or thing: Matthew 7:3; Matthew 11:4; Matthew 24:2; Mark 5:31; Mark 8:23; Mark 13:2; Luke 6:41; Luke 24:12 [T omits; L Tr brackets WH reject the verse]; John 1:29; Acts 4:14, etc.; [Revelation 18:18 Rec. ὁρῶντες]; τὴν φωνήν, him who uttered the voice, Revelation 1:12; ὅραμα, Acts 12:9; he who has free access to one, as princes, ministers, and personal friends have to a king, is said βλ. τὸ πρόσωπόν τινος (הַמֶּלֶך פְּנֵי רֹאֵי, 2 Kings 25:19; Jeremiah 52:25; Esther 1:14); hence in Matthew 18:10 angels of closest access or of highest rank are referred to (see ἀρχάγγελος ). Passive τὰ βλεπόμενα the things that are seen: 2 Corinthians 4:18; Hebrews 11:3 (L T Tr WH τὸ βλεπόμενον, the sum-total or complex of things seen); ἐλπὶς βλεπομένη hope of things that are seen, i. e. that are present, Romans 8:24.TGL βλέπω.7

    c. to turn the eyes to anything, to look at, look upon, gaze at: γυναῖκα, Matthew 5:28; εἴς τι or τινα [Winer's Grammar, § 33 g.], Luke 9:62; John 13:22; Acts 3:4; εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν, Acts 1:11 T Tr WH; in the sense of looking into (i. e. in order to read), βιβλίον, Revelation 5:3.TGL βλέπω.8

    d. universally, to perceive by the senses, to feel: τὸν ἄνεμον ἰσχυρόν [T WH omit ἰσχ.], Matthew 14:30 (κτυπον δέδορκα, Aeschylus sept. 104).TGL βλέπω.9

    e. to discover by use, to know by experience: τί, Romans 7:23; followed by ὅτι, 2 Corinthians 7:8; by attract. τὸ θηρίον, ὅτι κτλ., Revelation 17:8; ὑπὲρ βλέπει με for ὑπὲρ τοῦτο, βλέπει με ὄντα, lest he think me greater than on personal knowledge he finds me to be, 2 Corinthians 12:6.TGL βλέπω.10

    2. metaphorically, to see with the mind's eye;TGL βλέπω.11

    a. to have (the power of) understanding: βλέποντες οὐ βλέπουσι, though endued with understanding they do not understand, Matthew 13:13; Luke 8:10.TGL βλέπω.12

    b. to discern mentally, observe, perceive, discover, understand; absolutely: δἰ ἐσόπτρου, 1 Corinthians 13:12; of the omniscient God βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρύπτῷ seeing in secret, where man sees nothing, Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6, Matthew 6:18 [here L T Tr WH βλ. ἐν τ. κρυφαίῳ); ἐγγίζουσαν τὴν ἡμέραν, Hebrews 10:25 (from certain external signs); Ἰησοῦν... ἐστεφανωμένον, we see (from his resurrection and from the effects and witness of the Holy Spirit) Jesus crowned, Hebrews 2:9; followed by ὅτι, Hebrews 3:19; James 2:22.TGL βλέπω.13

    c. to turn the thoughts or direct the mind to a thing, to consider, contemplate, look to; absolutely βλέπετε take heed: Mark 13:23, Mark 13:33; with an accusative of the thing or person, 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 10:7; Philippians 3:2; Colossians 2:5; followed by πῶς with indicative [Winers Grammar, 300 (282); Buttmann, 255 (219)], Luke 8:18; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 5:15; to weigh carefully, examine, followed by the interrogative τί with indicative Mark 4:24; εἰς πρόσωπόν τινος, to look at i. e. have regard to one's external condition — used of those who are influenced by partiality: Matthew 22:16; Mark 12:14. By a use not found in Greek authors ἑαυτὸν βλέπειν to look to oneself (equivalent to sibi cavere ): Mark 13:9; followed by ἵνα μή [cf. Buttmann, 242 (209)], 2 John 1:8; βλέπειν ἀπό τινος (equivalent to sibi cavere ab aliquo ) to beware of one [Winers Grammar, 223 (209), cf. 39 (38); Buttmann, 242 (209), cf. 323 (278)], Mark 8:15; Mark 12:38; look to in the sense of providing, taking care: followed by ἵνα, 1 Corinthians 16:10; followed by μή with subjunctive aorist, Matthew 24:4; Mark 13:5; Luke 21:8; Acts 13:40; 1 Corinthians 8:9 (μήπως); 1 Corinthians 10:12; Galatians 5:15; Hebrews 12:25; followed by μή with future indicative, Colossians 2:8; Hebrews 3:12. The Greeks say ὁρᾶν μή [cf. Winers Grammar, 503 (468f); Buttmann, 242f (209)].TGL βλέπω.14

    3. in a geographical sense, like Latin specto [English look ], of places, mountains, buildings, etc., turned towards any quarter, as it were facing it: followed by κατά with the accusative, Acts 27:12 [cf. Buttmann, D. American edition under the word Phenice], (Sept. [Numbers 21:20]; Ezekiel 11:1; [Ezekiel 44:1; Ezekiel 47:1]; πρός, Xenophon, Hell. 7, 1, 17; mem. 3, 8, 9; Herodian, 6, 5, 2; Diogenes Laërtius 1, 2, 48; Sept. Ezekiel 9:2; Ezekiel 40:24; [Ezekiel 46:1]; εἰς, Ezekiel 8:3, etc. [for other examples see Sophocles Lexicon, under the word]). [Synonym: see under the word ὁράω . Compare: ἀνα-, ἀπο-, δια-, ἐμ-, ἐπι-, περι-, προβλέπω.]TGL βλέπω.15


    (992) βλητέος, , -ον, (βάλλω), which must be thrown or put (see βάλλω , 2); found only in neuter: Mark 2:22 (WH T omit; Tr brackets); Luke 5:38 βλητέον ἐστί followed by the accusative τὸν οἶνον, cf. Matthew § 447, 3 a.; [Buttmann, 190 (165)]. (Besides only in Basil, i., p. 137 c., Benedict edition.)TGL βλητέος.2


    (993) Βοανεργές ([R G, so Suidas (ed. Gaisf. 751 a.); but] L T Tr WH Βοανηργές), Boanerges, Hebrew רֶגֶשׁ בֲּנֵי i. e. sons of thunder (as Mark himself explains it), [the name given by our Lord to James and John the sons of Zebedee]: Mark 3:17; בְּ pronounced Boa as Noabhyim for Nebhyim; see Lightfoot Horae Hebrew at the passage; רֶגֶשׁ, in Psalms 55:15 a tumultuous crowd, seems in Syriac to have signified thunder; so that the name Βοανηργές seems to denote fiery and destructive zeal that may be likened to a thunderstorm, and to make reference to the occurrence narrated in Luke 9:54. [Cf. Dr. James Morison's Commentary on Mark at the passage cited; Kautzsch, Gram. d. Biblical-Aram., p. 9.]TGL Βοανηργές.2


    (994) βοάω, -ῶ; [imperfect ἐβόων, Acts 21:34 Rec. ]; 1 aorist ἐβόησα; (βοή); from Homer down; in the Sept. mostly for קָרָא, זָעַק, צָעַק, to cry aloud, shout, (Latin boo );TGL βοάω.2

    1. to raise a cry: of joy, Galatians 4:27 (from Isaiah 54:1); of pain, Matthew 27:46 L marginal reading Tr WH; Acts 8:7.TGL βοάω.3

    2. to cry i. e. speak with a high, strong voice: Matthew 3:3, Mark 1:3, Luke 3:4, John 1:23 (all from Isaiah 40:3); Mark 15:34; Luke 9:38 (R G ἀναβ.); [Luke 18:38]; Acts 17:6; Acts 21:34 Rec. ; Acts 25:24 (R G ἐπιβ.).TGL βοάω.4

    3. πρός τινα to cry to one for help, implore his aid: Luke 18:7 [T Tr WH αὐτῷ; cf. Winer's Grammar, 212 (199)], (1 Samuel 7:8; 1 Chronicles 5:20; Hosea 7:14, etc. for אֶל זָעַק). [Compare: ἀνα-, ἐπιβοάω.]TGL βοάω.5

    [Synonyms: βοδω, καλέω, κράζω, κραυγάζω: It is not uninstructive to notice that in classic usage καλεῖν denotes 'to cry out' for a purpose, to call; βοᾶν to cry out as a manifestation of feeling; κράζειν to cry out harshly, often of an inarticulate and brutish sound; thus καλεῖν suggests intelligence; βοᾶν sensibilities; κράζειν instincts; hence, βοᾶν especially a cry for help. κραυγάζειν, intensive of κράζω, denotes to cry coarsely, in contempt, etc. Cf. Schmidt ch. 3.]TGL βοάω.6


    (995) βοή, -ῆς, , a cry: James 5:4 (of those imploring vengeance). From Homer down.TGL βοή.2


    (996) βοήθεια, -ας, , (see βοηθέω ), help: Hebrews 4:16, (often in the Sept. , chiefly for עֶזְרָה and עֵזֶר; in Greek writings from Thucydides and Xenophon down); plural helps: Acts 27:17 [see Hackett at the passage; B. D. under the word Ship 4; Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul, pp. 106f, 204f; cf. ὑποζώννυμι ].TGL βοήθεια.2

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