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    ἀποκεφαλίζω — Ἁριμαθαία


    (607) ἀποκεφαλίζω: 1 aorist ἀπεκεφάλισα; (κεφαλή); to cut off the head, behead, decapitate: Matthew 14:10; Mark 6:16, Mark 6:27 (Mark 6:28); Luke 9:9. A later Greek word: [Sept. Ps. at the end]; Epictetus diss. 1, 1, 19; 24; 29; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 35; cf. Fischer, De vitiis lexamples N. T., p. 690ff; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 341.TGL ἀποκεφαλίζω.2


    (608) ἀποκλείω: 1 aorist ἀπεκλεισα; to shut up: τὴν θύραν, Luke 13:25. (Genesis 19:10; 2 Samuel 13:17; often in Herodotus; in Attic prose writings from Thucydides down.)TGL ἀποκλείω.2


    (609) ἀποκόπτω: 1 aorist ἀπεκοψα; future middle ἀποκόψομαι; to cut off, amputate: Mark 9:43 (Mark 9:45); John 18:10, John 18:26; Acts 27:32; ὄφελον καὶ ἀποκόψονται I would that they (who urge the necessity of circumcision would not only circumcise themselves, but) would even mutilate themselves (or cut off their privy parts), Galatians 5:12. ἀποκόπτεσθαι occurs in this sense in Deuteronomy 23:1; [Philo de alleg. leg. 3:3; de vict. off. § 13; cf. de spec. legg. i. § 7]; Epictetus diss. 2, 20, 19; Lucian, Eun. 8; [Dion Cass. 79, 11; Diodorus Siculus 3, 31], and other passages quoted by Wetstein at the passage [and Sophocles Lexicon under the word]. Others incorrectly: I would that they would cut themselves off from the society of Christians, quit it altogether; [cf. Meyer and Bp. Lightfoot at the passage].TGL ἀποκόπτω.2


    (610) ἀπόκριμα, -τος, τό, (ἀποκρίνομαι, which see in ἀποκρίνω ), an answer: 2 Corinthians 1:9, where the meaning is, 'On asking myself whether I should come out safe from mortal peril, I answered, "I must die."' (Josephus, Antiquities 14, 10, 6 of an answer (rescript) of the Roman senate; [similarly in Polybius excpt. Vat. 12, 26b, 1].)TGL ἀπόκριμα.2


    (611) ἀποκρίνω: [passive, 1 aorist ἀπεκρίθην; 1 future ἀποκριθήσομαι];TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.2

    i. to part, separate; passive to be parted, separated (1 aorist ἀπεκρίθην was separated, Homer, Iliad 5:12; Thucydides 2, 49; [4, 72]; Theoph. de caus. plant. 6, 14, 10; [other examples in Veitch, under the word]).TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.3

    ii. to give sentence against one, decide that he has lost; hence, middle [present ἀποκρίνομαι; 1 aorist 3 person singular ἀπεκρίνατο]; (to give forth a decision from myself [Winers Grammar, 253 (238)]), to give answer, to reply; so from Thucydides down (and even in Herodotus 5, 49 [Gaisf.]; 8, 101 [Gaisf., Bekker], who generally uses ὑποκρίνομαι). But the earlier and more elegant Greek writings do not give this sense to the passive tenses ἀπεκρίθην, ἀποκριθήσομαι. "The example adduced from Plato, Alcib. Secund., p. 149 b. [cf. Stallb., p. 388] is justly discredited by Sturz, De dial. Alex., p. 148, since it is without parallel, the author of the dialogue is uncertain, and, moreover, the common form is sometimes introduced by copyists." Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 108; [cf. Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 186f; Veitch, under the word; Winers Grammar, 23 (22)]. But from Polybius down ἀποκριθῆναι and ἀποκρίνασθαι are used indiscriminately, and in the Bible the passive forms are by far the more common. In the N. T. the aorist middle ἀπεκρίνατο is found only in Matthew 27:12; Mark 14:61; Luke 3:16; Luke 23:9; John 5:17, John 5:19; John 12:23 [R G L Tr marginal reading]; Acts 3:12; in the great majority of places ἀπεκρίθη is used; cf. Winers Grammar, § 39, 2; [Buttmann, 51 (44)].TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.4

    1. to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer;TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.5

    a. simply: καλῶς, Mark 12:28; νουνεχῶς, Mark 12:34; ὀρθῶς, Luke 10:28; πρός τι, Matthew 27:14.TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.6

    b. with the accusative: λόγον, Matthew 22:46; οὐδέν, Matthew 27:12; Mark 14:61; Mark 15:4.TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.7

    c. with the dative etc.: ἑνὶ ἑκάστῳ, Colossians 4:6; together with the words which the answerer uses, John 5:7, John 5:11; John 6:7, John 6:68, etc.; the dative omitted: John 7:46; John 8:19, John 8:49, etc. πρός τινα, Acts 25:16. joined with φάναι, or λέγειν, or εἰπεῖν, in the form of a participle, as ἀποκριθείς εἶπε or ἔφη or λέγει: Matthew 4:4; Matthew 8:8; Matthew 15:13; Luke 9:19; Luke 13:2; Mark 10:3, etc.; or ἀπεκρίθη λέγων: Matthew 25:9, Matthew 25:37, Matthew 25:44; Luke 4:4 [R G L]; Luke 8:50 [R G Tr marginal reading brackets]; John 1:26; John 10:33 [Rec. ]; John 12:23. But John far more frequently says ἀπεκρίθη καὶ εἶπε: John 1:48 (John 1:49); John 2:19; John 4:13; John 7:16, John 7:20 [R G], John 7:52, etc.TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.8

    d. followed by the infinitive: Luke 20:7; followed by the accusative with infinitive: Acts 25:4; followed by ὅτι: Acts 25:16.TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.9

    2. In imitation of the Hebrew עָנָה (Gesenius, Thesaurus ii., p. 1047) to begin to speak, but always where something has preceded (either said or done) to which the remarks refer [Winer's Grammar, 19]: Matthew 11:25; Matthew 12:38; Matthew 15:15; Matthew 17:4; Matthew 22:1; Matthew 28:5; Mark 9:5 [Mark 9:6 T Tr WH]; Mark 10:24; Mark 11:14; Mark 12:35; Luke 14:3; John 2:18; John 5:17; Acts 3:12; Revelation 7:13. (Sept. [Deuteronomy 26:5]; Isaiah 14:10; Zechariah 1:10; Zechariah 3:4, etc.; 1 Macc. 2:17; 1 Macc. 8:19; 2 Macc. 15:14.) [Compare: ἀνταποκρίνομαι.]TGL ἀποκρίνομαι.10


    (612) ἀπόκρισις, -εως, , (ἀποκρίνομαι, see ἀποκρίνω ), a replying, an answer: Luke 2:47; Luke 20:26; John 1:22; John 19:9. (From [Theognis, 1167, Bekker edition, 345, Welck. edition, and] Herodotus down.)TGL ἀπόκρισις.2


    (613) ἀποκρύπτω: 1 aorist ἀπέκρυψα; perfect passive participle ἀποκεκρυμμένος;TGL ἀποκρύπτω.2

    a. to hide: τί, Matthew 25:18 (L T Tr WH ἔκρυψε).TGL ἀποκρύπτω.3

    b. Passive in the sense of concealing, keeping secret: σοφία, 1 Corinthians 2:7; μυστήριον, Colossians 1:26 (opposed to φανεροῦσθαι); with the addition of ἐν τῷ θεῷ, Ephesians 3:9; τὶ ἀπό τινος, Luke 10:21; Matthew 11:25 (L T Tr WH ἔκρυψας), in imitation of the Hebrew מִן, Psalms 37:10 (Psalms 38:10); Psalms 118:19 (Psalms 119:19); Jeremiah 39:17 (Jeremiah 32:17); cf. κρύπτω [Buttmann, 149 (130); 189 (163); Winers Grammar, 227 (213)]. (In Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ἀποκρύπτω.4


    (614) ἀπόκρυφος, -ον, (ἀποκρύπτω), hidden, secreted: Mark 4:22; Luke 8:17. stored up: Colossians 2:3. (Daniel 11:43 [Theodotion]; Isaiah 45:3; Isaiah 1:1-31 Macc. 1:23; Xenophon, Euripides; [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on the word, Colossians, the passage cited; and Ignatius i. 351f].)TGL ἀπόκρυφος.2


    (615) ἀποκτείνω, and Aeolic, -κτέννω (Matthew 10:28 L T Tr; Mark 12:5 G L T Tr; Luke 12:4 L T Tr; 2 Corinthians 3:6 T Tr; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 507f; [Tdf. Proleg., p. 79]; Winers Grammar, 83 (79); [Buttmann, 61 (54)]), ἀποκτένω (Griesbach in Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:4), ἀποκταίνω (Lachmann in 2 Corinthians 3:6; Revelation 13:10), ἀποκτέννυντες (Mark 12:5 WH); future ἀποκτενῶ; 1 aorist ἀπέκτεινα; passive, present infinitive ἀποκτέννεσθαι (Revelation 6:11 G L T Tr WH); 1 aorist ἀπεκτάνθην (Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. 227; Winers Grammar, the passage cited; [Buttmann, 41 (35f)]); [from Homer down];TGL ἀποκτείνω.2

    1. properly, to kill in any way whatever (ἀπό i. e. so as to put out of the way; cf. [English to kill off ], German abschlachten): Matthew 16:21; Matthew 22:6; Mark 6:19; Mark 9:31; John 5:18; John 8:22; Acts 3:15; Revelation 2:13, and very often; [ἀποκτ. ἐν θανάτῳ, Revelation 2:23; Revelation 6:8, cf. Buttmann, 184 (159); Winers Grammar, 339 (319)]. to destroy (allow to perish): Mark 3:4 [yet others take it here absolutely, to kill].TGL ἀποκτείνω.3

    2. metaphorically, to extinguish, abolish: τὴν ἔχθραν, Ephesians 2:16; to inflict moral death, Romans 7:11 (see ἀποθνήσκω , II. 2); to deprive of spiritual life and procure eternal misery, 2 Corinthians 3:6 [Lachmann ἀποκταίνει; see above].TGL ἀποκτείνω.4


    (616) ἀποκυέω, -ῶ, or ἀποκύω (hence, 3 person singular present either ἀποκυεῖ [so WH] or ἀποκύει, James 1:15; cf. Winers Grammar, 88 (84); Buttmann, 62 (54)); 1 aorist ἀπεκύησα; (κύω, or κυέω, to be pregnant; cf. ἔγκυος ); to bring forth from the womb, give birth to: τινά, James 1:15; to produce, James 1:18. (4 Macc. 15:17; Dionysius Halicarnassus 1, 70; Plutarch, Lucian, Aelian, v. h. 5, 4; Herodian, 1, 5, 13 [5, Bekker edition]; 1, 4, 2 [1, Bekker edition].)TGL ἀποκυέω.2


    (617) ἀποκυλίω: future ἀποκυλίσω; 1 aorist ἀπεκύλισα; perfect passive [3 person singular ἀποκεκύλισται Mark 16:4 R G L but T Tr WH, ἀνακεκ.], participle ἀποκεκυλισμένος; to roll off or away: Matthew 28:2; Mark 16:3; Luke 24:2. (Genesis 29:3, Genesis 29:8, Genesis 29:10; Judith 13:9; Josephus, Antiquities 4, 8, 37; 5, 11, 3; Lucian, rhet. praec. 3.)TGL ἀποκυλίω.2

    But see ἀνακυλίω .TGL ἀποκυλίω.3

    Related entry: ἀνακυλίω;TGL ἀποκυλίω.4

    1. to roll up.TGL ἀποκυλίω.5

    2. to roll back: ἀνακεκύλισται λίθος, Mark 16:4 T Tr WH.TGL ἀποκυλίω.6

    (Alexis in Athen. 6 p. 237 c.; Lucian de luctu 8; Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, others)TGL ἀποκυλίω.7


    (618) ἀπολαμβάνω; future ἀπολήψομαι (Colossians 3:24; L T Tr WH ἀπολήμψεσθε; see λαμβάνω ); 2 aorist ἀπέλαβον; 2 aorist middle ἀπελαβόμην; from Herodotus down;TGL ἀπολαμβάνω.2

    1. to receive (from another, ἀπό [cf. Meyer on Galatians 4:5; Ellicott ibid. and Winers De verb. comp. etc. as below]) what is due or promised (cf. ἀποδίδωμι , 2): τ. υἱοθεσίαν, the adoption promised to believers, Galatians 4:5; τὰ ἀγαθά σου thy good things, "which thou couldst expect and as it were demand, which seemed due to thee" (Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part iv., p. 13), Luke 16:25. Hence,TGL ἀπολαμβάνω.3

    2. to take again or back, to recover: Luke 6:34 [T Tr text WH λαβεῖν]; Luke 15:27; and to receive by way of retribution: Luke 18:30 (L text Tr marginal reading WH text λάβῃ); Luke 23:41; Romans 1:27; 2 John 1:8; Colossians 3:24.TGL ἀπολαμβάνω.4

    3. to take from others, take apart or aside; middle τινά, to take a person with one aside out of the view of others: with the addition of ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου κατ’ ἰδίαν in Mark 7:33 (Josephus, b. j. 2, 7, 2; and in the Act., 2 Macc. 6:21; ύστάσπεα ἀπολαβὼν μοῦνον, Herodotus 1, 209; Aristophanes ran. 78; ἰδίᾳ ἕνα τῶν τριῶν ἀπολαβών, Appendix, b. 104:5, 40).TGL ἀπολαμβάνω.5

    4. to receive anyone hospitably: 3 John 1:8, where L T Tr WH have restored ὑπολαμβάνειν.TGL ἀπολαμβάνω.6


    (619) ἀπόλαυσις, -εως, , (from ἀπολαύω to enjoy), enjoyment (Latin fructus ): 1 Timothy 6:17 (εἰς ἀπόλαυσιν to enjoy); Hebrews 11:25 (ἁμαρτίας ἀπόλ. pleasure born of sin). (In Greek writings from [Euripides and] Thucydides down.)TGL ἀπόλαυσις.2


    (620) ἀπολείπω: [imperfect ἀπέλειπον, WH text in 2 Timothy 4:13, 2 Timothy 4:20; Titus 1:5]; 2 aorist ἀπέλιπον; [from Homer down];TGL ἀπολείπω.2

    1. to leave, leave behind: one in some place, Titus 1:5 L T Tr WH; 2 Timothy 4:13, 2 Timothy 4:20. Passive ἀπολείπεται it remains, is reserved: Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 10:26; followed by the accusative and an infinitive, Hebrews 4:6.TGL ἀπολείπω.3

    2. to desert, forsake: a place, Jude 1:6.TGL ἀπολείπω.4


    (621) ἀπολείχω: [imperfect ἀπέλειχον]; to lick off, lick up: Luke 16:21 R G; cf. ἐπιλείχω . ([Apollonius Rhodius, 4, 478]; Athen. vi. c. 13, p. 250 a.)TGL ἀπολείχω.2

    Related entry: ἐπιλείχω: imperfect ἐπέλειχον; to lick the surface of, lick over ([cf. ἐπί, D. 1]; German belecken): with the accusative of a thing, Luke 16:21 L T Tr WH; (in Long. past. 1, 24 (11) a variation for ἐπιτρέχω).TGL ἀπολείχω.3


    (622) ἀπόλλυμι and ἀπολλύω ([ἀπολλύει John 12:25 T Tr WH], imperative ἀπόλλυε Romans 14:15 [cf. Buttmann, 45 (39); WH's Appendix, p. 168f]); future ἀπολέσω and (1 Corinthians 1:19 ἀπολῶ from a passage in the O. T., where often) ἀπολῶ (cf. Winers Grammar, 83 (80); [Buttmann, 64 (56)]); 1 aorist ἀπώλεσα; to destroy; middle, present ἀπόλλυμαι; [imperfect 3 person plural ἀπώλλυντο 1 Corinthians 10:9 T Tr WH]; future ἀπολοῦμαι; 2 aorist ἀπωλόμην; (2 perfect active participle ἀπολωλώς); [from Homer down]; to perish.TGL ἀπόλλυμι.2

    1. to destroy i. e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, ruin: Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; Luke 17:27, Luke 17:29; Jude 1:5; τὴν σοφίαν render useless, cause its emptiness to be perceived, 1 Corinthians 1:19 (from the Sept. of Isaiah 29:14); to kill: Matthew 2:13; Matthew 12:14; Mark 9:22; Mark 11:18; John 10:10, etc.; contextually, to declare that one must be put to death: Matthew 27:20; metaphorically, to devote or give over to eternal misery: Matthew 10:28; James 4:12; contextually, by one's conduct to cause another to lose eternal salvation: Romans 14:15. Middle to perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed;TGL ἀπόλλυμι.3

    a. of persons;TGL ἀπόλλυμι.4

    α. properly: Matthew 8:25; Luke 13:3, Luke 13:5, Luke 13:33; John 11:50; 2 Peter 3:6; Jude 1:11, etc.; ἀπόλλυμαι λιμῷ, Luke 15:17; ἐν μαχαίρᾳ, Matthew 26:52; καταβαλλόμενοι, ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἀπολλύμενοι, 2 Corinthians 4:9.TGL ἀπόλλυμι.5

    β. tropically, to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery: John 3:15 [R L brackets], John 3:16; John 10:28; John 17:12 (it must be borne in mind, that according to John's conception eternal life begins on earth, just as soon as one becomes united to Christ by faith); Romans 2:12; 1 Corinthians 8:11; 1 Corinthians 15:18; 2 Peter 3:9. Hence, οἱ σωζόμενοι they to whom it belongs to partake of salvation, and οἱ ἀπολλύμενοι those to whom it belongs to perish or to be consigned to eternal misery, are contrasted by Paul: 1 Corinthians 1:18; 2 Corinthians 2:15; 2 Corinthians 4:3; 2 Thessalonians 2:10 (on these present participles, cf. Winers Grammar, 342 (321); Buttmann, 206 (178)).TGL ἀπόλλυμι.6

    b. of things; to be blotted out, to vanish away: εὐπρέπεια, James 1:11; the heavens, Hebrews 1:11 (from Psalm 101:27 (Psalms 102:27); to perish — of things which on being thrown away are decomposed, as μέλος τοῦ σώματος, Matthew 5:29; remnants of bread, John 6:12; — or which perish in some other way, as βρῶσις, John 6:27; χρυσίον, 1 Peter 1:7; — or which are ruined so that they can no longer subserve the use for which they were designed, as οἱ ἀσκοί: Matthew 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37.TGL ἀπόλλυμι.7

    2. to destroy i. e. to lose;TGL ἀπόλλυμι.8

    a. properly: Matthew 10:42; Mark 9:41 (τὸν μισθὸν αὐτοῦ); Luke 15:4, Luke 15:8, Luke 15:9; Luke 9:25; Luke 17:33; John 12:25; 2 John 1:8, etc.TGL ἀπόλλυμι.9

    b. metaphorically, Christ is said to lose anyone of his followers (whom the Father has drawn to discipleship) if such a one becomes wicked and fails of salvation: John 6:39, cf. John 18:9. Middle to be lost: θρὶξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς, Luke 21:18; θ. ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς, Acts 27:34 (Rec. πεσεῖται); τὰ λαμπρὰ ἀπώλετο ἀπό σου, Revelation 18:14 (Rec. ἀπῆλθε). Used of sheep, straying from the flock: properly, Luke 15:4 (τὸ ἀπολωλός, in Matthew 18:12 τὸ πλανώμενον). Metaphorically, in accordance with the O. T. comparison of the people of Israel to a flock (Jeremiah 27:6 (Jeremiah 50:6); Ezekiel 34:4, Ezekiel 34:16), the Jews, neglected by their religious teachers, left to themselves and thereby in danger of losing eternal salvation, wandering about as it were without guidance, are called τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἀπολωλότα τοῦ οἴκου Ἰσραήλ: Matthew 10:6; Matthew 15:24 (Isaiah 53:6; 1 Peter 2:25); and Christ, reclaiming them from wickedness, is likened to a shepherd and is said ζητεῖν καὶ σώζειν τὸ ἀπολωλός: Luke 19:10; Matthew 18:11 Rec. [Compare: συναπόλλυμι.]TGL ἀπόλλυμι.10


    (623) Ἀπολλύων, -οντος, , (participle from ἀπολλύω), Apollyon (a proper name, formed by the author of the Apocalypse), i. e. Destroyer: Revelation 9:11; cf. Ἀβάδδων , [and B. D. under the word].TGL Ἀπολλύων.2


    (624) Ἀπολλωνία, -ας, , Apollonia, a maritime city of Macedonia, about a day's journey [according to the Antonine Itinerary 32 Roman miles] from Amphipolis, through which Paul passed on his way to Thessalonica [36 miles further]: Acts 17:1. [See B. D. under the word.]TGL Ἀπολλωνία.2


    (625) Ἀπολλῶς [according to some, contracted from Ἀπολλώνιος, Winer's Grammar, 102 (97); according to others, the ο is lengthened, cf. Fick, Griech. Personennamen, p. xxi.], genitive -ῶ (cf. Buttmann, 20f (18f); [Winer's Grammar, 62 (61)]), accusative -ώ (Acts 19:1) and -ών (1 Corinthians 4:6 T Tr WH; Titus 3:13 T WH; cf. [WH's Appendix, p. 157]; Kühner, i., p. 315), , Apollos, an Alexandrian Jew who became a Christian and a teacher of Christianity, attached to the apostle Paul: Acts 18:24; Acts 19:1; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:4; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 1 Corinthians 16:12; Titus 3:13.TGL Ἀπολλῶς.2


    (626) ἀπολογέομαι, -οῦμαι; imperfect ἀπελογούμην (Acts 26:1); 1 aorist ἀπελογησάμην; 1 aorist passive infinitive ἀπολογηθῆναι, in a reflexive sense (Luke 21:14); a deponent middle verb (from λόγος), properly, to speak so as to absolve (ἀπό) oneself, talk oneself off of a charge etc.;TGL ἀπολογέομαι.2

    1. to defend oneself, make one's defense: absolutely, Luke 21:14; Acts 26:1; followed by ὅτι, Acts 25:8; τί, to bring forward something in defense of oneself, Luke 12:11; Acts 26:24 (often so in Greek writings also); τὰ περὶ ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπ. either I bring forward what contributes to my defense [?], or I plead my own cause [R. V. make my defense], Acts 24:10; περί with the genitive of the thing and ἐπί with the genitive of person, concerning a thing before one's tribunal, Acts 26:2; with the dative of the person whom by my defence I strive to convince that I am innocent or upright, to defend or justify myself in one's eyes [A. V. unto], Acts 19:33; 2 Corinthians 12:19 (Plato, Prot., p. 359 a.; often in Lucian, Plutarch; [cf. Buttmann, 172 (149)]).TGL ἀπολογέομαι.3

    2. to defend a person or a thing (so not infrequent in secular authors): Romans 2:15 (where according to the context the deeds of men must be understood as defended); τὰ περὶ ἐμοῦ, Acts 26:2 (but see under 1).TGL ἀπολογέομαι.4


    (627) ἀπολογία, -ας, , (see ἀπολογέομαι ), verbal defense, speech in defense: Acts 25:16; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:17 (Philippians 1:16); 2 Timothy 4:16; with a dative of the person who is to hear the defence, to whom one labors to excuse or to make good his cause: 1 Corinthians 9:3; 1 Peter 3:15; in the same sense, ἀπολ. πρός τινα, Acts 22:1 (Xenophon, mem. 4, 8, 5).TGL ἀπολογία.2


    (628) ἀπολούω: to wash off or away; in the N. T. twice in 1 aorist middle figuratively [cf. Philo de mut. nom. § 6, i., p. 585, Mang. edition]: ἀπελούσασθε, 1 Corinthians 6:11; βάπτισαι καὶ ἀπόλουσαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου, Acts 22:16. For the sinner is unclean, polluted as it were by the filth of his sins. Whoever obtains remission of sins has his sins put, so to speak, out of God's sight — is cleansed from them in the sight of God. Remission is [represented as] obtained by undergoing baptism; hence, those who have gone down into the baptismal bath [lavacrum , cf. Titus 3:5; Ephesians 5:26) are said ἀπολούσασθαι to have washed themselves, or τὰς ἁμαρτ. ἀπολούσασθαι to have washed away their sins, i. e. to have been cleansed from their sins.TGL ἀπολούω.2


    (629) ἀπολύτρωσις, -εως, , (from ἀπολυτρόω signifyingTGL ἀπολύτρωσις.2

    a. to redeem one by paying the price, cf. λύτρον : Plutarch, Pomp. 24; the Sept. Exodus 21:8; Zephaniah 3:1;TGL ἀπολύτρωσις.3

    b. to let one go free on receiving the price: Plato, legg. 11, p. 919a.; Polybius 22, 21, 8; [cf.] Diodorus 13, 24), a releasing effected by payment of ransom; redemption, deliverance, liberation procured by the payment of a ransom;TGL ἀπολύτρωσις.4

    1. properly: πόλεων αἰχμαλώτων, Plutarch, Pomp. 24 (the only passage in secular writings where the word has as yet been noted; [add, Josephus, Antiquities 12, 2, 3; Diodorus fragment l. xxxvii. 5, 3, p. 149, 6 Dindorf; Philo, quod omn. prob. book § 17]).TGL ἀπολύτρωσις.5

    2. everywhere in the N. T. metaphorically, viz. deliverance effected through the death of Christ from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin: Romans 3:24; Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14 (cf. ἐξαγοράζω , ἀγοράζω , λυτρόω , etc. [and Trench, § lxxvii.]); ἀπολύτρ. τῶν παραβάσεων deliverance from the penalty of transgressions, effected through their expiation, Hebrews 9:15 (cf. Delitzsch at the passage and Fritzsche on Romans, vol. ii., p. 178); ἡμέρα ἀπολυτρώσεως, the last day, when consummate liberation is experienced from the sin still lingering even in the regenerate, and from all the ills and troubles of this life, Ephesians 4:30; in the same sense the word is apparently to be taken in 1 Corinthians 1:30 (where Christ himself is said to be redemption, i. e. the author of redemption, the one without whom we could have none), and is to be taken in the phrase ἀπολύτρ. τῆς περιποιήσεως, Ephesians 1:14, the redemption which will come to his possession, or to the men who are God's own through Christ (cf. Meyer at the passage); τοῦ σώματος, deliverance of the body from frailty and mortality, Romans 8:23 [Winer's Grammar, 187 (176)]; deliverance from the hatred and persecutions of enemies by the return of Christ from heaven, Luke 21:28, cf. Luke 18:7; deliverance or release from torture, Hebrews 11:35.TGL ἀπολύτρωσις.6


    (630) ἀπολύω; [imperfect ἀπέλυον]; future ἀπολύσω; 1 aorist ἀπέλυσα; passive, perfect ἀπολέλυμαι; 1 aorist ἀπελύθην; [future ἀπολυθήσομαι]; imperfect middle ἀπελυόμην (Acts 28:25); used in the N. T. only in the historical books and in Hebrews 13:23; to loose from, sever by loosening, undo [see ἀπό , V.];TGL ἀπολύω.2

    1. to set free: τινά τινος (so in Greek writings even from Homer down), to liberate one from a thing (as from a bond), Luke 13:12 (ἀπολέλυσαι [thou hast been loosed i. e.] be thou free from [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 40, 4] τῆς ἀσθενείας [L T ἀπὸ τ. ἀσθ.]).TGL ἀπολύω.3

    2. to let go, dismiss (to detain no longer); τινά,TGL ἀπολύω.4

    a. a suppliant to whom liberty to depart is given by a decisive answer: Matthew 15:23; Luke 2:29 ('me whom thou hadst determined to keep on earth until I had seen the salvation prepared for Israel, cf. Luke 2:26, thou art now dismissing with my wish accomplished, and this dismission is at the same time dismission also from life' — in reference to which ἀπολύειν is used in Numbers 20:29; Tobit 3:6; [cf. Genesis 15:2; Genesis 2:1-25 Macc. 7:9; Plutarch, consol. ad Apoll. § 13 cf. 11 at the end]); [Acts 23:22].TGL ἀπολύω.5

    b. to bid depart, send away: Matthew 14:15, Matthew 14:22; Matthew 15:32, Matthew 15:39; Mark 6:36, Mark 6:45; Mark 8:3, Mark 8:9; Luke 8:38; Luke 9:12; Luke 14:4; Acts 13:3; Acts 19:41 (τὴν ἐκκλησίαν); passive Acts 15:30, Acts 15:33.TGL ἀπολύω.6

    3. to let go free, to release;TGL ἀπολύω.7

    a. a captive, i. e. to loose his bonds and bid him depart, to give him liberty to depart: Luke 22:68 [R G L Tr in brackets]; Luke 23:22; John 19:10; Acts 16:35; Acts 26:32 (ἀπολελύσθαι ἐδύνατο [might have been set at liberty, cf. Buttmann, 217 (187), § 139, 27 c.; Winers Grammar, 305 (286) i. e.] might be free; perfect as in Luke 13:12 [see 1 above, and Winer's Grammar, 334 (313)]); Acts 28:18; Hebrews 13:23; ἀπολ. τινά τινι, to release one to one, grant him his liberty: Matthew 27:15, Matthew 27:17, Matthew 27:21, Matthew 27:26; Mark 15:6, Mark 15:9, Mark 15:11, Mark 15:15; [Luke 23:16], Luke 23:17 [R L in brackets], Luke 23:18, Luke 23:20, Luke 23:25; [John 18:39].TGL ἀπολύω.8

    b. to acquit one accused of a crime and set him at liberty: John 19:12; Acts 3:13.TGL ἀπολύω.9

    c. indulgently to grant a prisoner leave to depart: Acts 4:21, Acts 4:23; Acts 5:40; Acts 17:9.TGL ἀπολύω.10

    d. to release a debtor, i. e. not to press one's claim against him, to remit his debt: Matthew 18:27; metaphorically, to pardon another his offences against me: Luke 6:37 (τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἀπολύεσθαι, 2 Macc. 12:45).TGL ἀπολύω.11

    4. used of divorce, as ἀπολύω τὴν γυναῖκα to dismiss from the house, to repudiate: Matthew 1:19; Matthew 5:31; Matthew 19:3, Matthew 19:7-9; Mark 10:2, Mark 10:4, Mark 10:11; Luke 16:18; [1 Esdr. 9:36]; and improperly a wife deserting her husband is said τὸν ἄνδρα ἀπολύειν in Mark 10:12 [cf. Diodorus 12, 18] (unless, as is more probable, Mark, contrary to historic accuracy [yet cf. Josephus, Antiquities 15, 7, 10], makes Jesus speak in accordance with Greek and Roman usage, according to which wives also repudiated their husbands [references in Meyer, at the passage]); (cf. שִׁלַּח, Jeremiah 3:8; Deuteronomy 21:14; Deuteronomy 22:19, Deuteronomy 22:29).TGL ἀπολύω.12

    5. Middle ἀπολύομαι, properly, to send oneself away; to depart [Winer's Grammar, 253 (238)]: Acts 28:25 (returned home; Exodus 33:11).TGL ἀπολύω.13


    (631) ἀπομάσσω: (μάσσω to touch with the hands, handle, work with the hands, knead), to wipe off; middle ἀπομάσσομαι to wipe oneself off, to wipe off for oneself: τὸν κονιορτὸν ὑμῖν, Luke 10:11. (In Greek writings from Aristophanes down.)TGL ἀπομάσσω.2


    (632) ἀπονέμω; (νέμω to dispense a portion, to distribute), to assign, portion out (ἀπό as in ἀποδίδωμι [which see, cf. ἀπό , V.]): τινί τι viz. τιμήν, showing honor, 1 Peter 3:7 (so Herodian, 1, 8, 1; τὴν τιμὴν καὶ τὴν εὐχαριστίαν, Josephus, Antiquities 1, 7, 1; τῷ ἐπισκόπῳ πᾶσαν ἐντροπήν, Ignatius ad Magnes. 3; first found in [Simonides 97 in Anthol. Pal. 7, 253, 2 (vol. i., p. 64, Jacobs edition)]; Pindar Isthm. 2, 68; often in Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, others).TGL ἀπονέμω.2


    (633) ἀπονίπτω: to wash off; 1 aorist middle ἀπενιψάμην; in middle to wash oneself off, to wash off for oneself: τὰς χεῖρας, Matthew 27:24, cf. Deuteronomy 21:6 (The earlier Greeks say ἀπονίζω — but with future ἀπονίψω, 1 aorist ἀπένιψα; the later, as Theophrastus, char. 25 [30 (17)]; Plutarch, Phocylides , 18; Athen. iv. c. 31, p. 149 c., ἀπονίπτω, although this is found [but in the middle] even in Homer, Odyssey 18, 179.)TGL ἀπονίπτω.2


    (634) ἀποπίπτω: 2 aorist ἀπέπεσον; [(cf. πίπτω ); from Homer down]; to fall off, slip down from: Acts 9:18 [Winer's Grammar, § 52, 4, 1 a.].TGL ἀποπίπτω.2


    (635) ἀποπλανάω, -ῶ; 1 aorist passive ἀπεπλανήθην; to cause to go astray, tropically, to lead away from the truth to error: τινά, Mark 13:22; passive to go astray, stray away from: ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως, 1 Timothy 6:10. ([Hippocrates]; Plato, Ax., p. 369 d.; Polybius 3, 57, 4; Dionysius Halicarnassus, Plutarch, others.)TGL ἀποπλανάω.2


    (636) ἀποπλέω; 1 aorist ἀπέπλευσα; [from Homer down]; to sail away, depart by ship, set sail: Acts 13:4; Acts 14:26; Acts 20:15; Acts 27:1.TGL ἀποπλέω.2


    (637) ἀποπλύνω: [1 aorist ἀπέπλυνα (?)]; to wash off: Luke 5:2 (where L Tr WH text ἔπλυνον, T WH marginal reading -αν, for R G ἀπέπλυναν [possibly an imperfect form, cf. Buttmann, 40 (35); Sophocles Glossary, etc., p. 90]). (Homer, Odyssey 6, 95; Plato, Plutarch, and subsequent writings; Sept. 2 Samuel 19:24 [cf. Jeremiah 2:22; Jeremiah 4:14; Ezekiel 16:9 various readings].)TGL ἀποπλύνω.2


    (638) ἀποπνίγω: 1 aorist ἀπέπνιξα; 2 aorist passive ἀπεπνίγην; (ἀπό as in ἀποκτείνω which see [cf. to choke off]); to choke: Matthew 13:7 (T WH marginal reading ἔπνιξαν); Luke 8:7 (of seed overlaid by thorns and killed by them); to suffocate with water, to drown, Luke 8:33 (as in Demosthenes 32, 6 [i. e., p. 883, 28 etc.; schol. ad Euripides, Or. 812]).TGL ἀποπνίγω.2


    (639) ἀπορέω, -ῶ: imperfect 3 person singular ἠπόρει (Mark 6:20 T WH Tr marginal reading); [present middle ἀποροῦμαι]; to be ἄπορος (from α privative and πόρος a transit, ford, way, revenue, resource), i. e. to be without resources, to be in straits, to be left wanting, to be embarrassed, to be in doubt, not to know which way to turn; [imperfect in Mark 6:20 (see above) πολλὰ ἠπόρει he was in perplexity about many things or much perplexed (cf. Thucydides 5, 40, 3; Xenophon, Hell. 6, 1, 4; Herodotus 3, 4; 4, 179; Aristot. meteorolog. 1, 1); elsewhere] middle, to be at a loss with oneself, be in doubt; not to know how to decide or what to do, to be perplexed: absolutely 2 Corinthians 4:8; περί τινος, Luke 24:4 L T Tr WH; περὶ τίνος τις λέγει, John 13:22; ἀποροῦμαι ἐν ὑμῖν I am perplexed about you, I know not how to deal with you, in what style to address you, Galatians 4:20; ἀπορούμενος ἐγὼ εἰς [T Tr WH omit εἰς] τὴν περὶ τούτου [-των L T Tr WH] ζήτησιν I being perplexed how to decide in reference to the inquiry concerning him [or these things], Acts 25:20. (Often in secular authors from Herodotus down; often also in the Sept. ) [Compare: δι-, ἐξαπορέω.]TGL ἀπορέω.2


    (640) ἀπορία, -ας, , (ἀπορέω, which see), the state of one who is ἄπορος, perplexity: Luke 21:25. (Often in Greek writings from [Pindar and] Herodotus down; Sept. .)TGL ἀπορία.2


    (641) ἀπορρίπτω: 1 aorist ἀπέρριψα [T WH write with one ρ; see Ρ, ρ]; [from Homer down]; to throw away, cast down; reflexively, to cast oneself down: Acts 27:43 [R. V. cast themselves overboard]. (So in Lucian, ver. hist. 1, 30 variant; [Chariton 3, 5, see D'Orville at the passage]; cf. Winers Grammar, 251 (236); [Buttmann, 145 (127)].)TGL ἀπορρίπτω.2


    (642) ἀπορφανίζω : [1 aorist passive participle ἀπορφανισθείς]; (from ὀρφανός bereft, and ἀπό namely, τινός), to bereave of a parent or parents (so Aeschylus choëph. 247 (249)); hence, metaphorically, ἀπορφανισθέντες ἀφ’ ὑμῶν bereft of your intercourse and society, 1 Thessalonians 2:17 [here Rec. elz (by mistake) ἀποφανισθέντες.TGL ἀπορφανίζω.2


    (643) ἀποσκευάζω: 1 aorist middle ἀπεσκευασάμην; (σκευάζω to prepare, provide, from σκεῦος a utensil), to carry off goods and chattels; to pack up and carry off; middle to carry off one's personal property or provide for its carrying away (Polybius 4, 81, 11; Diodorus 13, 91; Dionysius Halicarnassus 9, 23, etc.): ἀποσκευασάμενοι having collected and removed our baggage Acts 21:15; but L T Tr WH read ἐπισκευασάμενοι (which see).TGL ἀποσκευάζω.2

    Related entry: ἐπισκευάζω: to furnish with things necessary; middle to furnish oneself or for oneself: ἐπισκευασάμενοι having gathered and made ready the things necessary for the journey, Acts 21:15 L T Tr WH, for R G ἀποσκευασάμενοι (which see in its place).TGL ἀποσκευάζω.3


    (644) ἀποσκίασμα, -τος, τό, (σκιάζω, from σκιά), a shade cast by one object upon another, a shadow: τροπῆς ἀποσκίασμα shadow caused by revolution, James 1:17. Cf. ἀπαύγασμα .TGL ἀποσκίασμα.2


    (645) ἀποσπάω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἀπέσπασα; 1 aorist passive ἀπεσπάσθην; to draw off, tear away: τ. μάχαιραν, to draw one's sword, Matthew 26:51 (ἐκσπᾶν τ. μάχ. (or ῤομφαίαν), 1 Samuel 17:51 [Alex. , etc.]; σπᾶν, 1 Chronicles 11:11; Mark 14:47); ἀποσπᾶν τοὺς μαθητὰς ὀπίσω ἑαυτῶν to draw away the disciples to their own party, Acts 20:30, (very similarly, Aelian v. h. 13, 32). Passive reflexively: ἀποσπασθέντες ἀπ’ αὐτῶν having torn ourselves from the embrace of our friends, Acts 21:1; ἀπεσπάσθη ἀπ’ αὐτῶν he parted, tore himself, from them about a stone's cast, Luke 22:41; cf. Meyer at the passage. (In secular authors from [Pindar and] Herodotus down.)TGL ἀποσπάω.2


    (646) ἀποστασία, -ας, , (ἀφίσταμαι), a falling away, defection, apostasy; in the Bible namely, from the true religion: Acts 21:21; 2 Thessalonians 2:3; ([Joshua 22:22; 2 Chronicles 29:19; 2 Chronicles 33:19]; Jeremiah 2:19; Jeremiah 36:32 (Jeremiah 29:32) Complutensian; 1 Macc. 2:15). The earlier Greeks say ἀπόστασις; see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 528; [Winer's Grammar, 24].TGL ἀποστασία.2


    (647) ἀποστάσιον, -ου, τό, very seldom in native Greek writings, defection, of a freedman from his patron, Demosthenes 35, 48 [940, 16]; in the Bible:TGL ἀποστάσιον.2

    1. divorce, repudiation: Matthew 19:7; Mark 10:4 (βιβλίον ἀποστασίου, equivalent to סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת book or bill of divorce, Deuteronomy 24:1, Deuteronomy 24:3; [Isaiah 50:1; Jeremiah 3:8]).TGL ἀποστάσιον.3

    2. a bill of divorce: Matthew 5:31. Grotius at the passage and Lightfoot, Horae Hebrew at the passage, give a copy of one.TGL ἀποστάσιον.4


    (648) ἀποστεγάζω: 1 aorist ἀπεστέγασα; (στεγάζω, from στέγη); to uncover, take off the roof: Mark 2:4 (Jesus, with his hearers, was in the ὑπερῷον which see, and it was the roof of this which those who were bringing the sick man to Jesus are said to have 'dug out'; [cf. B. D. under the word House, p. 1104]). (Strabo 4, 4, 6, p. 303; 8, 3, 30, p. 542.)TGL ἀποστεγάζω.2


    (649) ἀποστέλλω; future ἀποστελῶ; 1 aorist ἀπέστειλα; perfect ἀπέσταλκα, [3 person plural ἀπέσταλκαν Acts 16:36 L T Tr WH (see γίνομαι at the beginning); passive, present ἀποστέλλομαι]; perfect ἀπέσταλμαι; 2 aorist ἀπεστάλην; [from Sophocles down]; properly, to send off, send away;TGL ἀποστέλλω.2

    1. to order (one) to go to a place appointed;TGL ἀποστέλλω.3

    a. either persons sent with commissions, or things intended for someone. So, very frequently, Jesus teaches that God sent him, as Matthew 10:40; Mark 9:37; Luke 10:16; John 5:36, etc. he, too, is said to have sent his apostles, i. e. to have appointed them: Mark 6:7; Matthew 10:16; Luke 22:35; John 20:21, etc. messengers are sent: Luke 7:3; Luke 9:52; Luke 10:1; servants, Mark 6:27; Mark 12:2; Matthew 21:36; Matthew 22:3; an embassy, Luke 14:32; Luke 19:14; angels, Mark 13:27; Matthew 24:31, etc. Things are said to be sent, which are ordered to be led away or conveyed to anyone, as Matthew 21:3; Mark 11:3; τὸ δρέπανον i. e. reapers, Mark 4:29 [others take ἀποστέλλω here of the "putting forth" of the sickle, i. e. of the act of reaping; cf. Joel 4:13 (Joel 3:18); Revelation 14:15 (under the word πέμπω, b.)]; τὸν λόγον, Acts 10:36; Acts 13:26 (L T Tr WH ἐξαπεστάλη); τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν (equivalent to τὸ ἐπηγγελμένον, i. e. the promised Holy Spirit) ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς, Luke 24:49 [T Tr WH ἐξαποστέλλω]; τὶ διὰ χειρός τινος, after the Hebrew בְּיַד, Acts 11:30.TGL ἀποστέλλω.4

    b. The place of the sending is specified: ἀποστ. εἴς τινα τόπον, Matthew 20:2; Luke 1:26; Acts 7:34; Acts 10:8; Acts 19:22; 2 Timothy 4:12; Revelation 5:6, etc. God sent Jesus εἰς τὸν κόσμον: John 3:17; John 10:36; John 17:18; 1 John 4:9. εἰς [unto, i. e.] among: Matthew 15:24; Luke 11:49; Acts [Acts 22:21 WH marginal reading]; Acts 26:17; [ἐν (by a pregnant or a Latin construction) cf. Winers Grammar, § 50, 4; Buttmann, 329 (283): Matthew 10:16; Luke 10:3; yet see 1 a. above]; ὀπίσω τινός, Luke 19:14; ἔμπροσθέν τινος, John 3:28; and πρὸ προσώπου τινός, after the Hebrew לִפְנֵי־, before (to precede) one: Matthew 11:10; Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27; Luke 10:1. πρός τινα, to one: Matthew 21:34, Matthew 21:37; Mark 12:2; Luke 7:3, Luke 7:20; John 5:33; Acts 8:14; 2 Corinthians 12:17, etc. Whence, or by or from whom, one is sent: ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, Luke 1:26 (T Tr WH ἀπό); παρὰ θεοῦ, John 1:6 (Sir. 15:9); ἀπό with the genitive of person, from the house of anyone: Acts 10:17 [T WH Tr marginal reading ὑπό), Acts 10:21 Rec. ; ἐκ with the genitive of place: John 1:19.TGL ἀποστέλλω.5

    c. The object of the mission is indicated by an infinitive following: Mark 3:14; Matthew 22:3; Luke 1:19; Luke 4:18 (Isaiah 61:1 [on the perfect cf. Winers Grammar, 272 (255); Buttmann, 197 (171)]); Luke 9:2; John 4:38; 1 Corinthians 1:17; Revelation 22:6. [followed by εἰς for: εἰς διακονίαν, Hebrews 1:14. followed by ἵνα: Mark 12:2, Mark 12:13; Luke 20:10, Luke 20:20; John 1:19; John 3:17; John 7:32; 1 John 4:9. [followed by ὅπως: Acts 9:17.] followed by an accusative with infinitive: Acts 5:21. followed by τινά with a predicate accusative: Acts 3:26 (εὐλογοῦντα ὑμᾶς to confer God's blessing on you [cf. Buttmann, 203ff (176ff)]; Acts 7:35 (ἄρχοντα, to be a ruler); 1 John 4:10.TGL ἀποστέλλω.6

    d. ἀποστέλλειν by itself, without an accusative [cf. Winers Grammar, 594 (552); Buttmann, 146 (128)]: as ἀποστέλλειν πρός τινα, John 5:33; with the addition of the participle λέγων, λέγουσα, λέγοντες, to say through a messenger: Matthew 27:19; Mark 3:31 [here φωνοῦντες αὐτόν R G, καλοῦντες αὐτ. L T Tr WH); John 11:3; Acts 13:15; [Acts 21:25 περὶ τῶν πεπιστευκότων ἐθνῶν ἡμεῖς ἀπεστείλαμεν (L Tr text WH text) κρίναντες etc. we sent word, giving judgment, etc.). When one accomplished anything through a messenger, it is expressed thus: ἀποστείλας or πέμψας he did so and so; as, ἀποστείλας ἀνεῖλε, Matthew 2:16; Mark 6:17; Acts 7:14; Revelation 1:1; (so also the Greeks, as Xenophon, Cyril 3, 1, 6 πέμψας ἠρώτα, Plutarch, de liber. educ. c. 14 πέμψας ἀνεῖλε τὸν θεόκριτον; and Sept. 2 Kings 6:13 ἀποστείλας λήψομαι αὐτόν).TGL ἀποστέλλω.7

    2. to send away, i. e. to dismiss;TGL ἀποστέλλω.8

    a. to allow one to depart: τινὰ ἐν ἀφέσει, that he may be in a state of liberty, Luke 4:18-19), (Isaiah 58:6).TGL ἀποστέλλω.9

    b. to order one to depart, send off: Mark 8:26; τινὰ κενόν, Mark 12:3.TGL ἀποστέλλω.10

    c. to drive away: Mark 5:10.TGL ἀποστέλλω.11

    [Compare: ἐξ-, συναποστέλλω. Synonym: see πέμπω , at the end]TGL ἀποστέλλω.12


    (650) ἀποστερέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἀπεστέρησα; [passive, present ἀποστεροῦμαι]; perfect participle ἀπεστερημένος; to defraud, rob, despoil: absolutely, Mark 10:19; 1 Corinthians 6:8; ἀλλήλους to withhold themselves from one another, of those who mutually deny themselves cohabitation, 1 Corinthians 7:5. Middle to allow oneself to be defrauded [Winer's Grammar, § 38, 3]: 1 Corinthians 6:7; τινά τινος (as in Greek writings), to deprive one of a thing; passive ἀπεστερημένοι τῆς ἀληθείας, 1 Timothy 6:5 [Winers Grammar, 196 (185); Buttmann, 158 (138)]; τί to defraud of a thing, to withdraw or keep back a thing by fraud: passive μισθὸς ἀπεστερημένος, James 5:4 (T Tr WH ἀφυστερημένος, see ἀφυστερέω ; [cf. also ἀπό, II. 2 d. bb., p. 59b]) (Deuteronomy 24:14 [(16) Alex. ]; Malachi 3:5).TGL ἀποστερέω.2

    Related entry: ἀϕυστερέω, -ῶ: (a later Greek word);TGL ἀποστερέω.3

    1. to be behindhand, come too late (ἀπό so as to be far from, or to fail a person or thing); used of persons not present at the right time: Polybius 22, 5, 2; Posidon. ap. Athen. 4, 37 (i. e. 4 p. 151 e.); [others]; ἀπό ἀγαθῆς ἡμέρας to fail (to make use of) a good day, to let the opportunity pass by, Sir. 14:14.TGL ἀποστερέω.4

    2. transitively, to cause to fail, to withdraw, take away from, defraud: τὸ μάννα σου οὐκ ἀϕυστέρησας ἀπὸ στόματος αὐτῶν, Nehemiah 9:20 (for מָנַע to withhold); perfect passive participle ἀϕυστερημένος (μισθός), James 5:4 T Tr WH after א B*, [Rec. ἀπεστερημένος, see ἀποστερέω, also under the word ἀπό, II. 2 d. bb., p. 59 b].TGL ἀποστερέω.5


    (651) ἀποστολή, -ῆς, , (ἀποστέλλω);TGL ἀποστολή.2

    1. a sending away: Τιμολέοντος εἰς Σικελίαν, Plutarch, Timol. 1, etc.; of the sending off of a fleet, Thucydides 8, 9; also of consuls with an army, i. e. of an expedition, Polybius 26, 7, 1.TGL ἀποστολή.3

    2. a sending away i. e. dismission, release: Sept. Ecclesiastes 8:8.TGL ἀποστολή.4

    3. a thing sent, especially of gifts: 1 Kings 9:16 [Alex. ]; 1 Macc. 2:18 etc. cf. Grimm at the passage.TGL ἀποστολή.5

    4. in the N. T. the office and dignity of the apostles of Christ, (Vulg. apostolatus ), apostolate, apostleship: Acts 1:25; Romans 1:5; 1 Corinthians 9:2; Galatians 2:8.TGL ἀποστολή.6


    (652) ἀπόστολος, -ου, ;TGL ἀπόστολος.2

    1. a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders (Herodotus 1, 21; 5, 38; for שָׁלוּחַ in 1 Kings 14:6 [Alex. ]; rabbinical שְׁלִיחַ): John 13:16 (where ἀπόστ. and πέμψας αὐτόν are contrasted); followed by a genitive, as τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν, 2 Corinthians 8:23; Philippians 2:25; ἀπόστ. τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν the apostle whom we confess, of Christ, God's chief messenger, who has brought the κλῆσις ἐπουράνιος, as compared with Moses, whom the Jews confess, Hebrews 3:1.TGL ἀπόστολος.3

    2. Specially applied to the twelve disciples whom Christ selected, out of the multitude of his adherents, to be his constant companions and the heralds to proclaim to men the kingdom of God: Matthew 10:1-4; Luke 6:13; Acts 1:26; Revelation 21:14, and often, but nowhere in the Gospel and Epistles of John; ["the word ἀπόστολος occurs 79 times in the N. T., and of these 68 instances are in St. Luke and St. Paul." Bp. Lightfoot]. With these apostles Paul claimed equality, because through a heavenly intervention he had been appointed by the ascended Christ himself to preach the gospel among the Gentiles, and owed his knowledge of the way of salvation not to man's instruction but to direct revelation from Christ himself, and moreover had evinced his apostolic qualifications by many signal proofs: Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:11; Galatians 2:8; 1 Corinthians 1:17; 1 Corinthians 9:1; 1 Corinthians 15:8-10; 2 Corinthians 3:2; 2 Corinthians 12:12; 1 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 1:11, cf. Acts 26:12-20. According to Paul, apostles surpassed as well the various other orders of Christian teachers (cf. διδάσκαλος , εὐαγγελιστής , προφήτης ), as also the rest of those on whom the special gifts (cf. χάρισμα ) of the Holy Spirit had been bestowed, by receiving a richer and more copious conferment of the Spirit: 1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11. Certain false teachers are rated sharply for arrogating to themselves the name and authority of apostles of Christ: 2 Corinthians 11:5, 2 Corinthians 11:13; Revelation 2:2.TGL ἀπόστολος.4

    3. In a broader sense the name is transferred to other eminent Christian teachers; as Barnabas, Acts 14:14, and perhaps also Timothy and Silvanus, 1 Thessalonians 2:7 (1 Thessalonians 2:6), cf. too Romans 16:7 (?). But in Luke 11:49; Ephesians 3:5; Revelation 18:20, 'apostles' is to be taken in the narrower sense.TGL ἀπόστολος.5

    [On the application of the term see especially Bp. Lightfoot on Galatians, pp. 92-101; Harnack, on 'Teaching' etc. 11, 3; cf. BB. DD. under the word]TGL ἀπόστολος.6


    (653) ἀποστοματίζω; (στοματίζω — not extant — from στόμα); properly, to speak ἀπὸ στόματος (cf. ἀποστηθίζω);TGL ἀποστοματίζω.2

    1. to recite from memory: Themistius, or. 20, p. 238, Hard. edition; to repeat to a pupil (anything) for him to commit to memory: Plato, Euthyd., p. 276 c., 277 a.; used of a Sibyl prophesying, Plutarch, Thes. 24.TGL ἀποστοματίζω.3

    2. to ply with questions, catechize, and so to entice to [off-hand] answers: τινά, Luke 11:53.TGL ἀποστοματίζω.4


    (654) ἀποστρέφω; future ἀποστρέψω; 1 aorist ἀπέστρεψα; 2 aorist passive ἀπεστράφην; [present middle ἀποστρέφομαι; from Homer down];TGL ἀποστρέφω.2

    1. to turn away: τινὰ or τὶ ἀπὸ τινος, 2 Timothy 4:4 (τὴν ἀκοὴν ἀπὸ τῆς ἀληθείας); to remove anything from anyone, Romans 11:26 (Isaiah 59:20); ἀποστρέφειν τινά simply, to turn him away from allegiance to anyone, tempt to defection [A. V. pervert], Luke 23:14.TGL ἀποστρέφω.3

    2. to turn back, return, bring back: Matthew 26:52 (put back thy sword into its sheath); Matthew 27:3, of Judas bringing back the shekels, where T Tr WH ἔστρεψε [cf. Test. xii. Patr. test. Jos. § 17]. (In the same sense for הֵשִׁיב, Genesis 14:16; Genesis 28:15; Genesis 43:11 (Genesis 43:12), Genesis 43:20 (Genesis 43:21), etc.; Baruch 1:8; Baruch 2:34, etc.)TGL ἀποστρέφω.4

    3. intransitive, to turn oneself away, turn back, return: ἀπὸ τῶν πονηριῶν, Acts 3:26, cf. Acts 3:19 (ἀπὸ ἁμαρτίας, Sir. 8:5 Sir. 17:21 [26 Tdf. ]; to return from a place, Genesis 18:33; 1 Macc. 11:54, etc.; [see Kneucker on Baruch 1:13]; Xenophon, Hell. 3, 4, 12); cf. Meyer on Acts, the passage cited; [others, (with A. V.) take it actively here: in turning away every one of you, etc.].TGL ἀποστρέφω.5

    4. Middle, with 2 aorist passive, to turn oneself away from, with an accusative of the object (cf. [Jelf, § 548 obs. 1; Krüger, § 47, 23, 1]; Buttmann, 192 (166)); to reject, refuse: τινά, Matthew 5:42; Hebrews 12:25; τὴν ἀλήθειαν, Titus 1:14; in the sense of deserting, τινά, 2 Timothy 1:15.TGL ἀποστρέφω.6


    (655) ἀποστυγέω, -ῶ; to dislike, abhor, have a horror of: Romans 12:9; (Herodotus 2, 47; 6, 129; Sophocles, Euripides, others.). The word is fully discussed by Fritzsche at the passage [who takes the ἀπο- as expressive of separation (cf. Latin reformidare ), others regard it as intensive; (see ἀπό , V.)].TGL ἀποστυγέω.2


    (656) ἀποσυνάγωγος, -ον, (συναγωγή, which see), excluded from the sacred assemblies of the Israelites; excommunicated, [A. V. put out of the synagogue]: John 9:22; John 12:42; John 16:2. Whether it denotes also exclusion from all intercourse with Israelites (2 Esdr. 10:8), must apparently be left in doubt; cf. Winers [or Riehm] R W B under the word Bann; Wieseler on Galatians 1:8, p. 45ff [reproduced by Prof. Riddle in Schaff's Lange's Romans, pp. 304-306; cf. B. D. under the word Excommunication]. (Not found in secular authors.)TGL ἀποσυνάγωγος.2


    (657) ἀποτάσσω: to set apart, to separate; in the N. T. only in the middle ἀποτάσσομαι; 1 aorist ἀπεταξάμην;TGL ἀποτάσσω.2

    1. properly, to separate oneself, withdraw oneself from anyone, i. e. to take leave of, bid farewell to (Vulg. valefacio [etc.]): τινί, Mark 6:46; Luke 9:61; Acts 18:18, Acts 18:21 [here L T Tr omit the dative]; 2 Corinthians 2:13. (That the early Greek writers never so used the word, but said ἀσπάζεσθαί τινα, is shown by Lobeck ad Phryn., p. 23f; [cf. Winers Grammar, 23 (22); Buttmann, 179 (156)].)TGL ἀποτάσσω.3

    2. tropically, to renounce, forsake: τινί, Luke 14:33. (So also Josephus, Antiquities 11, 6, 8; Phil. alleg. iii. § 48; ταῖς τοῦ βίου φροντίσι, Eusebius, h. e. 2, 17, 5; [τῷ βίῳ, Ignatius ad Philadelph. 11, 1; cf. Hermas, mand. 6, 2, 9; Clement of Rome, 2 Corinthians 6:4 and 2 Corinthians 6:5 where see Gebh. and Harn. for other examples, also Sophocles' Lexicon, under the word].)TGL ἀποτάσσω.4


    (658) ἀποτελέω, -ῶ; [1 aorist passive participle ἀποτελεσθείς]; to perfect; to bring quite to an end: ἰάσεις, accomplish, Luke 13:32 (L T Tr WH for R G ἀπιτέλῶ); ἁμαρτία ἀποτελεσθεῖσα having come to maturity, James 1:15 (Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, and subsequent writers).TGL ἀποτελέω.2


    (659) ἀποτίθημι: 2 aorist middle ἀπεθέμην; [from Homer down]; to put off or aside; in the N. T. only middle to put off from oneself: τὰ ἱμάτια, Acts 7:58; [to lay up or away, ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ (i. e., put), Matthew 14:3 L T Tr WH (so εἰς φυλακήν, Leviticus 24:12; Numbers 15:34; 2 Chronicles 18:26; Polybius 24, 8, 8; Diodorus 4, 49, etc.)]; tropically those things are said to be put off or away which anyone gives up, renounces: as τὰ ἔργα τοῦ σκότους, Romans 13:12; — Ephesians 4:22 [cf. Winers Grammar, 347 (325); Buttmann, 274 (236)], Ephesians 4:25; Colossians 3:8; James 1:21; 1 Peter 2:1; Hebrews 12:1; (τὴν ὀργήν, Plutarch, Coriol. 19; τὸν πλοῦτον, τὴν μαλακίαν, etc. Luc. dial. mort. 10, 8; τ. ἐλευθερίαν κ. παρρησίαν, ibid. 9, etc.).TGL ἀποτίθημι.2


    (660) ἀποτινάσσω; 1 aorist ἀπετίναξα; [1 aorist middle participle ἀποτιναξάμενος, Acts 28:5 Tr marginal reading]; to shake off: Luke 9:5; Acts 28:5. (1 Samuel 10:2; Lamentations 2:7; Euripides, Bacch. 253; [ἀποτιναχθῇ, Galen 6, 821, Kühn edition].)TGL ἀποτινάσσω.2


    (661) ἀποτίνω and ἀποτίω: future ἀποτίσω; (ἀπό as in ἀποδίδωμι [cf. also ἀπό, V.]), to pay off, repay: Philemon 1:19. (Often in the Sept. for שִׁלַּם; in secular authors from Homer down.)TGL ἀποτίνω.2


    (662) ἀποτολμάω, -ῶ; properly, to be bold of oneself (ἀπό [which see V.]), i. e. to assume boldness, make bold: Romans 10:20; cf. Winers De verb. comp. etc. Part iv., p. 15. (Occasionally in Thucydides, Plato, Aeschines, Polybius, Diodorus, Plutarch.)TGL ἀποτολμάω.2


    (663) ἀποτομία, -ας, , (the nature of that which is ἀπότομος, cut off, abrupt, precipitous like a cliff, rough; from ἀποτέμνω), properly sharpness (differing from ἀποτομή a cutting off, a segment); severity, roughness, rigor: Romans 11:22 (where opposed to χρηστότης, as in Plutarch, de book educ. c. 18 to πραότης, in Dionysius Halicarnassus 8, 61 to τὸ ἐπιεικές, and in Diodorus, p. 591 [except 83 (fragment 50:32, 27, 3 Dindorf)] to ἡμερότης).TGL ἀποτομία.2


    (664) ἀποτόμως, adverb (cf. ἀποτομία );TGL ἀποτόμως.2

    a. abruptly, precipitously.TGL ἀποτόμως.3

    b. tropically, sharply, severely [cf. our curtly]: Titus 1:13; 2 Corinthians 13:10. On the adjective ἀπότομος cf. Grimm on Sap., p. 121 [who in illustration of its use in Wis. 5:20, 22; Wis. 6:5, 11; Wis. 11:10; Wis. 12:9; Wis. 18:15, refers to the similar metaphorical use in Diodorus 2, 57; Longinus, de sublim. 27; and the use of the Latin abscisus in Valerius Maximus, 2, 7, 14, etc.; see also Polybius 17, 11, 2; Polycarp, ad Phil. 6, 1].TGL ἀποτόμως.4


    (665) ἀποτρέπω: [from Homer down]; to turn away; middle [present ἀποτρέπομαι, imperative ἀποτρέπου] to turn oneself away from, to shun, avoid: τινά or τί (see ἀποστρέφω under the end), 2 Timothy 3:5. (4 Macc. 1:33; Aeschylus Sept. 1060; Euripides, Iph. Aul. 336; [Aristotle plant. 1, 1, p. 815b, 18; Polybius others].)TGL ἀποτρέπω.2


    (666) ἀπουσία, -ας, , (ἀπεῖναι), absence: Philippians 2:12. [From Aeschylus down.]TGL ἀπουσία.2


    (667) ἀποφέρω: 1 aorist ἀπήνεγκα; 2 aorist infinitive ἀπενεγκεῖν; passive [present infinitive ἀποφέρεσθαι]; 1 aorist infinitive ἀπενεχθῆναι; [from Homer down]; to carry off, take away: τινά, with the idea of violence included, Mark 15:1; εἰς τόπον τινά, Revelation 17:3; Revelation 21:10; passive Luke 16:22. to carry or bring away (Latin defero ): τὶ εἰς with an accusative of place, 1 Corinthians 16:3; τὶ ἀπό τινος ἐπί τινα, with passive, Acts 19:12 (L T Tr WH for Rec. ἐπιφέρεσθαι).TGL ἀποφέρω.2


    (668) ἀποφεύγω [participle in 2 Peter 2:18 L T Tr WH; Winer's Grammar, 342 (321)]; 2 aorist ἀπέφυγον; [from (Homer) batrach. 42, 47 down]; to flee from, escape; with the accusative, 2 Peter 2:18 (where L T wrongly put a comma after ἀποφ. [Winers Grammar, 529 (492)]), 2 Peter 2:20; with the genitive, by virtue of the preposition [Buttmann, 158 (138); Winer's Grammar, § 52, 4, 1 c.], 2 Peter 1:4.TGL ἀποφεύγω.2


    (669) ἀποφθέγγομαι; 1 aorist ἀπεφθεγξάμην; to speak out, speak forth, pronounce, not a word of everyday speech, but one "belonging to dignified and elevated discourse, like the Latin profari , pronuntiare ; properly it has the force of to utter or declare oneself, give one's opinion (einen Ausspruch thun ), and is used not only of prophets (see Kypke on Acts 2:4 — adding from the Sept. Ezekiel 13:9; Micah 5:12; 1 Chronicles 25:1), but also of wise men and philosophers (Diogenes Laërtius 1, 63; 73; 79; whose pointed sayings the Greeks call ἀποφθέγματα, Cicero, off. 1, 29)"; [see φθέγγομαι ]. Accordingly, "it is used of the utterances of the Christians, and especially Peter, on that illustrious day of Pentecost after they had been fired by the Holy Spirit, Acts 2:4, Acts 2:14; and also of the disclosures made by Paul to [before] king Agrippa concerning the ἀποκάλυψις κυρίου that had been given him, Acts 26:25." Winer's De verb. comp. etc. Part iv., p. 16.TGL ἀποφθέγγομαι.2


    (670) ἀποφορτίζομαι; (φορτίζω to load; φόρτος a load), to disburden oneself; τί, to lay down a load, unlade, discharge: τὸν γόμον, of a ship, Acts 21:3; cf. Meyer and DeWette at the passage; Winers Grammar, 349f (328f).TGL ἀποφορτίζομαι.2

    (Elsewhere also used of sailors lightening ship during a storm in order to avoid shipwreck: Philo de praem. et poen. § 5 κυβερνήτης, χειμώνων ἐπιγινομένων, ἀποφορτίζεται; Athen. 2, 5, p. 37 and following, where it occurs twice.)TGL ἀποφορτίζομαι.3


    (671) ἀπόχρησις, -εως, , (ἀποχράομαι to use to the full, to abuse), abuse, misuse: Colossians 2:22 ἐστιν πάντα εἰς φθορὰν τῇ ἀποχρήσει "all which (i. e. things forbidden) tend to destruction (bring destruction) by abuse"; Paul says this from the standpoint of the false teachers, who in any use of those things whatever saw an "abuse," i. e. a blameworthy use. In opposition to those who treat the clause as parenthetical and understand ἀπόχρησις to mean consumption by use (a being used up, as in Plutarch, moral., p. 267f. [quaest. Rom. 18]), so that the words do not give the sentiment of the false teachers but Paul's judgment of it, very similar to that set forth in Matthew 15:17; 1 Corinthians 6:13, cf. DeWette at the passage. [But see Meyer, Ellicott, Lightfoot.]TGL ἀπόχρησις.2


    (672) ἀποχωρέω, -ῶ; 1 aorist ἀπεχώρησα; [from Thucydides down]; to go away, depart: ἀπό τινος, Matthew 7:23; Luke 9:39; Acts 13:13; [absolutely, Luke 20:20 Tr marginal reading].TGL ἀποχωρέω.2


    (673) ἀποχωρίζω: [1 aorist passive ἀπεχωρίσθην]; to separate, sever (often in Plato); to part asunder: passive οὐρανὸς ἀπεχωρίσθη, Revelation 6:14; reflexively, to separate oneself, depart from: ἀποχωρισθῆναι αὐτοὺς ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων, Acts 15:39.TGL ἀποχωρίζω.2


    (674) ἀποψύχω; to breathe out life, expire; to faint or swoon away: Luke 21:26. (So Thucydides 1, 134; Bion 1, 9, others; 4 Macc. 15:18.)TGL ἀποψύχω.2


    (675) Ἀππιος, -ου, , Appius, a Roman praenomen; Ἀππίου φόρον Appii Forum (Cicero, ad Att. 2, 10; Horace sat. 1, 5, 3), [R. V. The Market of Appius], the name of a town in Italy, situated 43 Roman miles from Rome on the Appian way — (this road was paved with square [(?) polygonal] stone by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus, B. C. 312, and led through the porta Capena to Capua, and thence as far as Brundisium): Acts 28:15. [Cf. BB. DD. ]TGL Ἄππιος.2


    (676) ἀπρόσιτος, -ον, (προσιέναι to go to), unapproachable, inaccessible: φῶς ἀπρόσιτον, 1 Timothy 6:16. (Polybius, Diodorus, [Strabo], Philo, Lucian, Plutarch; φέγγος ἀπρόσιτον, Tatian c. 20; δόξα [φῶς], Chrysostom [vi. 66, Montf. edition] on Isaiah 6:2.)TGL ἀπρόσιτος.2


    (677) ἀπρόσκοπος, -ον, (προσκόπτω, which see);TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.2

    1. actively, having nothing for one to strike against; not causing to stumble;TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.3

    a. properly: ὁδός, a smooth road, Sir. 35:21 (Sir. 32:21).TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.4

    b. metaphorically, not leading others into sin by one's mode of life: 1 Corinthians 10:32.TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.5

    2. passively,TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.6

    a. not striking against or stumbling; metaphorically, not led into sin; blameless: Philippians 1:10 (joined with εἰλικρινεῖς).TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.7

    b. without offence: συνείδησις, not troubled and distressed by a consciousness of sin, Acts 24:16.TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.8

    (Not found in secular authors [except Sextus Empiricus, 1, 195 (p. 644, 13 Bekker)].)TGL ἀπρόσκοπος.9


    (678) ἀπροσωπολήπτως [-λήμπτως L T Tr WH; cf. references under the word Μ, μ], a word of Hellenistic origin (α privative and προσωπολήπτης, which see), without respect of persons, i. e. impartially: 1 Peter 1:17, (Epistle of Barnabas 4, 12; [Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 1:1-31, 1 Corinthians 1:3]).TGL ἀπροσωπολήμπτως.2

    (The adjective ἀπροσωπόληπτος occurs here and there in ecclesiastical writings.)TGL ἀπροσωπολήμπτως.3


    (679) ἄπταιστος, -ον (πταίω, which see), not stumbling, standing firm, exempt from falling (properly, of a horse, Xenophon, de re eq. 1, 6); metaphorically: Jude 1:24. [Cf. Winers Grammar, 97 (92); Buttmann, 42 (37).]TGL ἄπταιστος.2


    (680) ἅπτω; 1 aorist participle ἅψας; (cf. Latin apto , German heften); [from Homer down];TGL ἅπτομαι.2

    1. properly, to fasten to, make adhere to; hence, specifically to fasten fire to a thing, to kindle, set on fire, (often so in Attic): λύχνον, Luke 8:16; Luke 11:33; Luke 15:8 (Aristophanes nub. 57; Theophrastus, char. 20 (18); Josephus, Antiquities 4, 3, 4); πῦρ, Luke 22:55 [T Tr text WH περιαψάντων]; πυράν, Acts 28:2 L T Tr WH.TGL ἅπτομαι.3

    2. Middle [present ἅπτομαι]; imperfect ἡπτόμην [Mark 6:56 R G Tr marginal reading]; 1 aorist ἡψάμην; in Sept. generally for נָגַע, הִגִּיעַ; properly, to fasten oneself to, adhere to, cling to (Homer, Iliad 8, 67);TGL ἅπτομαι.4

    a. to touch, followed by the object in genitive [Winers Grammar, § 30, 8 c.; Buttmann, 167 (146); cf. Donaldson, p. 483]: Matthew 8:3; Mark 3:10; Mark 7:33; Mark 8:22, etc.; Luke 18:15; Luke 22:51 — very often in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. In John 20:17, μή μου ἅπτου is to be explained thus: Do not handle me to see whether I am still clothed with a body; there is no need of such an examination, "for not yet" etc.; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and Meyer at the passage [as given by Hackett in Bib. Sacr. for 1868, p. 779f, or B. D. American edition, p. 1813f].TGL ἅπτομαι.5

    b. γυναικός, of carnal intercourse with a woman, or cohabitation, 1 Corinthians 7:1, like the Latin tangere , Horace sat. 1, 2, 54: Terence, Heaut. 4, 4, 15, and the Hebrew נָגַע, Genesis 20:6; Proverbs 6:29 (Plato, de legg. viii. 840 a.; Plutarch, Alex. Magn c. 21).TGL ἅπτομαι.6

    c. with allusion to the levitical precept ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε, have no contact with the Gentiles, no fellowship in their heathenish practices, 2 Corinthians 6:17 (from Isaiah 52:11); and in the Jewish sense, μὴ ἅψῃ, Colossians 2:21 (the things not to be touched appear to be both women and certain kinds of food, so that, celibacy and abstinence from various kinds of food and drink are recommended; cf. DeWette at the passage [but also Meyer and Bp. Lightfoot; on the distinction between the stronger term ἅπτεσθαι (to handle?) and the more delicate θιγεῖν (to touch?) cf. the two commentators just named and Trench, § xvii. In classic Greek also ἅπτεσθαι is the stronger term, denoting often to lay hold of, hold fast, appropriate; in its carnal reference differing from θιγγάνειν by suggesting unlawfulness. θιγγάνειν, is used of touching by the hand as a means of knowledge, handling for a purpose; ψηλαφᾶν signifies to feel around with the fingers or hands, especially in searching for something, often to grope, fumble, cf. ψηλαφίνδα blindman's buff. Schmidt, chapter 10.]).TGL ἅπτομαι.7

    d. to touch i. e. assail: τινός, anyone, 1 John 5:18 (1 Chronicles 16:22, etc.).TGL ἅπτομαι.8

    [Compare: ἀν-, καθ-, περιάπτω.]TGL ἅπτομαι.9


    (681) ἅπτω; 1 aorist participle ἅψας; (cf. Latin apto , German heften); [from Homer down];TGL ἅπτω.2

    1. properly, to fasten to, make adhere to; hence, specifically to fasten fire to a thing, to kindle, set on fire, (often so in Attic): λύχνον, Luke 8:16; Luke 11:33; Luke 15:8 (Aristophanes nub. 57; Theophrastus, char. 20 (18); Josephus, Antiquities 4, 3, 4); πῦρ, Luke 22:55 [T Tr text WH περιαψάντων); πυράν, Acts 28:2 L T Tr WH.TGL ἅπτω.3

    2. Middle [present ἅπτομαι]; imperfect ἡπτόμην [Mark 6:56 R G Tr marginal reading]; 1 aorist ἡψάμην; in the Sept. generally for נָגַע, הִגִּיעַ; properly, to fasten oneself to, adhere to, cling to, (Homer, Iliad 8, 67);TGL ἅπτω.4

    a. to touch, followed by the object in genitive [Winers Grammar, § 30, 8 c.; Buttmann, 167 (146); cf. Donaldson, p. 483]: Matthew 8:3; Mark 3:10; Mark 7:33; Mark 8:22, etc.; Luke 18:15; Luke 22:51 — very often in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. In John 20:17, μή μου ἅπτου is to be explained thus: Do not handle me to see whether I am still clothed with a body; there is no need of such an examination, "for not yet" etc.; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and Meyer at the passage [as given by Hackett in Bib. Sacr. for 1868, p. 779f, or B. D. American edition, p. 1813f].TGL ἅπτω.5

    b. γυναικός, of carnal intercourse with a woman, or cohabitation, 1 Corinthians 7:1, like the Latin tangere , Horace sat. 1, 2, 54: Terence, Heaut. 4, 4, 15, and the Hebrew נָגַע, Genesis 20:6; Proverbs 6:29 (Plato, de legg. viii. 840 a.; Plutarch, Alex. Magn. c. 21).TGL ἅπτω.6

    c. with allusion to the levitical precept ἀκαθάρτου μὴ ἅπτεσθε, have no intercourse with the Gentiles, no fellowship in their heathenish practices, 2 Corinthians 6:17 (from Isaiah 52:11); and in the Jewish sense, μὴ ἅψῃ, Colossians 2:21 (the things not to be touched appear to be both women and certain kinds of food, so that, celibacy and abstinence from various kinds of food and drink are recommended; cf. DeWette at the passage [but also Meyer and Bp. Lightfoot; on the distinction between the stronger term ἅπτεσθαι (to handle?) and the more delicate θιγεῖν (to touch?) cf. the two commentators just named and Trench, § xvii. In classic Greek also ἅπτεσθαι is the stronger term, denoting often to lay hold of, hold fast, appropriate; in its carnal reference differing from θιγγάνειν by suggesting unlawfulness. θιγγάνειν, is used of touching by the hand as a means of knowledge, handling for a purpose; ψηλαφᾶν signifies to feel around with the fingers or hands, especially in searching for something, often to grope, fumble, cf. ψηλαφίνδα blindman's buff. Schmidt, chapter 10.]).TGL ἅπτω.7

    d. to touch i. e. assail: τινός, anyone, 1 John 5:18 (1 Chronicles 16:22, etc.). [Compare: ἀν-, καθ-, περιάπτω.]TGL ἅπτω.8

    Related entry: περιάπτω: 1 aorist participle περιάψας; [from Pindar down];TGL ἅπτω.9

    1. to bind or to tie around, to put around, [περί III. 1]; to hang upon, attach to.TGL ἅπτω.10

    2. to kindle a fire around [or thoroughly; see περικρύπτω, περικαλύπτω, περικρατής, περίλυπος, etc.] (Phalaris ep. 5, p. 28): Luke 22:55 T WH Tr text.TGL ἅπτω.11


    (682) Ἀπφία, -ας, , Apphia, name of a woman: Philemon 1:2 [Apparently a Phrygian name expressive of endearment, cf. Suïdae Lex., Gaisf. edition, col. 534 a. Ἀπφά: ἀδελφῆς κ. ἀδελφοῦ ὑποκόρισμα, etc. cf. Ἀπφύς. See fully in Bp. Lightfoot's Commentary on Colossians and Philemon, p. 306ff.]TGL Ἀπφία.2


    (683) ἀπωθέω, -ῶ: to thrust away, push away, repel; in the N. T. only the middle, present ἀπωθέομαι (-οῦμαι); 1 aorist ἀπωσάμην (for which the better writings used ἀπεωσάμην, cf. W 90 (86); Buttmann, 69 (61)); to thrust away from oneself, to drive away from oneself, i. e. to repudiate, reject, refuse: τινά, Acts 7:27, Acts 7:39; Acts 13:46; Romans 11:1; 1 Timothy 1:19. (Jeremiah 2:36 (Jeremiah 2:37); Jeremiah 4:30; Jeremiah 6:19; Psalm 93:14 (Psalms 94:14) and often. In Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ἀπωθέω.2


    (684) ἀπώλεια, -ας, , (from ἀπόλλυμι, which see);TGL ἀπώλεια.2

    1. actively, a destroying, utter destruction: as, of vessels, Romans 9:22; τοῦ μύρου, waste, Mark 14:4 (in Matthew 26:8 without a genitive) (in Polybius 6, 59, 5 consumption, opposed to τήρησις); the putting of a man to death, Acts 25:16 Rec. ; by metonymy, a destructive thing or opinion: in plural 2 Peter 2:2 Rec. ; but the correct reading ἀσελγείαις was long ago adopted here.TGL ἀπώλεια.3

    2. passively, a perishing, ruin, destruction;TGL ἀπώλεια.4

    a. in general: τὸ ἀργύριόν σου σύν σοι εἴη εἰς ἀπ., let thy money perish with thee, Acts 8:20; βυθίζειν τινὰ εἰς ὄλεθρον κ. ἀπώλειαν, with the included idea of misery, 1 Timothy 6:9; αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας destructive opinions, 2 Peter 2:1; ἐπάγειν ἑαυτοῖς ἀπώλειαν, ibid. cf. 2 Peter 2:3.TGL ἀπώλεια.5

    b. in particular, the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those excluded from the kingdom of God: Revelation 17:8, Revelation 17:11, cf. Revelation 19:20; Philippians 3:19; 2 Peter 3:16; opposed to περιποίησις τῆς ψυχῆς, Hebrews 10:39; to ζωή, Matthew 7:13; to σωτηρία, Philippians 1:28. υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας, a man doomed to eternal misery (a Hebraism, see υἱός , 2): 2 Thessalonians 2:3 (of Antichrist); John 17:12 (of Judas, the traitor); ἡμέρα κρίσεως κ. ἀπωλείας τῶν ἀσεβῶν, 2 Peter 3:7. (In secular authors from Polybius as above [but see Aristotle, probl. 17, 3, 2, vol. ii., p. 916a, 26; 29, 14, 10 ibid. 952b, 26; Nicom. eth. 4, 1 ibid. 1120a, 2, etc.]; often in the Sept. and O. T. Apocrypha.)TGL ἀπώλεια.6


    (685) ἄρά, -ᾶς, ,TGL ἀρά.2

    1. a prayer; a supplication; much more oftenTGL ἀρά.3

    2. an imprecation, curse, malediction (cf. κατάρα ); so in Romans 3:14 (cf. Psalm 9:28 (Psalms 10:7)), and often in the Sept. (In both senses in native Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ἀρά.4


    (686) ἄρα, an illative particle (akin, as it seems, to the verbal root ΑΡΩ to join, to be fitted [cf. Curtius, § 488; Vanicek, p. 47]), whose use among native Greeks is illustrated fully by Kühner, ii., §§ 509, 545; [Jelf, §§ 787-789], and Klotz ad Devar. ii., pp. 160-180, among others; [for a statement of diverse views see Bäumlein, Griech. Partikeln, p. 19f]. It intimates that, "under these circumstances something either is so or becomes so" (Klotz, the passage cited, p. 167): Latin igitur , consequently, [differing from οὖν in 'denoting a subjective impression rather than a positive conclusion.' Liddell and Scott (see 5 below)]. In the N. T. it is used frequently by Paul, but in the writings of John and in the so-called Catholic Epistles it does not occur. On its use in the N. T. cf. Winer's Grammar, §§ 53, 8 a. and 61, 6. It is found:TGL ἄρα.2

    1. subjoined to another word: Romans 7:21; Romans 8:1; Galatians 3:7; ἐπεὶ ἄρα since, if it were otherwise, 1 Corinthians 7:14; [1 Corinthians 5:10, cf. Buttmann, § 149, 5]. When placed after pronouns and interrogative particles, it refers to a preceding assertion or fact, or even to something existing only in the mind: τίς ἄρα who then? Matthew 18:1 (i. e. one certainly will be the greater, who then?); Matthew 19:25 (i. e. certainly some will be saved; you say that the rich will not; who then?); Matthew 19:27; Matthew 24:45 (I bid you be ready; who then etc.? the question follows from this command of mine); Mark 4:41; Luke 1:66 (from all these things doubtless something follows; what, then?); Luke 8:25; Luke 12:42; Luke 22:23 (it will be one of us, which then?); Acts 12:18 (Peter has disappeared; what, then, has become of him?). εἰ ἄρα, Mark 11:13 (whether, since the tree had leaves, he might also find some fruit on it); Acts 7:1 [Rec. ] (ἄρα equivalent to 'since the witnesses testify thus'); Acts 8:22 (if, since thy sin is so grievous, perhaps the thought etc.); εἴπερ ἄρα, 1 Corinthians 15:15, (אִם־נָא, εἰ ἄρα, Genesis 18:3). οὐκ ἄρα, Acts 21:38 (thou hast a knowledge of Greek; art thou not then the Egyptian, as I suspected?); μήτι ἄρα (Latin num igitur ), did I then etc., 2 Corinthians 1:17.TGL ἄρα.3

    2. By a use doubtful in Greek writings (cf. Buttmann, 371 (318); [Winers Grammar, 558 (519)]) it is placed at the beginning of a sentence; and so, so then, accordingly, equivalent to ὥστε with a finite verb: ἄρα μαρτυρεῖτε [μάρτυρές ἐστε T Tr WH], Luke 11:48 (Matthew 23:31 ὥστε μαρτυρεῖτε); Romans 10:17; 1 Corinthians 15:18; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (2 Corinthians 5:15) (in L T Tr WH no conditional protasis preceding); 2 Corinthians 7:12; Galatians 4:31 (L T Tr WH διό); Hebrews 4:9.TGL ἄρα.4

    3. in an apodosis, after a protasis with εἰ, in order to bring out what follows as a matter of course (German so ist ja the obvious inference is): Luke 11:20; Matthew 12:28; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (2 Corinthians 5:15) (R G, a protasis with εἰ preceding); Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:29; Galatians 5:11; Hebrews 12:8; joined to another word, 1 Corinthians 15:14.TGL ἄρα.5

    4. with γέ, rendering it more pointed, ἄραγε [L Tr uniformly ἄρα γε; so R WH in Acts 17:27; cf. Winers Grammar, p. 45; Lipsius Gram. Untersuch., p. 123], surely then, so then (Latin itaque ergo ): Matthew 7:20; Matthew 17:26; Acts 11:18 (L T Tr WH omit γέ); and subjoined to a word, Acts 17:27 [Winer's Grammar, 299 (281)].TGL ἄρα.6

    5. ἄρα οὖν, a combination peculiar to Paul, at the beginning of a sentence (Winers Grammar, 445 (414); Buttmann, 371 (318) ["ἄρα ad internam potius caussam spectat , οὖν magis ad externam ." Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 717; ἄρα is the more logical, οὖν the more formal connective; "ἄρα is illative, οὖν continuative," Winers, the passage cited; cf. also Kühner, § 545, 3]) [R. V. ] so then (Latin hinc igitur ): Romans 5:18; Romans 7:3, Romans 7:25; Romans 8:12; Romans 9:16, Romans 9:18; Romans 14:12 (L Tr omit WH brackets οὖν); Romans 14:19 [L marginal reading ἆρα]; Galatians 6:10; Ephesians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:15.TGL ἄρα.7

    Related entry: [ἄραγε, see ἄρα 4.]TGL ἄρα.8


    (687) ἆρα, an interrogative particle ["implying anxiety or impatience on the part of the questioner." Liddell and Scott, under the word] (of the same root as the preceding ἄρα, and only differing from it in that more vocal stress is laid upon the first syllable, which is therefore circumflexed);TGL ἆρα.2

    1. num igitur , i. e. marking an inferential question to which a negative answer is expected: Luke 18:8; with γε rendering it more pointed, ἆρά γε [G T ἆράγε]: Acts 8:30; [ἆρα οὖν... διώκομεν Lachmann edition min. also major marginal reading are we then pursuing etc. Romans 14:19].TGL ἆρα.3

    2. ergone i. e. a question to which an affirmative answer is expected, in an interrogative apodosis (German so ist also wohl? ), he is then? Galatians 2:17 (where others [e. g. Lachmann] write ἄρα, so that this example is referred to those mentioned under ἄρα, 3, and is rendered Christ is then a minister of sin; but μὴ γένοιτο, which follows, is everywhere by Paul opposed to a question). Cf. Winers Grammar, 510f (475f) [also Buttmann, 247 (213), 371 (318); Herm. ad Vig., p. 820ff; Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 180ff; speaking somewhat loosely, it may be said "ἆρα expresses bewilderment as to a possible conclusion... ἆρα hesitates, while ἄρα concludes." Bp. Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited].TGL ἆρα.4

    Related entry: [ἆράγε, see ἆρα, 1.]TGL ἆρα.5


    (688) Ἀραβία, -ας, , [from Herodotus down], Arabia, a well-known peninsula of Asia, lying toward Africa, and bounded by Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, the Gulf of Arabia, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea [and the Ocean]: Galatians 1:17; Galatians 4:25.TGL Ἀραβία.2


    (689) Αράμ, Aram [or Ram], indeclinable proper name of one of the male ancestors of Christ: Matthew 1:3; Luke 3:33 [not T WH Tr marginal reading; see Ἀδμείν and Ἀρνεί ].TGL Ἀράμ.2

    Related entry: Ἀδμείν, , Admin, the indeclinable proper name of one of the ancestors of Jesus: Luke 3:33, where Tdf reads τοῦ Ἀδμεὶν τοῦ Ἀρνεί for Rec. τοῦ Ἀράμ (which see), [and WH textually subsitute the same reading for τοῦ Ἀμιναδάβ τοῦ Ἀράμ of R G, but in their marginal reading Ἀδάμ (which see 2) for Ἀδμείν on the spelling of the word see their App. p. 155].TGL Ἀράμ.3

    Related entry: Ἀρνεί, , indeclinable proper name of one of the ancestors of Jesus: Luke 3:33 T WH Tr marginal reading.TGL Ἀράμ.4


    (690) Ἄραψ, -αβος, , an Arabian: Acts 2:11.TGL Ἄραψ.2


    (691) ἀργέω, -ῶ; (to be ἀργός, which see); to be idle, inactive; contextually, to linger, delay: 2 Peter 2:3 οἷς τὸ κρίμα ἔκπαλαι οὐκ ἀργεῖ, i. e. whose punishment has long been impending and will shortly fall. (In Greek writings from Sophocles down.)TGL ἀργέω.2

    [Compare: καταργέω.]TGL ἀργέω.3


    (692) ἀργός, -όν, and in later writings from Aristotle, hist. anim. 10, 40 [vol. i., p. 627a, 15] on and consequently also in the N. T. with the feminine ἀργή, which among the early Greeks Epimenides alone is said to have used, Titus 1:12; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 104f; id. Paralip., p. 455ff; Winers Grammar, 68 (67) [cf. 24; Buttmann, 25 (23)], (contracted from ἄεργος which Homer uses, from α privative and ἔργον without work, without labor, doing nothing), inactive, idle;TGL ἀργός.2

    a. free from labor, at leisure (ἀργὸν εἶναι, Herodotus 5, 6): Matthew 20:3, Matthew 20:6 [Rec. ]; 1 Timothy 5:13.TGL ἀργός.3

    b. lazy, shunning the labor which one ought to perform, (Homer, Iliad 9, 320 , τ’ ἀεργὸς ἀνήρ, , τε πολλὰ ἐοργώς): πίστις, James 2:20 (L T Tr WH for R G νεκρά); γαστέρες ἀργαί i. e. idle gluttons, from Epimenides , Titus 1:12 (Nicet. ann. 7, 4, 135 d. εἰς ἀργὰς γαστέρας ὀχετηγήσας); ἀργὸς καὶ ἄκαρπος εἴς τι, 2 Peter 1:8.TGL ἀργός.4

    c. of things from which no profit is derived, although they can and ought to be productive; as of fields, trees, gold and silver, (cf. Grimm on Wis. 14:5; [Liddell and Scott, under the word I. 2]); unprofitable, ῤῆμα ἀργόν, by litotes equivalent to pernicious (see ἄκαρπος ): Matthew 12:36.TGL ἀργός.5

    [Synonyms: ἀργός, βραδύς, νωθρός: ἀργ. idle, involving blame-worthiness; βρ. slow (tardy), having a purely temporal reference and no necessary bad sense; νωθρ. sluggish, descriptive of constitutional qualities and suggestive of censure. Schmidt ch. 49; Trench § 104]TGL ἀργός.6


    (693) ἀργύρεος -οῦς, -έα -ᾶ, -εον -οῦν, of silver; in the contracted form in Acts 19:24 [but WH brackets]; 2 Timothy 2:20; Revelation 9:20. [From Homer down.]TGL ἀργύρεος.2


    (694) ἀργύριον, -ου, τό, (from ἄργυρος, which see), [from Herodotus down];TGL ἀργύριον.2

    1. silver: Acts 3:6; Acts 7:16; Acts 20:33; 1 Peter 1:18; [1 Corinthians 3:12 T Tr WH].TGL ἀργύριον.3

    2. money: simply, Matthew 25:18, Matthew 25:27; Mark 14:11; Luke 9:3; Luke 19:15, Luke 19:23; Luke 22:5; Acts 8:20; plural, [Matthew 28:12], Matthew 28:15.TGL ἀργύριον.4

    3. Specifically, a silver coin, silver-piece (Luther, Silberling), שֶׁקֶל σίκλος, shekel [see B. D. under the word], i. e. a coin in circulation among the Jews after the exile, from the time of Simon (circa B. C. 141) down (cf. 1 Macc. 15:6f [yet see B. D. under the word Money, and references in Schürer, N. T. Zeitgesch. § 7]); according to Josephus (Antiquities 3, 8, 2) equal to the Attic tetradrachm or the Alexandrian didrachm (cf. στατήρ [B. D. under the word Piece of Silver]): Matthew 26:15; Matthew 27:3, Matthew 27:5, Matthew 27:9. In Acts 19:19, ἀργυρίον μυριάδες πέντε fifty thousand pieces of silver (German 50,000 in Silber equivalent to Silbergeld ), doubtless drachmas [cf. δηνάριον ] are meant; cf. Meyer [and others] at the passage.TGL ἀργύριον.5


    (695) ἀργυροκόπος, -ου, , (ἄργυρος and κόπτω to beat, hammer; a silver-beater), a silversmith: Acts 19:24. (Judges 17:4; Jeremiah 6:29. Plutarch, de vitand. aere alien. c. 7.)TGL ἀργυροκόπος.2


    (696) ἄργυρος, -ου, , (ἀργός shining), [from Homer down], silver: 1 Corinthians 3:12 [T Tr WH ἀργύριον] (reference is made to the silver with which the columns of noble buildings were covered and the rafters adorned); by metonymy, things made of silver, silver-work, vessels, images of the gods, etc.: Acts 17:29; James 5:3; Revelation 18:12. silver coin: Matthew 10:9.TGL ἄργυρος.2

    Ἄρειος πάγος

    (697) Ἄρειος [Tdf. Ἀριος] πάγος, -ου, , Areopagus (a rocky height in the city of Athens not far from the Acropolis toward the west; πάγος a hill, Ἄρειος belonging to (Ares) Mars, Mars’ Hill; so called, because, as the story went, Mars, having slain Halirrhothius, son of Neptune, for the attempted violation of his daughter Alcippe, was tried for the murder here before the twelve gods as judges; Pausan. Attic. 1, 28, 5), the place where the judges convened who, by appointment of Solon , had jurisdiction of capital offences (as willful murder, arson, poisoning, malicious wounding, and breach of the established religious usages). The court itself was called Areopagus from the place where it sat, also Areum judicium (Tacitus, ann. 2, 55), and curia Martis (Juvenal , sat. 9, 101). To that hill the apostle Paul was led, not to defend himself before the judges, but that he might set forth his opinions on divine subjects to a greater multitude of people, flocking together there and eager to hear something new: Acts 17:19-22; cf. Acts 17:32. Cf. J. H. Krause in Pauly's Real-Encycl. 2te Aufi. i. 2, p. 1497ff under the word Areopag; [Grote, Hist. of Greece, index under the word; Dictionary of Geographies and Antiquities; BB. DD. under the word; and on Paul's discourse, especially B. D. American edition under the word Areopagus; and on Paul's discourse, especially B. D. American edition under the word Mars’ Hill].TGL Ἄρειος πάγος.2


    (698) Ἀρεοπαγίτης, Tdf. -γείτης [see under the word ει , ι], -ου, , (from the preceding [cf. Lob. ad Phryn. 697f]), a member of the court of Areopagus, an Areopagite: Acts 17:34.TGL Ἀρεοπαγίτης.2


    (699) ἀρεσκεία (T WH -κια [see Ι, ι]), -ας, , (from ἀρεσκεύω to be complaisant; hence, not to be written [with R G L Tr] ἀρέσκεια [cf. Chandler § 99; Winers Grammar, § 6, 1 g.; Buttmann, 12 (11)]), desire to please: περιπατεῖν ἀξίως τοῦ κυρίου εἰς πᾶσαν ἀρεσκείαν, to please him in all things, Colossians 1:10; (of the desire to please God, in Philo, opif. § 50; de profug. § 17; de victim. § 3 at the end. In native Greek writings commonly in a bad sense: Theophrastus, char. 3 (5); Polybius 31, 26, 5; Diodorus 13, 53; others; [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited]).TGL ἀρεσκεία.2


    (700) ἀρέσκω; imperfect ἤρεσκον; future ἀρέσω; 1 aorist ἤρεσα; (ΑΡΩ [see ἄρα at the beginning]); [from Homer down];TGL ἀρέσκω.2

    a. to please: τινί, Matthew 14:6; Mark 6:22; Romans 8:8; Romans 15:2; 1 Thessalonians 2:15; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 7:32-34; Galatians 1:10; 2 Timothy 2:4; ἐνώπιόν τινος, after the Hebrew בְּעֵינֵי, Acts 6:5 (1 Kings 3:10; Genesis 34:18, etc.).TGL ἀρέσκω.3

    b. to strive to please; to accommodate oneself to the opinions, desires, interests of others: τινί, 1 Corinthians 10:33 (πάντα πᾶσιν ἀρέσκω); 1 Thessalonians 2:4. ἀρέσκειν ἑαυτῷ, to please oneself and therefore to have an eye to one's own interests: Romans 15:1, Romans 15:3.TGL ἀρέσκω.4


    (701) ἀρεστός, -ή, -όν, (ἀρέσκω), pleasing, agreeable: τινί, John 8:29; Acts 12:3; ἐνώπιόν τινος, 1 John 3:22 (cf. ἀρέσκω , a.); ἄρεστόν ἐστι followed by an accusative with an infinitive it is fit, Acts 6:2 [yet cf. Meyer at the passage]. (In Greek writings from [Sophocles] Herodotus down.)TGL ἀρεστός.2


    (702) Ἀρέτας [WH Ἁρ., see their Introduction § 408], (cf. Winers Grammar, § 8, 1; [Buttmann, 20 (18)]), , Aretas (a name common to many of the kings of Arabia Petraea or Nabathaean Arabia [cf. B. D. under the word Nebaioth]; cf. Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 17 b. p. 233f); an Arabian king Aretas IV., styled ϕιλόπατρις 'lover of his country,' who reigned B. C. 9 (or 8) to A. D. 39 (or 40) (see Gutschmid's List of Nabathaean kings in J. Euting, Nab. Inschriften aus Arabien, Berlin 1885, p. 84f) who made war (A. D. 36) on his son-in-law Herod Antipas for having repudiated his daughter; and with such success as completely to destroy his army (Josephus, Antiquities 18, 5). In consequence of this, Vitellius, governor of Syria, being ordered by Tiberius to march an army against Aretas, prepared for the war. But Tiberius meantime having died [March 16, A. D. 37], he recalled his troops from the march, dismissed them to their winter quarters, and departed to Rome. After his departure Aretas held sway over the region of Damascus (how acquired we do not know), and placed an ethnarch over the city: 2 Corinthians 11:32. Cf. Winers RWB under the word; Wieseler in Herzog i., p. 488f; Keim in Schenkel i., p. 238f; Schürer in Riehm, p. 83f; [B. D. American edition under the word Aretas; Meyer on Acts, Einl. § 4 (cf. ibid., Wendt edition)].TGL Ἀρέτας.2


    (703) ἀρετή, -ῆς, , [see ἄρα at the beginning], a word of very wide signification in Greek writings; any excellence of a person (in body or mind) or of a thing, an eminent endowment, property or quality. Used of the human mind and in an ethical sense, it denotes:TGL ἀρετή.2

    1. a virtuous course of thought, feeling and action; virtue, moral goodness (Wis. 4:1; Wis. 5:13; often in 4 Macc. and in Greek writings): 2 Peter 1:5 [others take it here specifically, namely moral vigor; cf. next entry].TGL ἀρετή.3

    2. any particular moral excellence, as modesty, purity; hence (plural αἱ ἀρεταί, Wis. 8:7; often in 4 Macc. and in the Greek philosophers) τὶς ἀρετή, Philippians 4:8. Used of God, it denotesTGL ἀρετή.4

    a. his power: 2 Peter 1:3.TGL ἀρετή.5

    b. in the plural his excellences, perfections, 'which shine forth in our gratuitous calling and in the whole work of our salvation' (John Gerhard): 1 Peter 2:9. (In the Sept. for הוד splendor, glory, Habakkuk 3:3, of God; Zechariah 6:13, of the Messiah; in plural for תְּהִלּות praises, of God, Isaiah 43:21; Isaiah 42:12; Isaiah 63:7.)TGL ἀρετή.6


    (704) ἀρήν, , nominative not in use; the other cases are by syncope ἀρνός (for ἀρένος), ἀρνί, ἄρνα, plural ἄρνες, ἀρνῶν, ἄρνάσι, ἄρνας, a sheep, a lamb: Luke 10:3. (Genesis 30:32; Exodus 23:19, etc.; in Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ἀρήν.2

    Related entry: ἄρνας, see ἀρήν.TGL ἀρήν.3


    (705) ἀριθμέω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἠρίθμησα; perfect passive ἠρίθμημαι: (ἀριθμός); [from Homer down]; to number: Matthew 10:30; Luke 12:7; Revelation 7:9.TGL ἀριθμέω.2

    [Compare: καταριθμέω.]TGL ἀριθμέω.3


    (706) ἀριθμός, -οῦ, , [from Homer down], a number;TGL ἀριθμός.2

    a. a fixed and definite number: τὸν ἀριθμὸν πεντακισχίλιοι, in number, John 6:10 (2 Macc. 8:16; 3 Macc. 5:2, and often in Greek writings; Winers Grammar, 230 (216); [Buttmann, 153 (134)]); ἐκ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ τῶν δώδεκα, Luke 22:3; ἀρ. ἀνθρώπου, a number whose letters indicate a certain man, Revelation 13:18.TGL ἀριθμός.3

    b. an indefinite number, equivalent to a multitude: Acts 6:7; Acts 11:21; Revelation 20:8.TGL ἀριθμός.4


    (707) Ἁριμαθαία [WH Ἁρ., see their Introduction § 408], -ας, , Arimathæa, Hebrew רָמָה (a height), the name of several cities of Palestine; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus 3, p. 1275. The one mentioned in Matthew 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38 appears to have been the same as that which was the birthplace and residence of Samuel, in Mount Ephraim: 1 Samuel 1:1, 1 Samuel 1:19, etc. the Sept. άρμαθαΐμ, and without the article Ῥαμαθέμ, and according to another reading Ῥαμαθαΐμ, 1 Macc. 11:34; Ῥαμαθά in Josephus, Antiquities 13, 4, 9. Cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 11:34; Keim, Jesus von Naz. 3:514; [B. D. American edition].TGL Ἁριμαθαία.2

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