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    σιτιστός — στάχυς


    (4619) σιτιστός, σιτιστη, σιτιστον (σιτίζω, to feed with grain, to fatten), fattened (plural τά σιτία as substantive, A. V. fatlings), Matthew 22:4. (Josephus , Antiquities 8, 2, 4; Athen. 14, p. 656 e.)TGL σιτιστός.2


    (4620) σιτομέτριον, σιτομετριου, τό (Attic writers said τόν σῖτον μέτρειν; out of which later writers formed the compound σιτομέτρειν, Genesis 47:12,(14); Polybius 4, 63, 10; Diodorus 19, 50; Josephus , contra Apion 1, 14, 7; σιτομετρία, Diodorus 2, 41; (cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 383; Winer 's Grammar, 25)), "a measured 'portion of' grain or 'food'": Luke 12:42. (Ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL σιτομέτριον.2


    (4621) σῖτος, σίτου, (of uncertain origin; cf. Vanicek , Fremdwörter, under the word), from Homer down, the Sept. chiefly for דָּגָן, wheat, grain: Matthew 3:12; Matthew 13:25, Matthew 13:29; Mark 4:28; Luke 3:17; (Luke 12:18 WH Tr text); Luke 16:7; Luke 22:31; John 12:24; Acts 27:38; 1 Corinthians 15:37; Revelation 6:6; Revelation 18:13; plural τά σῖτα (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 63 (62)), Acts 7:12 Rec. , and often in the Sept. .TGL σῖτος.2


    (4622) Σιών, indeclinable (its grammatical gender in the N. T. does not appear from the passages in which it is mentioned; cf. Buttmann , 21f (19); in the Sept. when it denotes the city of Jerusalem Σιών occurs, as Psalm 101:14, 17 (Psalms 102:14,Psalms 102:17); Psalm 131:13 (Psalms 132:13); Psalms 136:1 (Psalms 137:1), Hebrew צִיון (i. e. according to some, 'protected' or 'protecting'; according to others, 'sunny'; others besides); Sion (so A. V. , but properly (with R. V. )) Zion;TGL Σιών.2

    1. the hill on which the higher and more ancient part of Jerusalem was built (דָּוִד עִיר, city of David, because David captured it); it was the southwesternmost and highest of the hills on which the city stood; (many now would identify it with the eastern hill, some with the northern; cf. Furrer in Schenkel iii. 216ff; Mühlau in Riehm , under the word; per contra Wolcott in B. D. American edition, under the word; Schultz in Herzog edition 2 vi., p. 543f).TGL Σιών.3

    2. used very often for the entire city of Jerusalem itself: Romans 9:33 and 1 Peter 2:6 (after Isaiah 28:16); Romans 11:26 (from Isaiah 59:20); θυγάτηρ Σιών (see θυγάτηρ , b.β'.), Matthew 21:5; John 12:15.TGL Σιών.4

    3. Since Jerusalem, because the temple stood there, was called the dwelling-place of God (cf. Matthew 5:35; κύριος τήν Σιών ᾑρετίσατο εἰς κατοικίαν ἑαυτῷ, Psalm 131:13 (Psalms 132:13)), the expression τό Σιών ὄρος is transferred to heaven, as the true dwelling-place of God and heavenly beings, the antitype of the earthly Zion: Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 14:1.TGL Σιών.5


    (4623) σιωπάω, σιώπω; imperfect, 3 person singular ἐσιώπα, 3 person plural ἐσιώπων; future σιωπήσω (Luke 19:40 L T Tr WH ); 1 aorist ἐσιώπησα; (σιωπή silence); from Homer down; to be silent, hold one's peace: properly, Matthew 20:31; Matthew 26:63; Mark 3:4; Mark 9:34; Mark 10:48; Mark 14:61; Luke 18:39 R G ; Luke 19:40; Acts 18:9; used of one silent because dumb, Luke 1:20; Luke 4:1-44 Macc. 10:18; likesileo in the Latin poets, used metaphorically of a calm, quiet sea ((in rhetorical command)): Mark 4:39. (Synonym: see ἡσυχάζω .)TGL σιωπάω.2


    (4624) σκανδαλίζω; 1 aorist ἐσκανδαλισα; passive, present σκανδαλίζομαι; imperfect ἐσκανδαλιζομην; 1 aorist ἐσκανδαλίσθην (cf. Buttmann , 52 (45)); 1 future σκανδαλισθήσομαι; (σκάνδαλον); Vulg. scandalizo ; Peshitto lSK) []; properly, to put a stumbling-block or impediment in the way, upon which another may trip and fall; to be a stumbling-block; in the N. T. always metaphorically, (R. V. to cause or make to stumble; A. V. to offend (cause to offend));TGL σκανδαλίζω.2

    a. to entice to sin (Luth. ärgern, i. e. arg, bös machen): τινα, Matthew 5:29 (Matthew 5:30); Matthew 18:6,Matthew 18:8; Mark 9:42, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47; Luke 17:2; 1 Corinthians 8:13; passive Latinoffendor (A. V. to be offended), Vulg. scandalizor , Peshitto lSK []: Romans 14:21 (R G L Tr text); 2 Corinthians 11:29 (R. V. is made to stumble; cf. Winer s Grammar, 153 (145)).TGL σκανδαλίζω.3

    b. "to cause a person to begin to distrust and desert one whom he ought to trust and obey; to cause to fall away," and in the passive, to fall away (R. V. to stumble (cf. 'Teaching etc. 16, 5 [ET]; Hermas , vis. 4, 1, 3 [ET]; mand. 8, 10 [ET])): τινα, John 6:61; passive, Matthew 13:21; Matthew 24:10; Matthew 26:33; Mark 4:17; Mark 14:29; (John 16:1); ἐν τίνι (A. V. ) to be offended in one, (find occasion of stumbling in), i. e. to see in another what I disapprove of and what hinders me from acknowledging his authority: Matthew 11:6; Matthew 13:57; Matthew 26:31; Mark 6:3; Mark 14:27; Luke 7:23; to cause one to judge unfavorably or unjustly of another, Matthew 17:27. Since the man who stumbles or whose foot gets entangled feels annoyed, σκανδαλίζω means c. to cause one to feel displeasure at a thing; to make indignant: τινα, passive, to be displeased, indignant (A. V. offended), Matthew 15:12. The verb σκανδαλίζω is found neither in secular authors nor in the Sept. , but only in the relies of Aq. 's version of the O. T., Psalms 63:9 (Psalms 64:9); Isaiah 8:15; (xl. 30); Proverbs 4:12 for כָּשַׁל; besides in Sir. 9:5 Sir. 23:8 Sir. 35:15 (Sir. 32:15); (Psalt. Psalms 16:1-11, Psalms 16:7. Cf. Winer 's Grammar, 33.)TGL σκανδαλίζω.4


    (4625) σκάνδαλον, σκανδάλου, τό, a purely Biblical ((occurring some twenty-five times in the Greek O. T., and fifteen, quotations included, in the New)) and ecclesiastical word for σκανδάληθρον, which occurs occasionally in native Greek writings; the Sept. for מוקֵשׁ (a noose, a snare) and מִכְשׁול;TGL σκάνδαλον.2

    a. properly, the movable stick or tricker ('trigger') of a trap, trap-stick; a trap, snare; any impediment placed in the way and causing one to stumble or fall (a stumblingblock, occasion of stumbling): Leviticus 19:14; πέτρα σκανκαλου (A. V. a rock of offence), i. e. a rock which is a cause of stumbling (Latin offendiculum ) — figuratively applied to Jesus Christ, whose person and career were so contrary to the expectations of the Jews concerning the Messiah, that they rejected him and by their obstinacy made shipwreck of salvation (see πρόσκομμα ), Romans 9:33 and 1 Peter 2:8 (7) (from Isaiah 8:14).TGL σκάνδαλον.3

    b. metaphorically, any person or thing by which one is ('entrapped') drawn into error or sin (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 32);TGL σκάνδαλον.4

    α. of persons ((Joshua 23:13; 1 Samuel 18:21)): Matthew 13:41; Matthew 16:23 (where σκάνδαλον "non ex effectu, sed ex natura et condicione propria dicitur ," Calov.); so Χριστός ἐσταυρωμένος is called (because his ignominious death on the cross roused the opposition of the Jews), 1 Corinthians 1:23.TGL σκάνδαλον.5

    β. of things: τιθέναι τίνι σκάνδαλον (literally, in Judith 5:1), to put a stumbling-block in one's way, i. e. to do that by which another is led to sin, Romans 14:13; the same idea is expressed by βάλλειν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιον τίνος (to cast a stumbling-block before one), Revelation 2:14; οὐκ ἐστι σκάνδαλον ἐν τίνι (see εἰμί , V. 4. e.), 1 John 2:10; plural σκάνδαλα, words or deeds which entice to sin (Wis. 14:11), Matthew 18:7 (cf. Buttmann , 322 (277) n.; Winer 's Grammar, 371 (348)); Luke 17:1; σκάνδαλα ποιεῖν παρά τήν διδαχήν, to cause persons to be drawn away from the true doctrine into error and sin (cf. παρά , III. 2 a.), Romans 16:17; τό σκάνδαλον τοῦ σταυροῦ, the offence which the cross, i. e. Christ's death on the cross, gives (cf. α. at the end above), (R. V. the stumbling-block of the cross), Galatians 5:11; equivalent to a cause of destruction, Romans 11:9, from Psalms 68:23 (Psalms 69:23).TGL σκάνδαλον.6


    (4626) σκάπτω; 1 aorist ἐσκαψα; (allied with it are English 'ship', 'skiff', etc.; Curtius , § 109; Fick 4:267; 7:336); to dig: Luke 6:48 (on which see βαθύνω ); Luke 13:8 (Buttmann , § 130, 5); Luke 16:3. ((Homer h. Merc.); Aristophanes , Euripides , Xenophon , Plato , Aristotle , Theophrastus , others) (Compare: κατασκάπτω.)TGL σκάπτω.2


    (4627) σκάφη, σκάφης, (σκάπτω (which see)), from (Aeschylus and) Herodotus down, anything dug out, hollow vessel, trough, tray, tub; specifically, a boat: Acts 27:16, Acts 27:30, Acts 27:32.TGL σκάφη.2


    (4628) σκέλος, σκελους, τό, from Homer down, the leg i. e. from the hip to the toes inclusive: John 19:31, John 19:33.TGL σκέλος.2


    (4629) σκέπασμα, σκεπασματος, τό (σκεπάζω to cover), a covering, specifically, clothing (Aristotle , pol. 7, 17, p. 1336{a}, 17; Josephus , b. j. 2, 8, 5): 1 Timothy 6:8.TGL σκέπασμα.2


    (4630) Σκευᾶς, Σκευᾶ (Winer s Grammar, § 8, 1; Buttmann , 20 (18)), , Sceva, a certain chief priest (cf. ἀρχιερεύς , 2 at the end): Acts 19:14.TGL Σκευᾶς.2


    (4631) σκεύη, σκευης, (cf. σκεῦος ), from (Pindar , Sophocles ), Herodotus down, any apparatus, equipment, or furniture; used of the utensils (outfit, i. e. furniture (? — so R. V. marginal reading), or tackling (? — so A. V. , R. V. text)) of a ship (Diodorus 14, 79): Acts 27:19 (the Sept. Jonah 1:5).TGL σκευή.2


    (4632) σκεῦος, σκεύους, τό (probably from the root, sku, 'to cover'; cf. Latinscutum, cutis, obscurus ; Curtius , § 113; Vanicek , p. 1115), from (Aristophanes ), Thucydides down; the Sept. for כְּלִי;TGL σκεῦος.2

    1. a vessel: Mark 11:16; Luke 8:16; John 19:29; Acts 10:11, Acts 10:16; Acts 11:5; 2 Timothy 2:20; Revelation 2:27; Revelation 18:12; τά Σκευᾶ τῆς λειτουργίας, to be used in performing religious rites, Hebrews 9:21; σκεῦος εἰς τιμήν, unto honor, i. e. for honorable use, Romans 9:21; 2 Timothy 2:21 (καθαρῶν ἔργων δοῦλα σκεύη, Wis. 15:7); εἰς ἀτιμίαν, unto dishonor, i. e. for a low use (as, a urinal), Romans 9:21; σκεύη ὀργῆς, into which wrath is emptied, i. e. men appointed by God unto woe, hence, the addition κατηρτισμένα εἰς ἀπώλειαν, Romans 9:22; σκεύη ἐλέους, fitted to receive mercy — explained by the words προητοίμασεν εἰς δόξαν, Romans 9:23; τό σκεῦος is used of a woman, as the vessel of her husband, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 (see κτάομαι ; (others take it here (as in 2 Corinthians 4:7 below) of the body)); the female sex, as being weaker than the male, is likened to a σκεῦος ἀσθενεστερον, in order to commend to husbands the obligations of kindness toward their wives (for the weaker the vessels, the greater must be the care lest they be broken), 1 Peter 3:7; ὀστράκινα σκεύη is applied to human bodies, as frail, 2 Corinthians 4:7.TGL σκεῦος.3

    2. an implement; plural household utensils, mestic gear: Matthew 12:29; Mark 3:27 (Luke 17:31 (in these passages R. V. has goods); as the plural often in Greek writings denotes the tackle and armament of vessels (Xenophon , oec. 8, 12; Plato , Critias, p. 117 d.; Lach., p. 183 e.; Polyb 22, 26, 13), so the singular τό σκεῦος seems to be used specifically and collectively of the sails and ropes (R. V. gear) in Acts 27:17. metaphorically, of a man: σκεῦος ἐκλογῆς (genitive of quality), a chosen instrument (or (so A. V. ) 'vessel'), Acts 9:15; in a base sense, an assistant in accomplishing evil deeds (cf. English 'tool'), σκεῦος ὑπηρετικον, Polybius 13, 5, 7; 15, 25, 1.TGL σκεῦος.4


    (4633) σκηνή, σκηνῆς, (from the root, ska 'to cover' etc.; cf. σκιά , σκότος , etc.; Latincasa, cassis, castrum ; English shade, etc.; Curtius , § 112; Vanicek , p. 1054f), from (Aeschylus ), Sophocles and Thucydides down; the Sept. chiefly for אֹהֶל, often also for מִשְׁכָּן, also for סֻכָּה; a tent, tabernacle (made of green boughs, or skins, or other materials): Matthew 17:4; Mark 9:5; Luke 9:33; Hebrews 11:9; αἱ αἰώνιοι σκηναί (see αἰώνιος , 3), Luke 16:9 (et dabo iis tabernacula aeterna quae praeparaveram illis , 4 (5) Esdr. 2 Ezra 2:11); of that well known movable temple of God after the pattern of which the temple at Jerusalem was subsequently built (cf. B. D. , under the word ): Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 9:1 Rec.st , 21; with τοῦ μαρτυρίου added (see μαρτύριον , c. at the end), Acts 7:44; the temple is called σκηνή in Hebrews 13:10; σκηνή πρώτη, the front part of the tabernacle (and afterward of the temple), the Holy place, Hebrews 9:2, Hebrews 9:6, Hebrews 9:8; of the Holy of holies, Hebrews 9:3; the name is transferred to heaven, as the true dwelling-place of God and the prototype of the earthly 'tabernacle' or sanctuary, Hebrews 9:11; Revelation 13:6; hence, σκηνή ἀληθινή, heaven, Hebrews 8:2; with a reference to this use of the word, it is declared that when the kingdom of God is perfectly established σκηνή τοῦ Θεοῦ will be μετά τῶν (after the analogy of σκηνουν μετά τίνος), Revelation 21:3; ναός τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου (see μαρτύριον , c. at the end), the heavenly temple, in which was the tabernacle of the covenant, i. e. the inmost sanctuary oradytum , Revelation 15:5. σκηνή τοῦ Μολόχ, the tabernacle i. e. portable shrine of Moloch, Acts 7:43 (for the Orientals on their journeys and military expeditions used to carry with them their deities, together with shrines for them; hence, ἱερά σκηνή of the Carthaginians in Diodorus 20, 65, where see Wesseling (but cf. סִכּוּת in Mühlau and Volck's Gesenius, or the recent commentaries on Amos 5:26)). σκηνή Δαυίδ (from Amos 9:11 for סֻכָּה), the hut (tabernacle) of David, seems to be employed, in contempt, of his house, i. e. family reduced to decay and obscurity, Acts 15:16 (otherwise דָּוִד אֹהֶל in Isaiah 16:5).TGL σκηνή.2


    (4634) σκηνοπηγία, σκηνοπηγίας, (σκηνή and πήγνυμι, cf. Hebrews 8:2);TGL σκηνοπηγία.2

    1. the construction of a tabernacle or tabernacles: τῆς χελιδονος, the skill of the swallow in building its nest, Aristotle , h. a. 9, 7 (p. 612{b}, 22).TGL σκηνοπηγία.3

    2. the feast of tabernacles: John 7:2. This festival was observed by the Jews yearly for seven days, beginning with the 15th of the month Tisri (i. e. approximately, Oct.; cf. BB. DD. , under the word ), partly to perpetuate the memory of the time when their ancestors after leaving Egypt dwelt in tents on their way through the Arabian desert (Leviticus 23:43), partly as a season of festivity and joy on the completion of the harvest and the vintage (Deuteronomy 16:13) ('the feast of ingathering' (see below)). In celebrating the festival the Jews were accustomed to construct booths of the leafy branches of trees — either on the roofs or in the courts of their dwellings, or in the streets and squares (Nehemiah 8:15, Nehemiah 8:16), and to adorn them with flowers and fruits of all kinds (Leviticus 23:40) — under which, throughout the period of the festival, they feasted and gave themselves up to rejoicing. This feast is called הַסֻּכּות חַג () ἑορτή (τῆς) σκηνοπηγίας, Deuteronomy 16:16; Deuteronomy 31:10; Zechariah 14:16, Zechariah 14:18; Zechariah 1:1-21 Esdr. 5:50 (51); 1 Macc. 10:21; Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 12; () ἑορτή (τῶν) σκηνῶν, Leviticus 23:34; Deuteronomy 16:13; (2 Chronicles 8:13; Ezra 3:4); 2 Macc. 10:6; σκηναί, Philo de septenar. § 24; σκηνοπηγία, 2 Macc. 1:9, 18; once (twice) (Exodus 23:16; (Exodus 34:22)) הַאָסִיף חַג, i. e. 'the feast of ingathering' namely, of fruits. (Cf. BB. DD. (especially Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto); Edersheim, The Temple, chapter xiv.)TGL σκηνοπηγία.4


    (4635) σκηνοποιός, σκηνοποιου, (σκηνή and ποιέω), a tent-real'cf, equivalent to σκηνορραφος (Aelian v. h. 2, 1); one that made small portable tents, of leather or cloth of goats' hair (Latincilicium ) or linen, for the use of travellers: Acts 18:3 (cf. Meyer at the passage; Woldemar Schmidt in Herzog edition 2 vol. xi., p. 359f).TGL σκηνοποιός.2


    (4636) σκῆνος, σκήνους, τό (Hippocrates , Plato , others), a tabernacle, a tent, everywhere (except Boeckh, Corpus inscriptions vol. ii., no. 3071) used metaphorically, of the human body, in which the soul dwells as in a tent, and which is taken down at death: 2 Corinthians 5:4; ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους, i. e. ho esti τό σκῆνος (Winer s Grammar, § 59, 7 d., 8 a.), which is the well-known tent, ibid. 1 (R. V. the earthly house of our tabernacle). Cf. Wis. 9:15 and Grimm at the passage; in the same sense in (Plato ) Tim. Locr., p. 100ff and often in other philosophic writings; cf. Fischer, Index to Aeschines dial. Socrates ; Passow , under the word; (Field, Otium Norv. pars iii., p. 113 (on 2 Corinthians 5:1)).TGL σκῆνος.2


    (4637) σκηνόω, σκήνω; future σκηνώσω; 1 aorist σκηνωσα; "to fix one's tabernacle, have one's tabernacle, abide (or live) in a tabernacle (or tent), tabernacle" (often in Xenophon ; Demosthenes , p. 1257, 6); God σκηνώσει ἐπ' αὐτούς, will spread his tabernacle over them, so that they may dwell in safety and security under its cover and protection, Revelation 7:15; universally, equivalent to to dwell (Judges 5:17): followed by ἐν with a dative of place, Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6 (ἐν ταῖς οἰκίαις, Xenophon , an. 5, 5, 11); ἐν ἡμῖν, among us, John 1:14; μετά τίνος, with one, Revelation 21:3; σύν τίνι, to be one's tent-mate, Xenophon , Cyril 6, 1, 49. (Compare: ἐπισκηνόω, κατασκηνόω.)TGL σκηνόω.2


    (4638) σκήνωμα, σκηνώματος, τό (σκηνόω), a tent, tabernacle: of the temple as God's habitation, Acts 7:46 (Psalms 14:1 (Psalms 15:1); Psalms 25:8 (Psalms 26:8); Psalms 42:3 (Psalms 43:3); Psalms 45:5 (Psalms 46:5); Pausanias , 3, 17, 6; of the tabernacle of the covenant, 1 Kings 2:28); metaphorically, of the human body as the dwelling of the soul (see σκῆνος ): ἐν τῷ σκηνώματι εἶναι, of life on earth, 2 Peter 1:15; ἀπόθεσις (the author blending the conceptions of a tent and of a covering or garment, as Paul does in 2 Corinthians 5:2), ibid. 14. (Euripides , Xenophon , Plutarch , others; the Sept. for אֹהֶל and מִשְׁכָן.)TGL σκήνωμα.2


    (4639) σκιά, σκιᾶς, ((see σκηνή , at the beginning)), from Homer down, the Sept. for צֵל;TGL σκιά.2

    a. properly, shadow, i. e. shade caused by the interception of the light: Mark 4:32 (cf. Ezekiel 17:23); Acts 5:15; σκιά θανάτου, shadow of death (like umbra mortis, Ovid . metam. 5, 191, and umbra Erebi, Vergil Aen. 4, 26; 6, 404), 'the densest darkness' (because from of old Hades had been regarded as enveloped in thick darkness), tropically, the thick darkness of error (i. e. spiritual death; see θάνατος , 1): Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79 (from Isaiah 9:1, where צַלְמָוֶת).TGL σκιά.3

    b. a shadow, i. e. an image cast by an object and representing the form of that object: opposed to σῶμα, the thing itself, Colossians 2:17; hence, equivalent to a sketch, outline, adumbration, Hebrews 8:5; opposed to εἰκών, the 'express' likeness, the very image, Hebrews 10:1 (as in Cicero , de off. 3, 17, 69nos veri juris solidam et expresssam effigiem nullam tenemus, umbra et imaginibus utimur ).TGL σκιά.4


    (4640) σκιρτάω, σκίρτω: 1 aorist ἐσκίρτησα; to leap: Luke 1:41, Luke 1:44; Luke 6:23. (Genesis 25:22; Psalms 113:4, Psalms 113:6 (Psalms 114:4,Psalms 114:6); Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL σκιρτάω.2


    (4641) σκληροκαρδία, σκληροκαρδιας, (σκληρός and καρδία), a Biblical word, the characteristic of one who is σκληρός τήν καρδίαν (Proverbs 28:14), or σκληροκάρδιος (Proverbs 17:20; Ezekiel 3:7); hardness of heart: Matthew 19:8; Mark 10:5; Mark 16:14; for לֵבָב עָרְלַת, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 4:4; Sir. 16:10; καρδία σκληρά, Sir. 3:26, 27. (Cf. Winer 's Grammar, 26, 99 (94).)TGL σκληροκαρδία.2


    (4642) σκληρός, σκληρά, σκληρόν (σκέλλω, σκληναι, (to dry up, be dry)), from (Hesiod , Theognis ), Pindar , Aeschylus down; the Sept. for קָשֶׁה, hard, harsh, rough, stiff (τά σκληρά καί τά μαλακά, Xen) mem. 3, 10, 1); of men, metaphorically, harsh, stern, hard: Matthew 25:24 (1 Samuel 25:3; Isaiah 19:4; Isaiah 48:4; many examples from secular authors are given by Passow , under the word, 2 b.; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 2; especially Trench , § xiv.)); of things: ἄνεμος, violent, rough, James 3:4; λόγος, offensive and intolerable, John 6:60, equivalent to ὅς σκανδαλίζει, 61; σκληρά λαλεῖν κατά τίνος, to speak hard and bitter things against one, Jude 1:15 (σκληρά λαλεῖν τίνι is also used of one who speaks roughly, Genesis 42:7, Genesis 42:30; ἀποκρίνεσθαι σκληρά, to reply with threats, 1 Kings 12:13); σκληρόν ἐστι followed by an infinitive, it is dangerous, turns out badly (A. V. it is hard), Acts 9:5 Rec. ; Acts 26:14.TGL σκληρός.2


    (4643) σκληρότης, σκληρότητος, (σκληρός), hardness; tropically, obstinacy, stubbornness: Romans 2:5. (Deuteronomy 9:27; (Antiphon ), Plato , Aristotle , Theophrastus , Plutarch , others.)TGL σκληρότης.2


    (4644) σκληροτράχηλος, σκληροτράχηλόν (σκληρός and τράχηλος), properly, stiff-necked; tropically, stubborn, headstrong, obstinate: Acts 7:51; the Sept. for עֹרֶף קְשֵׁה, Exodus 33:3, Exodus 33:5; Exodus 34:9; (etc.); Baruch 2:30; Sir. 16:11; (cf. σκληροτραχηλια, Test xii. Patr. , test. Sym. § 6). Not found in secular authors; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 26, 99 (94)).TGL σκληροτράχηλος.2


    (4645) σκληρύνω (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 92 (88)); 1 aorist subjunctive 2 person plural σκληρύνητε; passive, imperfect ἐσκληρυνομην; 1 aorist ἐσκληρυνθην; (σκληρός, which see); the Sept. for הִקְשָׁה and הִזֵּק, to make hard, to harden; properly, in Hippocrates and Galen ; metaphorically, to render obstinate, stubborn (A. V. to harden): τινα, Romans 9:18 (in opposed to those who interpret it to treat harshly, cf. Fritzsche, vol. ii., p. 323f; (cf., too, Meyer at the passage)); τήν καρδίαν τίνος, Hebrews 3:8, Hebrews 3:15 and Hebrews 4:7 (from Psalms 94:8 (Psalms 95:8); cf. Exodus 7:3, Exodus 7:22; Exodus 8:19; Exodus 9:12); passive (the Sept. for קָשָׁה and חָזַק) to be hardened, i. e. become obstinate or stubborn: Acts 19:9; Hebrews 3:13.TGL σκληρύνω.2


    (4646) σκολιός, σκολιά, σκολιόν (opposed to ὀρθός, ὄρθιος, εὐθύς (cf. σκώληξ )), from Homer down, crooked, curved: properly, of a way (Proverbs 28:18), τά σκολιά, Luke 3:5 (opposed to εὐθεῖα namely, ὁδός, from Isaiah 40:4); metaphorically, perverse, wicked: γενεά σκολιά, Acts 2:40; with διεστραμμένη added, Philippians 2:15 (clearly so Deuteronomy 32:5); unfair, surly, froward (opposed to ἀγαθός καί ἐπιεικής), 1 Peter 2:18.TGL σκολιός.2


    (4647) σκόλοψ, σκολοπος, , from Homer down, a pointed piece of wood, a pale, a stake: ἐδόθη μοι σκόλοψ τῇ σαρκί, a sharp stake (others say splinter, A. V. thorn; cf. Numbers 33:55; Ezekiel 28:24; Hosea 2:6 (8); Babrius fab. 122, 1. 10; others (Sir. 43:19)), to pierce my flesh, appears to indicate some constant bodily ailment or infirmity, which, even when Paul had been caught up in a trance to the third heaven, sternly admonished him that he still dwelt in a frail and mortal body, 2 Corinthians 12:7 (cf. 2 Corinthians 12:1-4); (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31, 10 N. 3; Buttmann , § 133, 27. On Paul's thorn in the flesh see Farrar, St. Paul, i. 652ff (Excursus x.); Lightfoot 's Commentary on Galatians, p. 186ff; Schaff in his 'Popular Commentary' on Galatians, p. 331f.)TGL σκόλοψ.2


    (4648) σκοπέω, σκόπω; (σκοπός, which see); from Homer down; to look at, observe, contemplate. to mark: absolutely, followed by μή with the indicative (see μή , III. 2), Luke 11:35; τινα, to fix one's eyes upon, direct one's attention to, anyone: Romans 16:17; Philippians 3:17; σεαυτόν, followed by μή with the subjunctive to look to, take heed to thyself, lest etc. Galatians 6:1 (see μή , II. 1 b.); τί, to look at, i. e. care for, have regard to, a thing: 2 Corinthians 4:18; Philippians 2:4 (2 Macc. 4:5). (Compare: ἐπισκόπω, κατασκοπέω.)TGL σκοπέω.2


    (4649) σκοπός, σκοποῦ, ((from a root denoting 'to spy,' 'peer,' 'look into the distance'; cf. also Latinspecio, speculum, species , etc.; Fick i., 251f; iv., 279; Curtius , § 111)); from Homer down;TGL σκοπός.2

    1. an observer, a watchman.TGL σκοπός.3

    2. the distant mark looked at, the goal or end one has in view: κατά σκοπόν (on this phrase see κατά , II. 1 c.), Philippians 3:14.TGL σκοπός.4


    (4650) σκορπίζω; 1 aorist ἐσκορπισα; 1 aorist passive ἐσκορπίσθην; ((probably from the root, skarp, 'to cut asunder,' 'cut to pieces'; akin is σκορπίος; cf. Latinscalpere, scrobs , etc.; Fick 1:240; 3:811, etc.)); to scatter: λύκος σκορπίζει τά πρόβατα, John 10:12; μήν συνάγων μετ' ἐμοῦ σκορπίζει, Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23 (this proverb is taken from a flock — to which the body of Christ's followers is likened (others regard the proverb as borrowed from agriculture); συνάγει τούς ἐσκορπισμενους τό ὄργανον (i. e. a trumpet), Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 56 at the beginning); τινα, in the passive, of those who, routed or terror stricken or driven by some other impulse, fly in every direction: followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, John 16:32 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 516 (481)) (1 Macc. 6:54; φοβηθέντες ἐκορπισθησαν, Plutarch , Timol. 4; add, Josephus , Antiquities 6, 6, 3). equivalent to to scatter abroad (what others may collect for themselves), of one dispensing blessings liberally: 2 Corinthians 9:9 from Psalms 111:9 (Psalms 112:9) (cf. Winer s Grammar, 469 (437)). (According to Phrynichus the word was used by Hecataeus ; it was also used — in addition to the writings already cited — by Strabo 4, p. 198; Lucian , asin. 32; Aelian v. h. 13, 45 (here διεσκορπίζω (edited by Hercher); λόγους (cf. Latinspargere rumores ), Josephus , Antiquities 16, 1, 2); cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 218; (Winer s Grammar, 22; 92 (87)); the Sept. for הֵפִיץ, 2 Samuel 22:15; Psalms 17:15 (Psalms 18:15). Attic writers say σκεδάννυμι.) (Compare: διασκορπίζομαι.)TGL σκορπίζω.2


    (4651) σκορπίος, σκορπίου, ((for the derivation see the preceding word); from Aeschylus down; on its accent, cf. Chandler § 246), a scorpion, the Sept. for עַקְרָב, the name of a little animal, somewhat resembling a lobster, which in warm regions lurks especially in stone walls; it has a poisonous sting in its tail (McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia and BB. DD. , under the word ): Luke 10:19; Luke 11:12; Revelation 9:3, Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:10.TGL σκορπίος.2


    (4652) σκοτεινός (WH σκοτινος; see Iota), σκοτεινή, σκοτεινόν (σκότος), full of darkness, covered with darkness (from Aeschylus down): opposed to φωτεινός, Matthew 6:23; Luke 11:34, Luke 11:36 (τά σκοτεινά καί τά φωτεινα, Xenophon , mem. 3, 10, 1; (cf. 4, 3, 4)).TGL σκοτεινός.2


    (4653) σκοτία, σκοτίας, (on its derivation cf. σκηνή ), (Thomas Magister , σκότος καί τό σκότος. τό δέ σκοτία οὐκ ἐν χρησει namely, in Attic (cf. Moeris , under the word; Liddell and Scott, under the word σκότος, at the end)), darkness: properly, the darkness due to want of daylight, John 6:17; John 20:1; ἐν τῇ σκοτία (λαλεῖν τί), unseen, in secret (equivalent to ἐν κρύπτω, John 18:20), privily, in private, opposed to ἐν τῷ φωτί, Matthew 10:27; Luke 12:3; metaphorically, used of ignorance of divine things, and its associated wickedness, and the resultant misery: Matthew 4:16 L Tr WH ; John 1:5; John 6:17; John 8:12; John 12:35, John 12:46; 1 John 1:5; 1 John 2:8, 1 John 2:11. (Ap. Rh. 4, 1698; Anth. 8, 187. 190; for חָשְׁכָה Micah 3:6; for אֹפֶל, Job 28:3.)TGL σκοτία.2


    (4654) σκοτίζω: passive, perfect participle ἐσκοτισμενος (Ephesians 4:18 R G ); 1 aorist ἐσκοτίσθην; 1 future σκοτισθήσομαι; (σκότος); to cover with darkness, to darken; passive, to be covered with darkness, be darkened": properly, of the heavenly bodies, as deprived of light ((Ecclesiastes 12:2)), Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:24; Luke 23:45 (T WH ἐκλείπω (which see 2)); Revelation 8:12; Revelation 9:2 (L T WH σκοτόω, which see); metaphorically, of the eyes, viz. of the understanding, Romans 11:10; καρδία, the mind (see καρδία , 2 b. β.), Romans 1:21; men τῇ διάνοια, Ephesians 4:18 R G . (Plutarch (adv. Col. 24, 4; Cleomed. 81, 28); Tzetzes , hist. 8, 929; the Sept. several times for חָשַׁך; (Polybius 12, 15, 10; 3Macc. 4:10; Test xii. Patr. , test. Rub. § 3; test. Levi § 14).)TGL σκοτίζω.2


    (4655) σκότος, σκότου, σκοτου, (cf. σκοτία , at the beginning), from Homer down, darkness: Hebrews 12:18 Rec. (cf. WH s Appendix, p. 158; Winer 's Grammar, 66 (64); B 22 (20)).TGL σκότος.2


    (4656) σκοτόω, σκότῳ: passive, perfect participle ἐσκοτωμενος; 1 aorist ἐσκοτώθην; (cf. WH 's Appendix, p. 171); (σκότος); to darken, cover with darkness: Revelation 9:2 L T WH ; Revelation 16:10; metaphorically, to darken or blind the mind: σκοτώμενοι τῇ διάνοια, Ephesians 4:18 L T Tr WH . ((Sophocles ), Plato , Polybius , Plutarch , others; the Sept. .)TGL σκοτόω.2


    (4657) σκύβαλον, σκυβαλου, τό (κυσιβαλον τί ὄν, τό τοῖς κυσί βαλλόμενον, Suidas (p. 3347 c.; to the same effect Etym. Magn. , p. 719, 53 cf. 125, 44; others connect it with σκῶρ (cf. scoria, Latinstercus ), others with a root meaning 'to shiver', 'shred'; Fick , Part i., p. 244)), any refuse, as the excrement of animals, offscouring, rubbish, dregs, etc.: (A. V. dung) i. e. worthless and detestable, Philippians 3:8. (Sir. 27:4; Philo ; Josephus , b. j. 5, 13, 7; Plutarch ; Strabo ; often in the Anthol. ) (See on the word, Lightfoot on Philippians, the passage cited; Gataker, Advers. Miscell. Posth., c. xliii, p. 868ff.)TGL σκύβαλον.2


    (4658) Σκύθης, Σκυθου, , a Scythian, an inhabitant of Scythia i. e. modern Russia: Colossians 3:11. By the more civilized nations of antiquity the Scythians were regarded as the wildest of all barbarians; cf. Cicero , in Verr. 2, 5, 58 § 150; in Pison. 8, 18; Josephus , c. Apion. 2, 37, 6; (Philo , leg. ad Gaium § 2); Lucian , Tox. 5f; 2 Macc. 4:47; 3Macc. 7:5. (See Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited; Hackett in B. D. under the word ; Rawlinson's Herod. , Appendix to book iv., Essays ii. and iii.; Vanicek , Fremdwörter, under the word.)TGL Σκύθης.2


    (4659) σκυθρωπός, σκυθρωπόν, also of three term.; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 105 (Winer 's Grammar, § 11, 1) (σκυθρός and ὤψ), of a sad and gloomy countenance (opposed to φαιδρός, Xenophon , mem. 3, 10, 4): Luke 24:17; of one who feigns or affects a sad countenance, Matthew 6:16. (Genesis 40:7; Sir. 25:23; Greek writings from Aeschylus down.)TGL σκυθρωπός.2


    (4660) σκύλλω; perfect passive participle ἐσκυλμενος; present middle imperative 2 person singular σκύλλου; (σκῦλον, which see);TGL σκύλλω.2

    a. to skin, flay (Anthol. ).TGL σκύλλω.3

    b. to rend, mangle (Aeschylus Pers. 577); to vex, trouble, annoy (Herodian , 7, 3, 9 (4)): τινα, Mark 5:35; Luke 8:49; passive, ἐσκυλμένοι (Vulg. vexati ) (R. V. distressed), Matthew 9:36 G L T Tr WH ; middle to give oneself trouble, trouble oneself: μή σκύλλου, Luke 7:6.TGL σκύλλω.4


    (4661) σκῦλον (Rbez G L T WH ) also σκῦλον ((so Rst elz Tr ) cf. Lipsius , Gram. Untersuch., p. 44), σκυλου, τό (from the obsolete σκύω, 'to pull off', allied to ξύω, ξύλον (but cf. Curtius , § 113; Vanicek , p. 1115));TGL σκῦλον.2

    a. a (beast's) skin stripped off, a pelt.TGL σκῦλον.3

    b. the arms stripped off from an enemy, spoils: plural Luke 11:22. (Sophocles , Thucydides , and following; the Sept. .)TGL σκῦλον.4


    (4662) σκωληκόβρωτος, σκωληκοβρωτον (σκώληξ and βιβρώσκω), eaten of worms: Acts 12:23, cf. Acts 12:2 Macc. 9:9. (of a tree, Theophrastus , c. pl. 5, 9, 1.)TGL σκωληκόβρωτος.2


    (4663) σκώληξ, σκωληκος, (perhaps akin to σκολιός), a worm (Homer , Iliad 13, 654); specifically, that kind which preys upon dead bodies (Sir. 10:11 Sir. 19:3; 2 Macc. 9:9; Anthol. 7, 480, 3; 10, 78, 3): σκώληξ αὐτῶν οὐ τελευτᾷ, by a figure borrowed from Isaiah 66:24 (cf. Sir. 7:17; Judith 16:17), 'their punishment after death will never cease' (σκώληξ symbolizing perhaps the loathsomeness of the penalty), Mark 9:44, Mark 9:46,(T WH omit; Tr brackets these two verses),48.TGL σκώληξ.2


    (4664) σμαράγδινος, σμαραγδινη, σμαραγδινον (σμάραγδος, cf. ἀμεθύστινος, ὑακίνθινος , etc.), of emerald, made of emerald, (see the following word): namely, λίθος, Revelation 4:3. ((Lucian )).TGL σμαράγδινος.2


    (4665) σμάραγδος, σμαράγδου, (but apparently feminine in the earlier writ, cf. Theophrast. lap. 4, 23; in Herodotus its gender cannot be determined; cf. Stephanus Thesaurus, under the word), Latinsmaragdus (A. V. emerald), a transparent precious stone noted especially for its light green color: Revelation 21:19. (From Herodotus down; the Sept. . On the derivation of the word see Vanicek , Fremdwörter, under the word. On its relation to our 'emerald' (disputed by King, Antique Gems, p. 27ff), see Reihm, HWB, under the word 'Edelsteine', 17; Deane in the 'Bible Educator ', vol. ii., p. 350f.)TGL σμάραγδος.2


    (4666) σμύρνα, σμύρνης, , Hebrew מֹר, מור, myrrh, a bitter gum and costly perfume which exudes from a certain tree or shrub in Arabia and Ethiopia, or is obtained by incisions made in the bark: Matthew 2:11; as an antiseptic it was used in embalming, John 19:39. Cf. Herodotus 2, 40, 86; 3, 107; Theophrastus , hist. pl. 9, 3f; Diodorus 5, 41; Pliny , h. n. 12, 33f; (BB. DD. ; Birdwood in the 'Bible Educator ', vol. ii., p. 151; Löw, Aram. Pflanzennam. § 185).TGL σμύρνα.2


    (4667) Σμύρνα, σμύρνης, , Smyrna, an Ionian city, on the Aegean Sea, about 40 miles N. of Ephesus; it had a harbor, and flourished in trade, commerce, and the arts; now Ismir (BB. DD. ): Revelation 1:11; Revelation 2:8. Tdf. after manuscript א ((cf. manuscript Bezae, Scrivener edition, p. xlviii.)) has adopted the form Ζμύρνα, found also occasionally on coins and in inscriptions; cf. Kühner, i, p. 200 c.; (Tdf. 's note on Revelation 1:11; and see Sigma, under the end; Lightfoot , Ignatius 2:331 note).TGL Σμύρνα.2


    (4668) Σμυρναῖος, Σμυρναιου, , , of or belonging to Smyrna, an inhabitant ofSmyrna: Revelation 2:8 Rec. ((Pindar , Herodotus .))TGL Σμυρναῖος.2


    (4669) σμυρνίζω: (σμύρνα, which see);TGL σμυρνίζω.2

    1. intransitive, to be like myrrh (Dioscorides (?) 1, 79).TGL σμυρνίζω.3

    2. to mix and so flavor with myrrh: οἶνος ἐσμυρνισμενος (perfect passive participle) wine (A. V. mingled) with myrrh (Vulg. murratum vinum ), i. e. flavored or (Pliny , h. n. 14, 15) made fragrant with myrrh: Mark 15:23. But since the ancients used to infuse myrrh into wine in order to give it a more agreeable fragrance and flavor, we must in this matter accept Matthew's account (Matthew 27:34, viz. 'mingled with gall') as by far the more probable; (but see χολή , 2).TGL σμυρνίζω.4


    (4670) Σόδομα, Σοδων, τά (סְדֹם), Sodom, a city respecting the location and the destruction of which see Γόμορρα (and (in addition to references there given) McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word ; Schaff-Herzog , ibid.): Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:23; Mark 6:11 (R L in brackets); Luke 10:12; Luke 17:29; Romans 9:29; 2 Peter 2:6; Jude 1:7; Revelation 11:8.TGL Σόδομα.2


    (4671) *For 4671 see Strong's entry Strong's 4771.TGL σοί.2


    (4672) Σολομών (so (Rst bez elz G L in Luke 12:27; R L Tr WH in Acts 7:47 (cf. Tdf. on Matthew 6:29))) and Σολομών (so R G L T Tr WH in Matthew 1:7; Matthew 6:29; Rscriv T Tr WH in Luke 12:27; G in Acts 7:47; (Σαλωμών Tdf. in Acts 7:47)), Σολομῶντος (so Rec. uniformly; (L T WH in Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12; L in Matthew 1:6 also)), and Σολομῶνος (so (G L T Tr WH in Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; John 10:23; G T Tr WH in Matthew 1:6; G Tr in Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12); the forms Σολομών, Σολομῶνος, are undoubtedly to be preferred, cf. (Tdf. Proleg., pp. 104, 110; WH s Appendix, p. 158); Winer s Grammar, 67 (65); Buttmann , 16 (14f)), (שְׁלֹמֹה, i. e. 'pacific', Irenaeus, German Friedrich, English Frederick), Solomon, the son of David by Bathsheba the wife of Uriah; he succeeded his father, becoming the third king of Israel ( (according to the commonly accepted chronology; but cf. the article 'Zeitrechnung' in Riehm 's HWB (especially p. 1823f))), built the temple at Jerusalem, and was distinguished for his magnificence, splendor, and wisdom: Matthew 1:6; Matthew 6:29; Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; Luke 12:27; John 10:23; Acts 3:11; Acts 5:12; Acts 7:47.TGL Σολομών.2


    (4673) σορός, σοροῦ, , an urn or receptacle for keeping the bones of the dead (Homer , Iliad 23, 91); a coffin (Genesis 50:26; Herodotus 1, 68; 2, 78; Aristophanes , Aeschines , Plutarch , others); the funeral-couch or bier on which the Jews carried their dead forth to burial (see B. D. American edition under the word ; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i., 555f): Luke 7:14.TGL σορός.2


    (4674) σός, σῇ, σόν, possessive pronoun of the 2nd person; from Homer down; thy, thine: Matthew 7:8, Matthew 7:22; Matthew 13:27; Matthew 24:3; Mark 2:18; Luke 15:31; Luke 22:42; John 4:42 (here Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading read the personal σου); John 17:6,John 17:9,John 17:10,John 17:17; John 18:35; Acts 5:4; Acts 24:2 (3),4; 1 Corinthians 8:11; 1 Corinthians 14:16; Philemon 1:14; οἱ σοι namely, μαθηταί, Luke 5:33; absolutely οἱ σοι, thy kinsfolk, thy friends, Mark 5:19; τό σόν, what is thine, Matthew 20:14; Matthew 25:25; plural τά σά (A. V. thy goods; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 592 (551)), Luke 6:30. (Cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 22, 7ff; B. 115ff (101ff).)TGL σός.2


    (4675) *For 4675 see Strong's entry Strong's 4771.TGL σοῦ.2


    (4676) σουδάριον, σουδαριου, τό (a Latin word,sudarium , from sudor, sweat; cf. Buttmann , 18 (16)), a handkerchief, i. e. a cloth for wiping the perspiration from the face and for cleaning the nose: Luke 19:20; Acts 19:12; also used in swathing the head of a corpse (A. V. napkin), John 11:44; John 20:7. (Cf. BB. DD. , under the word .)TGL σουδάριον.2


    (4677) Σουσάννα, Σουσαννης (cf. Buttmann , 17 (15)), , (שׁושַׁנָּה, a lily), Susanna, one of the women that attended Jesus on his journeys: Luke 8:3.TGL Σουσάννα.2


    (4678) σοφία, σοφίας, (σοφός), Hebrew חָכְמָה, wisdom, broad and full intelligence (from Homer down); used of the knowledge of very diverse matters, so that the shade of meaning in which the word is taken must be discovered from the context in every particular case.TGL σοφία.2

    a. the wisdom which belongs to men: universally, Luke 2:40, Luke 2:52; specifically, the varied knowledge of things human and divine, acquired by acuteness and experience, and summed up in maxims and proverbs, as was σοφία τοῦ Σολομῶνος, Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31; the science and learning τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, Acts 7:22 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 227 (213) n.; Buttmann , § 134, 6); the art of interpreting dreams and always giving the sagest advice, Acts 7:10; the intelligence evinced in discovering the meaning of some mysterious number or vision, Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:9; skill in the management of affairs, Acts 6:3; a devout and proper prudence in contact with men not disciples of Christ, Colossians 4:5; skill and discretion in imparting Christian truth, Colossians 1:28; Colossians 3:16; (2 Peter 3:15); the knowledge and practice of the requisites for godly and upright living, James 1:5; James 3:13, James 3:17; with which σοφία ἄνωθεν κατερχομένη is put in contrast the σοφία ἐπίγειος, ψυχική, δαιμονιώδης, such as is the craftiness of envious and quarrelsome men. James 3:15, or σαρκικῇ σοφία (see σαρκικός , 1), craftiness, 2 Corinthians 1:12 (for the context shows that it does not differ essentially from the πανουργία of 2 Corinthians 4:2; in Greek writings also σοφία is not infrequently used of shrewdness and cunning; cf. Passow (or Liddell and Scott), under the word, 2); the knowledge and skill in affairs requisite for the successful defense of the Christian cause against hostile accusations, Luke 21:15; an acquaintance with divine things and human duties, joined to a power of discoursing concerning them and of interpreting and applying sacred Scripture, Matthew 13:54; Mark 6:2; Acts 6:10; the wisdom or instruction with which John the Baptist and Jesus taught men the way to obtain salvation, Matthew 11:19; Luke 7:35 (on these passages, see δικαιόω , 2). In Paul's Epistles: a knowledge of the divine plan, previously hidden, of providing salvation for men by the expiatory death of Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 2:6; Ephesians 1:8 (Winer 's Grammar, 111 (105f)); hence, all the treasures of wisdom are said to be hidden in Christ, Colossians 2:3; with the addition of Θεοῦ (genitive of the author), 1 Corinthians 1:24; 1 Corinthians 2:7; πνευματικῇ, Colossians 1:9; πνεῦμα σοφίας καί ἀποκαλύψεως, Ephesians 1:17; λόγος σοφίας, the ability to discourse eloquently of this wisdom, 1 Corinthians 12:8; opposed to this wisdom is — the empty conceit of wisdom which men make a parade of, a knowledge more specious than real of lofty and hidden subjects: such as the theosophy of certain Jewish Christians, Colossians 2:23; the philosophy of the Greeks, 1 Corinthians 1:21; 1 Corinthians 2:1; with τοῦ κόσμου added, 1 Corinthians 1:20; 1 Corinthians 3:19; τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, 1 Corinthians 2:6; τῶν σοφῶν, 1 Corinthians 1:19; ἀνθρώπων, 1 Corinthians 2:5 (in each of these last passages the word includes also the rhetorical art, such as is taught in the schools), cf. Fritzsche, Romans, vol. i, p. 67f; σοφία τοῦ λόγου, the wisdom which shows itself in speaking (R. V. wisdom of words), the art of the rhetorician, 1 Corinthians 1:17; λόγοι (ἀνθρωπίνης (so R in 1 Corinthians 1:4 (all texts in 1 Corinthians 1:13))) σοφίας, discourse conformed to philosophy and the art of rhetoric, 1 Corinthians 2:4, 1 Corinthians 2:13.TGL σοφία.3

    b. supreme intelligence, such as belongs to God: Revelation 7:12, also to Christ, exalted to God's right hand, Revelation 5:12; the wisdom of God as evinced in forming and executing his counsels, Romans 11:33; with the addition of τοῦ Θεοῦ, as manifested in the formation and government of the world, and to the Jews, moreover, in the Scriptures, 1 Corinthians 1:21; it is called πολυποίκιλος from the great variety of ways and methods by which he devised and achieved salvation through Christ, Ephesians 3:10. In the noteworthy passage, Luke 11:49 (where Christ ascribes to 'the wisdom of God' what in the parallel, Matthew 23:34, he utters himself), the words σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν seem to denote the wisdom of God which is operative and embodied as it were in Jesus, so that the primitive Christians, when to comfort themselves under persecution they recalled the saying of Christ, employed that formula of quotation (cf. 1 Corinthians 1:24, 1 Corinthians 1:30,etc.); but Luke, in ignorance of this fact, took the phrase for a part of Christ's saying. So Eusebius (h. e. 3, 32, 8), perhaps in the words of Hegesippus , calls those who had personally heard Christ οἱ αὐταῖς ἀκοαῖς τῆς ἐνθεου σοφίας ἐπακοῦσαι κατηξιώμενοι; cf. Grimm in the Studien und Kritiken for 1853, p. 332ff. (For other explanations of the phenomenon, see the commentaries on Luke, the passage cited Cf. Schürer , Zeitgesch. § 33, V. 1 and references.)TGL σοφία.4


    (4679) σοφίζω: 1 aorist infinitive σοφίσαι; (σοφός);TGL σοφίζω.2

    1. to make wise, teach: τινα, 2 Timothy 3:15 (Psalms 18:8 (Psalms 19:8); ἐσόφισάς με τήν ἐντολήν σου, Psalm 118:98 (Psalms 119:98); οὔτε τί ναυτιλιης σεσοφισμενος, οὔτε τί νηῶν, Hesiod , Works, 647).TGL σοφίζω.3

    2. Middle in Greek writings from Herodotus down, mostly as a deponent, to become wise, to have understanding (ἐσοφίσατο ὑπέρ πάντας ἀντρωπους, 1 Kings 4:27(31); add, Ecclesiastes 2:15, etc.; frequent in Sir.); to invent, play the sophist; to devise cleverly or cunningly: perfect passive participle σεσοφίσμενοι μυθοι, 2 Peter 1:16. (Compare: κατασοφίζομαι.)TGL σοφίζω.4


    (4680) σοφός, σοφή, σοφόν (akin to σαφής and to the Latinsapio, sapiens, sapor , 'to have a taste', etc.; Curtius , § 628; (Vanicek , p. 991)), the Sept. for חָכָם; (from Theognis , Pindar , Aeschylus down); wise, i. e.TGL σοφός.2

    a. skilled, expert: εἰς τί, Romans 16:19; of artificers (cf. Grimm, Exeg. Hdbch. on Sap. (Wisdom 7:21), p. 151): ἀρχιτέκτων, 1 Corinthians 3:10; Isaiah 3:3 (δημιουργός, of God, Xenophon , mem. 1, 4, 7).TGL σοφός.3

    b. wise, i. e. skilled in letters, cultivated, learned: Romans 1:14, Romans 1:22; of the Greek philosophers (and orators, see σοφία , a.), 1 Corinthians 1:19, 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 3:18,(20); of the Jewish theologians, Matthew 11:25; Luke 10:21; of Christian teachers, Matthew 23:34.TGL σοφός.4

    c. wise in a practical sense, i. e. one who in action is governed by piety and integrity: Ephesians 5:15; James 3:13; and accordingly is a suitable person to settle private quarrels, 1 Corinthians 6:5.TGL σοφός.5

    d. wise in a philosophic sense, forming the best plans and using the best means for their execution: so of God, Romans 16:27, and Rec. in 1 Timothy 1:17; Jude 1:25; σοφώτερον, contains more wisdom, is more sagaciously thought out, 1 Corinthians 1:25.TGL σοφός.6


    (4681) Σπανία, Σπανίας, , Spain, in the apostolic age the whole peninsula south of the Pyrenees: Romans 15:24, Romans 15:28. ((Winer 's Grammar, 25); the more common Greek form is Ἰσπανια, 1 Macc. 8:3 (apparently the Phoenician or Latin name for Ἰβηρια; cf. Pape , Eigennamen, under the words).)TGL Σπανία.2


    (4682) σπαράσσω; 1 aorist ἐσπαραξα; to convulse (others, tear): τινα, Mark 1:26; Mark 9:20 R G Tr text, 26; Luke 9:39; see ῤήγνυμι , c. (τάς γναθους, Aristophanes ran. 424; τάς τρίχας, Diodorus 19, 34; in various other senses in Greek writings) (Compare: συνσπαράσσω.)TGL σπαράσσω.2


    (4683) σπαργανόω, σπαργάνω: 1 aorist ἐσπαργάνωσα; perfect passive participle ἐσπαργανωμενος: (σπραγανον a swathing band); to wrap in swaddling-clothes: an infant just born, Luke 2:7, Luke 2:12. (Ezekiel 16:4; (Euripides , Aristotle ), Hippocrates , Plutarch , others.)TGL σπαργανόω.2


    (4684) σπαταλάω, σπατάλω; 1 aorist ἐσπατάλησα; (σπατάλῃ, riotous living, luxury); to live luxuriously, lead a voluptuous life, (give oneself to pleasure): 1 Timothy 5:6; James 5:5. (Proverbs 29:21; Amos 6:4 (in both of these passages, κατασπαταλασθε; Ezekiel 16:49); Sir. 21:15; Epistle of Barnabas 10, 3 [ET]; Polybius excerpt the Vat., p. 451 (i. e., 37, 4, 6 (edited by Didot)), and occasionally in later and inferior writings.)TGL σπαταλάω.2


    (4685) σπάω, σπω: 1 aorist middle ἐσπασαμην; (cognate with ἀσπάζομαι (to draw to oneself, embrace, etc.), English spasm, etc.); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for שָׁלַף; to draw: middle with μαχοιραν (cf. Buttmann , § 135, 4), to draw one's sword, Mark 14:47; Acts 16:27 (Numbers 22:31; τήν ῥομφαιον, 23; Judges 9:54, etc.). (Compare: ἀνασπάω, ἀποσπάω, διασπάω, ἐπισπάω, περισπάω.)TGL σπάω.2


    (4686) σπεῖρα (on the accent cf. Buttmann , 11; Chandler § 161; Tdf. Proleg., p. 102), , genitive σπείρης (Acts 10:1; Acts 21:31; Acts 27:1; see (Tdf. Proleg., p. 117; WH 's Appendix, p. 156; and) μάχαιρα, at the beginning) (cognate with σπυρίς (which see));TGL σπεῖρα.2

    a. Latinspira ; anything rolled into a circle or ball, anything wound, rolled up, folded together.TGL σπεῖρα.3

    b. a military cohort (Polybius 11, 23, 1 τρεῖς σπείρας. τοῦτο δέ καλεῖται τό σύνταγμα τῶν πεζῶν παρά Ῥωμαίοις κωρτις), i. e. the tenth part of a legion (i. e. about 600 men (i. e. legionaries), or if auxilialies either 500 or 1,000; cf. Marquardt, Römisch. Alterth. III. ii., p. 371. But surely τοῦτο τό σύνταγμα in the quotation comprehends the τρεῖς σπεῖρα; hence, Polybius here makes a σπεῖρα equal to a maniple, cf. 2, 3, 2; 6, 24, 5; cf. Zonaras , Lex., p. 1664, σπεῖρα σύνταγμα διακοσίων ἀνδρῶν. On the other hand, "the later Greek writings almost uniformly employ σπεῖρα as the representative of cohors" (Smith, Dict. of Antiq. , edition 2, under the word exercitus, p. 500); and the rise of χιλίαρχος (which was the equivalent of tribunus, the commander of a cohort) in connection with it (John 18:12; Acts 21:31), together with the uniform rendering of the word by cohors in the Latin versions, warrants the margin cohort uniformly added in R. V. to the rendering band): Matthew 27:27; Mark 15:16; Acts 10:1; Acts 21:31; Acts 27:1, and often in Josephus ; a maniple, or the thirtieth part of a legion, often so in Polybius ((see above)); any band, company, or detachment, of soldiers (2 Macc. 8:23; Judith 14:11): John 18:3, John 18:12.TGL σπεῖρα.4


    (4687) σπείρω; (imperfect 2 person singular ἐσπειρες, Matthew 13:27 Tr ); 1 aorist ἔσπειρα; passive, present σπείρομαι; perfect passive participle ἐσπαρμενος; 2 aorist ἐσπάρην; (derived from the quick, jerky, motion of the hand; cf. our spurn (of the foot); Curtius , § 389); from Hesiod down; the Sept. for זָרַע; to sow, scatter seed;TGL σπείρω.2

    a. properly: absolutely, Matthew 6:26; Matthew 13:3, Matthew 13:18; Mark 4:3, Mark 4:14; Luke 8:5; Luke 12:24; (John 5:36 (see in b.)); 2 Corinthians 9:10; with an accusative of the thing, as σπέρμα ζιζάνια, κόκκον (cf. Buttmann , § 131, 5): Matthew 13:24 (but in 25 L T Tr WH have ἐπέσπειρεν), 27,37,39; Mark 4:32: Luke 8:5; 1 Corinthians 15:36; with specifications of place: εἰς τάς ἀκάνθας, Matthew 13:22; Mark 4:18; ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ, Matthew 13:24 (31); ἐπί τῆς γῆς. Mark 4:31; ἐπί with an accusative of place, Matthew 13:20, Matthew 13:23; Mark 4:16, Mark 4:20; παρά τήν ὁδόν, Matthew 13:19.TGL σπείρω.3

    b. in proverbial sayings: absolutely, Matthew 25:24, Matthew 25:26; Luke 19:21; John 4:37; 2 Corinthians 9:6; τί, Galatians 6:7 (on these sayings see θερίζω , b.). in comparisons: σπρίειν εἰς τήν σάρκα, εἰς τό πνεῦμα (σάρξ and πνεῦμα are likened to fields to be sown), to do those things which satisfy the nature and promptings of the σάρξ or of the πνεῦμα, Galatians 6:8; τόν λόγον, to scatter the seeds of instruction, i. e. to impart instruction, Mark 4:14; λόγος, ἐσπαρμενος ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, the ideas and precepts that have been implanted like seed in their hearts, i. e. received in their hearts, Mark 14:15 (here Tr text WH εἰς αὐτούς into their hearts T L marginal reading ἐν αὐτοῖς); οὗτος ἐστιν παρά τήν ὁδόν σπαρείς, this one experiences the fate of the seed sown by the wayside, Matthew 13:19; add, Matthew 13:20-23; Mark 4:16, Mark 4:18, Mark 4:20. τό σῶμα, the body, which after death is committed like seed to the earth, 1 Corinthians 15:42-44; καρπόν δικαιοσύνης, i. e. that seed which produces καρπόν δικαιοσύνης (see καρπός , 2 b.), James 3:18; σπείρειν τίνι τί, to give, manifest, something to one, from whom we may subsequently receive something else akin to a harvest (θερίζομεν), 1 Corinthians 9:11. (Compare: διασπείρω, ἐπισπείρω.)TGL σπείρω.4


    (4688) σπεκουλάτωρ, σπεκουλατορος (R G σπεκουλατορος (cf. Tdf. on Mark as below)), (the Latin wordspeculator ), a looker-out, spy, scout; under the emperors an attendant and member of the body-guard, employed as messengers, watchers, and executioners (Seneca , de ira 1, 16centurio supplicio praepositus codere gladium speculatorem jubet ; also de benef. 3, 25); the name is transferred to an attendant of Herod Antipas that acted as executioner: Mark 6:27. Cf. Keim , ii., 512 (English translation, 4:219; J. W. Golling in Thes. Nov. etc. ii., p. 405f.)TGL σπεκουλάτωρ.2


    (4689) σπένδω: present passive σπένδομαι; (cf. German spenden (perhaps of the 'tossing away' of a liquid, Curtius , § 296; but cf. Vanicek , p. 1245f)); from Homer down; the Sept. for נָסַך; to pour out as a drink-offering, make a libation; in the N. T. σπένδεσθαι, to be offered as a libation, is figuratively used of one whose blood is poured out in a violent death for the cause of God: Philippians 2:17 (see θυσία , b. at the end); 2 Timothy 4:6.TGL σπένδω.2


    (4690) σπέρμα, σπέρματος, τό (σπείρω, which see), from Homer down, Hebrew זֶרַע, the seed (from which anything springs);TGL σπέρμα.2

    a. from which a plant germinates;TGL σπέρμα.3

    α. properly, the seed i. e. the grain or kernel which contains within itself the germ of the future plant: plural, Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:31; 1 Corinthians 15:38 (Exodus 16:31; 1 Samuel 8:15); the singular is used collectively of the grains or kernels sown: Matthew 13:24, Matthew 13:27, Matthew 13:37; 2 Corinthians 9:10 (here L Tr σπόρος).TGL σπέρμα.4

    β. metaphorically, a seed i. e. a residue. or a few survivors reserved as the germ of a new race (just as seed is kept from the harvest for the sowing), Romans 9:29 after Isaiah 1:9, where the Sept. for שַׂרִיד (so also Wis. 14:6; 1 Esdr. 8:85 (87); Josephus , Antiquities 11, 5, 3; 12, 7, 8; Plato , Tim., p. 23{c}).TGL σπέρμα.5

    b. the semen virile;TGL σπέρμα.6

    α. properly: Leviticus 15:16-18; Leviticus 18:20, etc.; (probably also Hebrews 11:11, cf. καταβολή 1, and see below); often in secular writings. By metonymy the product of this semen, seed, children, offspring, progeny; family, race, posterity (so in Greek chiefly in the tragic poets, cf. Passow , under the word, 2 b. ii., p. 1498 (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 3); and זֶרַע very often in the O. T. (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 17, 30)); so in the singular, either of one, or collectively of many: Romans 9:7; εἰς καταβολήν σπέρματος (see (above, and) καταβολή, 2) Hebrews 11:11; ἀνισταναι and ἐξανισταναι σπέρμα τίνι, Matthew 22:24; Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28 (Genesis 38:8); ἔχειν σπέρμα, Matthew 22:25; ἀφιέναι σπέρμα τίνι, Mark 12:20-22; τό σπέρμα τίνος, Luke 1:55; John 7:42; John 8:33, John 8:37; Acts 3:25; Acts 7:5; Acts 13:23; Romans 1:3; (Romans 4:13); Romans 9:7; Romans 11:1; 2 Corinthians 11:22; 2 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 2:16; Hebrews 11:18; in plural: παῖς ἐκ βαιλικων σπερμάτων, of royal descent, Josephus , Antiquities 8, 7, 6; τῶν Αβραμιαίων σπερμάτων ἀπόγονοι, 4 Macc. 18:1; equivalent to tribes, races, ἄνθρωποι τέ καί ἀνθρώπων σπερμασι νομοθετουμεν τά νῦν, Plato , legg. 9, p. 853 c. By a rabbinical method of interpreting, opposed to the usage of the Hebrew זֶרַע, which signifies the offspring whether consisting of one person or many, Paul lays such stress on the singular number in Genesis 13:15; Genesis 17:8 as to make it denote but one of Abraham's posterity, and that the Messiah: Galatians 3:16, also Galatians 3:19; and yet, that the way in which Pard presses the singular here is not utterly at variance with the genius of the Jewish-Greek language is evident from Αβραμιαίων σπερμάτων ἀπόγονοι, 4 Macc. 18:1, where the plural is used of many descendants ((cf. Geiger in Zeitschr. d. deutsch. Morgenl. Gesellsch. 1858, pp. 307-309; Delitzsch in Lut. Zeitschr. 1877 p. 603 sq.; Driver in the Expositor for Jan. 1889 p. 18 sq.; Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited)). τό σπέρμα (Ἀβραάμ) τό ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, the seed which is such according to the decision of the law, physical offspring (see νόμος , 2, p. 428{a}), τό ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ, those who are called Abraham's posterity on account of the faith by which they are akin to him (see πίστις , 1 b. ., p. 513{b} and ἐκ, II. 7), Romans 4:16; add, Romans 4:18; Romans 9:8; Galatians 3:29; similarly, Christians are called, in Revelation 12:17, the σπέρμα of the church (which is likened to a mother, Galatians 4:26).TGL σπέρμα.7

    β. whatever possesses vital force or life-giving power: τό σπέρμα τοῦ Θεοῦ ((but anarthrous)), the Holy Spirit, the divine energy operating within the soul by which we are regenerated or made the τέκνα τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 John 3:9.TGL σπέρμα.8


    (4691) σπερμολόγος, σπερμολογον (σπέρμα, and λέγω to collect);TGL σπερμολόγος.2

    1. picking up seeds: used of birds, Plug. Demet. 28; Athen. 9, p. 387 f.; especially of the crow or daw that picks up grain in the fields (German Saatkrähe), Aristophanes av. 232, 579; Aristotle , h. a. 8, 8, p. 592{b}, 28, and other writings.TGL σπερμολόγος.3

    2. of men: "lounging about the market-place and picking up a subsistence by whatever may chance to fall from the loads of merchandise" (Eustathius on Homer , Odyssey 5, 490 σπερμολογοι. οἱ περί τά ἐμπορία καί ἀγορᾶς διατρίβοντες διά τό ἀναλέγεσθαι τά ἐκ τῶν φορτιων ἐπορρεοντα καί διά ζῆν ἐκ τούτων); hence, beggarly, abject, vile (a parasite); getting a living by flattery and buffoonery, Athen. 3, p. 85 f.; Plutarch , mor., p. 456 d.; a substantive, σπερμολόγος, an empty talker, babbler (Demosthenes , p. 269, 19; Athen. 8, p. 344 c.): Acts 17:18.TGL σπερμολόγος.4


    (4692) σπεύδω; imperfect ἔσπευδον; 1 aorist ἔσπευσα; (cognate with German sich sputen (cf. English speed, Latinstudeo ; Vanicek , p. 1163; Fick 4:279)); from Homer down; the Sept. for מִהַר, also for בִּהֵל, etc.;TGL σπεύδω.2

    1. intransitive, (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 38, 1; Buttmann , 130, 4), to hasten: as often in the Greek writings, followed by an infinitive Acts 20:16; ἦλθον σπεύσαντες, they came with haste, Luke 2:16; σπεύσας κατάβηθι (A. V. make haste and come down), κατέβη, Luke 19:5, Luke 19:6; σπεῦσον καί ἔξελθε (A. V. make haste and get thee quickly out), Acts 22:18.TGL σπεύδω.3

    2. to desire earnestly: τί, 2 Peter 3:12; (Isaiah 16:5; examples from Greek authors are given by Passow , under the word, 2 vol. ii., p. 1501; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II.)).TGL σπεύδω.4


    (4693) σπήλαιον, σπηλαίου, τό (σπέος (cavern; cf. Curtius , § 111)), a cave (den): Matthew 21:13; Mark 11:17; Luke 19:46; John 11:38; Hebrews 11:38; Revelation 6:15. (Plato , Plutarch , Lucian , Aelian , others; the Sept. for מְעָרָה.)TGL σπήλαιον.2


    (4694) σπιλάς, σπιλαδος, , a rock in the sea, ledge or reef (Homer , Odyssey 3, 298; 5, 401, and in other poets; Polybius , Diodorus , Josephus , b. j. 3, 9, 3); plural, tropically, of men who by their conduct damage others morally, wreck them as it were, equivalent to σκάνδαλα (R. V. text hidden rocks), Jude 1:12 (here L T Tr WH read οἱ (namely, ὄντες) σπιλάδες. Some (so R. V. marginal reading) make the word equivalent to the following; see Rutherford as there referred to.)TGL σπιλάς.2


    (4695) σπιλόω, σπίλω; perfect passive participle ἐσπιλωμενος; (σπίλος); to defile, spot: τί, James 3:6; Jude 1:23. (Dionysius Halicarnassus , Lucian , Heliodorus ; the Sept. .)TGL σπιλόω.2


    (4696) σπίλος (WH σπίλος (so Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 87; Liddell and Scott, under the word); but see Tdf. Proleg., p. 102; Lipsius , Gram. Untersuch., p. 42), σπιλου, (Phryn. rejects this word in favor of the Attic κηλίς; but σπίλος is used by Joseph, Dionysius Halicarnassus , Plutarch , Lucian , Liban , Artemidor.; see Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 28 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 25)), a spot: tropically, a fault, moral blemish, Ephesians 5:27; plural of base and gluttonous men, 2 Peter 2:13.TGL σπίλος.2


    (4697) σπλαγχνίζομαι; 1 aorist ἐσπλαγχνίσθην (cf. Buttmann , 52 (45)); (σπλάγχνον, which see); properly, to be moved as to one's bowels, hence, to be moved with compassion, have compassion (for the bowels were thought to be the seat of love and pity): absolutely, Luke 10:33; Luke 15:20; σπλαγχνισθείς with a finite verb, Matthew 20:34; Mark 1:41; τίνος, to pity one (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 10 a.; (Buttmann , § 132, 15; but others regard σπλαγχνισθείς in the following example as used absolutely and the genitive as depending on κύριος)), Matthew 18:27; ἐπί with the dative of the person, Matthew 14:14 G L T Tr WH ; Mark 6:34 (R G ); Luke 7:13 (where Tdf. ἐπί with the accusative); ἐπί τινα, Matthew 14:14 Rec. ; Matthew 15:32; Mark (Mark 6:34 L T Tr WH ); Mark 8:2; Mark 9:22; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 33, c.; (Buttmann , as above); περί τίνος ὅτι, Matthew 9:36. Besides, several times in Test xii. Patr. (e. g. test. Zab. §§ 4, 6, 7, etc.); and in the N. T. Apocrypha; in Deuteronomy 13:8 Symm. ; (Exodus 2:6 manuscript Venet.); and in 1 Samuel 23:21 incert.; (Clement of Rome , 2 Cor. 1, 7 [ET]; Hermas , mand. 4, 3, 5 [ET]); ἐπισπλαγχνίζομαι, Proverbs 17:5; the active σπλαγχνίζω is once used for the Attic σπλαγχνεύω, 2 Macc. 6:8. Cf. Bleek, Einl. ins N. T. edition 1, p. 75 (English translation, ibid.; edition 3 (by Marigold), p. 90; Winer 's Grammar, 30, 33, 92 (87)).TGL σπλαγχνίζομαι.2


    (4698) σπλάγχνον, σπλαγχνου, τό, and (only so in the N. T.) plural σπλάγχνα, σπλάγχνων, τά, Hebrew רַחֲמִים, bowels, intestines (the heart, lungs, liver, etc.);TGL σπλάγχνον.2

    a. properly: Acts 1:18 (2 Macc. 9:5f; 4 Macc. 5:29, and in Greek writings from Homer down).TGL σπλάγχνον.3

    b. in the Greek poets from Aeschylus down the bowels were regarded as the seat of the more violent passions, such as anger and love; but by the Hebrews as the seat of the tenderer affections, especially kindness, benevolence, compassion (cf. Lightfoot on Philippians 1:8; Winer s Grammar, 18); hence, equivalent to our heart (tender mercies, affections, etc. (cf. B. D. American edition under the word )): 1 John 3:17 (on which see κλείω ); 2 Corinthians 6:12; Philippians 2:1 (here G L T Tr WH εἰ τίς σπλάγχνα; Buttmann , 81 (71), cf. Green 109; Lightfoot at the passage); σπλάγχνα ἐλέους (genitive of quality (cf. Winer s Grammar, 611 (568); so Test xii. Patr. , test. Zab. §§ 7, 8)), a heart in which mercy resides (heart of mercy), Luke 1:78; also σπλάγχνα οἰκτιρμοῦ (Rec. οἰκτίρμων), Colossians 3:12; τά σπλάγχνα αὐτοῦ περισσοτέρως εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐστιν, his heart is the more abundantly devoted to you, 2 Corinthians 7:15; ἐπιποθῶ ὑμᾶς ἐν σπλάγχνοις Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, in the heart (R. V. tender mercies) of Christ, i. e. prompted by the same love as Christ Jesus, Philippians 1:8; ἀναπαύειν τά σπλάγχνα τίνος, to refresh one's soul or heart, Philemon 1:7, Philemon 1:20; τά σπλάγχνα ἡμῶν, my very heart, i. e. whom I dearly love, Philemon 1:12 (so Darius calls his mother and children his own bowels in Curt. 4, 14, 22. meum corculum, Plautus Cas. 4, 4, 14; meum cor, id. Poen. 1, 2, 154; (cf. Lightfoot on Philemon, at the passage cited)). The Hebrew רַחֲמִים is translated by the Sept. now ὀικιρμοι, Psalms 24:6 (Psalms 25:6); Psalms 39:12 (Psalms 40:12), now ἔλεος, Isaiah 47:6; once σπλάγχνα, Proverbs 12:10.TGL σπλάγχνον.4


    (4699) σπόγγος, σπογγου, (perhaps akin is fungus; Curtius , § 575), from Homer down, sponge: Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29.TGL σπόγγος.2


    (4700) σποδός, σποδοῦ, , from Homer down, ashes: Hebrews 9:13; ἐν σάκκῳ καί σποδῷ κάθημαι, to sit clothed in sackcloth and covered with ashes (exhibiting the tokens of grief, cf. Jonah 3:6; Isaiah 58:5; Isaiah 61:3; Jeremiah 6:26; Esther 4:1, Esther 4:3; Esther 1:1-22 Macc. 3:47; cf. σάκκος , b.): Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13.TGL σποδός.2


    (4701) σπορά, σπορᾶς, (σπείρω, 2 perfect ἐσπορα), seed: 1 Peter 1:23 ((equivalent to a sowing, figuratively, origin, etc., from Aeschylus , Plato down)).TGL σπορά.2


    (4702) σπόριμος, σπόριμον (σπείρω, 2 perfect ἐσπορα), fit for sowing, sown (Xenophon , Diodorus , others); τά σποριμα, sown fields, growing crops (A. V. (except in Matt.) corn-fields) (Geoponica 1, 12, 37): Matthew 12:1; Mark 2:23; Luke 6:1.TGL σπόριμος.2


    (4703) σπόρος, σπόρου, (σπείρω, 2 perfect ἐσπορα);TGL σπόρος.2

    1. a sowing (Herodotus , Xenophon , Theophrastus , others).TGL σπόρος.3

    2. seed (used in sowing): Mark 4:26; Luke 8:5, Luke 8:11; 2 Corinthians 9:10 (L Tr , 10b) (Deuteronomy 11:10; Theocr , Plutarch , others).TGL σπόρος.4


    (4704) σπουδάζω; future σπουδάσω (a later form for the early σπουδάσομαι, cf. Krüger , § 40, under the word, vol. i, p. 190; Buttmann , 53 (46); (Winer s Grammar, 89 (85); Veitch , under the word)); 1 aorist ἐσπούδασα; (σπουδή, which see); from Sophocles and Aristophanes down;TGL σπουδάζω.2

    a. to hasten, make haste: followed by an infinitive (cf. σπεύδω , 1), 2 Timothy 4:9, 2 Timothy 4:21; Titus 3:12 (others refer these examples to b.; but cf. Holtzmann's Commentary on 2 Timothy 2:15).TGL σπουδάζω.3

    b. to exert oneself, endeavor, give difference: followed by an infinitive, Galatians 2:10; Ephesians 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Timothy 2:15; Hebrews 4:11; 2 Peter 1:10; 2 Peter 3:14; followed by an accusative with an infinitive 2 Peter 1:15.TGL σπουδάζω.4


    (4705) σπουδαῖος, σπουδαῖα, σπουδαῖον (σπουδή), from Herodotus down, active, diligent, zealous, earliest: ἐν τίνι, 2 Corinthians 8:22; comparitive σπουδαιότερος, 2 Corinthians 8:17 (Winer s Grammar, 242f (227)), 22 (Winer s Grammar, § 35, 1); neuter as adverb (Latinstudiosius ), very diligently (cf. Buttmann , § 123, 10), 2 Timothy 1:17 R G .TGL σπουδαῖος.2


    (4706) σπουδαῖος, σπουδαῖα, σπουδαῖον (σπουδή), from Herodotus down, active, diligent, zealous, earliest: ἐν τίνι, 2 Corinthians 8:22; comparitive σπουδαιότερος, 2 Corinthians 8:17 (Winer s Grammar, 242f (227)), 22 (Winer s Grammar, § 35, 1); neuter as adverb (Latinstudiosius ), very diligently (cf. Buttmann , § 123, 10), 2 Timothy 1:17 R G .TGL σπουδαιότερον.2


    (4707) σπουδαῖος, σπουδαῖα, σπουδαῖον (σπουδή), from Herodotus down, active, diligent, zealous, earliest: ἐν τίνι, 2 Corinthians 8:22; comparitive σπουδαιότερος, 2 Corinthians 8:17 (Winer s Grammar, 242f (227)), 22 (Winer s Grammar, § 35, 1); neuter as adverb (Latinstudiosius ), very diligently (cf. Buttmann , § 123, 10), 2 Timothy 1:17 R G .TGL σπουδαιότερος.2


    (4708) σπουδαῖος, σπουδαῖα, σπουδαῖον (σπουδή), from Herodotus down, active, diligent, zealous, earliest: ἐν τίνι, 2 Corinthians 8:22; comparitive σπουδαιότερος, 2 Corinthians 8:17 (Winer s Grammar, 242f (227)), 22 (Winer s Grammar, § 35, 1); neuter as adverb (Latinstudiosius ), very diligently (cf. Buttmann , § 123, 10), 2 Timothy 1:17 R G .TGL σπουδαιοτέρως.2


    (4709) σπουδαίως, adverb of the preceding;TGL σπουδαίως.2

    a. hastily, with haste: comparitive σπουδαιοτέρως (cf. Buttmann , 69 (61); Winer 's Grammar, § 11, 2 c.), Philippians 2:28 (Winer s Grammar, 243 (228)).TGL σπουδαίως.3

    b. diligently: 2 Timothy 1:17 L T Tr WH ; Titus 3:13; earnestly, Luke 7:4.TGL σπουδαίως.4


    (4710) σπουδή, σπωδης, (σπεύδω (which see)), from Homer down;TGL σπουδή.2

    1. haste: μετά σπουδῆς, with haste, Mark 6:25; Luke 1:39 (Wis. 19:2; Josephus , Antiquities 7, 9, 7; Herodian , 3, 4, 1; 6, 4, 3).TGL σπουδή.3

    2. earnestness, diligence: universally, earnestness in accomplishing, promoting, or striving after anything, Romans 12:11; 2 Corinthians 7:11, 2 Corinthians 7:12; 2 Corinthians 8:7; ἐν σπουδή, with diligence, Romans 12:8; σπουδήν ἐνδείκνυσθαι, Hebrews 6:11; πᾶσαν σπουδήν ποιεῖσθαι (see ποιέω , I. 3, p. 525{b} bottom), to give all diligence, interest oneself most earnestly, Jude 1:3; σπουδήν παρεισφέρειν, 2 Peter 1:5; σπουδή ὑπέρ τίνος, earnest care for one, 2 Corinthians 8:16 (περί τίνος (Demosthenes , 90, 10); Diodorus 1, 75).TGL σπουδή.4


    (4711) σπυρίς (L WH σφυρίς, which see), σπυριδος, (allied to σπεῖρα, which see; hence, something wound, twisted, or folded together), a reed basket (i. e. a plaited basket, a lunch basket, hamper; cf. B. D. , under the word ): Matthew 15:37; Matthew 16:10; Mark 8:8, Mark 8:20; Acts 9:25. (Herodotus , Theophrastus , Apollod. , Alciphron 3, epistle 56; others). See σφυρίς .TGL σπυρίς.2


    (4712) στάδιον, σταδιου, plural τά σταδια (John 6:19 Tdf. ), and οἱ σταδιοι (so (Matthew 14:24 Tr text WH text); Luke 24:13; John 6:19 (not Tdf. ); Revelation 21:16 (Relz G L WH marginal reading); 2 Macc. 11:5 2Macc. 12:10, 29; in the other passages, the gender is not apparent (see Tdf. Proleg., p. 117; WH s Appendix, p. 157); Krüger , § 19, 2, 1) (ΣΤΑΩ, ἵστημι; hence, properly, 'established,' that which stands fast, a 'stated' distance, a 'fixed standard' of length), a stadium, i. e.TGL στάδιον.2

    1. a measure of length comprising 600 Greek feet, or 625 Roman feet, or 125 Roman paces (Pliny , h. n. 2, 23 (21), 85), hence, one-eighth of a Roman mile (i. e. 606 3/4 English feet (about 15 miles less than one-fifth of a kilometer)); the space or distance of that length (A. V. a furlong): (Matthew 14:24 Tr text WH text); Luke 24:13; John 6:19; John 11:18; Revelation 14:20; Revelation 21:16.TGL στάδιον.3

    2. a race-course, i. e. place in which contests in running were held; the one who outstripped the rest, and reached the goal first, receiving the prize: 1 Corinthians 9:24 (here A. V. race). Courses of this description were to be found in most of the larger Greek cities, and were, like that at Olympia, 600 Greek feet in length. Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Sigdium; Grundt in Schenkel , under the word, vol. v., 375f; (BB. DD. under the word ).TGL στάδιον.4


    (4713) στάμνος, σταμνου () (from ἵστημι (cf. Curtius , § 216)), among the Greeks an earthen jar, into which wine was drawn off for keeping (a process called κατασταμνίζειν), but also used for other purposes. The Sept. employ it in Exodus 16:33 as the rendering of the Hebrew צִנְצֶנֶת, that little jar (or pot) in which the manna was kept, laid up in the ark of the covenant; hence, in Hebrews 9:4, and Philo de congr. erud. grat. § 18. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 400; (Winer 's Grammar, 23).TGL στάμνος.2


    (4714) στάσις, στάσεως, (ἵστημι);TGL στάσις.2

    1. a standing, station, state: ἔχειν στάσιν, to stand, exist, have stability, Latinlocum habere (R. V. is get standing), Hebrews 9:8 (Polybius 5, 5, 3).TGL στάσις.3

    2. from Aeschylus and Herodotus down, an insurrection (cf. German Aufstand): Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19, Luke 23:25; Acts 19:40 (see σήμερον , under the end); κινεῖν στάσιν (L T Tr WH στάσεις) τίνι (a mover of insurrections among i. e.) against (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 208 (196)) one, Acts 24:5.TGL στάσις.4

    3. strife, dissension (Aeschylus Pers. 738; (Diogenes Laërtius 3, 51): Acts 15:2; Acts 23:7, Acts 23:10.TGL στάσις.5


    (4715) στατήρ, στατηρος, (from ἵστημι, to place in the scales, weigh out (i. e. 'the weigher' (Vanicek , p. 1126))), a stater, a coin; in the N. T. a silver stater equivalent to four Attic or two Alexandrian drachmas, a Jewish shekel (see δίδραχμον ): Matthew 17:27.TGL στατήρ.2


    (4716) σταυρός, σταυροῦ, (from ἵστημι (root sta); cf. Latinstauro , English staff (see Skeat, Etymological Dictionary, under the word); Curtius , § 216; Vanicek , p. 1126);TGL σταυρός.2

    1. an upright stake, especially a pointed one (Homer , Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon ).TGL σταυρός.3

    2. a cross;TGL σταυρός.4

    a. the well-known instrument of most cruel and ignominious punishment, borrowed by the Greeks and Romans from the Phoenicians; to it were affixed among the Romans, down to the time of Constantine the Great, the guiltiest criminals, particularly the basest slaves, robbers, the authors and abetters of insurrections, and occasionally in the provinces, at the arbitrary pleasure of the governors, upright and peaceable men also, and even Roman citizens themselves; cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Kreuzigung; Merz in Herzog edition 1 ((cf. Schaff-Herzog ) also Schultze in Herzog edition 2), under the word Kreuz; Keim , iii., p. 409ff. (English translation, vi. 138; BB. DD. , see under the words, Cross, Crucifixion; O. Zöckler, Das Kreuz Christi (Gütersloh, 1875); English translation, Lond. 1878; Fulda, Das Kreuz u. d. Kreuzigung (Bresl. 1878); Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii. 582ff). This horrible punishment the innocent Jesus also suffered: Matthew 27:32, Matthew 27:40, Matthew 27:42; Mark 15:21, Mark 15:30, Mark 15:32; Luke 23:26; John 19:17, John 19:19, John 19:25, John 19:31; Colossians 2:14; Hebrews 12:2; θάνατος σταυροῦ, Philippians 2:8; τό αἷμα τοῦ σταυροῦ, blood shed on the cross; Colossians 1:20.TGL σταυρός.5

    b. equivalent to the crucifixion which Christ underwent: Galatians 5:11 (on which see σκάνδαλον , under the end); Ephesians 2:16; with the addition of τοῦ Χριστοῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:17; the saving power of his crucifixion, Philippians 3:18 (on which see ἐχθρός , at the end); Galatians 6:14; τῷ σταυρῷ τοῦ Χριστοῦ διώκεσθαι, to encounter persecution on account of one's avowed belief in the saving efficacy of Christ's crucifixion, Galatians 6:12; λόγος τοῦ σταυροῦ, the doctrine concerning the saving power of the death on the cross endured by Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:18. The judicial usage which compelled those condemned to crucifixion themselves to carry the cross to the place of punishment (Plutarch , de sara numinis vindict. c. 9; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 56, cf. John 19:17), gave rise to the proverbial expression αἴρειν or λαμβάνειν or βαστάζειν τόν σταυρόν αὐτοῦ, which was usually used by those who, on behalf of God's cause, do not hesitate cheerfully and manfully to bear persecutions, troubles, distresses — thus recalling the fate of Christ and the spirit in which he encountered it (cf. Bleek, Synop. Erkl. der drei ersten Evangg. i, p. 439f): Matthew 10:38; Matthew 16:24; Mark 8:34; Mark 10:21 (R L in brackets); Mark 15:21; Luke 9:23; Luke 14:27.TGL σταυρός.6


    (4717) σταυρόω, σταυρῷ; future σταυρώσω; 1 aorist ἐσταυρωσα; passive, present σταύρομαι; perfect ἐσταύρωμαι; 1 aorist ἐσταυρωθην; (σταυρός, which see);TGL σταυρόω.2

    1. to stake, drive down stakes: Thucydides 7, 25, 6 (here οἱ Συρακοσιοι ἐσταύρωσαν, which the Scholiast renders σταυρους κατέπηξαν).TGL σταυρόω.3

    2. to fortify with driven stakes, to palisade: a place, Thucydides 6, 100; DiodorusTGL σταυρόω.4

    3. to crucify (Vulg. crucifigo ): τινα,TGL σταυρόω.5

    a. properly: Matthew 20:19; Matthew 23:34; Matthew 26:2; Matthew 27:22,(Matthew 27:23),Matthew 27:26,Matthew 27:31,Matthew 27:35,Matthew 27:38; Matthew 28:5; Mark 15:13-15, Mark 15:20, Mark 15:24, Mark 15:27; Mark 16:6; Luke 23:21, Luke 23:23, Luke 23:33; Luke 24:7, Luke 24:20; John 19:6, John 19:10, John 19:15, John 19:18, John 19:20, John 19:23, John 19:41; Acts 2:36; Acts 4:10; 1 Corinthians 1:13, 1 Corinthians 1:23; 1 Corinthians 2:2,(8); 2 Corinthians 13:4; Galatians 3:1; Revelation 11:8 (Additions to Esther 8:13 (34) [Esther 8:348:12r ]; for תָּלָה, to hang, Esther 7:9. Polybius 1, 86, 4; Josephus , Antiquities 2, 5, 4; 17, 10, 10; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 53 and 56; in native Greek writings ἀνασταυρουν is more common).TGL σταυρόω.6

    b. metaphorically: τήν σάρκα, to crucify the flesh, destroy its power utterly (the nature of the figure implying that the destruction is attended with intense pain (but note the aorist)), Galatians 5:24; ἐσταύρωμαι τίνι, and ἐσταύρωται μοι τί, I have been crucified to something and it has been crucified to me, so that we are dead to each other all fellowship and contact between us has ceased, Galatians 6:14. (Compare: ἀνασταυρόω, σὑν᾿σταυρόω.)TGL σταυρόω.7


    (4718) σταφυλή, σταφυλῆς, , from Homer down, the Sept. for עֵנָב, grapes, a bunch of grapes: Matthew 7:16; Luke 6:44; Revelation 14:18 (cf. the Sept. as referred to under the word βότρυς).TGL σταφυλή.2


    (4719) στάχυς, σταχυνος (cf. Buttmann , 14), (connected with the root, sta, ἵστημι; Curtius , p. 721), from Homer down, the Sept. for שִׁבֹּלֶת, an ear of corn (or growing grain): Matthew 12:1; Mark 2:23; Mark 4:28; Luke 6:1.TGL στάχυς.2

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