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    χαίρω — χωρίζω


    (5463) χαίρω; imperfect ἔχαιρον; future χαρήσομαι (Luke 1:14; John 16:20, John 16:22; Philippians 1:18, for the earlier form καιρήσω, cf. (Winer s Grammar, 90 (86); Buttmann , 68 (60)); Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii. 322f; Matthiae , § 255, under the word; Kühner, § 343 under the word; Krüger , § 40, under the word; (Veitch , under the word)), once χάρω (Revelation 11:10 Rec. , a form occurring nowhere else); 2 aorist (passive as active) ἐχάρην (cf. συγχαίρω , at the beginning); from Homer down; the Sept. for שָׂמַח, גִּיל, שׂוּשׂ; to rejoice, be glad;TGL χαίρω.2

    a. in the properly, and strict sense: (Mark 14:11); Luke 15:5,(32); Luke 19:6,Luke 19:37; Luke 22:5; Luke 23:8; John 4:36; John 8:56; John 20:20; Acts 5:41; Acts 8:39; Acts 11:23; Acts 13:48; 2 Cor. (2 Corinthians 4:10); 2 Corinthians 7:7; 2 Corinthians 13:9,2 Corinthians 13:11 (some refer this to b. in the sense of farewell); Philippians 2:17, Philippians 2:28; Colossians 2:5; 1 Thessalonians 5:16; 1 Peter 4:13; 3 John 1:3; opposed to κλαίειν, Romans 12:15; 1 Corinthians 7:30; opposed to κλαίειν καί θρηνεῖν, John 16:20; opposed to λύπην ἔχειν, ibid. John 16:22; joined with ἀγαλλίασθαι, Matthew 5:12; Revelation 19:7; with σκιρταν, Luke 6:23; χαίρειν ἐν κυρίῳ (see ἐν , L 6 b, p. 211b middle (cf. Buttmann , 185 (161))), Philippians 3:1; Philippians 4:4, Philippians 4:10; χαίρειν χαράν μεγάλην (cf. χαρά , a.), to rejoice exceedingly, Matthew 2:10; also χαρά χαίρειν (Winer s Grammar, § 54, 3; Buttmann , § 133, 22), John 3:29: χαρά χαίρομεν, 1 Thessalonians 3:9; χαίρειν ἐπί with a dative of the object, Matthew 18:13; Luke 1:14; Luke 13:17; Acts 15:31 Romans 16:19 L T Tr WH ; 1 Corinthians 13:6; 1 Corinthians 16:17; 2 Corinthians 7:13; Revelation 11:10 (Xenophon , mem. 2, 6, 35; Cyril 8, 4, 12; Plato , legg. 5, p. 739 d.; cf. Kühner, § 425 Anm. 6; (Winer s Grammar, § 33 a.; Buttmann , § 133, 23); in the Greek writings generally with a simple dative of the object as Proverbs 17:19); διά τί, John 3:29; διά τινα, John 11:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; ἐν τούτῳ, Philippians 1:18; (ἐν ταῖς παθήμασι μου, Colossians 1:24); with an accusative of the object, τό αὐτό, Philippians 2:18 (ταῦτα, Demosthenes , p. 323, 6; cf. Matthiae , § 414, p. 923; Krüger , § 46, 5, 9); τό ἐφ' ὑμῖν (see , II. 8, p. 436a), Romans 16:19 R G ; ἀπό τίνος, equivalent to χαράν ἔχειν, to derive joy from one, 2 Corinthians 2:3; ἐχάρητε followed by ὅτι, John 14:28; 2 Corinthians 7:9, 2 Corinthians 7:16; 2 John 1:4; ἐν τούτῳ, Luke 10:20; with a dative of the cause: τῇ ἐλπίδι χαίροντες, let the hope of future blessedness give you joy, Romans 12:12 (yet cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 1 k., 7d.).TGL χαίρω.3

    b. in a broader sense, to be well, to thrive; in salutations, the imperative χαῖρε, "Hail!" Latinsalve (so from Homer down): Matthew 26:49; Matthew 27:29; Mark 15:18; Luke 1:28; John 19:3; plural χαίρετε (A. V. all hail), Matthew 28:9; at the beginning of letters the infinitive χαίρειν (namely, λέγει or κελευει): Acts 15:23; Acts 23:26; James 1:1 (often in the books of Maccabees; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 10:18; Otto in the Jahrbb. f. deutsch. Theol. for 1867, p. 678ff; cf. Hilgenfeld, Galaterbrief, p. 99ff; Xenophon , Cyril 4, 5, 27; Aelian v. h. 1, 25); fully, χαίρειν λέγω, to give one greeting, salute, 2 John 1:10 (11). (Compare: συνχαίρω.)TGL χαίρω.4


    (5464) χάλαζα, χαλάζης, (χαλάω, which see (so Etym. Magn. 805, 1; but Curtius (sec. 181) says certainly has nothing to do with it)), from Homer down, the Sept. for בָּרָד, hail: Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21.TGL χάλαζα.2


    (5465) χαλάω, χάλω; future χαλάσω; 1 aorist ἐχάλασα; 1 aorist passive, ἐχαλάσθην; from Aeschylus and Pindar down;TGL χαλάω.2

    a. to loosen, slacken, relax.TGL χαλάω.3

    b. to let down from a higher place to a lower: τί or τινα, Mark 2:4; Luke 5:4; Acts 27:17, Acts 27:30 (in these last two passages in a nautical sense, to lower); τινα ἐν συριδιδ, Acts 9:25; passive, 2 Corinthians 11:33.TGL χαλάω.4


    (5466) Χαλδαῖος, Χαλδαίου, , a Chaldaean; γῆ Χαλδαίων the land of the Chaldaeans, Chaldaea: Acts 7:4, where a reference to Genesis 11:28, Genesis 11:31 and Genesis 15:7 seems to show that southern Armenia is referred to. The different opinions of other interpreters are reviewed by Dillmann on Genesis (3te Aufl.), p. 223f; (cf. Schrader in Riehm under the word; Sayce in Encycl. Brit., under the word Babylonia).TGL Χαλδαῖος.2


    (5467) χαλεπός, χαλεπης, χαλεπόν (from χαλέπτω to oppress, annoy ((?))), from Homer down, hard (Latindifficilis );TGL χαλεπός.2

    a. hard to do, to take, to approach.TGL χαλεπός.3

    b. hard to bear, troublesome, dangerous: καιροί χαλεποί (R. V. grievous), 2 Timothy 3:1; harsh, fierce, savage: of men, Matthew 8:28 (Isaiah 18:2 and often in secular authors from Homer down).TGL χαλεπός.4


    (5468) χαλιναγωγέω, χαλιναγώγω; 1 aorist infinitive χαλιναγωγῆσαι; (χαλινός and ἄγω); to lead by a bridle, to guide (ἵππον, Walz, Rhett. Graec. i., p. 425, 19); tropically, to bridle, hold in check, restrain: τήν γλῶσσαν, James 1:26; τό σῶμα, James 3:2; τάς τῶν ἡδονῶν ὀρεξεις, Lucian , tyrann. 4. ((Pollux 1 § 215.))TGL χαλιναγωγέω.2


    (5469) χλινος, χλινου, (χαλάω), a bridle: James 3:3; Revelation 14:20. (From Aeschylus and Pindar down.)TGL χαλινός.2


    (5470) χάλκεος, χαλκεα, χαλκεον, contracted χαλκοῦς, χαλκῆ, χαλκοῦν (χαλκός), from Homer down, brazen (A. V. of brass): Revelation 9:20.TGL χαλκοῦς.2


    (5471) χαλκεύς, χαλκέως, (χαλκός), from Homer down, a worker in copper or iron, a smith: 2 Timothy 4:14 (A. V. coppersmith).TGL χαλκεύς.2


    (5472) χαλκηδών, χαλκηδονος, , chalcedony, a precious stone de scribed by Pliny , h. n. 31, 5 (18), 72 (see B. D. (especially the American edition), under the word): Revelation 21:19.TGL χαλκηδών.2


    (5473) χαλκίον, χαλκιου, τό (χαλκός), a (copper or) brazen vessel: Mark 7:4. ((Aristophanes ), Xenophon , oec. 8, 19; (others).)TGL χαλκίον.2


    (5474) χαλκολίβανον (so Suidas (but see Gaisf. edition under the word)), χαλκολιβανου, τό, more correctly χαλκολιβανος, χαλκολιβανου, (according to the reading as it ought to be restored ((but see the editions)) in Revelation 1:15 ὡς ἐν καμίνῳ πεπυρωμενη; cf. Düsterdieck's critical note (see Buttmann , 80 (69) note)), a word of doubtful meaning found only in Revelation 1:15, and Revelation 2:18, chalcolibanus, Vulg. aurichalcum or orichalcum (so manuscript Arafat. (al. aeric.); Luther Messing (R. V. burnished brass)); according to the testimony of an ancient Greek (Ansonius) in Salmasius (Exercitt. ad Solin., p. 810 a.: λίβανος ἔχει τρία εἴδη δένδρων, καί μέν ἄρρην ὀνομάζεται χαλκολιβανος, ἡλιοειδής καί πυρρός ἤγουν ξανθός), a certain kind of (yellow) frankincense; but both the sense of the passages in Rev and a comparison of Daniel 10:6 and Ezekiel 1:7, which seem to have been in the writer's thought, compel us to understand some metal, like gold if not more precious (cf. Hebrew חַשְׁמָל, a metal composed of gold and silver, Sept ἤλεκτρον, Vulg. electrum , Ezekiel 1:4, Ezekiel 1:27; Ezekiel 8:2); this interpretation is confirmed by the gloss of Suidas : εἶδος ἠλέκτρου τιμιώτερον χρυσοῦ, ἐστι δέ τό ἤλεκτρον ἀλλοτυπον χρυσίον μεμιγμένον ὕελω καί λιθεία. The word is compounded, no doubt, of χαλκός and λίβανος, not of χαλκός and לָבָן, 'white.' Cf. Winer 's RWB, under the word Metalle; Wetzel in the Zeitschr. f. d. luth. Theol. for 1869, p. 92ff; cf. Ewald, Johann. Schriften, ii., p. 117f; (Lee in the 'Speaker's Commentary' at the passage).TGL χαλκολίβανον.2


    (5475) χαλκός, χαλκοῦ, , from Homer down, the Sept. for נְחֹשֶׁת, brass: 1 Corinthians 13:1; Revelation 18:12; (like the Latinaes ) what is made of brass, money, coins of brass (also of silver and of gold), Matthew 10:9; Mark 6:8; Mark 12:41. (B. D. , under the word Brass; Dict. of Antiq. , under the wordaes .)TGL χαλκός.2


    (5476) χαμαί, adverb;TGL χαμαί.2

    a. on the ground, on the earth.TGL χαμαί.3

    b. to the ground; in both senses from Homer down; in the latter sense John 9:6 (where, however, English idiom retains on); John 18:6.TGL χαμαί.4


    (5477) Χανάαν, , Hebrew כְּנַעַן (literally, 'lowland'), Canaan, the land of Canaan, indeclinable proper name: in the narrower sense, of that part of Palestine lying west of the Jordan, Acts 7:11; in a wider sense, of all Palestine, Acts 13:19.TGL Χανάαν.2


    (5478) Χαναναῖος, Χαναναία, Χαναναῖον, Hebrew כֲּנַעֲנִי, Canaanite; the name of the ancient inhabitants of Palestine before its conquest by the Israelites; in Christ's time equivalent to Phoenician (R. V. Canaanitish): Matthew 15:22.TGL Χαναναῖος.2


    (5479) χαρά, χαρᾶς, (χαίρω), from Aeschylus and Sophocles down, the Sept. for שִׂמְחָה and שָׂשׂון, joy, gladness;TGL χαρά.2

    a. Luke 1:14; Luke 15:7, Luke 15:10; John 15:11; John 16:22, John 16:24; John 17:13; Acts 8:8; 2 Corinthians 7:13; 2 Corinthians 8:2; Galatians 5:22; Colossians 1:11; Philippians 2:2; 1 John 1:4; 2 John 1:12; opposed to κατήφεια, James 4:9; opposed to λύπη, John 16:20; 2 Corinthians 2:3; Hebrews 12:11; ὑμῶν, i. e. the joy received from you, 2 Corinthians 1:24 (opposed to the 'sorrow' which Paul on returning to Corinth would both experience and give, 2 Corinthians 2:1-3); χαρά τῆς πίστεως, springing from faith, Philippians 1:25; χαίρειν χαράν μέγαν Matthew 2:10 (Winer s Grammar, § 32, 2; Buttmann , 131, 5); ἀγαλλίασθαι χαρά, 1 Peter 1:8; χαράν (Rec.st χάριν) πολλήν ἐήξειν ἐπί with a dative of the thing, Philemon 1:7; πληροῦν τινα χαρᾶς, Romans 15:13; πληροῦσθαι χαρᾶς, Acts 13:52; 2 Timothy 1:4; ποιεῖν τίνι χαράν μεγάλην, Acts 15:3; ἀπό τῆς χαρᾶς, for joy, Matthew 13:44; Luke 24:41; Acts 12:14; ἐν χαρά (ἔρχεσθαι), Romans 15:32; μετά χαρᾶς, with joy, Matthew 13:20; Matthew 28:8; Mark 4:16; Luke 8:13; Luke 10:17; Luke 24:52; Acts 20:24 Rec. ; Philippians 1:4; Philippians 2:29; Hebrews 10:34; Hebrews 13:17 (Polybius 11, 33, 7; 22, 17, 12; Xenophon , Hiero 1, 25); with πνεύματος ἁγίου added, joy wrought by the Holy Spirit, 1 Thessalonians 1:6; χαρά ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ, joyousness caused by (cf. ἐν , I. 6 (p. 211{b} bottom) and Buttmann , § 133, 23) the Holy Spirit, Romans 14:17; χαρά ἐπί τίνι, 2 Corinthians 7:4; χαίρειν χαρά διά τί, John 3:29 (cf. χαίρω , a.); also διά τινα (a relative pronoun intervening), 1 Thessalonians 3:9; χαρά ὅτι, John 16:21; χαρά ἵνα (see ἵνα , II. 2 d.), 3 John 1:4.TGL χαρά.3

    b. by metonymy, the cause or occasion of joy: Luke 2:10; James 1:2; (Song of Solomon 2:1-17 Corinthians 1:15 WH text Tr marginal reading (others, χάρις, which see 3 b.)); of persons who are one's 'joy': 1 Thessalonians 2:19; Philippians 4:1; of a joyful condition or state: ἀντί... χαρᾶς, to attain to blessedness at the right hand of God in heaven, Hebrews 12:2; the same idea is expressed in the parable by the words, χαρά τοῦ κυρίου, the blessedness which the Lord enjoys, Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23.TGL χαρά.4


    (5480) χάραγμα, χαράγματος, τό (χαράσσω to engrave);TGL χάραγμα.2

    a. a stamp, an imprinted mark: of the mark stamped on the forehead or the right hand as the badge of the followers of Antichrist, Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2 Rec. ; Revelation 16:2; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:4 (πυρός, the mark branded upon horses, Anacreon () 26 (55), 2).TGL χάραγμα.3

    b. thing carved, sculpture, graven work: of idolatrous images, Acts 17:29. (In various other senses in Greek writings from Sophocles down.)TGL χάραγμα.4


    (5481) χαρακτήρ, χαρακτηρος, (χαράσσω to engrave, cut into), from Aeschylus and Herodotus down;TGL χαρακτήρ.2

    1. properly, the instrument used in engraving or carving (cf. ζωστήρ, λαμπτήρ, λουτήρ, φυσητήρ; cf. our 'stamp' or 'die').TGL χαρακτήρ.3

    2. the mark (figure or letters) stamped upon that instrument or wrought out on it; hence, universally, "a mark or figure burned in (Leviticus 13:28) or stamped on, an impression; the exact expression (the image) of any person or thing, marked likeness, precise reproduction in every respect" (cf. facsimile): χαρακτήρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως τοῦ Θεοῦ, of Christ, accusative to his nature as θεῖος λόγος, Hebrews 1:3; σφραγῖδι Θεοῦ, ἧς χαρακτήρ ἐστιν ἀΐδιος λόγος, Philo de plant. Noë § 5; χαρακτήρ θείας δυνάμεως, of the human mind, Philo , quod det. potiori ins. § 23; God τόν ἄνθρωπον ἔπλασεν τῆς ἑαυτοῦ ἐκονος χαρακτῆρα, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 33, 4 [ET]; οἱ πιστοί ἐν ἀγάπη χαρακτῆρα Θεοῦ πατρός διά Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ (ἔχουσιν), Ignatius ad Magnes. 5, 2 [ET]. the peculiarity, by which things are recognized and distinguished from each other (cf. English characteristic): 2 Macc. 4:10.TGL χαρακτήρ.4


    (5482) χάραξ, χαρακος, (χαράσσω);TGL χάραξ.2

    1. a pale or stake, a palisade ((Aristophanes , Demosthenes , others)).TGL χάραξ.3

    2. a palisade or rampart (i. e. pales between which earth, stones, trees and timbers are heaped and packed together): Luke 19:43 (Isaiah 37:33; Ezekiel 4:2; Ezekiel 26:8; Polybius ; Josephus , Vita43; Arrian exp. Alex. 2, 19, 9; Plutarch , others).TGL χάραξ.4


    (5483) χαρίζομαι; deponent middle; future χαρίσομαι (Romans 8:32; Lucian , d. mar. 9, 1, for which Greek writers commonly use the Attic χαιουσμαι (cf. WH s Appendix, p. 163f; Buttmann , 37 (32); Winer 's Grammar, § 15, under the word)); perfect κεχάρισμαι; 1 aorist ἐχαρισάμην; 1 aorist passive, ἐχαρίσθην (Acts 3:14; 1 Corinthians 2:12; Philippians 1:29 (cf. Buttmann , 52 (46))); future passive, χαρισθήσομαι with a passive significance (Philemon 1:22); (χάρις); often in Greek writings from Homer down; to do something pleasant or agreeable (to one), to do a favor to, gratify;TGL χαρίζομαι.2

    a. universally, to show oneself gracious, kind, benevolent: τίνι, Galatians 3:18 (others, (supply τήν κληρονομίαν and) refer this to c. below).TGL χαρίζομαι.3

    b. to grant forgiveness, to pardon: 2 Corinthians 2:7; with a dative of the person, Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 3:13; with an accusative of the thing, 2 Corinthians 2:10 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 39, 1 b. and 3 N. 3); τίνι τήν ἀδικίαν, 2 Corinthians 12:13; τά παραπτώματα, Colossians 2:13.TGL χαρίζομαι.4

    c. to give graciously, give freely, bestow: τίνι τί, Luke 7:21; Romans 8:32; Philippians 2:9; passive, 1 Corinthians 2:12; Philippians 1:29; where a debt is referred to, to forgive (cf. b. above), Luke 7:42; τίνι τινα, graciously to restore one to another who desires his safety (e. g. a captive (R. V. grant)), passive, Acts 3:14; Philemon 1:22; or to preserve for one a person in peril, Acts 27:24; τινα τίνι, to give up to another one whom he may punish or put to death, Acts 25:11 ((cf. R. V. marginal reading)); with the addition of εἰς ἀπώλειαν, Acts 25:16. [but G L T Tr Wh omit εἰς ἀπ}TGL χαρίζομαι.5


    (5484) χάριν, accusative of the substantive, χάρις used absolutely; properly, in favor of, for lite pleasure of: χάριν ἑκτορος, Homer , Iliad 15, 744, others; 1 Macc. 9:10; Judith 8:19; like the Latin abl.gratia , it takes on completely the nature of a preposition, and is joined to the genitive, for, on account of, for the sake of; Galatians 3:19 (on which see παραβοσις); 1 Timothy 5:14; Titus 1:11; Jude 1:16; τούτου χάριν, on this account, for this cause, Ephesians 3:1 (Xenophon , mem. 1, 2, 54); τούτου χάριν ἵνα, Ephesians 3:14 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 566 (526)); Titus 1:5; οὗ χάριν, for which cause, Luke 7:47; χάριν τίνος; for what cause? wherefore? 1 John 3:12. Except in 1 John 3:12, χάριν is everywhere in the N. T. placed after the genitive, as it generally is in secular authors (cf. Passow , under the word, I. 3 a., p. 2416{b}; Herm. ad Vig. , p. 701); in the O. T. Apocrypha it is placed sometimes before, sometimes after; cf. Wahl, Clavis Apocr., under the word 6 b.; Grimm on 1 Macc. 3:29.TGL χάριν.2


    (5485) χάρις, χάριτος, accusative χάριν, and twice in L T Tr WH the rarer form χάριτα (Acts 24:27; Jude 1:4) which is also poetic (cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i. § 44 Anm. 1; (WH s Appendix, 157{b}; Buttmann , 13 (12))), accusative plural χάριτας (Acts 24:27 R G ), (χαίρω), from Homer down, Hebrew חֵן, grace; i. e.TGL χάρις.2

    1. properly, that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech (Ecclesiastes 10:12; Sir. 21:16 Sir. 37:21; Homer , Odyssey 8, 175; τῶν λόγων, Demosthenes , 51, 9; 1419, 16; χάριτες μωρῶν, verbal pleasantries which the foolish affect in order to ingratiate themselves, Sir. 20:13), λόγοι χάριτος (genitive of quality), Luke 4:22; χάριν διδόναι τοῖς ἀκούουσιν, Ephesians 4:29; ἐν χάριτι, with grace (the substantive, ἅλας being added; see Lightfoot ), Colossians 4:6.TGL χάρις.3

    2. good-will, loving-kindness, favor: in a broad sense, χάρις παρά τίνι, Luke 2:52; ἔχειν χάριν πρός τινα, to have favor with one, Acts 2:47; χάρις ἐναντίον τινας, Acts 7:10; (χάριν κατά τίνος αἴτεσθαι ὅπως (which see II. 2), Acts 25:3 (but others refer this to 3 b. below)); χάρις (of God) ἐστιν ἐπί τινα, attends and assists one, Luke 2:40; Acts 4:33; χάριν (χάριτα) χάριτας κατατίθεσθαι τίνι (see κατατίθημι ), Acts 24:27; Acts 25:9; favor (i. e. act of favoring (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 66 at the end)), 2 Corinthians 8:4. χάρις is used of the kindness of a master toward his inferiors or servants, and so especially of God toward men: εὑρίσκειν χάριν παρά τῷ Θεῷ, Luke 1:30; ἐνώπιον τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 7:46; τοῦτο χάρις ἐστιν, this wins for us (God's) favor (R. V. is acceptable), 1 Peter 2:19; with παρά Θεῷ added, 1 Peter 2:20; παραδεδομένοι τῇ χάριτι τοῦ Θεοῦ, to be committed or commended to the protecting and helping favor of God, Acts 14:26; Acts 15:40. The apostles and N. T. writers at the beginning and end of their Epistles crave for their readers the favor (`grace') of God or of Christ, to which all blessings, especially spiritual, are due: Romans 1:7; Romans 16:20, Romans 16:24 (R G ); 1 Corinthians 1:3; 1 Corinthians 16:23; 2 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Corinthians 13:13 (14); Galatians 1:3; Galatians 6:18; Ephesians 1:2; Ephesians 6:24; Philippians 1:2; Philippians 4:23; Colossians 1:2; Colossians 4:18; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:28; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; 2 Thessalonians 3:18; 1 Timothy 1:2; 1 Timothy 6:21 (22); 2 Timothy 1:2; 2 Timothy 4:22: Titus 1:4; Titus 3:15; Philemon 1:3, Philemon 1:25; Hebrews 13:25; 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 3:18 (cf. 3 a.); 2 John 1:3; Revelation 1:4; Revelation 22:21; cf. Otto, Ueber d. apostol. Segensgruss χάρις ὑμῖν etc., in the Jahrbb. f. deutsche Theol. for 1867, p. 678ff. Moreover, the word χάρις contains the idea of kindness which bestows upon one what he has not deserved: Romans 11:6; hence, κατά χάριν and κατά ὀφείλημα are contrasted in Romans 4:4, Romans 4:16; χάριτι and ἐξ ἔργων in Romans 11:6; κατ' ἀκλογην χάριτος, Romans 11:5; but the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ: Romans 3:24; Romans 5:17, Romans 5:20; (Romans 6:1); 1 Corinthians 15:10; Galatians 1:15; Galatians 2:21; Ephesians 1:6,(Ephesians 1:7); Ephesians 2:5,Ephesians 2:7; Philippians 1:7; Colossians 1:6; 2 Thessalonians 2:16; 1 Timothy 1:14; 2 Timothy 1:9; Hebrews 2:9 (here Treg. marginal reading χωρίς); Hebrews 10:29; Hebrews 12:15; Hebrews 13:9; 1 Peter 1:10; Jude 1:4; εὑρίσκειν χάριν, Hebrews 4:16; χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ σωτήριος, Titus 2:11; λόγος τῆς χάριτος, the message of his grace, Acts 14:3; Acts 20:32; τό εὐαγγέλιον τῆς χάριτος τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 20:24; it is styled 'the grace of Christ,' in that through pity for sinful men Christ left his state of blessedness with God in heaven, and voluntarily underwent the hardships and miseries of human life, and by his sufferings and death procured salvation for mankind: (Acts 15:11); 2 Corinthians 8:9; Romans 5:15; Galatians 1:6; (Titus 3:7); John 1:14, John 1:17. χάρις is used of "the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues": 2 Corinthians 4:15; 2 Corinthians 6:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; οἱ πεπιστευκότες διά τῆς χάριτος, Acts 18:27; ὑπό χάριν εἶναι,' to be subject to the power of grace, opposed to ὑπό νόμον εἶναι, Romans 6:14; τῆς χάριτος ἐξεπέσατε, Galatians 5:4; προσμένειν τῇ χαρη, Acts 13:43 (G L T Tr WH ); ἐπιμένειν, ibid. Rec. ; ἐν τῇ χάριτι (R G WH text omit the article), prompted by grace, Colossians 3:16; the grace of God promoting the progress and blessings of the Christian religion, Acts 11:23; (prompting its possessors to benefactions, 2 Corinthians 9:14); sustaining and aiding the efforts of the men who labor for the cause of Christ, 1 Corinthians 15:10; 2 Corinthians 1:12; the favor of Christ, assisting and strengthening his followers and ministers to bear their troubles, 2 Corinthians 12:9.TGL χάρις.4

    3. what is due to grace;TGL χάρις.5

    a. the spiritual condition of one governed by the power of divine grace, what the theologians call the 'status gratiae': ἑστηκεναι ἐν τῇ χάριτι, Romans 5:2; εἰς τήν χάριν, 1 Peter 5:12; αὐξάνειν ἐν χάριτι, 2 Peter 3:18; ἐνδυναμουσθαι ἐν τῇ χάριτι τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ, 2 Timothy 2:1.TGL χάρις.6

    b. a token or proof of grace, 2 Corinthians 1:15 (A. V. benefit (WH text Tr marginal reading χαράν, which see under b.)); a gift of grace; benefaction, bounty: used of alms, 1 Corinthians 16:3; 2 Corinthians 8:6, 2 Corinthians 8:19 (Sir. 3:29 (31); Sir. 29:15; 30:6; 4 Macc. 5:8; Xenophon , Ages. 4, 3f; Hier. 8, 4); πᾶσα χάρις, all earthly blessings, wealth, etc., which are due to divine goodness, 2 Corinthians 9:8; Θεός πάσης χάριτος, the author and giver of benefits of every kind, 1 Peter 5:10. the aid or succor of divine grace: διδόναι χάριν ταπεινοῖς, 1 Peter 5:5; James 4:6; the salvation offered to Christians is called χάρις, a gift of divine grace, 1 Peter 1:10, 1 Peter 1:13; of the various blessings of Christ experienced by souls: λαβεῖν χάριν ἀντί χάριτος (see ἀντί , 2 e., p. 49{b} bottom), John 1:16; χαρι ζωῆς, the gift of grace seen in the reception of life (cf. ζωή , 2 b.), 1 Peter 3:7; capacity and ability due to the grace of God (German Gnadenausrüstung), Ephesians 4:7; πλήρης χάριτος. Acts 6:8 G L T Tr WH ; πικιλη χάρις, the aggregate of the extremely diverse powers and gifts granted to Christians, 1 Peter 4:10; used of the power to undertake and administer the apostolic office: λαβεῖν χάριν καί ἀποστολήν, i. e. χάριν τῆς ἀποστολῆς, Romans 1:5; τῆς χάριτος τῆς δοθείσης μοι (i. e., Paul), Romans 12:3, Romans 12:6; Romans 15:15; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Galatians 2:9; Ephesians 3:2, Ephesians 3:7; δοθείσῃ ὑμῖν, of the gifts of knowledge and utterance conferred upon Christians, 1 Corinthians 1:4; ἐδόθη μοι χάρις αὕτη, followed by an infinitive, Ephesians 3:8; of the desire to give alms roused by the grace of God, 2 Corinthians 8:1.TGL χάρις.7

    4. thanks (for benefits, services, favors); properly: χάριτι, with thanksgiving, 1 Corinthians 10:30; χάριν ἔχειν τίνι (Latingratiam habere alicui ), to be thankful to one, Luke 17:9; 1 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:3; Hebrews 12:28 (2 Macc. 3:33, and countless times in secular authors; cf. Passow , under the word, p. 2416{a} under the end; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 2); Ast, Lex. Plato , ii, p. 539f; Bleek, Brief a. d. Hebrews 2:2, p. 975); followed by ἐπί with a dative of the thing, Philemon 1:7 T editions 2 and 7, Rec.st bez (cf. p. 233a middle); χάρις τῷ Θεῷ namely, ἔστω, Romans 7:25 L T Tr WH text; followed by ὅτι, Romans 6:17 (χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς, ὅτι etc. Xenophon , Cyril 7, 5, 72; 8, 7, 3; an. 3, 3, 14; oec. 8, 16); with a participle added to the dative (by apposition), 1 Corinthians 15:57; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Corinthians 8:16; followed by ἐπί; with a dative of the thing (cf. ἐπί , B. 2 a. δ.), 2 Corinthians 9:15. equivalent to recompense, reward, Luke 6:32-34 (for which Matthew 5:46 usesμισθός).TGL χάρις.8


    (5486) χάρισμα, χαρίσματος, τό (χαρίζομαι), a gift of grace; a favor which one receives without any merit of his own; in the N. T. (where (except 1 Peter 4:10) used only by Paul) the gift of divine grace (so also in Philo de alleg. legg. iii. § 24 at the end δωρεά καί εὐεργεσία καί χάρισμα Θεοῦ τά πάντα ὅσα ἐν κόσμῳ καί αὐτός κόσμος ἐστιν); used of the natural gift of continence, due to the grace of God as creator, 1 Corinthians 7:7; deliverance from great peril to life, τό εἰς ἡμᾶς χάρισμα bestowed upon us, 2 Corinthians 1:11; the gift of faith, knowledge, holiness, virtue, Romans 1:11; the economy of divine grace, by which the pardon of sin and eternal salvation is appointed to sinners in consideration of the merits of Christ laid hold of by faith, Romans 5:15; Romans 6:23; plural of the several blessings of the Christian salvation, Romans 11:29; in the technical Pauline sense χαρίσματα (A. V. gifts) denote "extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit" (cf. Cremer in Herzog edition 2 vol. v. 10ff, under the word Geistesgaben): Romans 12:6; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 12:4, 1 Corinthians 12:31; 1 Peter 4:10; χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων, 1 Corinthians 12:9, 1 Corinthians 12:28, 1 Corinthians 12:30; specifically, the sum of those powers requisite for the discharge of the office of an evangelist: 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6. ((Of temporal blessings, 'Teaching 1, 5 [ET] (cf. δώρημα in Hermas , mand. 2, 4 [ET])); ecclesiastical writings.)TGL χάρισμα.2


    (5487) χαριτόω, χαρίτω: 1 aorist ἐχαριτωσα; perfect passive participle κεχαριτωμένος; (χάρις);TGL χαριτόω.2

    1. to make graceful i. e. charming, lovely, agreeable: passive, Sir. 18:17; ταῖς διαλοξοις στροφαῖς χαριτουμενος ὀφρυν, Libanius , vol. iv., p. 1071, 14.TGL χαριτόω.3

    2. to pursue with grace, compass with favor; to honor with blessings: τινα, Ephesians 1:6; passive, Luke 1:28 (some would take it in these two examples subjectively (R. V. marginal reading endued with grace)); Psalms 18:26 Symm. ; (Hermas , sim. 9, 24, 3 [ET]; Test xii. Patr. test. Joseph. 1); ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.TGL χαριτόω.4


    (5488) Χαρράν (Hebrew חָרָן (i. e. (probably) 'parched', 'arid'), Genesis 11:31; Genesis 12:5; Genesis 27:43), Haran (so R. V. ; A. V. (after the Greek) Charran), called Καρραι in Greek writings andCarroe in Latin, a city of Mesopotamia, of great antiquity and made famous by the defeat of Crassus: Acts 7:2, Acts 7:4. Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word; Vaihinger in Herzog 5:539; (Schultz in Herzog edition 2, under the word); Steiner in Sehenkel 2:592; Schrader in Riehm , p. 571.TGL Χαρράν.2


    (5489) χάρτης, χάρτου, (χαράσσω), paper: 2 John 1:12; Jeremiah 43:23 (Jeremiah 36:23). ((Plato 's commentary fragment 10, p. 257 (Didot); cf. inscr. () in Kirchhoff, Inscriptions Attic. i. No. 324); Cebes () tab. 4; Dioscorides (?) 1, 115.) (Cf. Birt, Antikes Buchwesen, index i., under the word; Gardthausen, Griech. Palaeographie, p. 23; Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii., p. 270f.)TGL χάρτης.2


    (5490) χάσμα, χασματος, τό (χαίνω to yawn), a gaping opening, a chasm, gulf: equivalent to a great interval, Luke 16:26. (Hesiod theog. 740; Euripides , Plato , Plutarch , Lucian , Aelian , others.)TGL χάσμα.2


    (5491) χεῖλος, χείλους, τό, genitive plural in the uncontracted form χειλέων (Hebrews 13:15; see ὄρος ) (χέω equivalent to ΧΑΩ, χαίνω), from Homer down, the Sept. for שָׂפָה, a lip;TGL χεῖλος.2

    a. in the N. T. of the speaking mouth (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 32): Matthew 15:8; Mark vil. 6; Romans 3:13; 1 Corinthians 14:21; Hebrews 13:15 (on which see καρπός , 2 c.); 1 Peter 3:10.TGL χεῖλος.3

    b. metaphorically: χεῖλος τῆς θαλάσσης, the seashore, Hebrews 11:12 (Genesis 22:17; Exodus 7:15; Exodus 14:30, etc.; of the shore of a lake, Josephus , b. j. 3, 10, 7; of the banks of rivers, Herodotus 2 (70). 94; (Aristotle , de mirab. aud. 46; 150; cf. hist. an. 6, 16, p. 570a, 22); Polybius 3, 14, 6; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, pp. 18, 30)).TGL χεῖλος.4


    (5492) χειμάζω: present passive participle χειμαζόμενος; (χεῖμα stormy weather, winter (cf. χειμών )); to afflict with a tempest, to toss about upon the waves: passive, Acts 27:18 (R. V. labored with the storm). (Aeschylus , Thucydides , Plato , Diodorus , Plutarch , Lucian , others) (Compare: παραχειμάζω.)TGL χειμάζω.2


    (5493) χειμαρορος (for the more common χειμαρρως (namely, ποταμός), Attic contracted χειμάρρους (which see in Liddell and Scott, at the end), cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 234), χειμαρορου, (χεῖμα winter, and ῤέω, Ροως), from Homer down, the Sept. very often for נַחַל, literally, flowing in winter, a torrent: John 18:1 (where A. V. brook).TGL χείμαρρος.2


    (5494) χειμών, χειμῶνος, (χεῖμα, and this from χέω on account of the 'pouring' rains; (others connect it with χι-ων, snow, frost (cf. Latin hiems , etc.); see Curtius , § 194; Liddell and Scott, under the word χιών, at the end)), winter;TGL χειμών.2

    a. stormy or rainy weather, a tempest (so from Homer down): Matthew 16:3 (Tdf. brackets WH reject the passage); Acts 27:20.TGL χειμών.3

    b. winter, the winter season (so from Thucydides and Aristophanes down): John 10:22; 2 Timothy 4:21; χειμῶνος, in winter (-time), in the winter (Plato , de rep. 3, p. 415 e.; Xenophon , mem. 3, 8, 9; others (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 11; Buttmann , § 132, 26)), Matthew 24:20; Mark 13:18.TGL χειμών.4


    (5495) χείρ, genitive χειρός, accusative χειραν (1 Peter 5:6 Tdf. ; see ἄρσην , at the end), (from the root meaning 'to lay hold of'; cf. Latin heres , etc.; Curtius , § 189; Vanicek , p. 249f), from Homer down, Hebrew יַד, the hand: Matthew 3:12; Mark 3:1; Luke 6:6; 1 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 12:12, and often; the genitive with the verbs ά῾πτομαι, ἐπιλαμβάνομαι, κρατέω, πιάζω, etc., which see in their places; the dative with ἐργάζομαι, ἐσθίω, etc.; ἀσπασμός τῇ ἐμή χειρί, 1 Corinthians 16:21; Colossians 4:18; 2 Thessalonians 3:17; the accusative with the verbs αἴρω, δέω, ἐκπετάννυμι, ἐκτείνω, ἐμβάπτω, ἐπιτίθημι, καθαρίζω, κατασείω, νίπτω, etc. ἐπίθεσις τῶν χειρῶν (see ἐπίθεσις and references), 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 6:2; ἐν χειρί τίνος, in imitation of the Hebrew פ בְּיַד (cf. Buttmann , § 133, 20 cf. 319f (274); Lightfoot on Galatians, 3:19), by the help or agency, of anyone, by means of anyone, Acts 7:35 Rec. ; Galatians 3:19; (σύν χειρί ἀγγέλου, with the aid or service of the angel (cf. Buttmann , as above), Acts 7:35 L T Tr WH ; those things in the performance of which the hands take the principal part (as e. g. in working miracles), are said to be done διά χειρός or χειρῶν or τῶν (cf. Buttmann , § 124, 8 d.) χειρῶν τίνος, Mark 6:2; Acts 5:12; Acts 14:3; Acts 19:11; universally, Acts 2:23; Acts 7:25; Acts 11:30; Acts 15:23; ἐπί χειρῶν, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11; ἐπί τήν χεῖρα, Revelation 14:9; Revelation 20:1 (here Treg. marginal reading ἐν τῇ χειρί), Revelation 20:4; ἐκ, Acts 28:4; Revelation 8:4; εἰς τήν χεῖρα (on his hand), Luke 15:22; χείρ, as an acting subject (see γλῶσσα , 1), Luke 22:21; plural, Acts 17:25; Acts 20:34; 1 John 1:1; τά ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν, Acts 7:41; Revelation 9:20; ἐκδίκειν τό αἷμα τίνος ἐκ τίνος (see ἐκδικέω , b. and ἐκ I. 7), Revelation 19:2. By metonymy, χείρ is put for power, activity (for examples from secular authors from Homer down see Passow , under the word, p. 2431b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, p. 1720a)): παραδιδόναι τινα εἰς χεῖρας τινων, into the hostile hands (Deuteronomy 1:27; Job 16:11), Matthew 17:22; Matthew 26:45; Mark 9:31; Luke 9:44; Luke 24:7; Acts 21:11; Acts 28:17; διδόναι τί ἐν τῇ χειρί τίνος, to commit to one's protecting and upholding power, John 3:35; also εἰς τήν χεῖρα τίνος, John 13:3; τινα ἐκ τῶν χειρῶν or ἐκ χειρός τίνος (from the hostile power of anyone) ἀπάγειν, Acts 24:7 Rec. ; ἐξελέσθαι, Acts 12:11 (Genesis 32:11; Exodus 18:8); ἐξέρχεσθαι, John 10:39; ῥυσθῆναι, Luke 1:74; σωτηρία, Luke 1:71; ἐκφεύγειν τάς χεῖρας τίνος, 2 Corinthians 11:33. By a figure use of language χείρ or χεῖρες, are attributed to God, symbolizing his might, activity, power; conspicuousTGL χείρ.2

    α. in creating the universe: ἔργα τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ, Hebrews 1:10 (Psalm 101:26 (Psalms 102:26).TGL χείρ.3

    β. in upholding and preserving: Luke 23:46; John 10:29 (cf. John 10:28); χείρ κυρίου ἐστι μετά τίνος, God is present, protecting and aiding one, Luke 1:66; Acts 11:21.TGL χείρ.4

    γ. in punishing: χείρ κυρίου ἐπί σε, Acts 13:11 (1 Samuel 12:15); ἐμπεσεῖν εἰς χεῖρας Θεοῦ ζῶντος, Hebrews 10:31.TGL χείρ.5

    δ. in determining and controlling the destinies of men: Acts 4:28; ταπεινοῦσθαι ὑπό τήν κραταιάν χεῖρα τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Peter 5:6.TGL χείρ.6


    (5496) χειραγωγέω, χειραγώγω; present passive participle χειραγωγούμενος; (χειραγωγός, which see; cf. χαλιναγωγέω ); to lead by the hand: τινα, Acts 9:8; Acts 22:11. (Anacreon (), Diodorus , Plutarch , Lucian , Artemidorus Daldianus, others.)TGL χειραγωγέω.2


    (5497) χειραγωγός, χειραγωγον (χείρ and ἄγω), leading one by the hand: Acts 13:11. (Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 48; Plutarch , others.)TGL χειραγωγός.2


    (5498) χειρόγραφον, χειρογραφου, τό (χείρ and γράφω), a handwriting; what one has written with his own hand (Polybius 30, 8, 4; Dionysius Halicarnassus 5, 8; others); specifically, a note of hand, or writing in which one acknowledges that money has either been deposited with him or lent to him by another, to he returned at an appointed time (Tobit 5:3 Tobit 9:5; Plutarch , mor., p. 829 a. de vitand. aere al. 4, 3; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 3, 40); metaphorically, applied in Colossians 2:14 ((where R. V. bond)) to the Mosaic law, which shews men to be chargeable with offences for which they must pay the penalty.TGL χειρόγραφον.2


    (5499) χειροποίητος, χειροποίητον (χείρ and ποιέω), made by the hand i. e. the skill of man (see ἀχειροποίητος ): of temples, Mark 14:58; Acts 7:48; Acts 17:24; Hebrews 9:11, Hebrews 9:24; of circumcision, Ephesians 2:11. (In the Sept. of idols; of other things, occasionally in Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon , Polybius , Diodorus .)TGL χειροποίητος.2


    (5500) χειροτονέω, χειροτόνω: 1 aorist participle χειροτονησας; 1 aorist passive preposition χειροτονηθείς; (from χειρότονος extending the hand, and this from χείρ and τείνω); from (Aristophanes ), Xenophon , Plato , Isocrates down;TGL χειροτονέω.2

    a. properly, to vote by stretching out the hand (cf. Xenophon , an. 3, 2, 33 ὅτῳ δοκεῖ ταῦτα, ἀνατεινάτω τήν χεῖρα. ἀνετειναν ἅπαντες).TGL χειροτονέω.3

    b. to create or appoint by vote: τινα, one to have charge of some office or duty, passive, 2 Corinthians 8:19, and in the spurious subscriptions in ; Titus 3:15.TGL χειροτονέω.4

    c. with the loss of the notion of extending the hand, to elect, appoint, create: τινα, Acts 14:23 (see examples from the Greek writings in Passow , under the word, p. 2440{a}; χειροτονεῖσθαι ὑπό Θεοῦ βασιλέα, Philo de praem. et poen. § 9; (βασιλέως ὕπαρχος ἐχειροτονειτο, de Josephus , § 41); Josephus , Antiquities 6, 4, 2; (7, 11, 1; of the choice of Jonah as high priest, 13, 2, 2; cf. Hatch in Dict. of Chris. Antiq. , under the word, Ordination, p. 1501{b}; Harnack on 'Teaching ' etc. 15, 1 [ET]).). (Compare: προχειροτονέω.)TGL χειροτονέω.5


    (5501) χειρῶν, χεῖρον (comparitive of κακός; derived from the obsolete χερης, which has been preserved in the dative χερηι, accusative χερηα, plural χερεης, χερηα; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 268 (cf. Ebeling, Lex. Homer under the word χερης) (from Homer down), worse: Matthew 9:16; Matthew 27:64; Mark 2:21; γίνεται τά ἔσχατα χείρονα τῶν πρώτων, Matthew 12:45; Luke 11:26; 2 Peter 2:20; εἰς τό χεῖρον ἔρχεσθαι (to grow worse), of one whose illness increases, Mark 5:26; ἵνα μή χεῖρον σοι τί γένηται, lest some worse thing befall thee, John 5:14; πόσῳ χειρῶν τιμωρία (A. V. how much sorer punishment), Hebrews 10:29; ἐπί τό χεῖρον προκόπτειν ((A. V. wax worse and worse); see προκόπτω , 2), 2 Timothy 3:13; of the moral character, σπιστου χειρῶν, 1 Timothy 5:8.TGL χείρων.2


    (5502) χερουβιμ (R G ) and Χερούβειν (L T Tr WH ; in manuscripts also Χερουβιν, Χερουβειμ; (cf. Tdf Proleg., p. 84; WH 's Appendix, p. 155a; and under the word εἰ, )), τά (neuter gender also in most places in the Sept. ; rarely, as Exodus 25:18, Exodus 25:19, οἱ χερουβιμ; Χερουβεις in Exodus 25:18 (but this is a mistake; the form in Χερουβεις seems not to occur in the O. T.); in Philo τά χερουβιμ, in Josephus , οἱ Χερουβεις, Antiquities 3, 6, 5; αἱ Χερουβεις, ibid. 8, 3, 3; the use of the neuter gender seemed most suitable, because they were ζῷα; Χερουβεις ζῷα ἐστι πετεινά, μορφήν δ' ὀυδεναι τῶν ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων ἑωραμενων παραπλησια, Josephus , Antiquities 3, 6, 5), Hebrew כְּרוּבִים (hardly of Semitic origin, but cognate to the Greek γρύψ, γρυπος (for the various opinions cf. Gesenius' Hebrew Lexicon, Mühlau and Volck edition, under the word כְּרוּב)), cherubim, two golden figures of living creatures with two wings; they were fastened to the lid of the ark of the covenant in the Holy of holies (both of the sacred tabernacle and of Solomon's temple) in such a manner that their faces were turned toward each other and down toward the lid, which they overshadowed with their expanded wings. Between these figures God was regarded as having fixed his dwelling-place (see δόξα , III. 1): Hebrews 9:5. In Ezekiel 1:1-28 and Ezekiel 10:1-22 another and far more elaborate form is ascribed to them; but the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews has Exodus 25:18-20 in mind. Cf. Winer s RWB, under the word Cherubim; Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 710f; Dillmann in Schenkel i. 509ff; Riehm , De Natura et Notione Symbolica Cheruborum (Basil. 1864); also his 'Die Cherubim in d. Stiftshütte u. im Tempel' in the Theol. Studien und Kritiken for 1871, p. 399ff; and in his HWB, p. 227ff; (cf. Lenormant, Beginnings of History (N. Y. 1882), chapter iii.).TGL Χερούβ.2


    (5503) χήρα, χήρας, (feminine of the adjective χῆρος, 'bereft'; akin to χέρσος, sterile, barren, and the Latincareo (but cf. Curtius , § 192)), from Homer , Iliad 6, 408 down, the Sept. for אַלְמָנָה, a widow: Matthew 23:14-13Rec. ; Mark 12:40, Mark 12:42; Luke 2:37; Luke 4:25; Luke 7:12; Luke 18:3, Luke 18:5; Luke 20:47; Luke 21:2; Acts 6:1; Acts 9:39, Acts 9:41; 1 Corinthians 7:8; 1 Timothy 5:3-5, 1 Timothy 5:9, 1 Timothy 5:11, 1 Timothy 5:16; James 1:27; with γυνή added (2 Samuel 14:5, and often in the Greek writings from Homer , Iliad 2, 289 down), Luke 4:26; a city stripped of inhabitants and riches is represented under the figure of a widow, Revelation 18:7.TGL χήρα.2


    (5504) ἐχθές and (Rec. , so Griesbach in Acts and Heb.) χθές (on which forms cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 323f; (especially Rutherford. New Phryn., p. 370f); Bleek, Br. an d. Hebrew ii. 2, p. 1000; (Tdf. Proleg., p. 81; Winer s Grammar, pp. 24, 45; Buttmann , 72 (63))), adverb, yesterday: John 4:52; Acts 7:28; of time just past, Hebrews 13:8. (From Sophocles down.)TGL ἐχθές.2


    (5505) χιλιάς, χιλιαδος, (χίλιοι), a thousand, the number one thousand: plural, Luke 14:31; Acts 4:4; 1 Corinthians 10:8; Revelation 5:11; Revelation 7:4-8; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 14:1-3; Revelation 21:16; the Sept. for אֶלֶף, אֲלָפִים. (Herodotus on.)TGL χιλιάς.2


    (5506) χιλίαρχος, -ου, , (χίλιοι and ἄρχω; [on the form of the word cf. reff. s. v. εκατοντάρχης, and L. and S. s. v. χιλιάρχης]), the commander of a thousand soldiers, a chiliarch; the commander of a Roman cohort (a military tribune): John 18:12; Acts 21:7 Rec., 22; Acts 25:23 (Sept. for שַׂר אֲלָפִ׳ם and רֹאשׁ אֲלָפִ׳ם). any military commander [R. V. high or chief captain, captain]: Mark 6:21; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 19:18. [(Aeschyl., Xen., al.)]*TGL χιλίαρχος.2


    (5507) χίλιοι, χίλιαι, χίλια, a thousand: 2 Peter 3:8; Revelation 11:3, etc.TGL χίλιοι.2


    (5508) Χίος, Χίου, , Chios, an island in the Aegean Sea, between Samos and Lesbos, not far from the shore of Lydia: Acts 20:15.TGL Χίος.2


    (5509) χιτών, χιτῶνος, , from Homer down, the Sept. for כֻּתֹּנֶת and כְּתֹנֶת, a tunic, an undergarment, usually worn next the skin: Matthew 10:10; Mark 6:9; Luke 3:11; Luke 9:3; Jude 1:23; it is distinguished from τό ἱμάτιον (which see 2) or τά ἱμάτια in Matthew 5:40; Luke 6:29; John 19:23; Acts 9:39; universally, a garment, vestment (Aeschylus suppl. 903), plural (Plutarch , Tib. Gracch. 19), Mark 14:63. (Cf. Rich, Dict. of Antiq. under the word Tunica; and references under the word ἱμάτιον, as above.)TGL χιτών.2


    (5510) χιών, χιόνος, , from Homer down, the Sept. for שֶׁלֶג, snow: Matthew 28:3; Mark 9:3 (where it is omitted by G T Tr WH ); Revelation 1:14.TGL χιών.2


    (5511) χλαμύς, χλαμύδος, (according to the testimony of Pollux 10, 38, 164, first used by Sappho ), a chlamys, an outer garment usually worn over the χιτών (which see); specifically, the Latinpaludamentum (which see in Rich, Dict. of Antiq. , under the word, at the end), a kind of short cloak worn by soldiers, military officers, magistrates, kings, emperors, etc. (2 Macc. 12:35; Josephus , Antiquities 5, 1, 10; Herodian , Aelian , others; often in Plutarch ): Matthew 27:28, Matthew 27:31 (A. V. robe; see Meyer at the passage; Trench , Synonyms, § 1.; Rich (as above) under the word Chlamys; and other references under the word ἱμάτιον).TGL χλαμύς.2


    (5512) χλευάζω; imperfect ἐχλεύαζον; (χλεύη, jesting, mockery); to deride, mock, jeer: Acts 2:13 Rec. ; Acts 17:32. (2 Macc. 7:27; Wis. 11:15; Aristophanes , Demosthenes , Polybius , Diodorus , Plutarch , Lucian , others) (Compare: διαχλευάζω.)TGL χλευάζω.2


    (5513) χιλιαρος, χιλιαρα, χιλιαρον (χλίω, to become warm, liquefy, melt), tepid, lukewarm: metaphorically, of the condition of a soul wretchedly fluctuating between a torpor and a fervor of love, Revelation 3:16. (Herodotus , Pindar , Diodorus , Plutarch , Athen. , Geoponica .)TGL χλιαρός.2


    (5514) Χλόη ((i. e. 'tender verdure'; an appellation of Demeter, 'the Verdant')), Χλόης, , Chloe, a Christian woman of Corinth: 1 Corinthians 1:11. (Cf. B. D. , under the word.)TGL Χλόη.2


    (5515) χλωρός, χλωρά, χλωρόν, from χλόη, tender green grass or grain);TGL χλωρός.2

    1. green: χόρτος, Mark 6:39 (Genesis 1:30); Revelation 8:7; πᾶν χλωρόν, Revelation 9:4.TGL χλωρός.3

    2. yellowish, pale: ἵππος, Revelation 6:8. (In both senses from Homer down.)TGL χλωρός.4


    (5516) χξς, six hundred and sixty-six (χʹ = 600; ξʹ = 60; ςʹ = 6), a mystical number the meaning of which is clear when it is written in Hebrew letters, קסר נרון, i. e. Νέρων Καῖσαρ, 'Nero Caesar' (sometimes the Jews write קסר for the more common קיסר, the Syriac always rSK [], cf. Ewald, Die Johann. Schriften, ii., p. 263 note; (Schürer , N. T. Zeitgesch. edition 1, § 25 III., p. 449 note); נ = 50, ר = 200, ו = 6, נ = 50, ק = 100, ס = 60, ר = 200): Revelation 13:18 R G T Tr . (For a digest of opinions respecting this much debated number see Lee in the 'Speaker's commentary' at the passage. See Schaff, Hist. i. 841 sqq.; The Expositor for Nov. 1885, p. 381 sq., Salmon, Introd., Lect. xiv.)TGL χξϚ.2


    (5517) χοϊκός, χοικη χοικον (χοῦς, which see), made of earth, earthy: 1 Corinthians 15:47-49. (γυμνοί τούτους τοῦ χοϊκοῦ βαρους, Anon. in Walz, Rhett. i., p. 613, 4; (Hippolytus haer. 10, 9, p. 314, 95).)TGL χοϊκός.2


    (5518) χοῖνιξ, χοινικος, , from Homer , Odyssey 19, 28 down, a choenix, a dry measure, containing four cotylae or two sextarii (i. e. less than our 'quart'; cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word) (or as much as would support a man of moderate appetite for a day; hence, called in Athen. 3 § 20, p. 98 e. ἡμεροτροφις (cf. χοῖνιξ ἡμερήσιος τροφή, (Diogenes Laërtius 8, 18)): Revelation 6:6 (where A. V. measure (see Amos appendix ad loc.)).TGL χοῖνιξ.2


    (5519) χοῖρος, χοιρου, , from Homer down, a swine: plural, Matthew 7:6; Matthew 8:30,(31),32; Mark 5:11-13, Mark 5:14 Rec. ,(16); Luke 8:32; Luke 15:15. (Not found in the O. T.)TGL χοῖρος.2


    (5520) χολάω, χόλῳ; (χολή, which see);TGL χολάω.2

    1. to be atrabilious; to be mad (Aristophanes nub. 833).TGL χολάω.3

    2. to be angry, enraged (for χολοῦμαι, more common in the earlier Greek writings from Homer down): τίνι, John 7:23 (3Macc. 3:1; Artemidorus Daldianus, Nicander , Mosch. , Diogenes Laërt, others).TGL χολάω.4


    (5521) χολή, χολῆς, (equivalent to χόλος, from χέω to pour out (now thought to be connected with χλόη, χλωρός, etc. 'yellowish green'; cf. Curtius , § 200; Vanicek , p. 247)), first found in Archilochus (8th century B.C. ), afterward in Aeschylus and following.TGL χολή.2

    1. bile, gall: Matthew 27:34 (cf. the Sept. Psalms 68:22 (Psalms 69:21)) (cf. B. D. , under the word Gall); Acts 8:23 (on which see πικρία ); for מְרֵרָה, Job 16:13.TGL χολή.3

    2. in the O. T. it is also used of other bitter things; for לַעֲנָה, wormwood, Proverbs 5:4; Lamentations 3:15; hence, some understand the word in Matthew 27:34 to mean myrrh, on account of Mark 15:23; but see σμυρνίζω , 2; (B. D. as above).TGL χολή.4


    (5522) χὠς, see χοῦς .TGL χοῦς.2

    Related entry: χοῦς, χὠς, accusative χοῦν, (contracted for χὠς, from χέω, to pour), from Herodotus down;TGL χοῦς.3

    1. properly, earth dug out, an earth-heap (German Schutt): χοῦς ἐξορυχθεις, Herodotus 2, 150.TGL χοῦς.4

    2. dust (the Sept. for עָפָר): Mark 6:11; Revelation 18:19 ((Joshua 7:11; Wis. 5:15; Sir. 44:21, etc.); Plutarch , mor., p. 1096 b. (i. e. non posse suaviter etc. 13, 7)).TGL χοῦς.5


    (5523) Χοραζίν ((so G L , also Matthew 11:21 Rec. ; Luke 10:13 Rec.elz ); Χόρζειν T Tr WH ; (Χωραζίν, Luke 10:13 Rec.st bez ; see εἰ , ; Tdf. Proleg., p. 84; WH 's Appendix, p. 155a)), , indeclinable Chorazin, a town of Galilee, which is mentioned neither in the O. T. nor by Josephus ; according to Jerome (in his Onomast. (cf. Eusebius , onomasticon, Larsow and Parthey edition, p. 374)) two miles distant from Capernaum; perhaps the same place which in the talmud, Menach. f. 85, 1 is called כרזין (cf. Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii. 139), the remains of which Robinson (Biblical Researches, iii. 347, 359f) thinks must be sought for in the ruins of the modern Tell Hum; but Wilson (Recovery of Jerusalem, American edition, pp. 270, 292ff; Our Work in Palestine, p. 188), with whom (Thomson (Land and Book, ii. 8)), Socin (in Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, English edition, p. 374), Wolff (in Riehm , p. 235) (the Conders (Handbook. to the Bible, p. 324), and the majority of recent scholars) agree, holds to the more probable opinion which identifies it with Kerazeh, a heap of ruins lying an hour's journey to the N. E. of Tell Hum: Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13. Cf. Winer s RWB under the word; Keim , i., p. 605 (English translation, ii. 367) and ii. 118 (English translation, iii. 143).TGL Χοραζίν.2


    (5524) χορηγέω, χορήγω; future 3 person singular χορηγήσει (2 Corinthians 9:10 G L T Tr WH ); 1 aorist optative 3 person singular χορηγ´ησαι (ibid., Rec. ); (χορηγός, the leader of a chorus; from χορός and ἄγω (ἡγέομαι)); from (Simonides ), Xenophon , Plato down;TGL χορηγέω.2

    1. to be a chorus-leader, lead a chorus.TGL χορηγέω.3

    2. "to furnish the chorus at one's own expense; to procure and supply all things necessary to fit out the chorus" (so very often in the Attic writings).TGL χορηγέω.4

    3. in later writings ((Aristotle ), Polybius , Diodorus , Philo , Josephus , Plutarch , Aelian , others; 1 Kings 4:7; 1 Kings 1:1-53 Macc. 14:10; 2 Macc. 3:3, etc.), to supply, furnish abundantly: τί, 2 Corinthians 9:10; 1 Peter 4:11. (Compare: ἐπιχορηγέω.)TGL χορηγέω.5


    (5525) χορός, χορου, (by metathesis from ὄρχος, ὀρχέομαι ((?); probably related to χόρτος (Latinhortus ), χρόνος, etc., denoting primarily 'an enclosure for dancing'; cf. Curtius , § 189)), from Homer down, a band (of dancers and singers), a circular dance, a dance, dancing: Luke 15:25 (for מְחולָה, Exodus 15:20; Judges 11:34, etc.; for מָחול, Lamentations 5:15; Psalms 150:4).TGL χορός.2


    (5526) χορτάζω: 1 aorist ἐχόρτασα; 1 aorist passive, ἐχορτασθην; future passive, χορτασθήσομαι; (χόρτος, which see); first in Hesiod (Works, 450);TGL χορτάζω.2

    a. to feed with herbs, grass, hay, to fill or satisfy with food, to fatten; animals (so uniformly in the earlier Greek writings (cf. Lightfoot on Philippians 4:12; Winer 's Grammar, 23)): ὄρνεα ἐκ τῶν σαρκῶν, passive, Revelation 19:21 (here A. V. were filled).TGL χορτάζω.3

    b. in later (cf. Sturz, Dial. Maced. and Alex., p. 200ff) and Biblical Greek, to fill or satisfy men (the Sept. for שָׁבַע and הִשְׂבִּיעַ; with some degree of contempt in Plato , de rep. 9, p. 586 a. κεκυφοτες εἰς γῆν καί εἰς τραπέζας βοσκονται χορταζόμενοι καί ὀχευοντες).TGL χορτάζω.4

    α. properly: τινα, Matthew 15:33; passive, Matthew 14:20; Matthew 15:37; Mark 6:42; Mark 7:27; Mark 8:8; Luke 9:17; John 6:26; James 2:16; opposed to πεινᾶν, Philippians 4:12; τινα τίνος (like πίμπλημι (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 8 b.)): ἄρτων, with bread, Mark 8:4 (Psalm 131:15 (Psalms 132:15)); τινα ἀπό with a genitive of the thing (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 12), passive, Luke 16:21 (Psalms 103:13 (Psalms 104:13)); (τινα ἐκ with the genitive of the thing (Buttmann , as above), passive, Luke 15:16 Tr marginal reading WH ).TGL χορτάζω.5

    β. metaphorically: τινα, to fulfill or satisfy the desire of anyone, Matthew 5:6; Luke 6:21 (Psalms 106:9 (Psalms 107:9)).TGL χορτάζω.6


    (5527) χόρτασμα, χορτασματος, τό (χορτάζω), feed, fodder, for animals (the Sept. ; Polybius , Diodorus , Plutarch , others); food (vegetable) sustenance, whether for men or flocks: plural Acts 7:11.TGL χόρτασμα.2


    (5528) χόρτος, χόρτου, ;TGL χόρτος.2

    1. the place where grass grows and animals glaze: Homer , Iliad 11, 774; 24, 640.TGL χόρτος.3

    2. from Hesiod down, grass, herbage, hay, provender: of green grass, Matthew 6:30; Matthew 14:19; Luke 12:28; John 6:10; James 1:10; 1 Peter 1:24 (from Isaiah 40:6); Revelation 9:4; χόρτος χλωρός, Mark 6:39; Revelation 8:7; χόρτος of growing crops, Matthew 13:26; Mark 4:28; of hay, 1 Corinthians 3:12. (the Sept. for חָצִיר, grass, and עֶשֶׂב.)TGL χόρτος.4


    (5529) Χουζᾶς, Χουζᾶ (Tdf. Proleg., p. 104; Buttmann , 20 (18)), , Chuzas (A. V. (less correctly) Chusa), the steward of Herod Antipas: Luke 8:3.TGL Χουζᾶς.2


    (5530) χράομαι. χρωμαι; imperfect 3 person plural ἐχρῶντο; 1 aorist ἐχρησάμην; perfect κέχρημαι (1 Corinthians 9:15 G L T Tr WH ); from Homer down; (middle of χράω (thought to be allied by metathesis with χείρ (cf. Curtius , § 189)), 'to grant a loan', 'to lend' (but cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word; they regard the radical sense as 'to furnish what is needful'); hence)TGL χράομαι.2

    1. properly, to receive a loan; to borrow.TGL χράομαι.3

    2. to take for one's use; to use: τίνι (Winer s Grammar, § 31, 1 i.), to make use of a thing, Acts 27:17; 1 Corinthians 9:12, 1 Corinthians 9:15; 1 Timothy 1:8; 1 Timothy 5:23; τῷ κόσμῳ, the good things of this world, 1 Corinthians 7:31 R G (see below); μᾶλλον χρῆσαι, namely, the opportunity of becoming free, 1 Corinthians 7:21 (where others, less fitly, supply τῷ κληθῆναι δοῦλον (see references under the word εἰ, III. 6 a.)). contrary to the regular usage of classical Greek with an accusative: τόν κόσμον, 1 Corinthians 7:31 L T Tr WH ; see Meyer at the passage; Buttmann , § 133, 18; Winer 's Grammar, as above; (also in Wis. 7:14 according to some manuscripts; (Liddell and Scott, give (Pseudo-) Aristotle , oecon. 2, 22, p. 1350{a}, 7)). with the dative of a virtue or vice describing the mode of thinking or acting: τῇ ἐλαφρίᾳ (R. V. 'shew fickleness'), 2 Corinthians 1:17; πολλή παρρησία, 2 Corinthians 3:12 (for numerous examples from Greek writings from Herodotus down, see Passow , ii., p. 2497b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. a.)). with adverbs (see Passow , ii., p. 2497{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, IV.)): ἀποτόμως, to deal sharply, use sharpness, 2 Corinthians 13:10. of the use of persons: τίνι, to bear oneself toward, to deal with, treat, one (often so in Greek writings; see Passow , ii., p. 2496{b}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, III. 1 and 2)), Acts 27:3.TGL χράομαι.4


    (5531) χράω see κίχρημι.TGL κίχρημι.2

    Related entry: κίχρημι: 1 aorist active imperative χρῆσόν; to lend: τίνι τί, Luke 11:5. (From Herodotus down.) [SYNONYMS: see δανείζω , at the end.]TGL κίχρημι.3


    (5532) χρεία, χρείας, (χρή), from Aeschylus and Sophocles down;TGL χρεία.2

    1. necessity, need: τά πρός τήν χρείαν (L T Tr WH πρός τάς χρείας (cf. below)), such things as suited the exigency, such things as we needed for sustenance and the journey, Acts 28:10; εἰς τάς ἀναγκαίας χρείας (A. V. for necessary uses), i. e. to supply what is absolutely necessary for life ((cf. Babrius fab. 136, 9); others understand the 'wants' here as comprising those of charity or of worship), Titus 3:14; πρός οἰκοδομήν τῆς χρείας, for the edification of souls, of which there is now special need, Ephesians 4:29 (cf. R. V. and marginal reading); ἐστι χρεία, there is need, followed by an accusative with infinitive Hebrews 7:11; ἐστι χρεία τίνος, there is need of something, Revelation 22:5 Griesbach; Luke 10:42 ((but not WH marginal reading)); ἔχω χρείαν τίνος, to have need of (be in want of) something (often in the Greek writings from Aeschylus down, cf. Passow , under the word, 1; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 1)), Matthew 6:8; Matthew 21:3; Mark 11:3; Luke (Luke 9:11; Luke 15:7); Mark 19:31,34; 22:71; John 13:29; 1 Corinthians 12:21, 1 Corinthians 12:24; 1 Thessalonians 4:12; Hebrews 10:36; Revelation 3:17 R G (see below); Revelation 21:23; Revelation 22:5 (not Griesbach); τοῦ with an infinitive Hebrews 5:12 (Winer s Grammar, § 44, 4 a.; cf. τίς , 2 b., p. 626a bottom); the genitive of the thing is evident from the context, Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35; with the genitive of a person whose aid, testimony, etc., is needed, Matthew 9:12; Matthew 26:65; Mark 2:17; Mark 14:63; Luke 5:31; ἔχω χρείαν, followed by an infinitive (cf. Buttmann , § 140, 3), I, etc. have need to etc., Matthew 3:14; Matthew 14:16; John 13:10; 1 Thessalonians 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:9 (with which cf. 5:1 (see Winer s Grammar, 339 (318); Buttmann , § 140, 3)); followed by ἵνα (see ἵνα , II. 2 c. (Buttmann , § 139, 46; cf. Epictetus diss. 1, 17, 18)), John 2:25; John 16:30; 1 John 2:27; χρείαν ἔχω, absolutely, to have need: Mark 2:25; (Ephesians 4:28); 1 John 3:17; οὐδέν χρείαν ἐηξω, to have need as to nothing (cf. Buttmann , § 131, 10), Revelation 3:17 L T Tr WH . χρεία with a genitive of the subjunctive the condition of one deprived of those things which he is scarcely able to do without, want, need: λειτουργός τῆς χρείας μου (see λειτουργός , 2 at the end), Philippians 2:25; πληροῦν τήν χρείαν τίνος (Thucydides 1. 70), Philippians 4:19; (add, εἰς (Lachmann brackets εἰς) τήν χρείαν μοι ἐπέμψατε, unto (i. e. to relieve, cf. εἰς , B. II. 3 c. γ., p. 185b top) my need, Philippians 4:16); plural one's necessities: ταῖς χρείαις... ὑπηρέτησαν, to provide for one's necessities, Acts 20:34; κοινωνεῖν ταῖς χρείαις (cf. p. 352{a} top), Romans 12:13.TGL χρεία.3

    2. duty, business (so especially from Polybius down (cf. Judith 12:10; 1 Macc. 12:45 1 Macc. 13:37; 2 Macc. 7:24, etc.)): Acts 6:3.TGL χρεία.4


    (5533) χρεωφειλέτης (L T Tr WH χρεοφειλέτης; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 691; Winer s Grammar, § 5, 1 d. 13; (WH s Appendix, p. 152{b}; Tdf. Proleg., p. 89; T (?; see as above) WH χρεωφιλετης, cf. WH 's Appendix, p. 154{b} (see Iota))), χρεωφειλετου, (χρέος or χρέως, a loan, a debt, and ὀφειλέτης, which see), a debtor: Luke 7:41; Luke 16:5. (Proverbs 29:13; Job 31:37; Aesop fab. 289 (edited by Coray, 11th Halm edition); several times in Plutarch ; (also in Diodorus , Dionysius Halicarnassus ; see Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word).)TGL χρεοφειλέτης.2


    (5534) χρή; (from χράω, χραει contracted χρή); impors. verb, it is necessary; it behooves: followed by an infinitive James 3:10 ((Buttmann , §§ 131, 3; 132, 12). From Homer on. Synonym: see δεῖ , at the end.)TGL χρή.2


    (5535) χρῄζω; (χρή); from Homer down; to have need of, to be in want of: with a genitive of the object (Winer 's Grammar, § 30, 8 a.), Matthew 6:32; Luke 11:8; Luke 12:30; Romans 16:2 (here with the genitive of a person); 2 Corinthians 3:1.TGL χρῄζω.2


    (5536) χρῆμα, χρηματος, τό (χράομαι), in Greek writings whatever is for use, whatever one uses, a thing, matter, affair, event, business; specifically, money (rarely so in the singular in secular authors, as Herodotus 3, 38; Diodorus 13, 106 (cf. Liddell and Scott, under the word I. under the end)): Acts 4:37; plural riches (often in Greek writings from Homer , Odyssey 2, 78; 16, 315 etc. down), Mark 10:24 (T WH omit; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause); οἱ τά χρήματα ἔχοντες, they that have riches, Mark 10:23; Luke 18:24; money, Acts 8:18, Acts 8:20; Acts 24:26 (for כֶּסֶף, silver, Job 27:17; for נִכָסִים, riches, Joshua 22:8; 2 Chronicles 1:11).TGL χρῆμα.2


    (5537) χρηματίζω; future χρηματίσω (Romans 7:3 (cf. Buttmann , 37 (33)); in Greek writings everywhere the Attic χρηματιω, so too Jeremiah 32:16 (Jeremiah 25:30); Jeremiah 33:2 (Jeremiah 26:2); 1 aorist ἐχρηματισμα; perfect passive, κεχρηματισμαι; 1 aorist passive, ἐχρηματίσθην; (χρῆμα business); in prose writings from Herodotus down;TGL χρηματίζω.2

    1. "to transact business, especially to manage public affairs; to advise or consult with one about public affairs; to make answer to those who ask advice, present inquiries or requests," etc.; used of judges, magistrates, rulers, kings. Hence, in some later Greek writings,TGL χρηματίζω.3

    2. to give a response to those consulting an oracle (Diodorus 3, 6; 15, 10; Plutarch , mor., p. 435 c. (i. e. de defect. oracc. 46); several times in Lucian ); hence, used of God in Josephus , Antiquities 5, 1, 14; 10, 1, 3; 11, 8, 4; universally, (dropping all reference to a previous consultation), to give a divine command or admonition, to teach from heaven ((Jeremiah 32:16 (Jeremiah 25:30))): with a dative of the person Job 40:3; passive followed by an infinitive (A. V. revealed etc.), Luke 2:26 (χρηματίζειν λόγους πρός τινα, Jeremiah 37:2 (Jeremiah 30:2)); passive, to be divinely commanded, admonished, instructed (R. V. warned of God), Matthew 2:12, Matthew 2:22; Acts 10:22; Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 11:7 (this passive use is hardly found elsewhere except in Josephus , Antiquities 3, 8, 8; (11, 8, 4); cf. Buttmann , § 134, 4; (Winer s Grammar, § 39, 1 a.)); to be the mouthpiece of divine revelations, to promulge the commands of God, (τίνι, Jeremiah 33:2 (Jeremiah 26:2); Jeremiah 36:23 (Jeremiah 29:23): of Moses, Hebrews 12:25 (R. V. warned).TGL χρηματίζω.4

    3. to assume or take to oneself a name from one's public business (Polybius , Diodorus , Plutarch , others); universally, to receive a name or title, be called: Acts 11:26; Romans 7:3 (Josephus , Antiquities (8, 6, 2); 13, 11, 3; b. j. 2, 18, 7; (c. Apion. 2, 3, 1; Philo , quod deus immut. § 25 at the end; leg. ad Gaium § 43); Ἀντίοχον τόν Ἐπιφανῆ χρηματίζοντα, Diodorus in Müller's fragment vol. ii, p. 17, no. 21:4; Ἰάκωβον τόν χρηματισαντα ἀδελφόν τοῦ κυρίου, Acta Philippi at the beginning, p. 75; Tdf. edition; Ἰακώβου... ὅν καί ἀδελφόν τοῦ Χριστοῦ χρηματίσαι οἱ Θειοι λόγοι περιέχουσιν, Eus. h. e. 7, 19; (cf. Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word, 2)).TGL χρηματίζω.5


    (5538) χρηματισμός, χρηματισμοῦ, (χρηματίζω, which see), a divine response, an oracle: Romans 11:4. (2 Macc. 2:4; cf. Diodorus 1, 1; 14, 7; Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 17, 5 [ET]; (cf. Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 1, 2, p. 8; Suicer, Thesaurus under the word (vol. 2, col. 1532)); in various other senses in the Greek writings from Xenophon , and Plato down.)TGL χρηματισμός.2


    (5539) χρήσιμος, χρησιμη, χρήσιμον (χράομαι), first in Theognis , 406, fit for use, useful: 2 Timothy 2:14.TGL χρήσιμος.2


    (5540) χρῆσις, χρησεως, (χράομαι), use: of the sexual use of a woman, Romans 1:26 (παιδικη, Lucian , amor. 25; ὀρεξεις παρά τάς χρησεις, Plutarch , placit. philos. 5, 5; (cf. Isocrates , p. 386 c.; Plato , legg. 8, p. 841 a.; Aristotle , others)).TGL χρῆσις.2


    (5541) χρηστεύομαι; (χρηστός, which see); to show oneself mild, to be kind, use kindness: 1 Corinthians 13:4. (Ecclesiastical writings, as Eusebius , h. e. 5, 1, 46; τίνι, toward one, Clement of Rome , 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, 1 Corinthians 13:2 [ET]; 14, 3 [ET].)TGL χρηστεύομαι.2


    (5542) χρηστολογία, χρηστολογίας, (from χρηστολόγος, and this from χρηστός, which see, and λέγω; cf. Julius Capitolinus in the life of Pertinax c. 13 "Omnes, qui libere fabulas conferebant, male Pertinaci loquebantur, χρηστολογον eum appellantes, qui bene loqueretur et male faceret), fair speaking, the smooth and plausible address which simulates goodness": Romans 16:18. (Eustathius , p. 1437, 27 (on Iliad 23, 598); ecclesiastical writings.)TGL χρηστολογία.2


    (5543) χρηστός, χρηστη, χρηστόν (χράομαι), from Herodotus down, the Sept. for טוב;TGL χρηστός.2

    1. properly, fit for use, useful; virtuous, good: ἤθη χρηστά, 1 Corinthians 15:33 ((Treg. χρηστά (but cf. Buttmann , 11)), see ἦθος , 2).TGL χρηστός.3

    2. manageable, i. e. mild, pleasant (opposed to harsh, hard, sharp, bitter): of things, χρηστότερός οἶνος, pleasanter, Luke 5:39 (here T Tr text χρηστός; so WH in brackets) (of wine also in Plutarch , mor., p. 240 d. (i. e. Lacaen. apophtheg. (Gorgias 2); p. 1073 a. (i. e. de com. notit. 28)); of food and drink, Plato , de rep. 4, p. 438 a.; σῦκα, the Sept. Jeremiah 24:3, Jeremiah 24:5); ζυγός (opposed to burdensome), Matthew 11:30 (A. V. easy); of persons, kind, benevolent: of God, 1 Peter 2:3 (A. V. gracious) from Psalms 33:9 (Psalms 34:9); τό χρηστόν τοῦ Θεοῦ equivalent to χρηστότης (Winer 's Grammar, § 34, 2), Romans 2:4; of men, εἰς τινα toward one, Ephesians 4:32; ἐπί τινα, Luke 6:35 (here of God; in both passages, A. V. kind).TGL χρηστός.4


    (5544) χρηστότης, χρηστητος, (χρηστός);TGL χρηστότης.2

    1. moral goodness, integrity: Romans 3:12 (from Psalms 13:3 (Psalms 14:3) (A. V. 'doeth good').TGL χρηστότης.3

    2. benignity, kindness: Romans 2:4; 2 Corinthians 6:6; Galatians 5:22; Colossians 3:12; Titus 3:4; χρηστότης τίνος ἐπί τινα, Romans 11:22 (opposed to ἀποστομια (which see)); Ephesians 2:7. (The Sept. ; Euripides , Isaeus , Diodorus , Josephus , Aelian , Herodian ; often in Plutarch ) (See Trench , Synonyms, § lxiii.)TGL χρηστότης.4


    (5545) χρῖσμα (so R G L , small edition, WH ) and χρῖσμα (Lachmann's major edition; T Tr ; on the accent see Winer s Grammar, § 6, 1e.; Lipsius , Grammat. Untersuch., p. 35; (Tdf. Proleg., p. 102)), χρίσματος, τό (χρίω, which see), anything smeared on, unguent, ointment, usually prepared by the Hebrews from oil and aromatic herbs. Anointing was the inaugural ceremony for priests (Exodus 28:37; Exodus 40:13 (15); Leviticus 6:22; Numbers 35:25), kings (1 Samuel 9:16; 1 Samuel 10:1; 1 Samuel 15:1; 1 Samuel 16:3, 1 Samuel 16:13), and sometimes also prophets (1 Kings 19:16 cf. Isaiah 61:1), and by it they were regarded as endued with the Holy Spirit and divine gifts (1 Samuel 16:13; Isaiah 61:1; Josephus , Antiquities 6, 8, 2 πρός τόν Δαυιδην — when anointed by Samuel — μεταβαινει τό θεῖον καταλιπον Σαουλον. καί μέν προφητεύειν ἤρξατο, τοῦ θείου πνεύματος εἰς αὐτόν μετοικισαμενου); (see BB. DD. , see under the words, Ointment, Anointing). Hence, in 1 John 2:20 (where ἀπό τοῦ ἁγίου is so used as to imply that this χρῖσμα renders them ἁγίους (cf. Westcott at the passage)) and 27, τό χρῖσμα is used of the gift of the Holy Spirit, as the efficient aid in getting a knowledge of the truth; see χιω. (Xenophon , Theophrastus , Diodorus , Philo , others; for מִשְׁחָה, Exodus 29:7; Exodus 30:25; Exodus 35:14; Exodus 40:7 (9).)TGL χρῖσμα.2


    (5546) Χριστιανός (cf. Lightfoot on Philip., p. 16 note), Χριστιανου, (Χριστός), a Christian, a follower of Christ: Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16. The name was first given to the worshippers of Jesus by the Gentiles, but from the second century (Justin Martyr (e. g. Apology 1, 4, p. 55 a.; dialog contra Trypho, § 35; cf. 'Teaching etc. 12, 4 [ET])) onward accepted by them as a title of honor. CL Lipsius , Ueber Ursprung u. ältesten Gebrauch des Christennamens. 4to, pp. 20, Jen. 1873. Yet see Bp. Lghtft. Apost. Fathers, Pt. II. vol. i. p. 400 sqq. (CL Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word, 2; Farrar in Alex.'s Kitto, under the word; on the 'Titles of Believers in the N. T.' see Westcott, Epistles of St. John, p. 125f; cf. Dict. of Chris. Antiqq., under the word 'Faithful'.)TGL Χριστιανός.2


    (5547) χριστός, χριστη, χριστόν (χρίω), the Sept. for מָשִׁיחַ, anointed: ἱερεύς χριστός, Leviticus 4:5; Leviticus 6:22; οἱ χριστοι ἱερεῖς, 2 Macc. 1:10; the patriarchs are called, substantively, οἱ χριστοι Θεοῦ, Psalms 104:15 (Psalms 105:15); the singular χριστός τοῦ κυρίου (יְהוָה מְשִׁיחַ) king of Israel (see χρῖσμα ), as 1 Samuel 2:10, 1 Samuel 2:35; (1 Samuel 24:11; 1 Samuel 26:9, 1 Samuel 26:11, 1 Samuel 26:23); 2 Samuel 1:14; Psalms 2:2; Psalm 17:51 (Ps. 18:51); Habakkuk 3:13; (2 Chronicles 22:7); also of a foreign king, Cyrus, as sent of God, Isaiah 45:1; of the coming king whom the Jews expected to be the saviour of their nation and the author of their highest felicity: the name χριστός (מָשִׁיחַ, Chaldean מְשִׁיחָא) is not found in the O. T. but is first used of him in the Book of Enoch 48, 10 (cf. Schodde's note); 52, 4 (for the arguments by which some have attempted to prove that the section containing these passages is of Christian origin are not convincing (cf. υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, 2 and references)), after Psalms 2:2 referred to the Messiah; (cf. Psalms of Solomon 17:36 Psalms 18:6, Psalms 18:8). Cf. Keim , ii., 549 (English translation, 4:263f; Westcott 'Additional Note' on 1 John 5:1. On the general subject see Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 29.) In the N. T. it is used:TGL Χριστός.2

    1. of the Messiah, viewed in his generic aspects (the word, that is to say, being used as an appellative rather than a proper name), χριστός: Matthew 2:4; Matthew 16:16; Matthew 23:10; Matthew 24:5, Matthew 24:23; Matthew 26:63; Mark 8:29; Mark 12:35; Mark 13:21; Mark 14:61; Luke 3:15; Luke 4:41; Luke 20:41; Luke 22:67 (Luke 22:66); Luke 23:39; Luke 24:26,Luke 24:46; John 1:20, John 1:25 (John 1:41 (John 1:42) Rec. ); John 3:28; John 4:29; John 6:69 Rec. ; John 7:26, John 7:31,John 7:41; John 11:27; John 12:34; John 20:31; Acts 2:30 Rec. , Acts 2:31; Acts 3:18; Acts 8:5; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5,Acts 18:28; Acts 26:23; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:1; χριστός κυρίου or τοῦ Θεοῦ, Luke 2:26; Luke 9:20; Acts 4:26; without the article, Luke 2:11; Luke 23:2; John 1:41 (John 1:42) L T Tr WH ; John 9:22; Acts 2:36; χριστός, βασιλεύς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Mark 15:32; χριστός so used as to refer to Jesus, Revelation 20:4, Revelation 20:6; with τοῦ Θεοῦ added, Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10.TGL Χριστός.3

    2. It is added, as an appellative (`Messiah', 'anointed'), to the proper name ἸησοῦςTGL Χριστός.4

    a. Ἰησοῦς χριστός, Jesus the Christ (`Messiah'): Acts 5:42 R G ; Acts 9:34 (R G ); 1 Corinthians 3:11 Rec. ; 1 John 5:6 (R G L ); Ἰησοῦς λεγόμενος χριστός, who they say is the Messiah ((cf. b. below)), Matthew 27:22; without the article Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, Jesus as Christ or Messiah, John 17:3; 1 John 4:2; 2 John 1:7 (but in all three examples it seems better to take χριστός as a proper name (see b. below)); Χριστός Ἰησοῦς, the Christ (Messiah) who is Jesus, (Matthew 1:18 WH marginal reading (see b. below)); Acts 5:42 L T Tr WH (R. V. Jesus as the Christ); Acts 19:4 Rec.TGL Χριστός.5

    b. Χριστός is a proper name (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 18, 9 N. 1; (as respects the use of a large or a small initial letter the critical editions vary: Tdf. seems to use the capital initial in all cases; Treg. is inconsistent (using a small letter, for instance, in all the examples under 1 above, except Luke 22:67 and John 4:29; in Matthew 1:1 a capital in Mark 1:1 a small letter, etc.); WH have adopted the principle of using a capital when the article is absent and avoiding it when the article is present (1 Pet. being intentionally excepted; the small letter being retained also in such examples as Luke 2:11; Luke 23:2; Acts 2:36, etc.); see WH . Introductory § 415])]): Matthew 1:17; Matthew 11:2; Romans 1:16 Rec. ; Romans 7:4; Romans 9:5; Romans 14:18 (here L omits; Tr brackets the article); Romans 15:19; 1 Corinthians 1:6, etc. without the article, Mark 9:41; Romans 6:4; Romans 8:9, Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 1:12; Galatians 2:16, Galatians 2:19 (Galatians 2:20), Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:27; Philippians 1:10, Philippians 1:13, Philippians 1:19-21, Philippians 1:23; Philippians 2:16; Colossians 2:5, Colossians 2:8; Hebrews 3:6, and often. Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, Matthew 1:1, Matthew 1:18 (here Tr omits Ἰησοῦς; WH text brackets Ἰησοῦς; others have, Ἰησοῦς Χριστός which is unique; see WH 's Appendix at the passage); Mark 1:1; John 1:17; Acts 2:38; Acts 3:6; Acts 4:10; Acts 8:12; (Acts 9:34 L T Tr WH ); Acts 10:36; Acts 11:17; Acts 15:26; Acts 16:18,Acts 16:31 (R G ); Acts 20:21 (here L WH text omit; Tr brackets Χριστόν); Acts 28:31 (Tdf. omits Χριστόν); Romans 1:1 (R G WH text (see below)), Romans 1:6,Romans 1:8; Romans 2:16 (R G Tr text WH marginal reading (see below)); 1 Corinthians 1:7-9; 1 Corinthians 3:11 (G T Tr WH (Rec. Ἰησοῦς Χριστός)); 1 Corinthians 15:57, and very often in the Epistles of Paul and Peter; Hebrews 13:8, Hebrews 13:21; 1 John 1:3, 1 John 1:7 (R G ); 1 John 2:1; (1 John 2:6 G T Tr WH ); 2 John 1:7 ((see a. above)); Jude 1:4, Jude 1:17, Jude 1:21; Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:5; Revelation 22:21 (Buttmann , G (WH brackets others omit Χριστοῦ)). Χριστός Ἰησοῦς, Rom. (Romans 1:1 T Tr WH marginal reading (see above); Romans 2:16 T Tr marginal reading WH text (see above)); Romans 6:3 (WH brackets Ἰησοῦς); 1 Corinthians 1:2, 1 Corinthians 1:30; (1 Corinthians 3:11 Lachmann (see above)); Galatians 3:14 (here Tr text; WH text Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ); Galatians 4:14; Galatians 5:6 (WH brackets Ἰησοῦ); Galatians 6:15; Philippians 2:5; Philippians 3:3, Philippians 3:14; Colossians 2:6; 1 Timothy 1:2; 1 Timothy 2:5. Ἰησοῦς λεγόμενος Χριστός, surnamed 'Christ' ((cf. a. above)), Matthew 1:16. on the phrases ἐν Χριστῷ, ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, see ἐν , I. 6 b., p. 211b (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 20, 2 a.). Χριστός and Ἰησοῦς Χριστός ἐν τισίν, preached among, 2 Corinthians 1:19; Colossians 1:21 (others (so R. V. ) would take ἐν here internally (as in the following examples), within; cf. ἐν , I. 2); Χριστός ἐν τισίν is used of the person of Christ, who by his holy power and Spirit lives in the souls of his followers, and so moulds their characters that they bear his likeness, Romans 8:10 (cf. 9); 2 Corinthians 13:5; Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 3:17; a mind conformed to the mind of Christ, Galatians 4:19.TGL Χριστός.6


    (5548) χρίω: 1 aorist ἀχρισα; (akin to χείρ ((?), see Curtius , § 201), χραίνω; properly, 'to touch with the hand', 'to besmear'); from Homer down; the Sept. for מָשַׁח; to anoint (on the persons who received anointing among the Hebrews, see χρῖσμα ); in the N. T. only tropically, of GodTGL χρίω.2

    a. consecrating Jesus to the Messianic office, and furnishing him with powers necessary for its administration (see χρῖσμα ): Luke 4:18 (after Isaiah 61:1); contrary to common usage with an accusative of the thing, ἔλαιον, (like verbs of clothing, putting on, etc. (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 32, 4 a.; Buttmann , § 131, 6)), Hebrews 1:9 (from Psalms 44:8 (Psalms 45:8); in Theophilus ad Autol. 1, 12 we find χρίεσθαι ἔλαιον Θεοῦ and χρίεσθαι φωτί καί πνεύματι almost in the same sentence); πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καί δυνάμει, Acts 10:38; also χρίειν used absolutely, Acts 4:27.TGL χρίω.3

    b. enduing Christians with the gifts of the Holy Spirit (cf. Westcott on 1 John 2:20): 2 Corinthians 1:21. (Compare: ἐγχρίω, ἐπιχρίω. Synonym: see ἀλείφω , at the end)TGL χρίω.4


    (5549) χρονίζω; future χρονίσω (Hebrews 10:37 T Tr text WH ), Attic χρονιω (ibid. R G L Tr marginal reading); (χρόνος); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; the Sept. for אֵחַר; to linger, delay, tarry: Matthew 25:5; Hebrews 10:37; followed by ἐν with a dative of the place, Luke 1:21; followed by an infinitive, Matthew 24:48 (L T Tr WH omit the infinitive); Luke 12:45.TGL χρονίζω.2


    (5550) χρόνος, χρόνου, , from Homer down, the Sept. for יום, עֵת, etc. time: Hebrews 11:32; Revelation 10:6; χρόνος τοῦ φαινομένου ἀστέρος, the time since the star began to shine (cf. φαίνω , 2 a.), Matthew 2:7; ( χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν (Genesis 25:24), Luke 1:57 (Buttmann , 267 (230); cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 44, 4 a.)); τῆς ἐπαγγελίας, Acts 7:17; τῆς παροικίας, 1 Peter 1:17; χρονοι ἀποκαταστάσεως, Acts 3:21; οἱ χρονοι τῆς ἀγνοίας, Acts 17:30; χρόνου διαγενομένου, Acts 27:9; πόσος χρόνος ἐστιν, ὡς τοῦτο γέγονεν, Mark 9:21; παρεληλυθώς χρόνος, 1 Peter 4:3 (where Rec. adds τοῦ βίου); τεσσαρακονταετής, Acts 7:23; Acts 13:18; στιγμή χρόνου, Luke 4:5; πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου, Galatians 4:4; ποιεῖν ((which see, II. d.) to spend) χρόνον, Acts 15:33; Acts 18:23; βιῶσαι τόν ἐπίλοιπον χρόνον, 1 Peter 4:2; διδόναι χρόνον τίνι (i. e. a space of time, respite), ἵνα etc. Revelation 2:21 ((Josephus , b. j. 4, 3, 10)); plural joined with καιροί, Acts 1:7; 1 Thessalonians 5:1 (see καιρός , 2 e., p. 319a); ἐπ' ἐσχάτων (L T Tr WH ἐσχάτου) τῶν χρόνων (see ἔσχατος , 1 at the end), 1 Peter 1:20; (add, ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τοῦ (Tr WH omit τοῦ) χρόνου, Jude 1:18 L T Tr WH ). with prepositions: ἄχρι, Acts 3:21; διά τόν χρόνον, on account of the length of time, Hebrews 5:12 (Polybius 2, 21, 2; Alciphron 1, 26, 9); ἐκ χρόνων ἱκανῶν, for a long time, Luke 8:27 (R G L Tr marginal reading (see below)); ἐν χρόνῳ, Acts 1:6, Acts 1:21; ἐν ἐσχάτῳ χρόνῳ, Jude 1:18 Rec. ; ἐπί χρόνον (A. V. for a while), Luke 18:4; ἐπί πλείονα χρόνον (A. V. a longer time), Acts 18:20; ἐφ' ὅσον χρόνον for so long time as, so long as, Romans 7:1; 1 Corinthians 7:39; Galatians 4:1; κατά τόν χρόνον, according to (the relations of) the time, Matthew 2:16; μετά πολύν χρόνον, Matthew 25:19; μετά τοσοῦτον χρόνον Hebrews 4:7; πρό χρόνων αἰωνίων (R. V. before times eternal), 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 1:2. the dative is used to express the time during which something occurs (dative of duration of time, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31, 9; (Buttmann , § 133, 26)): (χρόνῳ ἱκανῷ, for a long time, Luke 8:27 T Tr text WH ); ἱκανῷ χρόνῳ, Acts 8:11; (τοσούτῳ χρόνῳ, John 14:9 L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); πολλοῖς χρόνοις (R. V. marginal reading of a long time (A. V. oftentimes); cf. πολύς , c.), Luke 8:29; αἰωνίοις (R. V. through times eternal), Romans 16:25. the accusative is used in answer to the question how long: χρόνον, for a while, Acts 19:22. Revelation 6:11 (where in R L T Tr WH μικρόν is added); also χρόνον τινα (A. V. a while), 1 Corinthians 16:7; ὅσον χρόνον (A. V. while), Mark 2:19; χρόνους ἱκανούς, for a long time, Luke 20:9; μικρόν χρόνον, John 7:33; John 12:35; Revelation 20:3; πολύν χρόνον John 5:6; τοσοῦτον χρόνον, John 14:9 (R G Tr text WH text); ἱκανόν (A. V. long time), Acts 14:3; οὐκ ὀλίγον (R. V. no little time), Acts 14:28; τόν πάντα χρόνον, Acts 20:18. (On the ellipsis of χρόνος in such phrases as ἀφ' οὗ, ἐν τῷ ἑξῆς (Luke 7:11 L marginal reading Tr text WH text), ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς (Luke 8:1), ἐξ ἱκανοῦ, etc., see ἀπό , I. 4 b., p. 58b top, ἑξῆς, καθεξῆς, ἐκ IV. 1, etc. Synonym: see καιρός , at the end; cf. αἰών , at the end.)TGL χρόνος.2


    (5551) χρονοτριβέω, χρονοτριβω: 1 aorist infinitive χρονοτριβῆσαι; (χρώς and τρίβῳ); to wear away time, spend time: Acts 20:16 (Aristotle , rhet. 3, 3, 3 (p. 1406a, 37); Plutarch , Heliod , Eustathius , Byzantine writings.)TGL χρονοτριβέω.2


    (5552) χρύσεος, χρυσεα, χρύσεον, contracted χρυσοῦς, χρυσῇ, χρυσοῦν (but accusative singular feminine χρυσᾶν, Revelation 1:13 L T Tr WH ; genitive plural χρυσέων, Revelation 2:1 L Tr ; (on its inflection cf. Buttmann , 26 (23); Phryn., Lob edition, p. 207; Liddell and Scott, under the word, at the beginning)) (χρυσός), from Homer down, golden; made of gold; also overlaid or covered with gold: 2 Timothy 2:20; Hebrews 9:4; Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 9:7 Griesbach, Revelation 9:13, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 15:6; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:15.TGL χρυσοῦς.2


    (5553) χρυσίον, χρυσίου, τό (diminutive of χρυσός, cf. φορτίον ), from Herodotus down, the Sept. for זָהַב, gold, both that which lies imbedded in the earth and is dug out of it (Plato , Euthyd., p. 288 e.; the Sept. Genesis 2:11; hence, μεταλλευθεν, Lucian , de sacr. 11): χρυσίον πεπυρωμένον ἐκ πυρός (R. V. refined by fire), Revelation 3:18; and that which has been smelted and wrought, Hebrews 9:4; (1 Corinthians 3:12 T Tr WH ); 1 Peter 1:7; Revelation 21:18, Revelation 21:21; equivalent to gold coin,'gold': Acts 3:6; Acts 20:33; 1 Peter 1:18; golden ornaments, precious things made of gold, 1 Timothy 2:9 L WH text; 1 Peter 3:3; Revelation 17:4 G L WH text; Revelation 18:16 G L Tr text WH text (cf. χρυσός ).TGL χρυσίον.2


    (5554) χρυσοδακτύλιος, χρυσοδακτυλιον (χρυσός and δακτύλιος), gold-ringed, adorned with gold rings: James 2:2. (Besides only in Hesychius , under the word χρυσοκόλλητος; (Winer s Grammar, 26).) (Cf. B. D. , under the word Ring.)TGL χρυσοδακτύλιος.2


    (5555) χρυσόλιθος, χρυσολιθου, (χρυσός and λίθος), chrysolith, chrysolite, a precious stone of a golden color; our topaz (cf. BB. DD. , under the word Chrysolite; especially Riehm , HWB, under the word Edelsteine 5 and 19): Revelation 21:20. (Diodorus 2, 52; Josephus , Antiquities 3, 7, 5; the Sept. for תַּרְשִׁישׁ, Exodus 28:20; Exodus 36:20 (Exodus 39:13); (Ezekiel 1:16 Aq. ).)TGL χρυσόλιθος.2


    (5556) χρυσόπρασος (χρυσοπρασον Lachmann), χρυσοπρασου, , (from χρυσός, and πράσον a leek), chrysoprase, a precious stone in color like a leek, of a translucent golden-green (cf. BB. DD. , under the word; Riehm , HWB, under the word, Edelsteine 6): Revelation 21:20.TGL χρυσόπρασος.2


    (5557) χρυσός, χρυσοῦ, , from Homer down, Hebrew זָהָב, gold ( ἐπί γῆς καί ὑπό γῆς, Plato , legg. 5, p. 728 a.): universally, Matthew 2:11; 1 Corinthians 3:12 (R G L (others χρυσίον, which see)); Revelation 9:7; equivalent to precious things made of gold, golden ornaments, Matthew 23:16; 1 Timothy 2:9 (here L WH text χρυσίον); James 5:3; Revelation 17:4 (L WH text χρυσίον); Revelation 18:12,Revelation 18:16 (L Tr text WH text χρυσίον); an image made of gold, Acts 17:29; stamped gold, gold coin, Matthew 10:9.TGL χρυσός.2


    (5558) χρυσόω, χρυσῷ: perfect passive participle κεχρυσωμενος; to adorn with gold, to gild: κεχρυσωμένη χρυσῷ (A. V. "decked with gold)"], Revelation 17:4; and ἐν (G L Tr omit; WH brackets ἐν) χρυσῷ, Revelation 18:16, of a woman ornamented with gold so profusely that she seems to be gilded; the Sept. for זָהָב מְצֻפָּה in Exodus 26:32. (Herodotus , Aristophanes , Plato , Diodorus , Plato , others.)TGL χρυσόω.2


    (5559) χρώς, genitive χρωτός, (cf. χροιά, the skin (cf. Curtius , § 201)), from Homer down (who (generally) uses the genitive χρώς etc. (cf. Ebeling, Lex. Homer , or Liddell and Scott, under the word)), the surface of the body, the skin: Acts 19:12; the Sept. for בָּשָׂר, twice for עור, Exodus 34:29, Alex. .TGL χρώς.2


    (5560) χωλός, χωλη, χωλόν, from Homer down, the Sept. for פִּסֵּחַ, lame: Acts 3:2, Acts 3:11 Rec. ; Acts 14:8; plural, Matthew 11:5; Matthew 15:30; Matthew 21:14; Luke 7:22; Luke 14:13, Luke 14:21; John 5:3; Acts 8:7; τό χωλόν, Hebrews 12:13 (on which see ἐκτρέπω , 1). deprived of afoot, maimed (A. V. halt): Matthew 18:8; Mark 9:45.TGL χωλός.2


    (5561) χώρα, χώρας, (ΧΑΩ (cf. Curtius , § 179), to lie open, be ready to receive), from Homer down, the Sept. for אֶרֶץ, מְדִינָה 'a province';TGL χώρα.2

    1. properly, the space lying between two places or limits.TGL χώρα.3

    2. a region or country; i. e. a tract of land: χώρα ἐγγύς τῆς ἐρήμου, John 11:54; (in an elliptical phrase, ἀστραπή () ἀστράπτουσα ἐκ τῆς ὑπό τόν οὐρανόν εἰς τήν ὑπ' οὐρανόν λάμπει, A. V. part... part, Luke 17:24 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 64, 5); on the ellipsis of χώρα in other phrases (ἐξ ἀναντιας, ἐν δεξιά, etc.), see Winer s Grammar, the passage cited; Buttmann , 82 (72)); land as opposed to the sea, Acts 27:27; land as inhabited, a province or country, Mark 5:10; (Mark 6:55 L marginal reading T Tr WH ); Luke 15:13-15; Luke 19:12; Acts 13:49; with a genitive of the name of the region added: Τραχωνίτιδος, Luke 3:1; τῆς Ἰουδαίας, Acts 26:20; ((or an equivalent adjective)) Γαλατικη, Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23; τῶν Ἰουδαίων, Acts 10:39; plural τῆς Ἰουδαίας καί Σαμαρείας (A. V. regions), Acts 8:1; ἐν χώρα καί σκιά θανάτου, in a region of densest darkness (see σκιά , a), Matthew 4:16; τίνος, the country of one, Matthew 2:12; χώρα for its inhabitants, Mark 1:5; Acts 12:20; the (rural) region environing a city or village, the country, Luke 2:8; Γεργεσηνῶν, Γερασηνῶν, Γαδαρηνῶν, Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26; the region with towns and villages which surrounds the metropolis, John 11:55.TGL χώρα.4

    3. land which is plowed or cultivated, ground: Luke 12:16; plural, Luke 21:21 (R. V. country); John 4:35 (A. V. fields); James 5:4 (A. V. fields). (Synonym: see τόπος , at the end.)TGL χώρα.5


    (5562) χωρέω, χώρω; future infinitive χωρήσειν (John 21:25 Tr WH ); 1 aorist ἐχώρησα; (χῶρος, a place, space, and this from ΧΑΩ, cf. χώρα );TGL χωρέω.2

    1. properly, to leave a space (which may be occupied or filled by another), to make room, give place, yield (Homer , Iliad 12, 406; 16, 592; others); to retire, pass: of a thing, εἰς τί, Matthew 15:17. metaphorically, to betake oneself, turn oneself: εἰς μετνοιαν, 2 Peter 3:9 (A. V. come; cf. μετάνοια , p. 406a).TGL χωρέω.3

    2. to go forward, advance, proceed (properly, νύξ, Aeschylus Pers. 384); to make progress, gain ground, succeed (Plato , Eryx., p. 398 b.; legg. 3, p. 684 e.; (χωρεῖ τό κακόν, Aristophanes nub. 907, vesp. 1483; others); Polybius 10, 35, 4; 28, 15, 12; others): λόγος ἐμός οὐ χωρεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, gaineth no ground among you or within you (R. V. hath not free course (with marginal reading hath no place) in you), John 8:37 (cf. Field, Otium Norv. pars 3:at the passage).TGL χωρέω.4

    3. to have space or room for receiving or holding something (German fassen); properly: τί, a thing to fill the vacant space, John 21:25 (not Tdf. ); of a space large enough to hold a certain number of people, Mark 2:2 (Genesis 13:6 (cf. Plutarch , praec. ger. reipub. 8, 5, p. 804 b.)); of measures, which hold a certain quantity, John ii 6; 1 Kings 7:24 (38); 2 Chronicles 4:5, and in Greek writings from Herodotus down. Metaphorically, to receive with the mind or understanding, to understand (τό Κατωνος φρωνημα, Plutarch , Cat. min. 64; ὅσον αὐτῷ ψυχή χωρεῖ, Aelian v. h. 3, 9); to be ready to receive, keep in mind, and practise: τόν λέγων τοῦτον, this saying, Matthew 19:11 ((cf. Plutarch , Lycurgus, 13, 5)); τινα, to receive one into one's heart, make room for one in one's heart, 2 Corinthians 7:2. (Compare: ἀναχωρέω, ἀποχωρέω, ἐκχωρέω, ὑποχωρέω. Synonym: cf. ἔρχομαι .)TGL χωρέω.5


    (5563) χωρίζω; future χωρίσω (Buttmann , 37 (33)); 1 aorist infinitive χωρίσαι; present middle χωρίζομαι; perfect passive participle κεχωρισμένος; 1 aorist passive ἐχωρίσθην; (χωρίς, which see); from Herodotus down; to separate, divide, part, put asunder: τί, opposed to συζεύγνυμι, Matthew 19:6; Mark 10:9; τινα ἀπό τίνος, Romans 8:35, Romans 8:39,(Wis. 1:3); perfect passive participle Hebrews 7:26. Middle and 1 aorist passive with a reflexive significance: to separate oneself from, to depart;TGL χωρίζω.2

    a. to leave a husband or wife: of divorce, 1 Corinthians 7:11, 1 Corinthians 7:15; ἀπό ἀνδρός, 1 Corinthians 7:10 (a woman κεχωρισμενη ἀπό τοῦ ἀνδρός, Polybius 32, 12, 6 (others)).TGL χωρίζω.3

    b. to depart, go away: (absolutely, Philemon 1:15 (euphemism for ἔφυγε), R. V. was parted from thee); followed by ἀπό with a genitive of the place, Acts 1:4; ἐκ with a genitive of the place, Acts 18:1. ((Winer 's Grammar, § 36, 6 a.); εἰς with an accusative of the place, 2 Macc. 5:21 2Macc. 12:12; Polybius , Diodorus , others). (Compare: ἀποχωρίζω, διαχωρίζω.)TGL χωρίζω.4

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