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    Ἰτουραῖος — ἰῶτα


    (2484) Ἰτουραία, -ας, , Ituræa, a mountainous region, lying northeast of Palestine and west of Damascus (Strabo 16, p. 756 § 18; Pliny, h. n. 5 (23) 19). According to Luke (Luke 3:1), at the time when John the Baptist made his public appearance it was subject to Philip the tetrarch, son of Herod the Great, although it is not mentioned by Josephus (Antiquities 17, 8, 1; 11, 4, 18; 4, 6 and b. j. 2, 6, 3) among the regions assigned to this prince after his father's death; (on this point cf. Schürer in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1877, p. 577f). It was brought under Jewish control by king Aristobulus circa B. C. 100 (Josephus, Antiquities 13, 11, 3). Its inhabitants had been noted for robbery and the skilful use of the bow (Vergil geor. 2, 448; Cicero, Phil. 13, 8, 18; Strabo 16, p. 755f; Lucan , Phar. 7, 230, 514). Cf. Münter, Progr. de rebus Ituraeorum, Hafn. 1824; Winers RWB, under the word Ituraea; Kneucker in Schenkel iii., p. 406f; [B. D. American edition under the word].TGL Ἰτουραῖος.2


    (2485) ἰχθύδιον, -ου, τό, (diminutive from ἰχθύς), a little fish: Matthew 15:34; Mark 8:7. [From Aristophanes on.]TGL ἰχθύδιον.2


    (2486) ἰχθύς, -ύος, , [from Homer down], a fish: Matthew 7:10; Mark 6:38; Luke 5:6; John 21:11, etc.; 1 Corinthians 15:39.TGL ἰχθύς.2


    (2487) ἴχνος, -εος (-ους), τό, (from ἵκω equivalent to ἱκνέομαι, to go), [from Homer down], a footprint, track, footstep: in the N. T. metaphorically, of imitating the example of anyone, we find στοιχεῖν τοῖς ἴχνεσί τινος, Romans 4:12; περιπατεῖν τοῖς ἴχν. τ., 2 Corinthians 12:18; ἐπακολουθεῖν τ. ἴχν. τιν., 1 Peter 2:21, (ἐν ἴχνεσί τινος ἑὸν πόδα νέμειν, Pindar Nem. 6, 27); cf. Latin insistere vestigiis alicuius .TGL ἴχνος.2


    (2488) Ἰωάθαμ [-θάμ WH], , (יותָם i. e. Jehovah is perfect), indeclinable, Jotham [A. V. (1611) Joatham], king of Judah, son of Uzziah, B. C. 758-7 to 741, or 759 to 743: Matthew 1:9.TGL Ἰωαθάμ.2


    (2489) Ἰωάννα [Tr WH Ἰωάνα; cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 79; WH's Appendix, p. 159; under the entry Ν, ν], -ης, , (see Ἰωάννης ), Joanna, the wife of Chuzas, Herod's steward, and a follower of Jesus: Luke 8:3; Luke 24:10.TGL Ἰωάν(ν)α.2


    (2490) Ἰωαννᾶς, -ᾶ, and (according to L T Tr WH) Ἰωανάν, indeclinable (see Ἰωάννης ), , Joannas [or Joanan], one of the ancestors of Christ: Luke 3:27.TGL Ἰωανάν.2


    (2491) Ἰωάννης and ((so WH uniformly, except in Acts 4:6; Acts 13:5; Revelation 22:8) Tr in the Gospels of Luke and John (in the Acts, excluding Acts 4:6) and the Revelation (excluding Revelation 22:8)) Ἰωάνης (cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 79; WH s Appendix, p. 159; Scrivener , Introduction, p. 562 (cf. under the word Nu)), genitive Ἰωάννου, dative Ἰωάννῃ and (in (Matthew 11:4 WH ; Revelation 1:1 WH ); Luke 7:18 T Tr WH (22 T Tr WH ) Ἰωαννει (cf. WH s Appendix, p. 158; Buttmann , 17 (16), 7)), accusative Ἰωάννην, 6 (יוחָנָן and יְהוחָנָן, to whom Jehovah is gracious (others whom Jehovah has graciously given), German Gotthold; the Sept. Ἰωανναν (Tdf. Ἰωανάν), 1 Chronicles 3:24; Ἰωνᾶ, 2 Kings 25:23; Ἰωάνης, 2 Chronicles 28:12 (cf. B. D. American edition, under the word )), John; in the N. T. the men of this name are:TGL Ἰωάννης.2

    1. John the Baptist, the son of Zacharias the priest and Elisabeth, the forerunner of Christ. By order of Herod Antipas he was cast into prison and afterward bebeaded: Matthew 3:1; Matthew 14:3, and often in the historical books of the N. T.; Josephus , Antiquities 18, 5, 2 (B. D. American edition, under the word ).TGL Ἰωάννης.3

    2. John the apostle, the writer of the Fourth Gospel, son of Zebedee and Salome, brother of James the elder: Matthew 4:21; Matthew 10:2 (3); Mark 1:19; Mark 9:2, Mark 9:38; Luke 5:10; Luke 6:14; Acts 1:13, and often; Galatians 2:9. He is that disciple who (without mention by name) is spoken of in the Fourth Gospel as especially dear to Jesus (John 13:23; John 19:26; John 21:7, John 21:20), and according to the traditional opinion is the author of the Apocalypse, Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:9; Revelation 21:2 Rec. ; Revelation 22:8. In the latter part of his life he had charge of the churches in Asia Minor, and died there at a very advanced age. That be never came into Asia Minor, but died in Palestine somewhat in years, the following writers among others have attempted to prove, though by considerations far from satisfactory: Lützelberger, Die kirchl. Tradition üb. d. Ap. Johannes as above Schriften. Lpz. 1840; Keim , i., p. 161ff (English translation, i. 218ff); Holtzmann in Sehenkel iii., p. 332ff; Scholten, Der Ap. Johannes in Kleinasien. Aus. d. Holland. deutsch 5: Spiegel. Berl. 1872. On the other side cf., besides others, Grimm in Ersch u. Gruber's Encyklop. 2nd sect. vol. xxii., p. 6ff; Steitz, Die Tradition üb. die Wirksamkeit des Job. in Ephesus, in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1868, 3rd Heft; Krenkel, Der Apost. Johannes. Berl. 1868; Hilgenfeld in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1872, p. 372ff, and for 1877, p. 508ff; (also Einl. in d. N. T., p. 394ff); Luthardt, Der johann. Ursprung des 4ten Evang. (Lpz. 1874), p. 93ff (English translation, p. 115ff; Godet, Commentaire etc. 3rd edition vol. i. Introduction, 50:1; § iv., p. 57ff; Bleek, Einl. in d. N. T. (edited by Mangold), p. 167ff; Fisher, The Beginnings of Christianity, p. 327ff).TGL Ἰωάννης.4

    3. the father of the apostle Peter: Tdf. in John 1:42 (43) and John 21:15 (in both passages, R G Ἰωνᾶ, L Tr WH Ιωανου) (see Ἰωνᾶς , 2).TGL Ἰωάννης.5

    4. a certain man ἐκ γένους ἀρχιερατικοῦ, a member of the Sanhedrin (cf. ἀρχιερεύς, 2): Acts 4:6.TGL Ἰωάννης.6

    5. John surnamed Mark, the companion of Barnabas and Paul: Acts 12:12, Acts 12:25; Acts 13:5, Acts 13:13; Acts 15:37 (Tr everywhere with one nu ν; so WH except in Acts 13:5); see Μᾶρκος .TGL Ἰωάννης.7

    6. John, according to the testimony of Papias in Eusebius , h. e. 3, 39 (cf. Westcott, Canon, 5th edition, p. 70), a disciple of Christ and afterward a Christian presbyter in Asia Minor, whom not a few at the present day, following the opinion of Dionysius of Alexandria (in Eusebius , h. e. 7, 25) regard as the author of the Apocalypse, and accordingly, esteem him as an eminent prophet of the primitive Christians and as the person referred to in Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:9; Revelation 21:2 Rec. ; Revelation 22:8. Full articles respecting him may be found — by Grimm in Ersch u. Gruber's Encyklop. 2nd sect. vol. xxiv., p. 217f; Gass in Herzog vi., p. 763ff; Holtzmann in Schenkel iii., p. 352f; (Salmon in Dict. of Chris. Biog. iii. 398ff; cf. C. L. Leimbach, Das Papiasfragment (Gotha, 1875), especially, p. 114ff).TGL Ἰωάννης.8


    (2492) Ἰώβ, , indeclinable (אִיּוב i. e. harassed, afflicted [but questioned; see Gesenius, Lex. (8th edition, by Mühlau and Volck) under the word]), Job, the man commended in the didactic poem which bears his name in the canon of the O. T. (cf. Ezekiel 14:14, Ezekiel 14:20) for his piety, and his constancy and fortitude in the endurance of trials: James 5:11.TGL Ἰώβ.2


    (2493) Ιωήλ, , indeclinable (יואֵל whose God is Jehovah, equivalent to a worshipper of God, [others, 'Jehovah is God']), Joel, the eminent prophet who according to the opinion of very many recent writers prophesied in the reign of Uzziah [cf. B. D. under the word Joel, 3]: Acts 2:16.TGL Ἰωήλ.2


    (2494) Ἰωνάν and (so T Tr WH) Ἰωνάμ, , indeclinable (see Ἰωάννης ), Jonan [or Jonam], one of the ancestors of Christ: Luke 3:30.TGL Ἰωνάμ.2


    (2495) Ἰωνᾶς, -ᾶ [Buttmann, 20 (17f)], , (יונָה a dove), Jonah (or Jonas);TGL Ἰωνᾶς.2

    1. Jonah, the O. T. prophet, a native of Gath-hepher in the tribe of Zebulun. He lived during the reign of Jeroboam II, king of Israel (2 Kings 14:25). The narrative of his miraculous experiences, constructed for a didactic purpose, is given in the book which bears his name [on the historic character of which cf. B. D. (especially American edition) or McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia, under the word; also Ladd, Doctr. of Sacr. Script. i. 65ff]: Matthew 12:39-41; Matthew 16:4; Luke 11:29, Luke 11:32.TGL Ἰωνᾶς.3

    2. Jonah (or Jonas), a fisherman, father of the apostle Peter: Matthew 16:17 [L T WH here Βαριωνᾶ, see βαριωνᾶς]; John 1:42 (John 1:43) [R G L marginal reading Tr marginal reading, and R G in] John 21:15, [John 21:16-17] (see Ἰωάννης , 3).TGL Ἰωνᾶς.4


    (2496) Ἰωράμ, , indeclinable (יְחורָם i. e. whom Jehovah exalted), Joram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne of Judah, from [circa] B. C. 891 to 884 (2 Kings 8:16; 2 Chronicles 21:2): Matthew 1:8.TGL Ἰωράμ.2


    (2497) Ἰωρείμ, , indeclinable, Jorim, one of the ancestors of Christ: Luke 3:29.TGL Ἰωρίμ.2


    (2498) Ἰωσαφάτ, , indeclinable (יְהושָׁפָט i. e. Jehovah judges), Jehoshaphat, king of Judah from [circa] B. C. 914 to 889 (1 Kings 22:41; 2 Chronicles 17:1-19): Matthew 1:8.TGL Ἰωσαφάτ.2


    (2499) [Ἰωσή (A. V. Jose, incorrectly), see Ἰωσῆς, at the beginning]TGL Ἰωσή.2


    (2500) Ἰωσῆς, genitive Ἰωσῆ [R G in Luke 3:29 Ἰωσή (which A. V. incorrectly takes as nominative Jose)] and (L T Tr WH in Mark 6:3; Mark 15:40, Mark 15:47) Ἰωσῆτος (cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i. p. 199; Buttmann 19f (17f); Winers Grammar § 10, 1; [WH. App. p. 159a]), , Joses;TGL Ἰωσῆς.2

    1. one of the ancestors of Christ: Luke 3:29 ([see above]; L T Tr WH Ἰησοῦ, which see 2).TGL Ἰωσῆς.3

    2. the own brother of Jesus: Mark 6:3, and R G in Matthew 13:55 (where L T Tr WH Ἰωσήφ which see 6); see Ἰάκωβος, 3.TGL Ἰωσῆς.4

    3. the son of Mary, the sister of the mother of Jesus [see Μαριάμ, 3]: Matthew 27:56 (where T Tr mrg. WH txt. Ἰωσήφ [Ἰωσῆς and Ἰωσήφ seem to have been different forms of one and the same name; cf. Renan in the Journ. Asiat., 1864, ser. vi. T iv. p. 536; Frankel, Hodeget in Misch. p. 31 note; Böhl, Volksbibel u. s. w. p. 15]); Mark 15:40, Mark 15:47.TGL Ἰωσῆς.5

    4. a Levite, surnamed Βαρνάβας (which see): Acts 4:36 (where L T Tr WH Ἰωσήφ).TGL Ἰωσῆς.6


    (2501) Ἰωσήφ, indeclinable (in Josephus (e. g. contra Apion 1, 14, 16; 32, 3; 33, 5) Ιωσηπος), (יוסֵף, from יָסַף to add, Genesis 30:23 (cf. B. D. under the word )), Joseph;TGL Ἰωσήφ.2

    1. the patriarch, the eleventh son of Jacob: John 4:5; Acts 7:9, Acts 7:13, Acts 7:18; Hebrews 11:21; φυλή Ἰωσήφ, i. e. the tribe of Ephraim, Revelation 7:8.TGL Ἰωσήφ.3

    2. the son of Jonan (or Jonam), one of Christ's ancestors: Luke 3:30.TGL Ἰωσήφ.4

    3. the son of Judah (or Judas; better Joda) another ancestor of Jesus: Luke 3:26 (where L marginal reading T Tr WH Ἰωσήχ, which see).TGL Ἰωσήφ.5

    4. the son of Mattathias, another of the same: Luke 3:24.TGL Ἰωσήφ.6

    5. the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus: Matthew 1:16, Matthew 1:18-20, Matthew 1:24; Matthew 2:13, Matthew 2:19; Luke 1:27; Luke 2:4, Luke 2:16, Luke 2:33 R L , Luke 2:43 R G L marginal reading; Luke 3:23; Luke 4:22; John 1:45 (John 1:46); John 6:42.TGL Ἰωσήφ.7

    6. an own brother of our Lord: Matthew 13:55 L T Tr WH (for R G Ἰωσῆς (which see 2)).TGL Ἰωσήφ.8

    7. Joseph of Arimathaea, a member of the Sanhedrin, who favored Jesus: Matthew 27:57, Matthew 27:59; Mark 15:43, Mark 15:45; Luke 23:50; John 19:38.TGL Ἰωσήφ.9

    8. Joseph, surnamed Βαρναβᾶς (which see): Acts 4:36 L T Tr WH (for R G Ἰωσῆς (which see Acts 5:4)).TGL Ἰωσήφ.10

    9. Joseph called Barsabas (better Barsabbas; see the word), and surnamed Justus: Acts 1:23. (See Ἰωσῆς, 3)TGL Ἰωσήφ.11


    (2502) Ἰωσίας (L T Tr WH Ἰωσείας (see WH 's Appendix, p. 155; under the word εἰ, )), Ιωσιου, (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ i. e. whom 'Jehovah heals'), Josiah, king of Judah, who restored among the Jews the worship of the true God, and after a reign of thirty-one years was slain in battle circa (2 Kings 22:1-20; 2 Chronicles 34:1-33f): Matthew 1:10.TGL Ἰωσίας.2


    (2503) ἰῶτα, τό, iota (A. V. jot), the Hebrew letter, yodh י, the smallest of them all; hence equivalent to the minutest part: Matthew 5:18. (Cf. Iota.)TGL ἰῶτα.2

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