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    παρασκευάζω — πεντεκαιδέκατος


    (3903) παρασκευάζω; perfect passive παρεσκεύασμαι; future middle παρασκευάσομαι; from Herodotus down; to make ready, prepare: namely, τό δεῖπνον (added in Herodotus 9, 82; Athen. 4, 15, p. 138), Acts 10:10 (συμπόσιον, Halt. 9, 15; 2 Macc. 2:27). Middle to make oneself ready, to prepare oneself (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 38, 2 a.): εἰς πόλεμον, 1 Corinthians 14:8 (Jeremiah 27:42 (Jeremiah 50:42); εἰς μάχην, εἰς ναυμαχιαν, etc., in Xenophon ). Perfect passive in middle sense, to have prepared oneself, to be prepared or ready, 2 Corinthians 9:2 (see Matthiae , § 493).TGL παρασκευάζω.2


    (3904) παρασκευή, παρασκευῆς, , from Herodotus down;TGL παρασκευή.2

    1. a making ready, preparation, equipping.TGL παρασκευή.3

    2. that which is prepared, equipment.TGL παρασκευή.4

    3. in the N. T. in a Jewish sense, the day of preparation, i. e. the day on which the Jews made the necessary preparation to celebrate a sabbath or a feast: Matthew 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:31 (Josephus , Antiquities 16, 6, 2); with a genitive of the object, τοῦ πάσχα (according to Winer 's Grammar, 189 (177f) a possessive genitive), John 19:14 (cf. Rückert, Abendmahl, p. 31f); with a genitive of the subjunctive, τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ibid. 42. Cf. Bleek, Beiträge zur Evangelienkritik, p. 114ff; (on later usage cf. 'Teaching 8, 1 [ET] (and Harnack's note); Martyr. Polycarp , 7, 1 [ET] (and Zahn's note); Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word, 3).TGL παρασκευή.5


    (3905) παρατείνω: 1 aorist παρετεινα; from Herodotus down; to extend beside, to stretch out lengthwise, to extend; to prolong: τόν λόγον, his discourse, Acts 20:7 (λόγους, Aristotle , poet. 17; 5, p. 1455b, 2; μυθον, 9, 4, p. 1451b, 38).TGL παρατείνω.2


    (3906) παρατηρέω, παρατήρω: imperfect 3 person plural παρετήρουν; 1 aorist παρετήρησα; middle, present παρατηροῦμαι; imperfect 3 person plural παρετηροῦντο; properly, to stand beside and watch (cf. παρά , IV. 1); to watch assiduously, observe carefully;TGL παρατηρέω.2

    a. to watch, attend to, with the eyes: τά ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ γιγνόμενα; of auguries, Dio Cassius , 38, 13; τινα, one, to see what he is going to do (Xenophon , mem. 3, 14, 4); contextually in a bad sense, to watch insidiously, Luke 20:20 (Tr marginal reading ἀποχωρησαντες) (joined with ἐνεδρεύειν, Polybius 17, 3, 2); τινα (Polybius 11, 9, 9; the Sept. Psalms 36:12 (Psalms 37:12); Susanna 16) followed by the interrogative εἰ, Mark 3:2 R G T WH Tr text; Luke vi.; Rec. ; middle to watch for oneself: Mark 3:2 L Tr marginal reading; Luke 6:7 L T Tr WH ((in both passive followed by interrogative εἰ)); Luke 14:1; active with an accusative of place (Polybius 1, 29, 4): τάς πύλας (followed by ὅπως, cf. Buttmann , 237 (205)), Acts 9:24 R G , where L T Tr WH give middle παρετηροῦντο.TGL παρατηρέω.3

    b. to observe equivalent to to keep scrupulously; to neglect nothing requisite to the religious observance of: ἑβδομάδας, Josephus , Antiquities 3, 5, 5; (τήν τῶν σαββάτων ἡμέραν. id. 14, 10, 25); middle (for oneself, i. e. for one's salvation), ἡμέρας, μῆνας, καιρούς, Galatians 4:10 (ὅσα προσταττουσιν, οἱ νόμοι, Dio Cassius , 53, 10; (τά εἰς βρῶσιν οὐ νενομισμενα, Josephus , contra Apion 2, 39, 2)).TGL παρατηρέω.4


    (3907) παρατήρησις, παρατηρήσεως, (παρατηρέω), observation ((Polybius 16, 22, 8), Diodorus , Josephus , Antoninus , Plutarch , others): μετά παρατηρήσεως, in such a manner that it can be watched with the eyes, i. e. in a visible manner, Luke 17:20.TGL παρατήρησις.2


    (3908) παρατίθημι; future παραθήσω; 1 aorist παρέθηκα; 2 aorist subjunctive 3 person plural παραθῶσιν, infinitive παραθεῖναι (Mark 8:7 R G ); passive, present participle παρατιθέμενος; 1 aorist infinitive παρατεθῆναι (Mark 8:7 Lachmann); middle, present παρατίθεμαί; future παραθήσομαι; 2 aorist 3 person plural παρέθεντο, imperative παράθου (2 Timothy 2:2); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for שׂוּם;TGL παρατίθημι.2

    1. to place beside, place near (cf. παρά , IV. 1) or set before: τίνι τί, asTGL παρατίθημι.3

    a. food: Mark 6:41; Mark 8:6; Luke 9:16; Luke 11:6; τράπεζαν a table, i. e. food placed on a table, Acts 16:34 (Ep. ad Diogn. 5, 7 [ET]); τά παρατιθέμενα ὑμῖν (A. V. such things as are set before you), of food, Luke 10:8 (Xenophon , Cyril 2, 1, 30); singular 1 Corinthians 10:27.TGL παρατίθημι.4

    b. to set before (one) in teaching (Xenophon , Cyril 1, 6, 14; the Sept. Exodus 19:7): τίνι παραβολήν, Matthew 13:24, Matthew 13:31. Middle, to set forth (from oneself), to explain: followed by ὅτι, Acts 17:3.TGL παρατίθημι.5

    2. Middle, "to place down (from oneself or for oneself) with anyone, to deposit; to intrust, commit to one's charge" (Xenophon , respub. Athen. 2, 16; Polybius 33, 12, 3; Plutarch , Numbers 9:1-23; Tobit 4:1): τί τίνι, a thing to one to be cared for, Luke 12:48; a thing to be religiously kept and taught to others, 1 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 2:2; τινα τίνι, to commend one to another for protection, safety, etc., Acts 14:23; Acts 20:32 (Diodorus 17, 23); τάς ψυχάς to God, 1 Peter 4:19; τό πνεῦμα μου εἰς χεῖρας Θεοῦ, Luke 23:46; Psalms 30:6 (Psalms 31:6).TGL παρατίθημι.6


    (3909) παρατυγχάνω; from Homer (Iliad 11, 74) down; to chance to be by (cf. παρά , IV. 1), to happen to be present, to meet by chance: Acts 17:17.TGL παρατυγχάνω.2


    (3910) παραυτίκα (cf. Buttmann , § 146, 4), adverb, for the moment: 2 Corinthians 4:17. (Tragg., Xenophon , Plato , and following.)TGL παραυτίκα.2


    (3911) παραφέρω: (1 aorist infinitive παρενεγκαι (Luke 22:42 Tdf. , cf. Veitch , p. 669)); 2 aorist infinitive παρενεγκεῖν (Luke 22:42 R G ), imperative παρένεγκε ((ibid. L Tr WH ); present passive παραφέρομαι; see references under the word φέρω);TGL παραφέρω.2

    1. to bear (cf. παρά , IV. 1), bring to, put before: of food (Herodotus , Xenophon , others).TGL παραφέρω.3

    2. to lead aside (cf. παρά , IV. 2) from the right course or path, to carry away: Jude 1:12 (R. V. carried along) (where Rec. περιφέρεσθε); from the truth, Hebrews 13:9 where Rec. περιφερ. (Plato , Phaedr., p. 265 b.; Plutarch , Timol. 6; Antoninus 4, 43; Herodian , 8, 4, 7 (4 edition, Bekker)).TGL παραφέρω.4

    3. to carry past, lead past, i. e. to cause to pass by, to remove: τί ἀπό τίνος, Mark 14:36; Luke 22:42.TGL παραφέρω.5


    (3912) παραφρονέω, παραφρόνω; (παράφρων (from παρά (which see IV. 2) and φρήν, 'beside one's wits')); to be beside oneself, out of one's senses, void of understanding, insane: 2 Corinthians 11:23. (From Aeschylus and Herodotus down; once in the Sept. , Zechariah 7:11.)TGL παραφρονέω.2


    (3913) παραφρονία, παραφρονιας, (παράφρων (see the preceding word)), madness, insanity: 2 Peter 2:16. The Greek writ, use not this word but παραφροσύνη (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 24; 95 (90)).TGL παραφρονία.2


    (3914) παραχειμάζω: future παραχειμάσω; 1 aorist infinitive παραχειμάσαι; perfect participle παρακεχειμακως; to winter, pass the winter, with one or at a place: Acts 27:12; 1 Corinthians 16:6; ἐν τῇ νήσῳ, Acts 28:11; ἐκεῖ, Titus 3:12. (Demosthenes , p. 909, 15; Polybius 2, 64, 1; Diodorus 19, 34; Plutarch , Sertor. 3; Dio Cassius , 40, 4.)TGL παραχειμάζω.2


    (3915) παραχειμασία, παραχειμασιας, (παραχειμάζω), a passing the winter, wintering: Acts 27:12. (Polybius 3, 34, 6; (3, 35, 1); Diodorus 19, 68.)TGL παραχειμασία.2


    (3916) παραχρῆμα (properly, equivalent to παρά τό χρῆμα; cf. our on the spot), from Herodotus down; immediately, forthwith, instantly: Matthew 21:19; Luke 1:64; Luke 4:39; Luke 5:25; Luke 8:44, Luke 8:47, Luke 8:55; Luke 13:13; Luke 18:43; Luke 19:11; Luke 22:60; Acts 3:7; Acts 5:10; Acts 9:18 Rec. ; Acts 12:23; Acts 13:11; Acts 16:26 (WH brackets παραχρῆμα); Acts 16:33. (Wis. 18:17; 2 Macc. 4:34, 38, etc.; the Sept. for פִּתְאֹם, Numbers 6:9; Numbers 12:4; Isaiah 29:5; Isaiah 30:13.)TGL παραχρῆμα.2


    (3917) πάρδαλις, παρδαλισεως, , from Homer down; the Sept. for נָמֵר; a pard, panther, leopard; a very fierce Asiatic and African animal, having a tawny skin marked with large black spots (cf. Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 111ff; BB. DD. under the word): Revelation 13:2.TGL πάρδαλις.2


    (3918) πάρειμι; imperfect 3 person pl. παρῆσαν; future 3 person singular παρέσται (Revelation 17:8 L T (not (as G Tr WH Alford, others) παρέσται; see Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. § 108, Anm. 20; Chandler § 803)); (παρά near, by (see παρά , IV. 1 at the end) and εἰμί); the Sept. chiefly for בּוא; as in Greek authors from Homer downTGL πάρειμι.2

    a. to be by, be at hand, to have arrived, to be present: of persons, Luke 13:1; John 11:28; Acts 10:21; Revelation 17:8; παρών, present (opposed to ἀπών), 1 Corinthians 5:3; 2 Corinthians 10:2, 2 Corinthians 10:11; 2 Corinthians 13:2, 2 Corinthians 13:10; ἐπί τίνος, before one (a judge), Acts 24:19; ἐπί τίνι, for (to do) something, Matthew 26:50 Rec. ; ἐπί τί, ibid. G L T Tr WH (on which see ἐπί , B. 2 a. ζ.); ἐνώπιον Θεοῦ, in the sight of God, Acts 10:33 (not Tr marginal reading); ἐνθάδε, Acts 17:6; πρός τινα, with one, Acts 12:20; 2 Corinthians 11:9 (8); Galatians 4:18, Galatians 4:20. of time: καιρός πάρεστιν, John 7:6; τό παρόν, the present, Hebrews 12:11 (3Macc. 5:17; see examples from Greek authors in Passow , under the word, 2 b.; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II.; Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the wordb.)). of other things: τοῦ εὐαγγελίου τοῦ παρόντος εἰς ὑμᾶς, which is come unto (and so is present among) you, Colossians 1:6 (followed by εἰς with an accusative of place, 1 Macc. 11:63, and often in secular authors from Herodotus down; see εἰς , C. 2).TGL πάρειμι.3

    b. to be ready, in store, at command: παροῦσα ἀλήθεια, the truth which ye now hold, so that there is no need of words to call it to your remembrance, 2 Peter 1:12; (μή) πάρεστιν τίνι τί, ibid. 9 (A. V. lacketh), and Lachmann in 8 also (where others, ὑπάρχοντα) (Wis. 11:22 (21),and often in classical Greek from Homer down; cf. Passow , as above; (Liddell and Scott, as above)); τά παρόντα, possessions, property (A. V. such things as ye have (cf. our 'what one has by him')), Hebrews 13:5 (οἷς τά παρόντα ἀρκεῖ, ἡκιστα τῶν ἀλλοτρίων ὀρέγονται, Xenophon , symp. 4, 42). (Compare: συμπάρειμι.)TGL πάρειμι.4


    (3919) παρεισάγω: future παρεισαξω; (see παρά , IV. 1); to introduce or bring in secretly or craftily: αἱρέσεις ἀπωλείας, 2 Peter 2:1. In the same sense of heretics: ἕκαστος ἰδίως καί ἑτέρως ἰδίαν δόξαν παρεισηγαγοσαν, Hegesippus (circa ) quoted in Eusebius , h. e. 4, 22, 5; δοκοῦσι παρεισάγειν τά ἄρρητα αὐτῶν... μυστήρια, Origen philos. (equivalent to Hippolytus refut. omn. haeres.) 5, 17 at the end; of Marcion , νομίζων καινόν τί παρεισάγειν, ibid. 7, 29 at the beginning; — passages noted by Hilgenfeld, Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. 1860, p. 125f (οἱ προδόται τούς στρατιώτας παρεισαγαγοντες ἐντός τῶν τειχῶν κυρίους τῆς πόλεως ἐποίησαν, Diodorus 12, 41 (cf. Polybius 1, 18, 3; 2, 7, 8). In other senses in other secular authors)TGL παρεισάγω.2


    (3920) παρείσακτος, παρεισακτον (παρεισάγω), secretly or surreptitiously brought in; (A. V. privily brought in); one who has stolen in (Vulg. subintroductus ): Galatians 2:4; cf. C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritzschiorum opuscc., p. 181f.TGL παρείσακτος.2


    (3921) παρεισδύω or παρεισδύνω: 1 aorist παρεισεδυσα (according to classical usage trans., cf. δύνω ; (see below)); to enter secretly, slip in stealthily; to steal in; (A. V. creep in unawares): Jude 1:4 (here WH παρεισεδυησαν, 3 person plural 2 aorist passive (with middle or intransitive force); see their Appendix, p. 170, and cf. Buttmann , 56 (49); Veitch , under the word δύω, at the end); cf. the expressions παρεισδυσιν πλάνης ποιεῖν, the Epistle of Barnabas 2, 10 [ET]; ἔχειν, ibid. 4, 9 [ET]. (Hippocrates , Herodian , 1, 6, 2; 7, 9, 18 (8 edition, Bekker; Philo de spec. legg. § 15); Plutarch , Galen , others.)TGL παρεισδύ(ν)ω.2


    (3922) παρεισέρχομαι: 2 aorist παρεισῆλθον;TGL παρεισέρχομαι.2

    1. to come in secretly or by stealth (cf. παρά , IV. 1), to creep or steal in (Vulg. subintroeo ): Galatians 2:4 (Polybius 1, 7, 3; 1, 8, 4; (especially) 2, 55, 3; Philo de opif. mund. § 52; de Abrah. § 19, etc.; Plutarch , Poplic. 17; Clement, homil. 2, 23).TGL παρεισέρχομαι.3

    2. to enter in addition, come in besides (Vulg. subintro ): Romans 5:20, cf. Romans 5:12.TGL παρεισέρχομαι.4


    (3923) παρεισφέρω: 1 aorist παρεισήνεγκα;TGL παρεισφέρω.2

    a. to bring in besides (Demosthenes , others).TGL παρεισφέρω.3

    b. to contribute besides to something: σπουδήν, 2 Peter 1:5 (R. V. adding on your part).TGL παρεισφέρω.4


    (3924) παρεκτός (for which the Greek writings from Homer down use παρέκ, πάρεξ);TGL παρεκτός.2

    1. preposition with the genitive (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 54, 6), except; with the exception of (a thing, expressed by the genitive): Matthew 5:32; Matthew 19:9 L WH marginal reading; Acts 26:29, (Deuteronomy 1:36 Aq. ; Test xii. Patr., p. 631; ('Teaching 6, § 1 [ET]); Geoponica 13, 15, 7).TGL παρεκτός.3

    2. adverb besides: τά παρεκτός namely, γινόμενα, the things that occur besides or in addition, 2 Corinthians 11:28 (cf. our 'extra matters'; others, the things that I omit; but see Meyer).TGL παρεκτός.4


    (3925) παρεμβολή, παρεμβολῆς. (from παρεμβάλλω, which see);TGL παρεμβολή.2

    1. interpolation, insertion (into a discourse of matters foreign to the subject in hand, Aeschines ).TGL παρεμβολή.3

    2. In the Maced. dialect (cf. Sturz, De dial. Maced. et Alex., p. 30; Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 377; (Winer s Grammar, 22)) an encampment (Pclyb., Diodorus , Josephus , Plutarch );TGL παρεμβολή.4

    a. the camp of the Israelites in the desert (an enclosure within which their tents were pitched), Exodus 29:14; Exodus 19:17; Exodus 32:17; hence, in Hebrews 13:11 used for the city of Jerusalem, inasmuch as that was to the Israelites what formerly the encampment had been in the desert; of the sacred congregation or assembly of Israel, as that had been gathered formerly in camps in the wilderness, Hebrews 13:13.TGL παρεμβολή.5

    b. the barracks of the Roman soldiers, which at Jerusalem were in the castle Antonia: Acts 21:34, Acts 21:37; Acts 22:24; Acts 23:10, Acts 23:16, Acts 23:32.TGL παρεμβολή.6

    3. an army in line of battle: Hebrews 11:34; Revelation 20:9 (here A. V. camp), (Exodus 14:19, Exodus 14:20; Judges 4:16; Judges 8:11; 1 Samuel 14:16; very often in Polybius ; Aelian v. h. 14, 46). Often in the Sept. for מַחֲנֶה, which signifies both camp and army; frequent in both senses in 1 Maccabees (); cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 3:3.TGL παρεμβολή.7


    (3926) παρενοχλέω, παρενόχλω; (see ἐνοχλέω ); to cause trouble in a matter (παρά equivalent to παρά τίνι πράγματι); to trouble, annoy: τίνι, Acts 15:19. (The Sept. ; Polybius , Diodorus , Plutarch , Epictetus , Lucian , others.)TGL παρενοχλέω.2


    (3927) παρεπίδημος, παρεπιδημον (see ἐπιδημέω ), properly, "one who comes from a foreign country into a city or land to reside there by the side of the natives; hence, stranger; sojourning in a strange place, a foreigner" (Polybius 32, 22, 4; Athen. 5, p. 196 a.); in the N. T. metaphorically, in reference to heaven as the native country, one who sojourns on earth: so of Christians, 1 Peter 1:1; joined with πάροικοι, 1 Peter 2:11, cf. 1 Peter 1:17, (Christians πατριδας οἰκοῦσιν ἰδίας, ἀλλ' ὡς πάροικοι. μετεχουσι πάντων ὡς πολῖται, καί πανθ' ὑπομένουσιν ὡς ξένοι. πᾶσα ξένῃ πατρίς ἐστιν αὐτῶν καί πᾶσα πατρίς ξένῃ, Ep. ad Diogn. c. 5 [ET]); of the patriarchs, ξένοι καί παρεπίδημοί ἐπί τῆς γῆς, Hebrews 11:13 (Genesis 23:4; Psalms 38:13 (Psalms 39:13); παρεπιδημια τίς ἐστιν βίος, Aeschines dial. Socrates 3, 3, where see Fischer).TGL παρεπίδημος.2


    (3928) παρέρχομαι; future παρελεύσομαι; perfect παρεληλυθα; 2 aorist παρῆλθον, 3 person imperative παρελθάτω (Matthew 26:39 L T Tr WH ; see ἀπέρχομαι , at the beginning); from Homer down; the Sept. mostly for עָבַר;TGL παρέρχομαι.2

    1. (παρά past (cf. παρά , IV. 1)) to go past, pass by;TGL παρέρχομαι.3

    a. properly,TGL παρέρχομαι.4

    α. of persons moving forward: to pass by, absolutely, Luke 18:37; τινα, to go past one, Mark 6:48; with an accusative of place, Acts 16:8 (Homer Iliad 8, 239; Xenophon , an. 4, 2, 12; Plato , Alc. 1, p. 123 b.); διά τῆς ὁδοῦ ἐκείνης, Matthew 8:28.TGL παρέρχομαι.5

    β. of time: Matthew 14:15; παρεληλυθώς χρόνος (A. V. the time past), 1 Peter 4:3 (Sophocles , Isocrates , Xenophon , Plato , Demosthenes , others); of an act continuing for a time (viz. the Fast), Acts 27:9. (τά παρελθοντα and τά ἐπιόντα are distinguished in Aelian v. h. 14, 6.)TGL παρέρχομαι.6

    b. metaphorically,TGL παρέρχομαι.7

    α. to pass away, perish: ὡς ἄνθος, James 1:10 οὐρανός, Matthew 5:18; Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 16:17; Luke 21:33; 2 Peter 3:10; Revelation 21:1 Rec. ; γενεά αὕτη, Matthew 24:34; Mark 13:30; Luke 21:32; οἱ λόγοι μου, Matthew 24:35; Mark 13:31; Luke 21:33; τά ἀρχαῖα παρῆλθεν, 2 Corinthians 5:17 (Psalm 36:36 (Psalms 37:36); Daniel 7:14 Theod. ; Wis. 2:4 Wis. 5:9; Demosthenes , p. 291, 12; Theocritus , 27, 8). Here belongs also Matthew 5:18 (`not even the smallest part shall pass away from the law,' i. e. so as no longer to belong to it).TGL παρέρχομαι.8

    β. to pass by (pass over), i. e. to neglect, omit (transgress): with an accusative of the thing, Luke 11:42; Luke 15:29, (Deuteronomy 17:2; Jeremiah 41:18 (Jeremiah 34:18); Judith 11:10; 1 Macc. 2:22; Διός νῷν, Hesiod theog. 613; νόμον, Lysias , p. 107, 52; Demosthenes , p. 977, 14).TGL παρέρχομαι.9

    γ. to be led by, to be carried past, be averted: ἀπό τίνος, from one i. e. so as not to hit, not to appear to (2 Chronicles 9:2); παρελθάτω ἀπ' ἐμοῦ τό ποτήριον, Matthew 26:39; παρελθεῖν, 42 (here G T Tr WH omit; L brackets ἀπ' ἐμοῦ); ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ὥρα, Mark 14:35.TGL παρέρχομαι.10

    2. (παρά to (cf. παρά , IV. 1)) to come near, come forward, arrive: Luke 12:37; Luke 17:7; Acts 24:7 Rec. (and in Greek authors from Aeschylus and Herodotus down). (Synonym: see παραβαίνω , at the end. Compare: ἀντιπαρέρχομαι.)TGL παρέρχομαι.11


    (3929) πάρεσις, παρεσισεως, (παρίημι, which see), pretermission, passing over, letting pass, neglecting, disregarding: διά τήν πάρεσιν... ἀνοχή τοῦ Θεοῦ, because God had patiently let pass the sins committed previously (to the expiatory death of Christ), i. e. bad tolerated, had not punished (and so man's conception of his holiness was in danger of becoming dim, if not extinct), Romans 3:25, where cf. Fritzsche; (Trench , § xxxiii. (Hippocrates , Dionysius Halicarnassus , others)).TGL πάρεσις.2


    (3930) παρέχω; imperfect παρεῖχον, 3 person plural παρειχαν (Acts 28:2 L T Tr WH ; see ἔχω , at the beginning, and ἀπέρχομαι, at the beginning); future 3 person singular παρέξει (Luke 7:4 R G ; see below); 2 aorist 3 person plural παρέσχον, participle παρασχών; middle (present παρέχομαι); imperfect παρειχομην; future 2 person singular παρέξῃ (Luke 7:4 L T Tr WH ); from Homer down; Plautus praehibeo i. e.praebeo (Latinprae from the Greek παραί (but see Curtius , §§ 346, 380 (cf. παρά IV. 1 at the end))); i. e.TGL παρέχω.2

    a. to reach forth, offer: τί τίνι, Luke 6:29.TGL παρέχω.3

    b. to show, afford, supply: τίνι ἡσυχίαν, Acts 22:2; φιλανθρωπίαν, Acts 28:2; πάντα, 1 Timothy 6:17.TGL παρέχω.4

    c. to be the author of, or to cause one to have; to give, bring, cause, one something — either unfavorable: κόπους, Matthew 26:10; Mark 14:6; Luke 11:7; Luke 18:5; Galatians 6:17 (παρέχειν πόνον, Sir. 29:4; ἀγῶνα, Isaiah 7:13; πράγματα, very often from Herodotus down; also ὄχλον, see Passow , under the word ὄχλος, 3; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II.)); — or favorable: ἐργασίαν, Acts 16:16, and Lachmann in Acts 19:24; πίστιν (A. V. to give assurance), Acts 17:31, on which phrase cf. Fischer, De vitiis lexic. N. T., pp. 37-39; equivalent to to occasion (ζητήσεις, see οἰκονομία ), 1 Timothy 1:4. Middle,TGL παρέχω.5

    1. to offer, show, or present oneself: with ἑαυτόν added (Winer s Grammar, § 38, 6; (Buttmann , § 135, 6)), with an accusative of the predicate, τύπον, a pattern, Titus 2:7; παράδειγμα... τοιονδε, ἑαυτόν παρείχετο, Xenophon , Cyril 8, 1, 39; (Josephus , contra Apion 2, 15, 4); in the act., Plutarch , puer. educ. c. 20 at the beginning.TGL παρέχω.6

    2. to exhibit or offer on one's own part: τό δίκαιον τοῖς δούλοις, Colossians 4:1; to render or afford from one's own resources or by one's own power: τίνι τί, Luke 7:4 (where if we read, with Rec. , παρέξει, it must be taken as the 3rd person singular of the future active (in opposed to Winer 's Grammar, § 13, 2 a.), the elders being introduced as talking among themselves; but undoubtedly the reading παρέξῃ should be restored (see above at the beginning), and the elders are addressing Jesus; cf. Meyer at the passage; (and on the construction, cf. Buttmann , § 139, 32)). On the middle of this verb, cf. Krüger , § 52, 8, 2; Winer s Grammar, § 38, 5 end; (Ellicott and Lightfoot on Col. as above).TGL παρέχω.7


    (3931) παρηγορία, παρηγοριας, (παρηγορέω (to address)), properly, an addressing, address; i. e.TGL παρηγορία.2

    a. exhortation (4 Macc. 5:11; 6:1; Apoll. Rh. 2, 1281).TGL παρηγορία.3

    b. comfort, solace, relief, alleviation, consolation: Colossians 4:11 (where see Lightfoot ). (Aeschylus Ag. 95; Philo , q. deus immort. § 14; de somn. i., § 18; Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 3; often in Plutarch ; Hierocl. )TGL παρηγορία.4


    (3932) παρθένια, παρθενίας, (πυρθενος), virginity: Luke 2:36. (Jeremiah 3:4; Pindar , Aeschylus , Euripides , Diodorus , Plutarch , Herodian , others (cf. Field, Otium Norv. pars 3:at the passage).)TGL παρθενία.2


    (3933) παρθένος, παρθένου, ,TGL παρθένος.2

    1. a virgin: Matthew 1:23 (from Isaiah 7:14); Matthew 25:1,Matthew 25:7,Matthew 25:11; Luke 1:27; Acts 21:9; 1 Corinthians 7:25, 1 Corinthians 7:28, 1 Corinthians 7:33(1 Corinthians 7:34) (from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for בְּתוּלָה, several times for נַעֲרָה; twice for עַלמָה i. e. either a marriageable maiden, or a young (married) woman, Genesis 24:43; Isaiah 7:14, on which (last) word cf., besides Gesenius, Thesaurus, p. 1037, Credner, Beiträge as above with ii., p. 197ff; παρθένος of a young bride, newly married woman, Homer , Iliad 2, 514); παρθένον τίνος, one's marriageable daughter, 1 Corinthians 7:36; παρθένον ἁγνή, a pure virgin, 2 Corinthians 11:2.TGL παρθένος.3

    2. "a man who has abstained from all uncleanness and whoredom attendant on idolatry, and so has kept his chastity": Revelation 14:4, where see DeWette. In ecclesiastical writings one who has never had commerce with women; so of Joseph, in Fabricius, Cod. pseudepigr. Vet. Test. ii., pp. 92, 98; of Abel and Melchizedek, in Suidas (10 a. and 2450 b.); especially of the apostle John, as in Nonnus , metaphorically, ev. Joann. 19, 140 (John 19:26), ἠνίδε παρθένονTGL παρθένος.4


    (3934) Πάρθος, Παρθου, , a Parthian, an inhabitant of Parthia, a district of Asia, bounded on the north by Hyrcania, on the east by Ariana, on the south by Carmania Deserta, on the west by Media; plural in Acts 2:9 of the Jewish residents of Parthia. (B. D. under the word ; Geo. Rawlinson, Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, etc. (Lond. 1873).)TGL Πάρθοι.2


    (3935) παρίημι: 2 aorist infinitive παρεῖναι (Luke 11:42 L T Tr WH ); perfect passive participle παρειμένος; from Homer down;TGL παρίημι.2

    1. to let pass; to pass by, neglect (very often in Greek writings from Pindar , Aeschyl, Herodotus down), to disregard, omit: τί, Luke 11:42 (R G ἀφιέναι) (ἁμαρτήματα, to pass oreo, let go unpunished, Sir. 23:2; (τιμωρίαν, Lycurgus , 148, 41)).TGL παρίημι.3

    2. to relax, loosen, let go (see παρά , IV. 2) (e. g. a bow); perfect passive participle παρειμένος, relaxed, unstrung, weakened, exhausted (Euripides , Plato , Diodorus , Plutarch , others): χεῖρες, Hebrews 12:12; Sir. 2:13 Sir. 25:23, cf. Zephaniah 3:16; Jeremiah 4:31; ἀργοί καί παρείμενοι ἐπί ἀργόν ἀγαθόν, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 34, 4 [ET] cf. 1. Cf. παραλύω .TGL παρίημι.4


    (3936) παρίστημι and (in later writings, and in the N. T. in Romans 6:13, Romans 6:16) παριστάνω; future παραστήσω; 1 aorist παρέστησα; 2 aorist παρέστην; perfect παρέστηκα, participle παρεστηκώς and παρεστως; pluperfect 3 person plural παρειστήκεισαν (Acts 1:10 (WH παριστηκεισαν; see ἵστημι , at the beginning)); 1 future middle παραστήσομαί; from Homer down.TGL παρίστημι.2

    1. The present, imperfect, future and 1 aorist active have a transitive sense (the Sept. chiefly for הֶעֱמִיד),TGL παρίστημι.3

    a. to place beside or near (παρά, IV. 1); to set at hand; to present; to proffer; to provide: κτήνη, Acts 23:24 (σκάφη, 2 Macc. 12:3); τινα or τί τίνι, to place a person or tiring at one's disposal, Matthew 26:53; to present a person for another to see and question, Acts 23:33; to present or show, τινα orτί with an accusative of the quality which the person or thing exhibits: οἷς παρέστησεν ἑαυτόν ζῶντα, Acts 1:3; add, Romans 6:13, Romans 6:16, Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 11:2; Ephesians 5:27; 2 Timothy 2:15 (te vegetum nobis in Graeeia siste, Cicero , ad Att. 10, 16, 6); τινα with a predicate accusative followed by κατενώπιον τίνος, Colossians 1:22; ἑαυτόν ὡς (ὡσεί) τινα τίνι, Romans 6:13; to bring, lead to, in the sense of presenting, without a dative: Acts 9:41; Colossians 1:28. of sacrifices or of things consecrated to God: τά σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν... τῷ Θεῷ, Romans 12:1 (so also in secular authors: Polybius 16, 25, 7; Josephus , Antiquities 4, 6, 4; Lucian , deor. concil. 13; Latin admoveo , Vergil Aen. 12, 171; sisto, Stat. Theb. 4, 445); τινα (a firstborn) τῷ κυρίῳ, Luke 2:22; to bring to, bring near, metaphorically, i. e. to bring into one's fellowship or intimacy: τινα τῷ Θεῷ, 1 Corinthians 8:8; namely, τῷ Θεῷ, 2 Corinthians 4:14.TGL παρίστημι.4

    b. to present (show) by argument, to prove: τί, Acts 24:13 (Epictetus diss. 2, 23, 47; followed by πῶς, id. 2, 26, 4; τίνι τί, Xenophon , oec. 13, 1; τίνι, ὅτι, Josephus , Antiquities 4, 3, 2; de vita sua §6).TGL παρίστημι.5

    2. Middle and perfect, pluperfect, 2 aorist active, in an intransitive sense (the Sept. chiefly for עָמַד, also for נִצַּב), to stand beside, stand by or near, to be at hand, be present;TGL παρίστημι.6

    a. universally, to stand by: τίνι, to stand beside one, Acts 1:10; Acts 9:39; Acts 23:2; Acts 27:23; παρεστηκώς, a by-stander, Mark 14:47, Mark 14:69 (here T Tr WH παρεστῶσιν); Mark 15:35 (here Tdf. παρεστωτων, WH marginal reading ἑστηκότων), Mark 15:39; John 18:22 (L marginal reading Tr marginal reading παρεστωτων); παρεστως, Mark 14:70; John 19:26 (here anarthrous).TGL παρίστημι.7

    b. to appear: with a predicate nominative followed by ἐνώπιον τίνος, Acts 4:10 (A. V. stand here); before a judge, Καίσαρι, Acts 27:24; middle τῷ βήματι τοῦ Θεοῦ (R G Χριστοῦ), Romans 14:10.TGL παρίστημι.8

    c. to be at hand, stand ready: of assailants, absolutely, Acts 4:26 (A. V. stood up) (from Psalms 2:2); to be at hand for service, of servants in attendance on their master (Latin appareo ), τίνι, Esther 4:5; ἐνώπιον τίνος, 1 Kings 10:8; ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, of a presence-angel (A. V. that stand in the presence of God), Luke 1:19, cf. Revelation 8:2.; absolutely, οἱ παρεστῶτες, them that stood by, Luke 19:24; with αὐτῷ added (viz. the high-priest), Acts 23:2, Acts 23:4.TGL παρίστημι.9

    d. to stand by to help, to succor (German beistehen): τίνι, Romans 16:2; 2 Timothy 4:17 (Homer , Iliad 10, 290; Hesiod th. 439; Aristophanes vesp. 1388; Xenophon ; Demosthenes , p. 366, 20; 1120, 26, and in other authors).TGL παρίστημι.10

    e. to be present; to have come: of time, Mark 4:29.TGL παρίστημι.11


    (3937) Παρμενᾶς (probably contracted from Παρμενιδης 'steadfast'; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 103 (97)), accusative Παρμενᾶν (cf. Buttmann , 20 (18)), , Parmenas, one of the seven deacons of the primitive church at Jerusalem: Acts 6:5.TGL Παρμενᾶς.2


    (3938) πάροδος, παροδου, (παρά, near by; ὁδός), a passing by or passage : ἐν παρόδῳ, in passing (A. V. by the way), 1 Corinthians 16:7. (Thucydides 1, 126; 5:4; Polybius 5, 68, 8; Cicero , ad Att. 5, 20, 2.; Lucian , dial. deor. 24, 2.)TGL πάροδος.2


    (3939) παροικέω, παροίκῳ; 1 aorist παρῴκησα;TGL παροικέω.2

    1. properly, to dwell beside (one) or in one's neighborhood (παρά, IV. 1); to live near; (Xenophon , Thucydides , Isocrates , others).TGL παροικέω.3

    2. in the Scriptures to be or dwell in a place as a stranger, to sojourn (the Sept. for גּוּר, several times also for יָשַׁב and שָׁכַן): followed by ἐν with a dative of place, Luke 24:18 R L (Genesis 20:1; Genesis 21:34; Genesis 26:3; Exodus 12:40, the Alex. manuscript; Leviticus 18:3 (Ald. ), etc.); with an accusative of place, ibid. G T Tr WH (Genesis 17:8; Exodus 6:4); εἰς with the accusative of place (in pregnant construction; see εἰς , C. 2), Hebrews 11:9. (Metaphorically and absolutely, to dwell on the earth, Philo de cherub. § 34 (cf. Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 1, 1 [ET] and Lightfoot and Harnack at the passage; Holtzmann, Einl. ins N. T., p. 484f. Synonym: see κατοικέω .).)TGL παροικέω.4


    (3940) παροικία, παροικίας, (παροικέω, which see), a Biblical and ecclesiastical word a dwelling near or with one; hence, a sojourning, dwelling in a strange land: properly, Acts 13:17 (2 Esdr. 8:35; Psalms 119:5 (Psalms 120:5); Wis. 19:10; Prol. of Sir. 21; cf. Fritzsche on Judith 5:9). Metaphorically, the life of man here on earth, likened to a sojourning: 1 Peter 1:17 (Genesis 47:9); see παρεπίδημος (and references under παροικέω).TGL παροικία.2


    (3941) πάροικος, πάροικον (παρά and οἶκος);TGL πάροικος.2

    1. in classical Greek dwelling near, neighboring.TGL πάροικος.3

    2. in the Scriptures a stranger, foreigner, one who lives in a place without the right of citizenship; (R. V. sojourner); the Sept. for גֵּר and תּושָׁב (see παροικέω 2, and παροικία (and cf. Schmidt , Syn., 43, 5; Liddell and Scott, under the word)): followed by ἐν with the dative of place, Acts 7:6, Acts 7:29; metaphorically, without citizenship in God's kingdom: joined with ξένος and opposed to συμπολίτης, Ephesians 2:19 (μόνος κύριος Θεός πολίτης ἐστι, πάροικον δέ καί ἐπηλυτον τό γενητον ἅπαν, Philo de cherub. § 34 (cf. Mangey 1:161 note)); one who lives on earth as a stranger, a sojourner on the earth: joined with παρεπίδημος (which see), of Christians, whose fatherland is heaven, 1 Peter 2:11. (Cf. Ep. ad Diognet. § 5, 5 [ET].)TGL πάροικος.4


    (3942) παροιμία, παροιμίας, (παρά by, aside from (cf. παρά , IV. 2), and οἶμος way), properly, a saying out of the usual course or deviating from the usual manner of speaking (cf. Suidas 654, 15; but Hesychius under the word, et al., 'a saying heard by the wayside' (παρά, IV. 1), i. e. a current or trite saying, proverb; cf. Curtius , § 611; Stephanus ' Thesaurus, under the word), hence,TGL παροιμία.2

    1. a clever and sententious saying, a proverb (Aeschylus Ag. 264; Sophocles , Plato , Aristotle , Plutarch , others; examples from Philo are given by Hilgenfeld, Die Evangelien, p. 292f (as de ebriet. § 20; de Abr. § 40; de vit. Moys. i. § 28; ii. § 5; de exsecrat. § 6); for מָשָׁל in Proverbs 1:1; Proverbs 25:1 the Alex. manuscript; Sir. 6:35, etc.): τό τῆς παροιμίας, what is in the proverb (Lucian , dial. mort. 6, 2; 8, 1), 2 Peter 2:22.TGL παροιμία.3

    2. any dark saying which shadows forth some didactic truth, especially a symbolic or figurative saying: παροιμίαν λέγειν, John 16:29; ἐν παροιμίαις λαλεῖν, ibid. 25; "speech or discourse in which a thing is illustrated by the use of similes and comparisons; an allegory, i. e. extended and elaborate metaphor": John 10:6.TGL παροιμία.4


    (3943) πάροινος, πάροινον, a later Greek word for the earlier παροίνιος (παρά (which see IV. 1) and οἶνος, one who sits long at his wine), given to wine, drunken: 1 Timothy 3:3; Titus 1:7; (others give it the secondary sense, 'quarrelsome over wine'; hence, brawling, abusive).TGL πάροινος.2


    (3944) παροίχομαι: perfect participle παρωχημενος; to go by, pass by: as in Greek writings from Homer , Iliad 10, 252 down, of time, Acts 14:16.TGL παροίχομαι.2


    (3945) παρομοιάζω; (from παρόμοιος, and this from παρά (which see IV. 1 (?)) and ὅμοιος); to be like; to be not unlike: Matthew 23:27 R G T Tr marginal reading WH text (Several times also in ecclesiastical writings.)TGL παρομοιάζω.2


    (3946) παρόμοιος, παρομοιον (also of three term. (see ὅμοιος , at the beginning)), like: Mark 7:8 (T WH omit; Tr brackets the clause), 13. (Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon , Demosthenes , Polybius , Diodorus , others.)TGL παρόμοιος.2


    (3947) παροξύνω: properly, to make sharp, to sharpen (παρά, IV. 3): τήν μάχαιραν, Deuteronomy 32:41. Metaphorically, (so always in secular authors from Euripides , Thucydides , Xenophon down),TGL παροξύνω.2

    a. to stimulate, spur on, urge (πρός τί, ἐπί τί).TGL παροξύνω.3

    b. to irritate, provoke, rouse to anger; passive, present παροξύνομαι; imperfect παρωξυνομην: Acts 17:16; 1 Corinthians 13:5. The Sept. chiefly for נָאַץ, to scorn, despise; besides for הִכְעִיס, to provoke, make angry, Deuteronomy 9:18; Psalms 105:29 (Psalms 106:29); Isaiah 65:3; for הִקְצִיף, to exasperate, Deuteronomy 9:7, Deuteronomy 9:22, etc.; passive for חָרָה, to burn with anger, Hosea 8:5; Zechariah 10:3, and for other verbs.TGL παροξύνω.4


    (3948) παροξυσμός, παροξυσμου, (παροξύνω, which see);TGL παροξυσμός.2

    1. an inciting, incitement: εἰς παροξυσμόν ἀγάπης (A. V. to provoke unto love), Hebrews 10:24.TGL παροξυσμός.3

    2. irritation (R. V. contention): Acts 15:39; the Sept. twice for קֶצֶף, violent anger, passion, Deuteronomy 29:28; Jeremiah 39:37 (Jeremiah 32:37); Demosthenes , p. 1105, 24.'TGL παροξυσμός.4


    (3949) παροργίζω; Attic future (cf. Buttmann , 37 (32); WH 's Appendix, 163) παροργιῶ; to rouse to wrath, to provoke, exasperate, anger (cf. παρά , IV. 3): Romans 10:19; Ephesians 6:4; and Lachmann in Colossians 3:21. (Demosthenes , p. 805, 19; Philo de somn. ii. § 26; the Sept. chiefly for הִכְעִיס.)TGL παροργίζω.2


    (3950) παροργισμός, παροργισμοῦ, (παροργίζω), indignation, exasperation, wrath: Ephesians 4:26. (1 Kings 15:30; 2 Kings 23:26; Nehemiah 9:18; (Jeremiah 21:5 Alex. ); not found in secular authors) (Synonym: cf. Trench , § xxxvii.)TGL παροργισμός.2


    (3951) παροτρύνω: 1 aorist παρωτρυνα; (ὀτρύνω to stir up (cf. παρά , IV. 3)); to incite, stir up: τινα, Acts 13:50. (Pindar Ol. 3, 68; Josephus , Antiquities 7, 6, 1; Lucian , deor. concil 4.)TGL παροτρύνω.2


    (3952) παρουσία, παρουσίας, (παρών, παροῦσα, παρουσον, from πάρειμι which see) in Greek authors from the Tragg., Thucydides , Plato down; not found in the Sept. ;TGL παρουσία.2

    1. presence: 1 Corinthians 16:17; 2 Corinthians 10:10; opposed to ἀπουσίᾳ, Philippians 2:12 (2 Macc. 15:21; (Aristotle , phys. 2, 3, p. 195a, 14; metaphys. 4, 2, p. 1013b, 14; meteor. 4, 5, p. 382a, 33 etc.)).TGL παρουσία.3

    2. the presence of one coming, hence, the coming, arrival, advent, ((Polybius 3, 41, 1. 8); Judith 10:18; 2 Macc. 8:12; (Hermas , sim. 5, 5, 3 [ET])): 2 Corinthians 7:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:9 (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ἀποκαλυφθήσεται; ... πάλιν πρός τινα, of a return, Philippians 1:26. In the N. T. especially of the advent, i. e. the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God: Matthew 24:3; παρουσία τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (27), 37, 39; τοῦ κυρίου, 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1; James 5:7; 2 Peter 3:4; Χριστοῦ, 2 Peter 1:16; αὐτοῦ, 1 Corinthians 15:23; (1 Thessalonians 2:19); 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 2 Peter 3:4; (1 John 2:28); τῆς τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡμέρας, 2 Peter 3:12. It is called in ecclesiastical writings δευτέρᾳ παρουσία, Ev. Nicod. c. 22 at the end; Justin Martyr , Apology 1, 52 (where see Otto's note); dialog contra Trypho, chapters 40, 110, 121; and is opposed to πρώτη παρουσία which took place in the incarnation, birth, and earthly career of Christ, Justin Martyr, dialog contra Trypho, chapters 52, 121, cf. 14, 32, 49, etc.; (cf. Ignatius ad Phil. 9 [ET] (and Lightfoot )); see ἔλευσις .TGL παρουσία.4


    (3953) παροψίς, παροψίδος, (παρά (which see IV. 1), and ὄψον, on which see ὀψάριον );TGL παροψίς.2

    1. "a side-dish, a dish of dainties or choice food suited not so much to satisfy as to gratify the appetite; a side-accompaniment of the more solid food"; hence, equivalent to παροψημα; so in Xenophon , Cyril 1, 3, 4 and many Attic writings in Athen. 9, p. 367 d. followingTGL παροψίς.3

    2. the dish itself in which the delicacies are served up: Matthew 23:25, Matthew 23:26 (here T omits; WH brackets παροψίδος); Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 74; Alciphron 3, 20; Plutarch , de vitand. aere alien. § 2. This latter use of the word is condemned by the Atticists; cf. Sturz, Lex. Xenophon , iii., 463f; Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 176; (Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 265f); Poppo on Xenophon , Cyril 1, 3, 4.TGL παροψίς.4


    (3954) παρρησία, παρρησίας, (πᾶν and ῤῆσις; cf. ἀρρησια silence, καταρρησις accusation, πρόρρησις prediction);TGL παρρησία.2

    1. freedom in speaking, unreservedness in speech (Euripides , Plato , Demosthenes , others): παρρησία τίνος, Acts 4:13; χρῆσθαι παρρησία, 2 Corinthians 3:12; παρρησία adverbially — freely: λαλεῖν, John 7:13, John 7:26; John 18:20; — openly, frankly, i. e. without concealment: Mark 8:32; John 11:14; — without ambiguity or circumlocution: εἶπε ἡμῖν παρρησία (Philemon 1:1-25, Meineke edition, p. 405), John 10:24; — without the use of figures and comparisons, opposed to ἐν παροιμίαις: John 16:25, and R G in 29 (where L T Tr WH ἐν παρρησία); ἐν παρρησία, freely, Ephesians 6:19; μετά παρρησίας, Acts 28:31; εἶπεν, Acts 2:29; λαλεῖν, Acts 4:29, Acts 4:31.TGL παρρησία.3

    2. free and fearless confidence, cheerful courage, boldness, assurance, (1 Macc. 4:18; Wis. 5:1; Josephus , Antiquities 9, 10, 4; 15, 2, 7; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 23)): Philippians 1:20 (opposed to αἰσχύνεσθαι, cf. Wiesinger at the passage); ἐν πίστει, resting on, 1 Timothy 3:13, cf. Huther at the passage; ἔχειν παρρησίαν εἰς τί, Hebrews 10:19; πολλή μοι (ἐστι) παρρησία πρός ὑμᾶς, 2 Corinthians 7:4; of the confidence impelling one to do something, ἔχειν παρρησία with an infinitive of the thing to be done, Philemon 1:8 (Test xii. Patr. , test. Rub. 4); of the undoubting confidence of Christians relative to their fellowship with God, Ephesians 3:12; Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 10:35; μετά παρρησίας, Hebrews 4:16; ἔχειν παρρησίαν, opposed to αἰσχύνεσθαι to be covered with shame, 1 John 2:28; before the judge, 1 John 4:17; with πρός τόν Θεόν added, 1 John 3:21; 1 John 5:14.TGL παρρησία.4

    3. the deportment by which one becomes conspicuous or secures publicity (Philo de victim. offer. § 12): ἐν παρρησία, before the public, in view of all, John 7:4 (opposed to ἐν τῷ κρύπτω); John 11:54 (without ἐν); Colossians 2:15 (where cf. Lightfoot ).TGL παρρησία.5


    (3955) παρρησιάζομαι; imperfect ἐπαρρησιαζομην; 1 aorist ἐπαρρησιασαμην; (παρρησία, which see); a deponent verb; Vulg. chieflyfiducialiter ago ; to bear oneself boldly or confidently;TGL παρρησιάζομαι.2

    1. to use freedom in speaking, be free-spoken; to speak freely ((A. V. boldly)): Acts 18:26; Acts 19:8; ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, relying on the name of Jesus, Acts 9:27, Acts 9:28(29); also ἐπί τῷ κυρίῳ, Acts 14:3.TGL παρρησιάζομαι.3

    2. to grow confident, have boldness, show assurance, assume a bold bearing: εἶπεν, Acts 13:46 (R. V. spake out boldly); λαλεῖν, Acts 26:26; παρρησιάζεσθαι ἐν τίνι, in reliance on one to take courage, followed by an infinitive of the thing to be done: λαλῆσαι, Ephesians 6:20; 1 Thessalonians 2:2. (Xenophon , Demosthenes , Aeschines , Polybius , Philo , Plutarch , others; the Sept. ; Sir. 6:11.)TGL παρρησιάζομαι.4


    (3956) πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν, genitive παντός, πάσης, παντός, (dative plural, Lachmann πᾶσι ten times, πασσιν seventy-two times; Tdf. πᾶσι five times (see Proleg., p. 98f), πᾶσιν seventy-seven times; Treg. πᾶσιν eighty-two times; WH πᾶσι fourteen times, πᾶσιν sixty-eight times; see Nu, (ἐφελκυστικον)), Hebrew כֹּל (from Homer down), all, every; it is used:TGL πᾶς.2

    I. adjectivally, andTGL πᾶς.3

    1. with anarthrous nouns;TGL πᾶς.4

    a. any, every one (namely, of the class denoted by the norm annexed to πᾶς); with the singular: as πᾶν δένδρον, Matthew 3:10; πᾶσα θυσία, Mark 9:49 (T WH Tr marginal reading omits; Tr text brackets the clause); add, Matthew 5:11; Matthew 15:13; Luke 4:37; John 2:10; John 15:2; Acts 2:43; Acts 5:42; Romans 14:11; 1 Corinthians 4:17; Revelation 18:17, and very often; πᾶσα ψυχή ἀνθρώπου, Romans 2:9 (πᾶσα ἄνθρωπος ψυχή, Plato , Phaedr., p. 249 e.); πᾶσα συνείδησις ἀνθρώπων, 2 Corinthians 4:2; πᾶς λεγόμενος Θεός, 2 Thessalonians 2:4; πᾶς ἅγιος ἐν Χριστῷ, Philippians 4:21 with the plural, all or any that are of the class indicated by the noun: as πάντες ἄνθρωποι, Acts 22:15; Romans 5:12, Romans 5:18; Romans 12:17; 1 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Corinthians 15:19; πάντες ἅγιοι, Romans 16:15; πάντες ἄγγελοι Θεοῦ, Hebrews 1:6; πάντα (L T Tr WH τά) ἔθνη, Revelation 14:8; on the phrase πᾶσα σάρξ, see σάρξ , 3.TGL πᾶς.5

    b. any and every, of every kind (A. V. often all manner of): πᾶσα νόσος καί μαλακία, Matthew 4:23; Matthew 9:35; Matthew 10:1; εὐλογία, blessings of every kind, Ephesians 1:3; so especially with nouns designating virtues or vices, emotions, character, condition, to indicate every mode in which such virtue, vice or emotion manifests itself, or any object whatever to which the idea expressed by the noun belongs: — thus, πᾶσα ἐλπίς, Acts 27:20; σοφία, Acts 7:22; Colossians 1:28; γνῶσις, Romans 15:14; ἀδικία, ἀσέβεια, etc., Romans 1:18, Romans 1:29; 2 Corinthians 10:6; Ephesians 4:19, Ephesians 4:31; Ephesians 5:3; σπουδή, 2 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Peter 1:5; ἐπιθυμία, Romans 7:8; χαρά, Romans 15:13; αὐτάρκεια, 2 Corinthians 9:8; ἐν παντί λόγῳ καί γνώσει, 1 Corinthians 1:5; σοφία καί φρονήσει etc. Ephesians 1:8; ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνη καί δικαιοσύνη, καί ἀλήθεια, Ephesians 5:9; αἰσθήσει, Philippians 1:9; ὑπομονή, θλῖψις, etc., 2 Corinthians 1:4; 2 Corinthians 12:12; add, Colossians 1:9-11; Colossians 3:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 5:2; 1 Timothy 6:1; 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 2:15 (on which see σπιταγη); Titus 3:2; James 1:21; 1 Peter 2:1; 1 Peter 5:10; πᾶσα δικαιοσύνη, i. e. ἄν δίκαιον, Matthew 3:15; πᾶν θέλημα τοῦ Θεοῦ, everything God wills, Colossians 4:12; πᾶσα ὑποταγῇ, obedience in all things, 1 Timothy 2:11; πάσῃ συνειδήσει ἀγαθή, consciousness of rectitude in all things, Acts 23:1; — or it signifies the highest degree, the maximum, of the thing which the noun denotes (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 110 (105f); Ellicott on Ephesians 1:8; Meyer on Philippians 1:20; Krüger , § 50, 11, 9 and 10): as μετά πάσης παρρησίας, Acts 4:29; Acts 28:31; μετά πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης, Acts 20:19; προθυμίας, Acts 17:11; χαρᾶς, Philippians 2:29, cf. James 1:2; ἐν πάσῃ ἀσφάλεια, Acts 5:23; ἐν παντί φόβῳ, 1 Peter 2:18; πᾶσα ἐξουσία, Matthew 28:18 (πᾶν κράτος, Sophocles Phil. 142).TGL πᾶς.6

    c. the whole (all, Latin totus ): so before proper names of countries, cities, nations; as, πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα, Matthew 2:3; πᾶς, Ἰσραήλ, Romans 11:26; before collective terms, as πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, Acts 2:36; πᾶσα κτίσις (see κτίσις , 2 b.); πᾶσα γραφή (nearly equivalent to the ὅσα προεγράφη in Romans 15:4), 2 Timothy 3:16 (cf. Rothe, Zur Dogmatik, p. 181); πᾶσα γερουσία υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, Exodus 12:21; πᾶς ἵππος Φαραώ, Exodus 14:23; πᾶν δίκαιον ἔθνος, Additions to Esther 1:9 [Esther 11:71:1f ]; by a somewhat rare usage before other substantives also, as (πᾶν πρόσωπον τῆς γῆς, Acts 17:26 L T Tr WH ); οἰκοδομή, Ephesians 2:21 G L T Tr WH , cf. Harless at the passage, p. 262 (others find no necessity here for resorting to this exceptional use, but render (with R. V. ) each several building (cf. Meyer)); πᾶν τέμενος, 3Macc. 1:13 (where see Grimm); Παύλου... ὅς ἐν πάσῃ ἐπιστολή μνημονεύει ὑμῶν, Ignatius ad Eph. 12 [ET] ((yet cf. Lightfoot )); cf. Passow , under the word πᾶς, 2; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. II.); Winer s Grammar, § 18, 4; (Buttmann , § 127, 29); Krüger , § 50, 11, 8 to 11; Kühner, see 545f.TGL πᾶς.7

    2. with nouns which have the article, all the, the whole (see c. just above): — with the singular; as, πᾶσα ἀγέλη, the whole herd, Matthew 8:32; πᾶς ὄχλος, Matthew 13:2; πᾶς κόσμος, Romans 3:19; Colossians 1:6; πᾶσα πόλις (i. e. all its inhabitants), Matthew 8:34; Matthew 21:10, etc.; πᾶσα Ἰουδαία, Matthew 3:5; add, Matthew 27:25; Mark 5:33; Luke 1:10; Acts 7:14; Acts 10:2; Acts 20:28; Acts 22:5; Romans 4:16; Romans 9:17; 1 Corinthians 13:2 (πίστιν καί γνῶσιν in their whole compass and extent); Ephesians 4:16; Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9, Colossians 2:19; Philippians 1:3; Hebrews 2:15; Revelation 5:6, etc.; the difference between πᾶσα θλῖψις (all) and πᾶσα θλῖψις (any) appears in 2 Corinthians 1:4. πᾶς λαός οὗτος, Luke 9:13; πᾶσαν τήν ὀφειλήν ἐκείνην, Matthew 18:32; πᾶς placed after the noun has the force of a predicate: τήν κρίσιν πᾶσαν δέδωκέ, the judgment he hath given wholly (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 548 (510)), John 5:22; τήν ἐξουσίαν... πᾶσαν ποιεῖ, Revelation 13:12; it is placed between the article and noun (Buttmann , § 127, 29; Winer 's Grammar, 549 (510)), as τόν πάντα χρόνον, i. e. always, Acts 20:18; add, Galatians 5:14; 1 Timothy 1:16 (here L T Tr WH ἅπας); — with a plural, all (the totality of the persons or things designated by the noun): πάντας τούς ἀρχιερεῖς, Matthew 2:4; add, Matthew 4:8; Matthew 11:13; Mark 4:13; Mark 6:33; Luke 1:6, Luke 1:48; Acts 10:12, Acts 10:43; Romans 1:5; Romans 15:11; 1 Corinthians 12:26; 1 Corinthians 15:25; 2 Corinthians 8:18, and very often; with a demonstrative pronoun added, Matthew 25:7; Luke 2:19, Luke 2:51 (here T WH omit L Tr marginal reading brackets the pronoun); πάντες is placed after the noun: τάς πόλεις πάσας, the cities all (of them) (cf. Winer 's Grammar, as above), Matthew 9:35: Acts 8:40; add, Matthew 10:30; Luke 7:35 (here L Tr WH text πάντων τῶν etc.); Luke 12:7; Acts 8:40; Acts 16:26; Romans 12:4; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 1 Corinthians 10:1; 1 Corinthians 13:2; 1 Corinthians 15:7; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians 13:2, 2 Corinthians 13:12(13); Philippians 1:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 2 Timothy 4:21 (WH brackets πάντες); Revelation 8:3; οἱ πάντες followed by a noun, Acts 19:7; Acts 27:37; τούς κατά τά ἔθνη πάντας Ἰουδαίους, Acts 21:21 (here L omits; Tr brackets πάντας).TGL πᾶς.8

    II. without a substantive;TGL πᾶς.9

    1. masculine and feminine every one, any one: in the singular, without any addition, Mark 9:49; Luke 16:16; Hebrews 2:9; followed by a relative pronoun, πᾶς ὅστις, Matthew 7:24; Matthew 10:32; πᾶς ὅς, Matthew 19:29 (L T Tr WH ὅστις); Galatians 3:10; πᾶς ὅς ἄν (ἐάν Tr WH ), whosoever, Acts 2:21; πᾶς ἐξ ὑμῶν ὅς, Luke 14:33; with a participle which has not the article (Winer 's Grammar, 111 (106)): παντός ἀκούοντος (if anyone heareth, whoever he is), Matthew 13:19; παντί ὀφείλοντι ἡμῖν, everyone owing (if he owe) us anything, unless ὀφείλοντι is to be taken substantively, every debtor of ours, Luke 11:4; with a participle which has the article and takes the place of a relative clause (Winer 's Grammar, as above): πᾶς ὀργιζόμενος, everyone that is angry, Matthew 5:22; add, Matthew 7:8; Luke 6:47; John 3:8, John 3:20; John 6:45; Acts 10:43; Acts 13:39; Romans 1:16; Romans 2:10; Romans 12:3; 1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Corinthians 16:16; Galatians 3:13; 1 John 2:23; 1 John 3:3, 1 John 3:6, etc. Plural, πάντες, without any addition, all men: Matthew 10:22; Mark 13:13; Luke 20:38; Luke 21:17; John 1:7; John 3:31 (in 31b G T WH marginal reading omit the clause); John 5:23; John 6:45; John 12:32; Acts 17:25; Romans 10:12; 1 Corinthians 9:19; 2 Corinthians 5:14 (2 Corinthians 5:15); Ephesians 3:9 (here T WH text omit; L brackets πάντας); of a certain definite whole: all (the people), Matthew 21:26; all (we who hold more liberal views), 1 Corinthians 8:1; all (the members of the church), 1 Corinthians 8:7; by hyperbole equivalent to the great majority, the multitude, John 3:26; all (just before mentioned), Matthew 14:20; Matthew 22:27; Matthew 27:22; Mark 1:27 (here T Tr WH ἅπαντες); Mark 1:37; Mark 6:39, Mark 6:42; (Mark 11:32 Lachmann); Luke 1:63; Luke 4:15; John 2:15, John 2:24, and very often; (all (about to be mentioned), διά πάντων namely, τῶν ἁγίων (as is shown by the following καί κτλ.), Acts 9:32). οἱ πάντες, all taken together, all collectively (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 116 (110)): of all men, Romans 11:32; of a certain definite whole, Philippians 2:21; with the 1 person plural of the verb, 1 Corinthians 10:17; Ephesians 4:13; with a definite number, in all (cf. Buttmann , § 127, 29): ἦσαν δέ οἱ πάντες ἄνδρες ὡσεί δεκαδύο (or δώδεκα), Acts 19:7; ἤμεθα αἱ ψυχαί διακόσιαι ἑβδομήκοντα ἕξ, Acts 27:37 (ἐπ' ἄνδρας τούς πάντας δύο, Judith 4:7; ἐγένοντο οἱ πάντες ὡς τετρακόσιοι, Josephus , Antiquities 6, 12, 3; τούς πάντας εἰς δυσχιλιους, id. 4, 7, 1; ὡς εἶναι τάς πάσας δέκα, Aelian v. h. 12, 35; see other examples from Greek authors in Passow , under the word πᾶς, 5 b.; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, C.); "relinquitur ergo, ut omnia tria genera sint causarum," Cicero , de invent. 1, 9); οἱ πάντες, all those I have spoken of, 1 Corinthians 9:22; 2 Corinthians 5:14(15). πάντες ὅσοι, all as many as, Matthew 22:10; Luke 4:40 (here Tr marginal reading WH text ἅπαντες); John 10:8; Acts 5:36; πάντες οἱ with a participle, all (they) that: Matthew 4:24; Mark 1:32; Luke 2:18, Luke 2:38; Acts 2:44; Acts 4:16; Romans 1:7; Romans 10:12; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 6:24; 1 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 3:16; 2 John 1:1; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:24, and often. πάντες οἱ namely, ὄντες: Matthew 5:15; Luke 5:9; John 5:28; Acts 2:39; Acts 5:17; Acts 16:32; Romans 9:6; 2 Timothy 1:15; 1 Peter 5:14, etc. πάντες with personal and demonst. pronouns (compare Winer 's Grammar, 548 (510)): ἡμεῖς πάντες, John 1:16; Romans 8:32; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Ephesians 2:3; πάντες ἡμεῖς, Acts 2:32; Acts 10:33; Acts 26:14; Acts 28:2; Romans 4:16; οἱ πάντες ἡμεῖς, 2 Corinthians 5:10; ὑμεῖς πάντες, Acts 20:25; πάντες ὑμεῖς, Matthew 23:8; Matthew 26:31; Luke 9:48; Acts 22:3; Romans 15:33; 2 Corinthians 7:15; (Galatians 3:28 R G L WH ); Philippians 1:4, Philippians 1:7; 1 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:16, 2 Thessalonians 3:18; Titus 3:15; Hebrews 13:25, etc.; αὐτοί πάντες, 1 Corinthians 15:10; πάντες αὐτοί, Acts 4:33; Acts 19:17; Acts 20:36; οὗτοι πάντες, Acts 1:14; Acts 17:7; Hebrews 11:13, Hebrews 11:39; πάντες (L T ἅπαντες) οὗτοι, Acts 2:7; οἱ δέ πάντες, and they all, Mark 14:64.TGL πᾶς.10

    2. Neuter πᾶν, everything (anything) whatsoever;TGL πᾶς.11

    a. in the singular: πᾶν τό followed by a participle (on the neuter in a concrete and collective sense cf. Buttmann , § 128, 1), 1 Corinthians 10:25, 1 Corinthians 10:27; Ephesians 5:13; 1 John 5:4; πᾶν τό namely, ὄν, 1 John 2:16; πᾶν , Romans 14:23; John 6:37, John 6:39 (R. V. all that); John 17:2; πᾶν , τί ἄν or ἐάν, whatsoever, Colossians 3:17, and Rec. in Colossians 3:23. Joined to prepositions it forms adverbial phrases: παντός or διαπαντός, always, perpetually, see διά , A. II. 1 a.; ἐν παντί, either in every condition, or in every matter, Philippians 4:6; 1 Thessalonians 5:18; in everything, in every way, on every side, in every particular or relation, 2 Corinthians 4:8; 2 Corinthians 7:5, 2 Corinthians 7:11, 2 Corinthians 7:16; 2 Corinthians 11:6, 2 Corinthians 11:9; Ephesians 5:24; πλουτίζεσθαι, 1 Corinthians 1:5; (περισσεύειν), 2 Corinthians 8:7; ἐν παντί καί ἐν πᾶσιν (see μυέω , b.), Philippians 4:12.TGL πᾶς.12

    b. Plural, πάντα (without the article (cf. Winer s Grammar, 116 (110); Matthiae , § 438)) all things;TGL πᾶς.13

    α. of a certain definite totality or sum of things, the context shewing what things are meant: Mark 4:34; Mark 6:30; Luke 1:3; (v. 28 L T Tr WH ); John 4:25 (here T Tr WH ἅπαντα); Romans 8:28; 2 Corinthians 6:10; Galatians 4:1; Philippians 2:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:21; 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:15; 1 John 2:27; πάντα ὑμῶν, all ye do with one another, 1 Corinthians 16:14; πάντα γίνεσθαι πᾶσιν (A. V. to become all things to all men), i. e. to adapt oneself in all ways to the needs of all, 1 Corinthians 9:22 L T Tr WH (Rec. τά πάντα i. e. in all the ways possible or necessary); cf. Kypke , Obs. ii, p. 215f.TGL πᾶς.14

    β. accusative πάντα (adverbially), wholly, altogether, in all ways, in all things, in all respects: Acts 20:35; 1 Corinthians 9:25; 1 Corinthians 10:33; 1 Corinthians 11:2; cf. Matthiae , § 425, 5; Passow , ii, p. 764a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word D. II. 4).TGL πᾶς.15

    γ. πάντα, in an absolute sense, all things that exist, all created things: John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 15:27; Hebrews 2:8 (and L T Tr WH in Hebrews 3:4); Ephesians 1:22; Colossians 1:17; 1 Peter 4:7; Revelation 21:5; (in Romans 9:5 πάντων is more fitly taken as genitive masculine (but see the commentaries at the passage)). ποίᾳ ἐστιν ἐντολή πρώτη πάντων (genitive neuter; Rec. πασῶν), what commandment is first of all (things), Mark 12:28 (ἐφασκε λέγων κορυδον πάντων πρώτην ὀρνιθα γενέσθαι, προτέραν τῆς γῆς, Aristophanes av. 472; τάς πόλεις... ἐλευθερουν καί πάντων μάλιστα Ἀντανδρον, Thucydides 4, 52; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 27,6; (Buttmann , § 150, 6; Green , p. 109); Fritzsche on Mark, p. 538].TGL πᾶς.16

    δ. with the article (cf. references in b. above), τά πάντα;TGL πᾶς.17

    αα. in an absolute sense, all things collectively, the totality of created things, the universe of things: Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Ephesians 3:9; Ephesians 4:10; Philippians 3:21; Colossians 1:16; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 2:10; Revelation 4:11; τά πάντα ἐν πᾶσι πληροῦσθαι, to fill the universe of things in all places, Ephesians 1:23 (Rec. omits τά; but others take ἐν πᾶσιν here modally (see θ'. below), others instrumentally (see Meyer at the passage)).TGL πᾶς.18

    ββ. in a relative sense: Mark 4:11 (Tdf. omits τά) (the whole substance of saving teaching); Acts 17:25 (not Rec.st ) (all the necessities of life); Romans 8:32 (all the things that he can give for our benefit); all intelligent beings (others include things material also), Ephesians 1:10; Colossians 1:20; it serves by its universality to designate every class of men, all mankind (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 27, 5; Buttmann , § 128, 1), Galatians 3:22 (cf. Romans 11:32); 1 Timothy 6:13; εἶναι τά (T WH omit τά) πάντα, to avail for, be a substitute for, to possess supreme authority, καί ἐν πᾶσιν (i. e. either with all men or in the minds of all (others take πᾶσιν as neuter, cf. Lightfoot at the passage)), Colossians 3:11; ἵνα Θεός τά (L Tr WH omit τά) πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν (neuter according to Grimm (as below)), i. e. that God may rule supreme by his spiritual power working within all, 'may be the immanent and controlling principle of life,' 1 Corinthians 15:28 (so in secular authors πάντα or ἅπαντα without the article: πάντα ἦν ἐν τοισι Βαβυλωνιοισι Ζωπυρος, Herodotus 3, 157; cf. Herm. ad Vig. , p. 727; other examples from secular authors are given in Kypke , Observations, ii., p. 230f; Palairet , Observations, p. 407; cf. Grimm in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1873, p. 394ff); accusative (adverbially, cf. β. above) τά πάντα, in all the parts (in which we grow (Meyer)), in all respects, Ephesians 4:15. The article in τά πάντα refers — in 1 Corinthians 11:12 to the things before mentioned (husband and wife, and their mutual dependence); in 2 Corinthians 4:15 to 'all the things that befall me'; in 1 Corinthians 15:27; Philippians 3:8, to the preceding πάντα; in Colossians 3:8 τά πάντα serves to sum up what follows (Winer 's Grammar, 107 (102)).TGL πᾶς.19

    ε. πάντα τά followed by a participle (see πᾶς , πάντες, II. 1 above): Matthew 18:31; Luke 12:44; Luke 17:10; Luke 18:31; Luke 21:22; Luke 24:44; John 18:4; Acts 10:33; Acts 24:14; Galatians 3:10; τά πάντα with participle, Luke 9:7; Ephesians 5:13; πάντα τά namely, ὄντα (see πᾶς (πᾶν), πάντες, II. 1 and 2 above), Matthew 23:20; Acts 4:24; Acts 14:15; Acts 17:24; πάντα τά ὧδε, namely, ὄντα, Colossians 4:9; τά κατ' ἐμέ, Colossians 4:7 (see κατά , II. 3 b.).TGL πᾶς.20

    ζ. and τά πάντα with pronouns: τά ἐμά πάντα, John 17:10; πάντα τά ἐμά, Luke 15:31; ταῦτα πάντα, these things all taken together (Winer 's Grammar, 548 (510); Fritzsche on Matthew 24:33, Matthew 24:34; cf. Bornemann on Luke 21:36; Lobeck, Paralip., p. 65): Matthew 4:9; Matthew 6:33; Matthew 13:34, Matthew 13:51; Luke 12:30; Luke 16:14; Luke 21:36 (πάντα τά L marginal reading); Luke 24:9 (Tdf. πάντα ταῦτα); Acts 7:50; Romans 8:37; 2 Peter 3:11; πάντα ταῦτα, all these things (references as above): Matthew 6:32; Matthew 24:8, Matthew 24:33 (T Tr text ταῦτα πάντα),34 (Tr marginal reading ταῦτα πάντα); Luke 7:18; Acts 24:8; 1 Corinthians 12:11; Colossians 3:14; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; the reading varies also between πάντα ταῦτα and ταῦτα πάντα in Matthew 19:20; Matthew 23:36; Matthew 24:2; πάντα τά συμβεβηκότα ταῦτα, Luke 24:14; πάντα , John 4:1-54:(29 T WH Tr marginal reading (see the next entry)); John 4:45 (here L Tr WH ὅσα (see the next entry)); John 5:20; Acts 10:39; Acts 13:39.TGL πᾶς.21

    η. πάντα ὅσα: Matthew 7:12; Matthew 13:46; Matthew 18:25; Matthew 28:20; Mark 12:44; John 4:29 (see ζ above), John 4:45 L Tr WH ; John 10:41; John 16:15; John 17:7; Acts 3:22; πάντα ὅσα, ἄν (or ἐάν), Matthew 21:22; Matthew 23:3; Mark 11:24 (G L T Tr WH omit ἄν); Acts 3:22.TGL πᾶς.22

    θ. πάντα with prepositions forms adverbial phrases: πρό πάντων, before or above all things (see πρό , c.), James 5:12; 1 Peter 4:8. (But περί πάντων, 3 John 1:2, must not be referred to this head, as though it signified above all things; it is rather as respects all things, and depends on εὔχομαι (apparently a mistake for εὐοδοῦσθαι; yet see περί , the passage cited α.), cf. Lücke at the passage, 2nd edition, p. 370 (3rd edition, p. 462f; Westcott at the passage); Winer 's Grammar, 373 (350)). (on διά πάντων, Acts 9:32, see 1 above.) ἐν πᾶσιν, in all things, in all ways, altogether: 1 Timothy 3:11; 1 Timothy 4:15 (Rec. ); 2 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 4:5; Titus 2:9; Hebrews 13:4, Hebrews 13:18; 1 Peter 4:11 (see also 2 a. at the end, above); ἐπί πᾶσιν, see ἐπί , B. 2 d., p. 233b. κατά πάντα, in all respects: Acts 17:22; Colossians 3:20, Colossians 3:22; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15.TGL πᾶς.23

    III. with negatives;TGL πᾶς.24

    1. οὐ πᾶς, not everyone.TGL πᾶς.25

    2. πᾶς οὐ (where οὐ belongs to the verb), no one, none, see οὐ , 2, p. 460b; πᾶς μή (so that μή must be joined to the verb), no one, none, in final sentences, John 3:15; John 6:39; John 12:46; 1 Corinthians 1:29; with an imperative Ephesians 4:29 (1 Macc. 5:42); πᾶς... οὐ μή with the aorist subjunctive (see μή , IV. 2), Revelation 18:22.TGL πᾶς.26


    (3957) πάσχα, τό (Chaldean פִּסְחָא, Hebrew פֶּסַח, from פָּסַח, to pass over, to pass over by sparing; the Sept. also constantly use the Chaldean form πάσχα, except in 2 Chron. (and Jeremiah 38:8 (Jeremiah 31:8)) where it is φασεκ; Josephus has φασκα, Antiquities 5, 1, 4; 14, 2, 1; 17, 9, 13; b. j. 2, 1, 3), an indeclinable noun (Winer s Grammar, § 10, 2); properly, a passing over;TGL πάσχα.2

    1. the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people's deliverance of old from Egypt), orTGL πάσχα.3

    2. the paschal lamb, i. e. the lamb which the Israelites were accustomed to slay and eat on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan (the first month of their year) in memory of that day on which their fathers, preparing to depart from Egypt, were bidden by God to slay and eat a lamb, and to sprinkle their door-posts with its blood, that the destroying angel, seeing the blood, might pass over their dwellings (Exodus 12:1-51; Numbers 9:1-23; Deuteronomy 16:1-22): θύειν τό πάσχα (הַפֶסַח שָׁחַט), Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7, (Exodus 12:21); Christ crucified is likened to the slain paschal lamb, 1 Corinthians 5:7; φαγεῖν τό πάσχα, Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12, Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11, Luke 22:15; John 18:28; הָפֶסַח אָכַל, 2 Chronicles 30:17.TGL πάσχα.4

    3. the paschal supper: ἑτοιμάζειν τό πάσχα, Matthew 26:19; Mark 14:16; Luke 22:8, Luke 22:13; ποιεῖν τό πάσχα to celebrate the paschal meal, Matthew 26:18.TGL πάσχα.5

    4. the paschal festival, the feast of Passover, extending from the fourteenth to the twentieth day of the month Nisan: Matthew 26:2; Mark 14:1; Luke 2:41; Luke 22:1; John 2:13, John 2:23; John 6:4; John 11:55; John 12:1; John 13:1; John 18:39; John 19:14; Acts 12:4; πεποίηκε τό πάσχα he instituted the Passover (of Moses), Hebrews 11:28 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 272 (256); Buttmann , 197 (170)); γίνεται τό πάσχα the Passover is celebrated (R. V. cometh), Matthew 26:2. (See BB. DD. under the word ; Dillmann in Schenkel iv., p. 392ff; and on the question of the relation of the Last Supper to the Jewish Passover, see (in addition to references in BB. DD. as above) Kirchner, die Jüdische Passahfeier u. Jesu letztes Mahl. Gotha, 1870; Keil, Com. über Matth., pp. 513-528; J. B. McClellan, The N. T. etc. i., pp. 473-494; but especially Schürer , Ueber φαγεῖν τό πάσχα, akademische Festschrift (Giessen, 1883).)TGL πάσχα.6


    (3958) πάσχω; 2 aorist ἔπαθον; perfect πέπονθα (Luke 13:2; Hebrews 2:18); from Homer down; to be affected or have been affected, to feel, have a sensible experience, to undergo; it is a vox media — used in either a good or a bad sense; as, ὅσα πεπονθασι καί ὅσα αὐτοῖς ἐγένετο, of perils and deliverance from them, Esther 9:26 (for רָאָה); hence, κακῶς πάσχειν, to suffer sadly, be in bad plight, of a sick person, Matthew 17:15 where L Tr text WH text κακῶς ἔχειν (on the other hand, εὖ πάσχειν, to be well off, in good case, often in Greek writings from Pindar down).TGL πάσχω.2

    1. in a bad sense, of misfortunes, to suffer, to undergo evils, to be afflicted (so everywhere in Homer and Hesiod ; also in the other Greek writings where it is used absolutely): absolutely, Luke 22:15; Luke 24:46; Acts 1:3; Acts 3:18; Acts 17:3; 1 Corinthians 12:26; Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 9:26; 1 Peter 2:19, 1 Peter 2:23; 1 Peter 3:17; 1 Peter 4:15, 1 Peter 4:19; Hebrews 13:12; ὀλίγον, a little while, 1 Peter 5:10; πάσχειν τί, Matthew 27:19; Mark 9:12; Luke 13:2; (Luke 24:26); Acts 28:5; 2 Timothy 1:12; (Hebrews 5:8 cf. Winer s Grammar, 166 (158) a.; Buttmann , § 143, 10); Revelation 2:10; παθήματα πάσχειν, 2 Corinthians 1:6; τί ἀπό with the genitive of person, Matthew 16:21; Luke 9:22; Luke 17:25; πάσχειν ὑπό with the genitive of person, Matthew 17:12; ὑπό τίνος, Mark 5:28; 1 Thessalonians 2:14; πάσχειν ὑπέρ τίνος, in behalf of a person or thing, Acts 9:16; Philippians 1:29; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; with the addition of a dative of reference or respect (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 6), σαρκί, 1 Peter 4:1; ἐν σαρκί, ibid. b (yet G L T Tr WH omit ἐν; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 412 (384)); πάσχειν περί with the genitive of the thing and ὑπέρ with the genitive of person 1 Peter 3:18 (R G WH marginal reading; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 373 (349); 383 (358) note); πάσχειν διά δικαιοσύνην, 1 Peter 3:14.TGL πάσχω.3

    2. in a good sense, of pleasant experiences; but nowhere so unless either the adverb εὖ or an accusative of the thing be added (Ὑπομνῆσαι, ὅσα παθοντες ἐξ αὐτοῦ (i. e. Θεοῦ) καί πηλικων εὐεργεσιῶν μεταλαβόντες ἀχάριστοι πρός αὐτόν γένοιντο, Josephus , Antiquities 3, 15, 1; examples from Greek authors are given in Passow , under the word, II. 5; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 2)): Galatians 3:4, on which see γέ , 3 c. (Compare: προπάσχω, συμπάσχω.)TGL πάσχω.4


    (3959) Πάταρα, Παταρων, τά (cf. Winer s Grammar, 176 (166)), Patara, a maritime city of Lycia, celebrated for an oracle of Apollo: Acts 21:1. (B. D. under the word ; Lewin, St. Paul, ii. 99f.)TGL Πάταρα.2


    (3960) πατάσσω: future πατάξω; 1 aorist ἐπάταξα; the Sept. times without number for הִכָּה (Hiphil of נָכָה, unused in Kal), also for נָגַף, etc.; (in Homer intransitive, to beat, of the heart; from Aristophanes , Sophocles , Plato , others on used it transitively);TGL πατάσσω.2

    1. to strike gently: τί (as a part or a member of the body), Acts 12:7.TGL πατάσσω.3

    2. to strike, smite: absolutely, ἐν μάχαιρα, with the sword, Luke 22:49; τινα, Matthew 26:51; Luke 22:50. by a use solely biblical, to afflict; to visit with evils, etc.: as with a deadly disease, τινα, Acts 12:23; τινα ἐν with the dative of the thing, Revelation 11:6 G L T Tr WH ; Revelation 19:15 (Genesis 8:21; Numbers 14:12; Exodus 12:23, etc.).TGL πατάσσω.4

    3. by a use solely biblical, to smite down, cut down, to kill, slay: τινα, Matthew 26:31 and Mark 14:27 (after Zechariah 13:7); Acts 7:24.TGL πατάσσω.5


    (3961) πατέω, πάτω; future πατήσω; passive, present participle πατουμενος; 1 aorist ἐπατήθην; from Pindar , Aeschylus , Sophocles , Plato down; the Sept. for דָּרַך, etc.; to tread, i. e.,TGL πατέω.2

    a. to trample, crush with the feet: τήν ληνόν, Revelation 14:20; Revelation 19:15 (Judges 9:27; Nehemiah 13:15; Jeremiah 31:33 (Jeremiah 48:33); Lamentations 1:15).TGL πατέω.3

    b. to advance by setting foot upon, tread upon: ἐπάνω ὄφεων καί σκορπίων καί ἐπί πᾶσαν τήν δύναμιν τοῦ ἐχθροῦ, to encounter successfully the greatest perils from the machinations and persecutions with which Satan would fain thwart the preaching of the gospel, Luke 10:19 (cf. Psalms 90:13 (Psalms 91:13)).TGL πατέω.4

    c. to tread underfoot, trample on, i. e. treat with insult and contempt: to desecrate the holy city by devastation and outrage, Luke 21:24; Revelation 11:2 (from Daniel 8:13); see καταπατέω . (Compare: καταπατέω, περιπατέω, ἐμπεριπατέωTGL πατέω.5


    (3962) πατήρ (from the root, pa; literally, nourisher, protector, upholder; (Curtius , § 348)), πατρός, πατρί, πατέρα, vocative πάτερ (for which the nominative πατήρ is five times used, and (anarthrous) πατήρ in John 17:21 T Tr WH , 24 and 25 L T Tr WH ; cf. B. § 129, 5; Winer s Grammar, § 29, 2; WH 's Appendix, p. 158), plural πατέρες, πατέρων, πατρασι (Hebrews 1:1), πατέρας, (from Homer down), the Sept. for אָב, a father;TGL πατήρ.2

    1. properly, equivalent to generator or male ancestor, and eitherTGL πατήρ.3

    a. the nearest ancestor: Matthew 2:22; Matthew 4:21; Matthew 8:21; Luke 1:17; John 4:53; Acts 7:14; 1 Corinthians 5:1, etc.; οἱ πατέρες τῆς σαρκός, fathers of the corporeal nature, natural fathers (opposed to πατήρ τῶν πνευμάτων), Hebrews 12:9; plural of both parents, Hebrews 11:23 (not infrequent in secular auth, cf. Delitzsch at the passage); orTGL πατήρ.4

    b. a more remote ancestor, the founder of a race or tribe, progenitor of a people, forefather: so Abraham is called, Matthew 3:9; Luke 1:73; Luke 16:24; John 8:39, John 8:53; Acts 7:2; Romans 4:1 Rec. , Romans 4:17, etc.; Isaac, Romans 9:10; Jacob, John 4:12; David, Mark 11:10; Luke 1:32; plural, fathers i. e. ancestor's, forefathers, Matthew 23:30, Matthew 23:32; Luke 6:23, Luke 6:26; Luke 11:47; John 4:20; John 6:31; Acts 3:13, Acts 3:25; 1 Corinthians 10:1, etc., and often in Greek writings from Homer down; so too אָבות, 1 Kings 8:21; Psalms 21:5 (Psalms 22:5), etc.; in the stricter sense of the founders of a race, John 7:22; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:28.TGL πατήρ.5

    c. equivalent to one advanced in years, a senior: 1 John 2:13.TGL πατήρ.6

    2. metaphorically;TGL πατήρ.7

    a. the originator and transmitter of anything: πατήρ περιτομῆς, Romans 4:12; the author of a family or society of persons animated by the same spirit as himself: so πατήρ πάντων τῶν πιστευόντων, Romans 4:11, cf. Romans 4:12, Romans 4:16 (1 Macc. 2:54); one who has infused his own spirit into others, who actuates and governs their minds, John 8:38, John 8:41, John 8:44; the phrase ἐκ πατρός τίνος εἶναι is used of one who shows himself as like another in spirit and purpose as though he had inherited his nature from him, John 8:44.TGL πατήρ.8

    b. one who stands in a father's place, and looks after another in paternal way: 1 Corinthians 4:15.TGL πατήρ.9

    c. a title of honor (cf. Sophocles , Lexicon, under the word), applied toTGL πατήρ.10

    α. teachers, as those to whom pupils trace back the knowledge and training they have received: Matthew 23:9 (of prophets, 2 Kings 2:12; 2 Kings 6:21).TGL πατήρ.11

    β. the members of the Sanhedrin, whose prerogative it was, by virtue of the wisdom and experience in which they excelled, to take charge of the interests of others: Acts 7:2; Acts 22:1; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus i., p. 7{a}.TGL πατήρ.12

    3. God is called the Father,TGL πατήρ.13

    a. τῶν φώτων (A. V. of lights i. e.) of the stars, the heavenly luminaries, because he is their creator, upholder, ruler, James 1:17.TGL πατήρ.14

    b. of all rational and intelligent beings, whether angels or men, because he is their creator, preserver, guardian and protector: Ephesians 3:14 G L T Tr WH ; τῶν πνευμάτων, of spiritual beings, Hebrews 12:9; and, for the same reason, of all men (πατήρ τοῦ παντός ἀνθρώπων γένους, Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 24): so in the Synoptic Gospels, especially Matthew, Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:8, Matthew 6:15; Matthew 24:36; Luke 6:36; Luke 11:2; Luke 12:30, Luke 12:32; John 4:21, John 4:23; James 3:9; πατήρ ἐν (τοῖς) οὐρανοῖς, the Father in heaven, Matthew 5:16, Matthew 5:45, Matthew 5:48; Matthew 6:1, Matthew 6:9; Matthew 7:11, Matthew 7:21; Matthew 18:14; Mark 11:25, Mark 11:26 R G L ; Luke 11:13 (ἐξ οὐρανοῦ; cf. Buttmann , § 151, 2{a}; Winer 's Grammar, § 66, 6); πατήρ οὐρανοῖς, the heavenly Father, Matthew 6:14, Matthew 6:26, Matthew 6:32; Matthew 15:13.TGL πατήρ.15

    c. of Christians, as those who through Christ have been exalted to a specially close and intimate relationship with God, and who no longer dread him as the stern judge of sinners, but revere him as their reconciled and loving Father. This conception, common in the N. T. Epistles, shines forth with especial brightness in Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6; in John's use of the term it seems to include the additional idea of one who by the power of his Spirit, operative in the gospel, has begotten them anew to a life of holiness (see γεννάω , 2 d.): absolutely, 2 Corinthians 6:18; Ephesians 2:18; 1 John 2:1, 1 John 2:14(1 John 2:13),1 John 2:16; 1 John 3:1; Θεός καί πατήρ πάντων, of all Christians, Ephesians 4:6; with the addition of a genitive of quality (Winer 's Grammar, § 34, 3 b.; § 132, 10), πατήρ τῶν οἰκτίρμων, 2 Corinthians 1:3; τῆς δόξης, Ephesians 1:17; on the phrases Θεός καί πατήρ ἡμῶν, Θεός πατήρ, etc., see Θεός , 3, p. 288{a}.TGL πατήρ.16

    d. the Father of Jesus Christ, as one whom God has united to himself in the closest bond of love and intimacy, made acquainted with his purposes, appointed to explain and carry out among men the plan of salvation, and (as appears from the teaching of John) made to share also in his own divine nature; he is so called,TGL πατήρ.17

    α. by Jesus himself: simply πατήρ (opposed to υἱός), Matthew 11:25-27; Luke 10:21; John 5:20-23, John 5:26, John 5:36; John 10:15, John 10:30, etc.; πατήρ μου, Matthew 11:27; Matthew 25:34; Matthew 26:53; Luke 10:22; John 5:17; John 8:19, John 8:49; John 10:18, John 10:32, and often in John's Gospel; Revelation 2:28 (Revelation 2:27); Revelation 3:5,Revelation 3:21; with ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς added, Matthew 7:11, Matthew 7:21, 32; Matthew 12:50; Matthew 16:17; Matthew 18:10, Matthew 18:19; οὐράνιος, Matthew 15:13; ἐπουράνιος, Matthew 18:35 Rec.TGL πατήρ.18

    β. by the apostles: Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Ephesians 1:3; Ephesians 3:14 Rec. : Colossians 1:3; Hebrews 1:5; 1 Peter 1:3; Revelation 1:6. See (Tholuck (Bergrede Christi) on Matthew 6:9; Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T., Index under Vater; C. Wittichen, Die Idee Gottes als d. Vaters (Göttingen, 1865); Westcott, Epistles of St. John, pp. 27-34, and) below in υἱός and τέκνον.TGL πατήρ.19


    (3963) Πάτμος, Πατμου, , Patmos, a small and rocky island in the Aegean Sea, reckoned as one of the Sporades (Thucydides 3, 33; Strabo 10, p. 488; Pliny , h. n. 4, 23); now called Patino or (chiefly in the middle ages (Howson)) Palmosa and having from four to five thousand Christian inhabitants (cf. Schubert, Raise in das Morgenland, Th. iii., pp. 425-443; Bleek, Vorless. üb. die Apokalypse, p. 157; Kneucker in Schenkel iv., p. 403f; (BB. DD. under the word)). In it John, the author of the Apocalypse, says the revelations were made to him of the approaching consummation of God's kingdom: Revelation 1:9. It has been held by the church, ever since the time of (Justin Martyr (dialog contra Trypho, § 81, p. 308 a. cf. Eusebius , h. e. 4, 18, 8; see Charteris, Canonicity, chapter 34:and note)and) Irenaeus adv. haer. 5, 30, that this John is the Apostle; see Ἰωάννης , 2 and 6.TGL Πάτμος.2


    (3964) πατραλῴας (Attic πατραλοίας, Aristophanes , Plato , Demosthenes , p. 732, 14; Aristotle , Lucian ), L T Tr WH πατρολῴας (see μητραλωας ), πατραλοωυ, , a parricide: 1 Timothy 1:9.TGL πατρολῴας.2


    (3965) πατριά, πατριᾶς, (from πατήρ);TGL πατριά.2

    1. lineage running back to some progenitor, ancestry: Herodotus 2, 143; 3, 75.TGL πατριά.3

    2. a race or tribe, i. e. a group of families, all those who in a given people lay claim to a common origin: εἰσί ἀυτεων (Βαβυλωνίων) πατριαί τρεῖς, Herodotus 1, 200. The Israelites were distributed into (twelve) מַטּות, φυλαί, tribes, descended from the twelve sons of Jacob; these were divided into מִשְׁפָחות, πατριαί, deriving their descent from the several sons of Jacob's sons; and these in turn were divided into הָאָבות בֵּית, οἶκοι, houses (or families); cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 193; iii., p. 1463; Winer 's RWB under the word Stämme; (Keil, Archaeol. § 140); hence, ἐξ οἴκου καί πατριᾶς Δαυίδ, i. e. belonging not only to the same 'house' (πατριά) as David, but to the very 'family' of David, descended from David himself, Luke 2:4 (αὗται αἱ πατριαί τῶν υἱῶν Συμεών, Exodus 6:15; ἀνήρ αὐτῆς Μανασσης τῆς φυλῆς αὐτῆς καί τῆς πατριᾶς αὐτῆς, Judith 8:2; τῶν φυλῶν κατά πατριᾶς αὐτῶν, Numbers 1:16; οἶκοι πατριῶν, Exodus 12:3; Numbers 1:2, and often; add, Josephus , Antiquities 6, 4, 1; 7, 14, 7; 11, 3, 10).TGL πατριά.4

    3. family in a wider sense, equivalent to nation, people: Acts 3:25 (1 Chronicles 16:28; Psalm 21:28 (Psalms 22:28)); πᾶσα πατριά ἐν οὐρανοῖς (i. e. every order of angels) καί ἐπί γῆς, Ephesians 3:15.TGL πατριά.5


    (3966) πατριάρχης, πατριάρχου, (πατριά and ἄρχω; see ἑκατοντάρχης ), a Hellensitic word (Winer s Grammar, 26), a patriarch, founder of a tribe, progenitor: used of David, Acts 2:29; of the twelve sons of Jacob, founders of the several tribes of Israel, Acts 7:8; of Abraham, Hebrews 7:4; of the same and Isaac and Jacob, 4 Macc. 7:19; 16:25; used for הָאָבות רֹאשׁ, 1 Chronicles 24:31 (but the text here is uncertain); for שְׁבָטִים שַׂר, 1 Chronicles 27:22; for הַמֵּאות שַׂר, 2 Chronicles 23:20.TGL πατριάρχης.2


    (3967) πατρικός, πατρική, πατρικόν (πατήρ),paternal, ancestral, equivalent to handed down by or received from one's fathers: Galatians 1:14. (Thucydides , Xenophon , Plato , and following; the Sept. ) (Synonym: see πατροως , at the end.)TGL πατρικός.2


    (3968) πατρίς, πατρίδος, (πατήρ), one's native country;TGL πατρίς.2

    a. as in classical Greek from Homer down, one's fatherland, one's (own) country: John 4:44 (cf. γάρ , II. 1); equivalent to a fixed abode (home (R. V. a country of their own), opposed to the land where one παρεπιδημει), Hebrews 11:14.TGL πατρίς.3

    b. one's native (own) place i. e. city: Matthew 13:54, Matthew 13:57; Mark 6:1, Mark 6:4; Luke 4:23,(24); so Philo , leg. ad Gaium § 36 (ἐστι δέ μοι Ἱεροσόλυμα πατρίς); Josephus , Antiquities 10, 7, 3; 6, 4, 6; πατρίς Ἀκυληια ἦν, Herodian , 8, 3, 2 (1 edition, Bekker).TGL πατρίς.4


    (3969) Πατροβᾶς (others, Πατροβᾶς, as contracted from πατροβιος; cf. B. D. , under the word; Lightfoot on Philip., p. 176f; Chandler § 32), accusative Πατροβᾶν (cf. Buttmann , 19f (17f); Winer s Grammar, § 8, 1), Patrobas, a certain Christian: Romans 16:14.TGL Πατροβᾶς.2


    (3970) πατροπαράδοτος, πατροπαραδοτον (πατήρ and παραδίδωμι), handed down from one's fathers or ancestors: 1 Peter 1:18 (Buttmann , 91 (79)). (Diodorus 4,8; 15, 74; 17,4; Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 5, 48; Theophil. ad Autol. 2, 34; Eusebius , h. c. 4, 23, 10; 10, 4, 16.)TGL πατροπαράδοτος.2


    (3971) πατροως (poetic and Ionic πατρωιος), πατρωα, πατροων, (πατήρ), from Homer down, descending from father to son or from ancestors to their posterity as it were by right of inheritance; received from the fathers: νόμος, Acts 22:3 (2 Macc. 6:1; Aelian v. h. 6, 10); Θεός, Acts 24:14 (4 Macc. 12:19; and often in Greek writings θεοί πατροωι, Ζεύς πατροως etc.); τοῖς ἔθεσι τοῖς πατροωις, Acts 28:17 (Justin Martyr , dialog contra Trypho, c. 63; πατροως ἔθος, Aelian v. h. 7, 19 variant).TGL πατρῷος.2


    (3972) Παῦλος, Παύλου, (a Latin proper name, Paulus), Paul. Two persons of this name are mentioned in the N. T., viz.:TGL Παῦλος.2

    1. Sergius Paulus, a Roman propraetor (proconsul; cf. Σέργιος , and B. D. , under the phrase, Sergius Paulus), converted to Christ by the agency of the apostle Paul: Acts 13:7.TGL Παῦλος.3

    2. the apostle Paul, whose Hebrew name was Saul (see Σαούλ , Σαῦλος ). He was born at Tarsus in Cilicia (Acts 9:11; Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3) of Jewish parents (Philippians 3:5). His father was a Pharisee (Acts 23:6) and a Roman citizen; hence, he himself was a Roman citizen by birth (Acts 22:28; Acts 16:37). He was endowed with remarkable gifts, both moral and intellectual. He learned the trade of a σκηνοποιός (which see). Brought to Jerusalem in early youth, he was thoroughly indoctrinated in the Jewish theology by the Pharisee Gamaliel (Acts 22:3; Acts 5:34). At first he attacked and persecuted the Christians most fiercely; at length, on his way to Damascus, he was suddenly converted to Christ by g miracle, and became an indefatigable and undaunted preacher of Christ; and the founder of many Christian churches. And not only by his unwearied labors did he establish a claim to the undying esteem of the friends of Christianity, but also by the fact, which appears from his immortal Epistles, that he caught perfectly the mind of his heavenly Master and taught most unequivocally that salvation was designed by God for all men who repose a living faith in Jesus Christ, and that bondage to the Mosaic law is wholly incompatible with the spiritual liberty of which Christ is the author. By his zeal and doctrine he drew upon himself the deadly hatred of the Jews, who at Jerusalem in the year 57 (or 58 according to the more common opinion; yet see the chronological table in Meyer (or Lange) on Acts; Farrar, St. Paul, ii. excurs. x.) brought about his imprisonment; and as a captive he was carried first to Caesarea in Palestine, and two years later to Rome, where he suffered martyrdom (in the year 64). For the number of those daily grows smaller who venture to defend the ecclesiastical tradition for which Eusebius is responsible (h. e. 2, 22, 2) (but of which traces seem to be found in Clement of Rome , 1 Corinthians 5:1-13, 1 Corinthians 5:7 [ET]; can. Murator. (cf. Westcott, Canon, 5th edition, p. 521f)), according to which Paul, released from this imprisonment, is said to have preached in Spain and Asia Minor; and subsequently, imprisoned a second-time, to have been at length put to death at Rome in the year 67 or 68, while Nero was still emperor. (On this point cf. Meyer on Romans, Introduction, § 1; Harnack on Clement to the Romans, the passage cited; Lightfoot , ibid., p. 49f; Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe, Einl., chapter iv., p. 37ff; references in Heinichen's note on Eusebius , h. e. as above; see Hofmann, Die heilige Schrift Neuen Testaments. 5ter Theil, p. 4ff; Farrar, St. Paul, vol. ii. excurs. viii.; Schaff, History of Apostolic Christianity (1882), p. 331f) Paul is mentioned in the N. T. not only in the Acts and in the Epistles from his pen, but also in 2 Peter 3:15. (For bibliog. references respecting his life and its debatable points see the article Paulus by Woldemar Schmidt in Herzog edition 2 vol. xi., pp. 356-389.)TGL Παῦλος.4


    (3973) παύω: 1 aorist imperative 3 person singular παυσάτω (1 Peter 3:10); middle, present παύομαι; imperfect ἐπαυομην; future παύσομαι (see ἀναπαύω and ἐπαναπαύω (and on the forms παηναι etc. cf. futher Hilgenfeld, Hermae Pastor, edition alt. proleg., p. xviii, note, also his edition of the 'Teaching ' 4, 2 [ET] note (p. 97))); perfect πεπαυμαι; 1 aorist ἐπαυσάμην; from Homer down; to make to cease or desist: τί or τινα ἀπό τίνος, to restrain (A. V. refrain) a thing or a person from something, 1 Peter 3:10, from Psalms 33:14 (Psalms 34:14); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 6; ((cf. 326 (305)): R. § 132, 5). Middle, the Sept. for חָדַל, כָּלָה, שָׁבַת, etc. to cease, leave off, (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 253 (238)): Luke 8:24; Acts 20:1; 1 Corinthians 13:8; the action or state desisted from is indicated by the addition of a present participle (cf. Matthiae , § 551 d.; Passow , under the word, II. 3; (Liddell and Scott, I. 4); Winer s Grammar, § 45, 4; (Buttmann , § 144,15)): ἐπαύσατο λαλῶν, Luke 5:4 (Genesis 18:33; Numbers 16:31; Deuteronomy 20:9); add, Acts 5:42; Acts 6:13; Acts 13:10; Acts 20:31; Acts 21:32; Ephesians 1:16; Colossians 1:9; Hebrews 10:2; the participle is lacking, as being evident from the context, Luke 11:1. Passive (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 39, 3 and N. 3) πέπαυται ἁμαρτίας, hath got release (A. V. hath ceased) from sin, i. e. is no longer stirred by its incitements and seductions, 1 Peter 4:1; cf. Kypke , Observations, at the passage, and Winer s Grammar, as above; (Buttmann , § 132, 5; but WH text ἁμαρτίαις, dative, unto sins. Compare: ἀναπαύω, ἐπαναπαύω, συναναπαύω (συναναπαύομαι), καταπαύω).TGL παύω.2


    (3974) Πάφος (perhaps from the root meaning, 'to cozen'; cf. Pape , Eigennamen, under the word), Πάφου, , Paphos (now Baffa], a maritime city on the island of Cyprus, with a harbor. It was the residence of the Roman proconsul. Old Paphos (now Kuklia), formerly noted for the worship and shrine of Venus (Aphrodite), lay some 7 miles or more southeast of it (Mela 2, 7; Pliny , h. n. 5, 31, 35; Tacitus , hist. 2, 2): Acts 13:6, Acts 13:13. (Lewin, St. Paul, i. 120ff.)TGL Πάφος.2


    (3975) παχύνω: 1 aorist passive ἐπαχυνθην; (from παχύς (thick, stout); cf. βραδύνω ; ταχύνω); to make thick; to make fat, fatten: τά σώματα, Plato , Gorgias, p. 518 c.; βοῦν, de rep., p. 343 b.; ἵππον, Xenophon , oec. 12, 20. Metaphorically, to make stupid (to render the soul dull or callous): τάς ψυχάς, Plutarch , mor., p. 995 d. (i. e. de esu carn. 1, 6, 3); νοῦν, Philostr. vit. Apoll. 1, 8; παχεῖς τάς διανοίας, Herodian , 2, 9, 15 (11 edition, Bekker); τήν διάνοιαν, Aelian v. h. 13, 15 (Latinpingue ingenium) (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 18); ἐπαχύνθη καρδία (Vulg. incrassatum (A. V. their heart is waxed gross)): Matthew 13:15; Acts 28:27, after Isaiah 6:10 (for לֵב הַשְׁמֵן).TGL παχύνω.2


    (3976) πέδη, πεδης, (from πέζα the foot, instep), a fetter, shackle for the feet: Mark 5:4; Luke 8:29. (From Homer down; the Sept. .)TGL πέδη.2


    (3977) πεδινός, πεδινῇ, πεδινον (πεδίον (a plain), πέδον (the ground)), level, plain: Luke 6:17. (Xenophon , Polybius , Plutarch , Dio Cass., others; the Sept. .)TGL πεδινός.2


    (3978) πεζεύω; (πεζός, which see); to travel on foot (not on horseback or in a carriage), or (if opposed to going by sea) by land: Acts 20:13. (Xenophon , Isocrates , Polybius , Strabo , others.)TGL πεζεύω.2


    (3979) πεζῇ (dative feminine from πεζός, which see; cf. Matthiae , § 400), on foot or (if opposed to going by sea) by land: Matthew 14:13 R G Tr L text WH text; Mark 6:33. (Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon , Demosthenes , others.)TGL πεζῇ.2


    (3980) πειθαρχέω, πειθάρχω; 1 aorist participle πειθαρχησας; (πείθαρχος; and this from πείθομαι and ἀρχή); to obey (a ruler or a superior): Θεῷ, Acts 5:29, Acts 5:32; magistrates, Titus 3:1 (others take it here absolutely, to be obedient); τῷ λόγῳ τῆς δικαιοσύνης, Polycarp , ad Philipp. 9, 1 [ET]; (A. V. to hearken to) one advising something, Acts 27:21. (Sophocles , Xenophon , Polybius , Diodorus , Josephus , Plutarch , others; on the very frequent use of the verb by Philo see Siegfried, Philo von Alex. as above with, p. 43 (especially, p. 108).)TGL πειθαρχέω.2


    (3981) πειθός (WH πίθος; see Iota), πειθη, πειθον, (from πείθω, like φειδος from φείδομαι (cf. Winer s Grammar, 96 (91))), persuasive: ἐν πειθοῖς λόγοις, 1 Corinthians 2:4 (cf. Buttmann , 73). Not found elsewhere (Winer 's Grammar, 24). The Greeks say πιθανός; as πιθανοι λόγοι, Josephus , Antiquities 8, 9, and often in Greek authors See Passow , under the word, πιθανός, 1 e.; (Liddell and Scott, ibid. I. 2; WH 's Appendix, p. 153).TGL πειθός.2


    (3982) πείθω [(from the root meaning 'to bind'; allied with πίστις, fides, foedus, etc.; Curtius, § 327; Vanicek, p. 592)]; imperfect ἔπειθον; future πείσω; 1 aorist ἐπεισα; 2 perfect πέποιθα; pluperfect ἐπεποίθειν (Luke 11:22); passive [or middle, present πείθομαι; imperfect ἐπειθομην); perfect πέπεισμαι; 1 aorist ἐπείσθην; 1 future πεισθήσομαι (Luke 16:31); from Homer down;TGL πείθω.2

    1. Active;TGL πείθω.3

    a. to persuade, i. e. to induce one by words to believe: absolutely πείσας μετέστησεν ἱκανόν ὄχλον, Acts 19:26; τί, to cause belief in a thing (which one sets forth), Acts 19:8 R G T [cf. Buttmann, 150 (131) n.] (Sophocles O. C. 1442); τερί with the genitive of the thing, ibid. L Tr WH; τινά, one, Acts 18:4; τινά τι, one of a thing, Acts 28:23 Rec. (Herodotus 1, 163; Plato, Apology, p. 37 a., and elsewhere; [cf. Buttmann, as above]); τινὰ περἰ τινος, concerning a thing, ibid. G L T Tr WH.TGL πείθω.4

    b. as in classical Greek from Homer down, with an accusative of a person, to make friends of, win one's favor, gain one's good-will, Acts 12:20; or to seek to win one, strive to please one, 2 Corinthians 5:11; Galatians 1:10; to conciliate by persuasion, Matthew 28:14 [here T WH omit; Tr brackets αὐτόν]; Acts 14:19; equivalent to to tranquillize [A. V. assure], τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν, 1 John 3:19.TGL πείθω.5

    c. to persuade unto i. e. move or induce one by persuasion to do something: τινά followed by an infinitive [B § 139, 46], Acts 13:43; Acts 26:28 (Xenophon, an. 1, 3, 19; Polybius 4, 64, 2; Diodorus 11, 15; 12, 39; Josephus, Antiquities 8, 10, 3); τινά followed by ἵνα [cf. Winers Grammar, 338 (317); Buttmann, § 139, 46], Matthew 27:20 [Plutarch, apoph. Alex. 21].TGL πείθω.6

    2. Passive and middle [cf. Winers Grammar, 253 (238)];TGL πείθω.7

    a. to be persuaded, to suffer oneself to be persuaded; to be induced to believe: absol, Luke 16:31; Acts 17:4; to have faith, Hebrews 11:13 Rec.; τινί, in a thing, Acts 28:24; to believe, namely, ὅτι, Hebrews 13:18 L T Tr WH. πέπεισμαί τι [on the neuter accusative cf. Buttmann, § 131, 10] περί τίνας (genitive of person), to be persuaded (of) a thing concerning a person, Hebrews 6:9 [A. V. we are persuaded better things of you, etc.); πεπεισμένος εἰμί, to have persuaded oneself, and πείθομαι, to believe [cf. English to be persuaded], followed by an accusative with an infinitive, Luke 20:6; Acts 26:26; πέπεισμαι ὅτι, Romans 8:38; 2 Timothy 1:5, 2 Timothy 1:12; with ἐν κυρίῳ added (see ἐν, I. 6 b.), Romans 14:14; περί τινος ὅτι, Romans 15:14.TGL πείθω.8

    b. to listen to, obey, yield to, comply with: τινί, one, Acts 5:36, Acts 5:39 (40); Acts 23:21; Acts 27:11; Romans 2:8; Galatians 3:1 Rec.; Galatians 5:7; Hebrews 13:17; James 3:3.TGL πείθω.9

    3. 2 perfect πέποιθα (Septuagint mostly for בָּטַח, also for חָסָה, נִשְׁעַן Niphal of the unused שָׁעַן), intransitive, to trust, have confidence, be confident: followed by an accusative with an infinitive, Romans 2:19; by ὅτι, Hebrews 13:18 Rec.; by ὅτι with a preparatory αὐτὸ τοῦτο [Winer's Grammar, § 23, 5], Philippians 1:6; τοῦτο πεποιθώς οἶδα ὅτι, Philippians 1:25; πέποιθα with a dative of the person or the thing in which the confidence reposes (so in classical Greek [on its construction in the N. T. see Buttmann, § 133, 5; Winer's Grammar, 214 (201); § 33, d.]): Philippians 1:14; Philemon 1:21 (2 Kings 18:20; Proverbs 14:16; Proverbs 28:26; Isaiah 28:17; Sir. 35:24 (Sir. 32:24); Wis. 14:29); ἑαυτῷ followed by an infinitive 2 Corinthians 10:7; ἔν τινι, to trust in, put confidence in a person or thing [cf. Buttmann, as above], Philippians 3:3, Philippians 3:4; ἐν κυρίῳ followed by ὅτι, Philippians 2:24; ἐπί τινι, Matthew 27:43 L text WH marginal reading; Mark 10:24 [where T WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause]; Luke 11:22; Luke 18:9; 2 Corinthians 1:9; Hebrews 2:13 (and very often in the Septuagint, as Deuteronomy 28:52; 2 Chronicles 14:11; Psalm 2:13; Proverbs 3:5; Isaiah 8:17; Isaiah 31:1); ἐπί τινα, Matthew 27:43 where L text WH marginal reading ἐπί with the dative (Isaiah 36:5; Habakkuk 2:18; 2 Chronicles 16:7, etc.); ἐπί τινα followed by ὅτι, 2 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Thessalonians 3:4; εἴς τινα followed by ὅτι, Galatians 5:10.TGL πείθω.10

    [Compare: ἀναπείθω.]TGL πείθω.11

    Related entry: Πειθώ, Πειθους, ,TGL πείθω.12

    1. Peitho, proper name of a goddess, literally, Persuasion; LatinSuada orSuadela .TGL πείθω.13

    2. persuasive power, persuasion: 1 Corinthians 2:4 ἐν πειθοι — accusative to certain inferior authorities. (On the word, see Müller's note on Josephus , contra Apion 2, 21, 3. (Hesiod , Herodotus , others.))TGL πείθω.14


    (3983) πεινάω, πείνω, infinitive πεινᾶν (Philippians 4:12); future πεινάσω (Luke 6:25; Revelation 7:16); 1 aorist ἐπείνασα — for the earlier forms πεινην, πεινήσω, ἐπείνησα; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , pp. 61 and 204; Winer s Grammar, § 13, 3 b.; (Buttmann , 37 (32); 44 (38)); see also διψάω ; (from πεινᾷ hunger; (see πένης )); from Homer down; the Sept. for רָעֵב; to hunger, be hungry;TGL πεινάω.2

    a. properly: Matthew 4:2; Matthew 12:1, Matthew 12:3; Matthew 21:18; Matthew 25:35, Matthew 25:37, Matthew 25:42, Matthew 25:44; Mark 2:25; Mark 11:12; Luke 4:2; Luke 6:3, Luke 6:25; equivalent to to suffer want, Romans 12:20; 1 Corinthians 11:21, 1 Corinthians 11:34; to be needy, Luke 1:53; Luke 6:21; Philippians 4:12; in this same sense it is joined with δίψαν, 1 Corinthians 4:11; in figurative discourse, οὐ πεινᾶν καί οὐ δίψαν is used to describe the condition of one who is in need of nothing requisite for his real (spiritual) life and salvation, John 6:35; Revelation 7:16.TGL πεινάω.3

    b. metaphorically, to crave ardently, to seek with eager desire: with the accusative of the thing, τήν δικαιοσύνην, Matthew 5:6 (in the better Greek authors with a genitive as χρημάτων, Xenophon , Cyril 8, 3, 39; συμμαχων, 7, 5, 50; ἐπαινου, oec. 13, 9; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 10, b. at the end; (Buttmann , § 131, 4); Kuinoel on Matthew 5:6, and see διψάω , 2).TGL πεινάω.4


    (3984) πεῖρα, πειρας, (πειράω), from Aeschylus down, a trial, experiment, attempt: πεῖραν λαμβάνειν τίνος, equivalent to to attempt a thing, to make trial of a thing or a person (a phrase common in secular authors; cf. Xenophon , mem. 1, 4, 18; Cyril 3, 3, 38; see other examples in Sturz, Lex. Xenoph. iii., p. 488; Plato , Protag., p. 342 a.; Gorgias, p. 448 a.; Josephus , Antiquities 8, 6, 5; Aelian v. h. 12, 22; often in Polybius , cf. Schweighäuser, Lex. Polybius , p. 460; the Sept. Deuteronomy 28:56; (other examples in Bleek on Hebrews, the passage cited; Field, Otium Norv. pars iii., p. 146)), θαλάσσης, to try whether the sea can be crossed dry-shod like the land, Hebrews 11:29; to have trial of a thing, i. e. to experience, learn to know by experience, μαστίγων, Hebrews 11:36 (often in Polybius ; τῆς προνοίας, Josephus , Antiquities 2, 5, 1).TGL πεῖρα.2


    (3985) πειράζω (a form found several times in Homer and Apoll. Rhod. and later prose, for πειράω (which see in Veitch ) more common in the other Greek writings); imperfect ἐπείραζον; 1 aorist ἐπείρασα; passive, present πειράζομαι; 1 aorist ἐπειρασθην; perfect participle πεπειρασμενος (Hebrews 4:15; see πειράω , 1); 1 aorist middle 2 person singular ἐπειράσω (Revelation 2:2 Rec. ); the Sept. for נִסָּה; to try, i. e.:TGL πειράζω.2

    1. to try whether a thing can be done; to attempt, endeavor: with an infinitive, Acts 9:26 L T Tr WH ; Acts 16:7; Acts 24:6.TGL πειράζω.3

    2. to try, make trial of, test: τινα, for the purpose of ascertaining his quality, or what he thinks, or how he will behave himself;TGL πειράζω.4

    a. in a good sense: Matthew 22:35 (others refer this to b.); John 6:6; (2 Corinthians 13:5); Revelation 2:2.TGL πειράζω.5

    b. in a bad sense: to test one maliciously, craftily to put to the proof his feelings or judgment, Matthew 16:1; Matthew 19:3; Matthew 22:18, Matthew 22:35; Mark 8:11; Mark 10:2; Mark 12:15; Luke 11:16; Luke 20:23 (where G T WH Tr text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the words τί με πειράζετε); John 8:6.TGL πειράζω.6

    c. to try or test one's faith, virtue, character, by enticement to sin; hence, according to the context equivalent to to solicit to sin, to tempt: James 1:13; Galatians 6:1; Revelation 2:10; of the temptations of the devil, Matthew 4:1, Matthew 4:3; Mark 1:13; Luke 4:2; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; hence, πειράζων, a substantive, Vulg. tentator , etc., the tempter: Matthew 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:5.TGL πειράζω.7

    d. After the O. T. usageTGL πειράζω.8

    α. of God; to inflict evils upon one in order to prove his character and the steadfastness of his faith: 1 Corinthians 10:13; Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15 (see πειράω ); Hebrews 11:17,Hebrews 11:37 (where see WH 's Appendix); Revelation 3:10 (Genesis 22:1; Exodus 20:20; Deuteronomy 8:2; Wis. 3:5 Wis. 11:10(Wisdom 11:9); Judith 8:25f).TGL πειράζω.9

    β. Men are said πειράζειν τόν Θεόν — by exhibitions of distrust, as though they wished to try whether he is not justly distrusted; by impious or wicked conduct to test God's justice and patience, and to challenge him, as it were, to give proof of his perfections: Acts 15:10; Hebrews 3:9 R G (Exodus 17:2, Exodus 17:7; Numbers 14:22; Psalm 77:41 (Psalms 78:41), Psalms 77:56; Psalms 105:14 (Psalms 106:14), etc.; cf. Grimm, Exgt. Hdb. on Sap., p. 49); namely, τόν Χριστόν (L T Tr text WH τόν κύριον), 1 Corinthians 10:9 (but L marginal reading T WH marginal reading ἐξεπείρασαν); τό κυρίου, Acts 5:9; absolutely πειράζειν ἐν δοιμασια (see δοκιμασία ), Hebrews 3:9 L T Tr WH . (On πειράζω (as compared with δοκιμάζω), see Trench , § lxxiv.; cf. Cremer , under the word. Compare: ἐξπειράζω.)TGL πειράζω.10


    (3986) πειρασμός, πειρασμοῦ, (πειράζω, which see), the Sept. for מַסָּה, an experiment, attempt, trial, proving; (Vulg. tentatio );TGL πειρασμός.2

    a. universally, trial, proving: Sir. 27:5, 7; τόν πειρασμόν ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, the trial made of you by my bodily condition, since this condition served to test the love of the Galatians toward Paul, Galatians 4:14 L T Tr WH (cf. b. below, and Lightfoot at the passage).TGL πειρασμός.3

    b. specifically, the trial of man's fidelity, integrity, virtue, constancy, etc.: 1 Peter 4:12; also an enticement to sin, temptation, whether arising from the desires or from outward circumstances, Luke 8:13; 1 Corinthians 10:13; ὑπομένειν πειρασμόν, James 1:12; an internal temptation to sin, 1 Timothy 6:9; of the temptation by which the devil sought to divert Jesus the Messiah from his divine errand, Luke 4:13; of a condition of things, or a mental state, by which we are enticed to sin, or to a lapse from faith and holiness: in the phrases εἰσφέρειν τινα εἰς πειρασμόν, Matthew 6:13; Luke 11:4; ἐισέρχεσθαι εἰς πειρασμόν, Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38 (here T WH ἔλθητε); Luke 22:40, Luke 22:46; adversity, affliction, trouble (cf. our trial), sent by God and serving to test or prove one's faith, holiness, character: plural, Luke 22:28; Acts 20:19; James 1:2; 1 Peter 1:6; τόν πειρασμόν μου τόν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, my temptation arising from my bodily infirmity, Galatians 4:14 Rec. (but see a. above); ὥρα τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, Revelation 3:10; ἐκ πειρασμοῦ ῤύεσθαι, 2 Peter 2:9 (Deuteronomy 7:19; Deuteronomy 29:3; Sir. 2:1 Sir. 6:7 Sir. 36:1 (Sir. 33:1); 1 Macc. 2:52).TGL πειρασμός.4

    c. 'temptation' (i. e. trial) of God by men, i. e. rebellion against God, by which his power and justice are, as It were, put to the proof and challenged to show themselves: Hebrews 3:8 (Deuteronomy 6:16; Deuteronomy 9:22; Psalms 94:8 (Psalms 95:8)). Cf. Fried. B. Koester, Die Biblical Lehre yon der Versuchung. Gotha, 1859. (The word has not yet been found in secular authors except Dioscorides (?) praef. i. τούς ἐπί παθῶν πειρασμούς experiments made on diseases.)TGL πειρασμός.5


    (3987) πειράω: imperfect middle 3 person (singular and plural), ἐπειρᾶτο, ἐπειρῶντο; perfect passive participle πεπειραμενος (see below); common in Greek writings from Homer down; to try; i. e.:TGL πειράω.2

    1. to make a trial, to attempt (A. V. to assay), followed by an infinitive; often so from Homer down; also so in the middle in Acts 9:26 R G ; Acts 26:21 (Xenophon , symp. 4, 7; Cyril 1, 4, 5, etc.; often in Polybius ; Aelian v. h. I, 34; 2 Macc. 2:23; 3Macc. 1:25; 4 Macc. 12:2, etc.); hence, πεπειραμενος taught by trial, experienced, Hebrews 4:15 in certain manuscripts and editions ((Rec.st ), Tdf. formerly) (see below, and cf. πειράζω , d. α.).TGL πειράω.3

    2. In post-Homer usage with the accusative of a person to test, make trial of one, put him to the proof: his mind, sentiments, temper, Plutarch , Brut. 10; in particular, to attempt to induce one to commit some (especially a carnal) crime; cf. Passow , under the word, 3{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, A. IV. 2). Hence, πεπειραμενος in Hebrews 4:15 (see 1 above) is explained by some (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 15. Note at the end) tempted to sin; but the passive in this sense is not found in Greek writings; see Delitzsch at the passage.TGL πειράω.4


    (3988) πεισμονή, πεισμονης, (πείθω, which see; like πλησμονή), persuasion: in an active sense (yet cf. Lightfoot on Gal. as below) and contextually, treacherous or deceptive persuasion, Galatians 5:8 (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 68, 1 at the end). (Found besides in Ignat. ad Romans 3:1-31, Romans 3:3 [ET] longer recens.; Justin Martyr , Apology 1, 53 at the beginning; (Irenaeus 4, 33, 7); Epiphanius 30, 21; Chrysostom on 1 Thessalonians 1:3; Apollonius Dyscolus , syntax, p. 195, 10 (299, 17); Eustathius on Homer , Iliad a., p. 21, 46, verse 22; 99, 45, verse 442; i, p. 637, 5, verse 131; and Odyssey, chapter, p. 185, 22, verse 285.)TGL πεισμονή.2


    (3989) πέλαγος, πελαγους, τό (by some (e. g. Lob. Pathol. Proleg., p. 805) connected with παξ, i. e. the 'flat' expanse (cf. Latinaequor ); but by Curtius , § 367, et al. (cf. Vanicek , p. 515) with πλήσσω, i. e. the 'beating' waves (cf. our 'plash')), from Homer down;TGL πέλαγος.2

    a. properly, the sea i. e. the high sea, the deep (where ships sail; accordingly but a part of the sea, θάλασσα, Aristotle , Probl. sect. 23 quaest. 3 (p. 931{b}, 14f) ἐν τῷ λιμενι ὀλίγη ἐστιν θάλασσα, ἐν δέ τῷ πελάγει βαθεῖα. Hence) τό πέλαγος τῆς θαλάσσης,aequor maris (A. V. the depth of the sea; cf. Trench , § xiii.), Matthew 18:6 (so too Apollonius Rhodius , 2, 608; πέλαγος αἰγαιας ἁλός, Euripides , Tro. 88; Hesychius πέλαγος... βυθός, πλάτος θαλάσσης. Cf. Winer s Grammar, 611 (568); (Trench , as above)).TGL πέλαγος.3

    b. universally, the sea: τό πέλαγος τό κατά τήν Κιλικίαν, Acts 27:5 (see examples from Greek authors in Passow , under the word πέλαγος, 1; (Liddell and Scott, under I.)).TGL πέλαγος.4


    (3990) πελεκίζω: perfect passive participle πεπελεκισμενος; (πέλεκυς, an axe or two-edged hatchet); to cut off with an axe, to behead: τινα, Revelation 20:4. (Polybius , Diodorus , Strabo , Josephus , Antiquities 20, 5, 4; Plutarch , Ant. 36; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 26 (25)).)TGL πελεκίζω.2


    (3991) πέμπτος, πέμπτῃ, πέμπτον (from Homer down), fifth: Revelation 6:9; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 16:10; Revelation 21:20.TGL πέμπτος.2


    (3992) πέμπω; future πέμψω; 1 aorist ἔπεμψα (on its epistolary use (for the present or the perfect) see Winer s Grammar, 278 (261); Buttmann , 198 (172); Lightfoot on Philippians 2:1-30:(25),28; Philemon 1:11); passive, present πέμπομαι; 1 aorist ἐπεμφθην (Luke 7:10); from Homer down; the Sept. for שָׁלַח; to send: τινα, absolutely, one to do something, Matthew 22:7; Luke 7:19; Luke 16:24; John 1:22; John 7:18; John 13:16, John 13:20; John 20:21 (Treg. marginal reading ἀποστέλλω); 2 Corinthians 9:3; Philippians 2:23, Philippians 2:28, etc.; τινα or τινας is omitted where the participle is joined to another finite verb, as πέμψας ἀπεκεφάλισε τόν λωαννην, he sent (a deputy) and beheaded John, Matthew 14:10; add, Acts 19:31; Acts 23:30 (for other examples see ἀποστέλλω , 1 d.); in imitation of the Hebrew פּ בְּיַד שָׁלַח (1 Samuel 16:20; 2 Samuel 11:14; 2 Samuel 12:25; 1 Kings 2:25) we find πέμψας διά τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ, he sent by his disciples (unless with Fritzsche, and Bornemann, Schol. in Luc., p. lxv., one prefer to take πέμψας absolutely and to connect διά τῶν μαθητῶν with the following εἶπεν (so Meyer, but see (7te Aufl., Weiss edition), Keil, DeWette, others)), Matthew 11:2 L T Tr WH (so ἀποστείλας διά τοῦ ἀγγέλου, Revelation 1:1). Teachers who come forward by God's command and with his anthority are said to be (or to have been) sent by God: as, John the Baptist, John 1:33; Jesus, John 4:34; John 5:23, John 5:30, John 5:37; John 6:38-40, John 6:44; John 7:16, John 7:28, etc.; Romans 8:3; the Holy Spirit, rhetorically personified, John 14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7. τινα, with the dative of the person to whom one is sent: 1 Corinthians 4:17; Philippians 2:19; τινα τίνι παρά τίνος (properly, to send one to one from one's abode (see παρά , I. a.)), John 15:26; πρός τινα, Luke 4:26; John 16:7; Acts 10:33; Acts 15:25; Acts 23:30; (xxv. 21 R G ); Ephesians 6:22; Philippians 2:25; Colossians 4:8; Titus 3:12; with the participle λέγων added (Hebrew לֵאמֹר שָׁלַח, Genesis 38:25; 2 Samuel 14:32, etc.), said by messenger (German liess sagen), Luke 7:6, Luke 7:19; τινα εἰς with an accusative of place, Matthew 2:8; Luke 15:15; Luke 16:27; Acts 10:5; the end, for which one is sent is indicated — by the preposition εἰς, Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; 1 Peter 2:14; by an infinitive, John 1:33; 1 Corinthians 16:3; Revelation 22:16. Of things, τί τίνι,TGL πέμπω.2

    a. to bid a thing to be carried to one: Revelation 11:10; with εἰς and an accusative of place added, Revelation 1:11; εἰς with an accusative indicating the purpose, Acts 11:29; Philippians 4:16 (here Lachmannbr. εἰς; cf. Buttmann , 329 (283)).TGL πέμπω.3

    b. to send (thrust or insert) a thing into another: Revelation 14:15, Revelation 14:18 (Aelian hist. an. 12, 5); τίνι τί εἰς τό with an inf, 2 Thessalonians 2:11. (Compare: ἀναπέμπω, ἐκπέμπω, μεταπέμπω, προπέμπω, συμπέμπω.) [SYNONYMS: πέμπω, ἀποστέλλω: πέμπω is the general term (differing from ἵημι in directing attention not to the exit but to the advent); it may even imply accompaniment (as when the sender is God). ἀποστέλλω includes a reference to equipment, and suggests official or authoritative sending. Cf. Schmidt , chapter 104; Westcott on John 20:21, 'Additional Note'; also 'Additional Note' on 1 John 3:5.]TGL πέμπω.4


    (3993) πένης, πένητος, (πένομαι to work for one's living; the Latinpenuria and Greek πεινάω are akin to it (cf. Vanicek , p. 1164); hence, πένης equivalent to ἐκ πόνου καί ἐνεργείας τό ζῆν ἔχων, Etym. Magn. ), poor: 2 Corinthians 9:9. (From Sophocles and Herodotus down; the Sept. for אֶבְיון, עָנִי, דַּל, רָשׁ, etc.)TGL πένης.2


    (3994) πενθερά, πενθερᾶς, (feminine of πενθερός, which see), a mother-in-law, a wife's mother: Matthew 8:14; Matthew 10:35; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38; Luke 12:53. (Demosthenes , Plutarch , Lucian , others; the Sept. for חָמות.)TGL πενθερά.2


    (3995) πενθερός, πενθεροῦ, , a father-in-law, a wife's father: John 18:13. (Homer , Sophocles , Euripides , Plutarch , others; the Sept. (for חָם, חֹתֵן.).)TGL πενθερός.2


    (3996) πενθέω, πένθω; future πενθήσω; 1 aorist ἐπένθησα (πένθος); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for אָבַל; to mourn;TGL πενθέω.2

    a. intransitive: Matthew 5:4 (Matthew 5:5); Matthew 9:15; 1 Corinthians 5:2; πενθεῖν καί κλαίειν, Mark 16:10; Luke 6:25; James 4:9; Revelation 18:15, Revelation 18:19; ἐπί τίνι, over one, Revelation 18:11 R G L (Isaiah 66:10); ἐπί τινα, ibid. T Tr WH (2 Samuel 13:37; 2 Chronicles 35:24, etc.).TGL πενθέω.3

    b. transitive, to mourn for, lament, one: 2 Corinthians 12:21 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 635f (590); Buttmann , § 131, 4. Synonym: see θρηνέω , at the end.)TGL πενθέω.4


    (3997) πένθος, πένθους, τό (πένθω ((?); akin, rather, to πάθος, πένομαι (cf. πένης ); see Curtius , p. 53; Vanicek , p. 1165)), from Homer down, the Sept. for אֵבֶל, mourning: James 4:9; Revelation 18:7; Revelation 21:4.TGL πένθος.2


    (3998) πενιχρός, πενιχρα, πενιχον (from πένομαι, see πένης ), needy, poor: Luke 21:2. (Occasionally in Greek authors from Homer , Odyssey 3, 348 down; for עָנִי in Exodus 22:25; for דַּל in Proverbs 29:7.)TGL πενιχρός.2


    (3999) πεντάκις, adverb,five times: 2 Corinthians 11:24. (From Pindar , Aeschylus down.)TGL πεντάκις.2


    (4000) πεντακισχίλιοι, πεντακισχίλιαι, πεντακισχίλια, five times a thousand, five thousand: Matthew 14:21; Matthew 16:9; Mark 6:44; Mark 8:19; Luke 9:14; John 6:10. (Herodotus , Plato , others.)TGL πεντακισχίλιοι.2


    (4001) πεντακόσιοι, πεντακόσιαι, πεντακόσια, five hundred: Luke 7:41; 1 Corinthians 15:6. (From Homer (πεντηκόσιοι) down.)TGL πεντακόσιοι.2


    (4002) πέντε, οἱ, αἱ, five: Matthew 14:17, and often. (From Homer down.)TGL πέντε.2


    (4003) πεντεκαιδέκατος, πεντεκαιδεκάτῃ, πεντεκαιδεκατον, the fifteenth: Luke 3:1. (Diodorus , Plutarch , others.)TGL πεντεκαιδέκατος.2

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