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    κἀγώ — καταγγελεύς


    (2504) κἀγώ (so the recent editions usually (in opposed to the κἀγώ etc. of Griesbach, et al., cf. Herm. Vig., p. 526; Winer s Grammar, § 5, 4 a.; Lipsius , Gram. Untersuch., p. 4; cf. Iota)) (by crasis from καί ἐγώ (retained e. g. in Matthew 26:15 T ; Luke 2:48 WH ; Luke 16:9 T Tr WH ; Acts 10:26 T Tr WH ; Acts 26:29 WH , etc.; cf. Buttmann , 10; Winer s Grammar, § 5, 3; WH s Appendix, p. 145; especially Tdf. Proleg., p. 96f), for the first time in Homer , Iliad 21, 108 (variant, cf. Odyssey 20, 296 variant (h. Merc. 17, 3); cf. Ebeling, Lex. Homer , p. 619)), dative κἀμοί (καί ἐμοί Acts 10:28 R G ), accusative κἀμέ;TGL κἀγώ.2

    1. and I, the καί simply connecting: John 10:21, etc.; and I (together), Luke 2:48; distributively, and I (in like manner): John 6:56; John 15:4; John 17:26; and I (on the other hand), James 2:18 (καγο ἔργα ἔχω); Luke 22:29; Acts 22:19; and I (indeed), John 6:57; Romans 11:3. at the beginning of a period, Latinet equidem , and I (to speak of myself): John 1:31, John 1:33; John 12:32; 1 Corinthians 2:1; with the καί used consecutively (see under καί , I. 2 d.), cf. our and so: Matthew 11:28; John 20:15; Acts 22:13; 2 Corinthians 6:17; κἀγώ... καί, both... and: κἀμέ οἴδατε, καί οἴδατε πόθεν εἰμί, both me (my person) and my origin, John 7:28.TGL κἀγώ.3

    2. "I also; I as well; I likewise; in like manner I:" so that one puts himself on a level with others, Matthew 2:8; Matthew 10:32; Luke 11:9; Luke 16:9; John 15:9,(John 15:10 Tdf. ); John 17:18; Acts 10:26; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 2 Corinthians 11:16, 2 Corinthians 11:18, 2 Corinthians 11:21; in the second member of a comparison, after ὁποῖος, ὡς, καθώς, Acts 26:29; 1 Corinthians 7:8; 1 Corinthians 11:1; Revelation 2:28 (Revelation 2:27); see under καί , II. 1 a. with a suppression of the mention of those with whom the writer compares himself: Ephesians 1:15 (as well as others); 1 Thessalonians 3:5 (as well as my companions at Athens; cf. Lünemann at the passage). κἀμοί: Luke 1:3; Acts 8:19; 1 Corinthians 15:8; κἀμέ: 1 Corinthians 16:4. equivalent to I in turn: Matthew 16:18; Matthew 21:24; Luke 20:3; Galatians 6:14.TGL κἀγώ.4

    3. even I, this selfsame I, the καί pointing the statement: Romans 3:7; cf. Herm. ad Vig. , p. 835.TGL κἀγώ.5


    (2505) καθά, adverb for καθ' , according as, just as: Matthew 27:10. (Xenophon , Polybius , Diodorus , others; O. T. Apocrypha; the Sept. for כַּאֲשֶׁר, Genesis 7:9, Genesis 7:16, etc., and for כְּ, Genesis 19:8; Exodus 12:35, etc.)TGL καθά.2


    (2506) καθαίρεσις, καθαιρεσεως, (καθαιρέω, which see), a pulling down, destruction, demolition: ὀχυρωμάτων (A. V. of strongholds), 2 Corinthians 10:4 (τῶν τειχῶν, Xenophon , Hell. 2, 2, 15; 5, 1, 35; Polybius 23, 7, 6; Diodorus excerpt. leg. 13; destructio murorum, Suetonius , Galba 12); εἰς οἰκοδομήν καί οὐκ εἰς καθαίρεσιν ὑμῶν, for building up (increasing) not for casting down (the extinction of) the godly, upright, blessed life you lead in fellowship with Christ (see οἰκοδομή , 1): 2 Corinthians 10:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10. (From Thucydides down.)TGL καθαίρεσις.2


    (2507) καθαιρέω, καθαίρω; future καθελῶ (Luke 12:18 (see ἀφαιρέω , at the beginning)); 2 aorist καθεῖλον (from the obsolete έ῾λω); present passive καθαιροῦμαι; from Homer down; the Sept. for הורִיד, to cause to go down; הָרַס, נָתַץ, פָּרַץ;TGL καθαιρέω.2

    1. to take down: without the notion of violence, τινα, to detach from the cross one crucified, Mark 15:36, Mark 15:46; Luke 23:53 (Polybius 1, 86, 6; Philo in Flacc. § 10); τινα ἀπό τοῦ ξύλου, Acts 13:23 (the Sept. Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:27); with the use of force, to throw down, cast down: τινα ἀπό θρόνου, Luke 1:52.TGL καθαιρέω.3

    2. to pull down, demolish: τάς ἀποθήκας, opposed to οἰκοδομεῖν, Luke 12:18; λογισμούς, the (subtle) reasonings (of opponents) likened to fortresses, equivalent to to refute, 2 Corinthians 10:4 (5); to destroy, ἔθνη, Acts 13:19 (Jeremiah 24:6; Thucydides 1, 4; Aelian v. h. 2, 25); τήν μεγαλειότητα τίνος, Acts 19:27, where if preference is given (with L T Tr WH ) to the reading τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς, it must be taken as a partitive genitive somewhat of her magnificence; cf. Buttmann , 158 (138) note (so Meyer; cf. Xenophon , Hell. 4, 4, 13. Al. translate that she should even be deposed from her magnificence; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 6; Buttmann , § 132, 5).TGL καθαιρέω.4


    (2508) καθαίρω; perfect passive participle κεκαθαρμενος; (καθαρός); to cleanse, properly, from filth, impurity, etc.; trees and vines (from useless shoots), to prune, John 15:2 (δένδρα... ὑποτεμνομενα καθαίρεται, Philo de agric. § 2 (cf. de somniis ii. § 9 middle)); metaphorically, from guilt, to expiate: passive Hebrews 10:2 R G (see καθαρίζω , at the beginning) (Jeremiah 13:27; and so in Greek writings from Herodotus down). (Compare: διακαθαίρω, ἐκκαθαίρω.)TGL καθαίρω.2


    (2509) καθάπερ (καθ' ἅπερ), according as, just as, even as, (("καθά marking the comparison, περ (akin to the preposition περί) the latitude of the application"): Romans 9:13 WH text; Romans 10:15 WH text; also) Romans 11:8 and 1 Corinthians 10:10 in T Tr WH ; 2 Corinthians 3:13, 2 Corinthians 3:18 (here WH marginal reading καθώσπερ); 1 Thessalonians 2:11; καθάπερ καί, Romans 4:6; 2 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 3:6, 1 Thessalonians 3:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:5; Hebrews 4:2, and R G in Hebrews 5:4; καθάπερ followed by οὕτω (or οὕτως), Romans 12:4; 1 Corinthians 12:12; 2 Corinthians 8:11. ((From Aristophanes down); the Sept. for כַּאֲשֶׁר, Exodus 7:6, Exodus 7:10.)TGL καθάπερ.2


    (2510) καθάπτω: 1 aorist καθηψα;TGL καθάπτω.2

    1. to fit or fasten to, bind on.TGL καθάπτω.3

    2. to lay hold of, fasten on (hostilely): τῆς χειρός αὐτοῦ, Acts 28:3 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 257 (241)); τοῦ τραχήλου, Epictetus diss. 3, 20, 10. (In middle from Homer down (with the genitive from Herodotus on).)TGL καθάπτω.4


    (2511) καθαρίζω (Hellenistic for καθαίρω, which classic writings use); Attic future (cf. Buttmann , 37 (32); Winer s Grammar, § 13, 1 c.; WH 's Appendix, p. 163) καθαριῶ (Hebrews 9:14); 1 aorist ἐκαθάρισα (see below); present passive καθαρίζομαι; 1 aorist passive ἐκαθαρίσθην; perfect passive participle κεκαθαρισμενος (Hebrews 10:2 T Tr WH ; on the forms ἐκαθερισθη, T WH in Matthew 8:3; Mark 1:42 (ἐκαθερισεν, Tr in Acts 10:15; Acts 11:9) and κεκαθερισμενος Lachmann in Hebrews 10:2, cf. (Tdf. Proleg., p. 82; WH 's Appendix, p. 150); Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 118; Delitzsch on Hebrews 10:2; Krüger , Part ii. § 2, 2, 6, p. 4; (Buttmann , 29 (25f); Winer 's Grammar, 43)); (καθαρός; the Sept. mostly for טִהַר;TGL καθαρίζω.2

    1. to make clean, to cleanse;TGL καθαρίζω.3

    a. from physical stains and dirt: e. g. utensils, Matthew 23:25 (figuratively, Matthew 23:26); Luke 11:39; food, Mark 7:19; τινα, a leper, to cleanse by curing, Matthew 8:2; Matthew 10:8; Matthew 11:5; Mark 1:40-42; Luke 4:27; Luke 5:12; Luke 7:22; Luke 17:14, Luke 17:17 (Leviticus 14:8); to remove by cleansing: λέπρα ἐκαθαρίσθη, Matthew 8:3 (καθαριεῖς τό αἷμα τό ἀναίτιον ἐξ Ἰσραήλ, Deuteronomy 19:13; ἐκαθαριζε τήν περί ταῦτα συνήθειαν, the custom of marrying heathen women, Josephus , Antiquities 11, 5, 4; καθαιρεῖν αἷμα, Homer , Iliad 16, 667; cf. ἐκκαθαίρω ).TGL καθαρίζω.4

    b. in a moral sense;TGL καθαρίζω.5

    α. to free from the defilement of sin and from faults; to purify from wickedness: ἑαυτόν ἀπό μολυσμοῦ σαρκός, 2 Corinthians 7:1; τῇ πίστει τάς καρδίας, Acts 15:9 (καρδίαν ἀπό ἁμαρτίας, Sir. 38:10); τάς χεῖρας, to abstain in future from wrong-doing, James 4:8.TGL καθαρίζω.6

    β. to free from the guilt of sin, to purify: τινα ἀπό πάσης ἁμαρτίας, 1 John 1:7; (τινα ἀπό πάσης ἀδικίας, 1 John 1:9); τήν συνείδησιν ἀπό νεκρῶν ἔργων, Hebrews 9:14; τήν ἐκκλησίαν τῷ λουτρῷ τοῦ ὕδατος (instrumental dative), Ephesians 5:26; λαόν ἑαυτῷ, Titus 2:14.TGL καθαρίζω.7

    γ. to consecrate by cleansing or purifying: τί ἐν τίνι, dative of instrumentality (Winer 's Grammar, 388 (363)), Hebrews 9:22; equivalent to to consecrate, dedicate, τί τίνι (dative of instrumentality), ibid. 23.TGL καθαρίζω.8

    2. to pronounce clean in a levitical sense: Acts 10:15; Acts 11:9 (Leviticus 13:13, Leviticus 13:17, Leviticus 13:23, Leviticus 13:28). (Compare: διακαθαρίζω.)TGL καθαρίζω.9


    (2512) καθαρισμός, καθαρισμοῦ, (καθαρίζω), a cleansing, purification; a ritual purgation or washing (Vulg. purgatio, pnrifcatio, emundatio ): used with a genitive of the subjunctive, τῶν Ἰουδαίων, of the washings of the Jews before and after their meals, John 2:6; without a genitive, of baptism (a symbol of moral cleansing), John 3:25; with a genitive of the object, and that a person — of the levitical purification of women after childbirth, Luke 2:22; and of lepers, Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; with a genitive of the thing, ἁμαρτιῶν or ἁμαρτημάτων, a cleansing from the guilt of sins (see καθαρίζω , 1 b. β.): wrought now by baptism, 2 Peter 1:9, now by the expiatory sacrifice of Christ, Hebrews 1:3 on which cf. Kurtz, Commentary, p. 70; (Exodus 30:10; τῆς ἁμαρτίας μου, Job 7:21; of an atonement, Lucian , asin. 22).TGL καθαρισμός.2


    (2513) καθαρός, καθαρά, καθαρόν; (akin to Latincastus, incestus , English chaste, chasten; Curtius , § 26; Vanicek , p. 177); from Homer down; the Sept. mostly for טָהור; clean, pure (free from the admixture or adhesion of anything that soils, adulterates, corrupts);TGL καθαρός.2

    a. physically: Matthew 23:26; Matthew 27:59; Hebrews 10:22 (23); Revelation 15:6; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14, and Rec. in Revelation 22:1; χρυσίον, purified by fire, Revelation 21:18, Revelation 21:21; in a similitude, like a vine cleansed by pruning and so fitted to bear fruit, John 15:3; λελουμένος... καθαρός ὅλος (where the idea winch Christ expresses figuratively is as follows: 'he whose inmost nature has been renovated does not need radical renewal, but only to be cleansed from every several fault into which he may fall through contact with the unrenewed world'), John 13:10.TGL καθαρός.3

    b. in a levitical sense; clean, i. e. the use of which is not forbidden, imparts no uncleanness: πάντα καθαρά, Romans 14:20; Titus 1:15.TGL καθαρός.4

    c. ethically; free from corrupt desire, from sin and guilt: Titus 1:15; ὑμεῖς καθαροί, John 13:10 (11); οἱ καθαροί τῇ καρδία (as respects heart (Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 6 a.)), Matthew 5:8 (καθαρός χεῖρας, Herodotus 1, 35; κατά τό σῶμα καί κατά τήν ψυχήν, Plato , Crat., p. 405 b.); free from every admixture of what is false, sincere, ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας, 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22, and R G in 1 Peter 1:22; ἐν καθαρά συνειδήσει, 1 Timothy 3:9; 2 Timothy 1:3; genuine (joined with ἀμίαντος) θρησκεία, James 1:27; blameless, innocent, Acts 18:6. Hebraistically with the addition of ἀπό τίνος, pure from, i. e. unstained with the guilt of, anything (Winer s Grammar, § 30, 6 a.; Buttmann , 157f (137f)): ἀπό τοῦ αἵματος, Acts 20:26; Susanna 46 Alex. , cf. Genesis 24:8; Tobit 3:14; καθαρᾶς ἔχειν τάς χεῖρας ἀπό τοῦ φόνου, Josephus , Antiquities 4, 8, 16; in classical Greek with a simple genitive, as φόνου, Plato , legg. 9, p. 864 e.; cf. Passow , under the word, p. 1528{a}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, 3); Kühner, § 421, 4 ii., p. 344.TGL καθαρός.5

    d. in a levitical and ethical sense: πάντα καθαρά ὑμῖν, Luke 11:41, on which see ἔνειμι . (Synonym: see εἰλικρινής ; cf. Westcott on 1 John 3:3.)TGL καθαρός.6


    (2514) καθαρότης, καθαροτητος, (καθαρός), cleanness, purity; in a levitical sense, τίνος, Hebrews 9:13. (Xenophon , mem. 2, 1, 22; Plato , others.)TGL καθαρότης.2


    (2515) καθέδρα, καθέδρας, (κατά and ἕδρα), a chair, seat: Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15 (Sir. 12:12; Herodian , 2, 3, 17 (7 edition, Bekker)); of the exalted seat occupied by men of eminent rank or influence, as teachers and judges: ἐπί τῆς Μωϋσέως καθέδρας ἐκάθισαν, sit on the seat which Moses formerly occupied, i. e. bear themselves as Moses' successors in explaining and defending his law, Matthew 23:2. (the Sept. for מושָׁב and שֶׁבֶת. (Xenophon , Aristotle , others.))TGL καθέδρα.2


    (2516) καθέζομαι; imperfect ἐκαθεζόμην; (from Homer down); to sit down, seat oneself, sit: John 20:12; followed by ἐν with the dative of place, Matthew 26:55; Luke 2:46; John 11:20; Acts 6:15; followed by ἐπί with the genitive, Acts 20:9 L T Tr WH ; by ἐπί with the dative, John 4:6; ἐκεῖ, John 6:3 Tdf. ; (οὗ where, Acts 2:2 Lachmann Cf. Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 336f; Buttmann , 56 (49); 60 (52). Compare: παρακαθέζομαι.)TGL καθέζομαι.2


    (2517) καθεξῆς (κατά and ἑξῆς, which see), adverb, one after another, successively, in order: Luke 1:3; Acts 11:4; Acts 18:23; τῶν καθεξῆς those that follow after, Acts 3:24 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 633 (588)); ἐν τῷ καθεξῆς namely, χρόνῳ (R. V. soon afterward), Luke 8:1. (Aelian v. h. 8, 7; Plutarch , symp. 1, 1, 5; in earlier Greek ἑξῆς and ἐφεξῆς are more usual.)TGL καθεξῆς.2


    (2518) καθεύδω; imperfect 3 person plural ἐκάθευδον; from Homer down; the Sept. mostly for שָׁכַב;TGL καθεύδω.2

    1. to fall asleep, to drop off to sleep: Matthew 25:5.TGL καθεύδω.3

    2. to sleep;TGL καθεύδω.4

    a. properly: Matthew 8:24; Matthew 9:24 (on this and its parallels, cf. B. D. American edition, p. 1198{a}); Matthew 13:25; Matthew 26:40,Matthew 26:43,Matthew 26:45; Mark 4:27, Mark 4:38; Mark 5:39; Mark 13:36; Mark 14:37, Mark 14:40; Luke 8:52; Luke 22:46; 1 Thessalonians 5:7.TGL καθεύδω.5

    b. euphemistically, to be dead: 1 Thessalonians 5:10; (Psalms 87:6 (Psalms 88:6); Daniel 12:2).TGL καθεύδω.6

    c. metaphorically, to yield to sloth and sin, and be indifferent to one's salvation: Ephesians 5:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:6.TGL καθεύδω.7


    (2519) καθηγητής, καθηγητου, (καθηγέομαι to go before, lead);TGL καθηγητής.2

    a. properly, a guide: Numen. quoted in Ath. 7, p. 313 d.TGL καθηγητής.3

    b. a master, teacher: Matthew 23:8 R G , Matthew 23:10. (Dionysius Halicarnassus jud. de Thucydides 3, 4; several times in Plutarch (cf. Wetstein (1752) on Matthew, the passage cited.))TGL καθηγητής.4


    (2520) καθήκω; (from Aeschylus , Sophocles down);TGL καθήκω.2

    1. to come down.TGL καθήκω.3

    2. to come to, reach to; impersonally, καθήκει, it is becoming, it is fit (cf. German zukommen), Ezekiel 21:27; οὐ καθῆκεν (Rev. καθῆκον), followed by the accusative with an infinitive, Acts 22:22 (Winer s Grammar, 282 (265); Buttmann , 217 (187)); τά μή καθήκοντα, things not fitting, i. e. forbidden, shameful, Romans 1:28; Romans 2:1-29 Macc. 6:4. Cf. ἀνήκω .TGL καθήκω.4


    (2521) κάθημαι, 2 person singular κάθῃ a later form for κάθησαι (Acts 23:3), imperative κάθου for κάθησο (yet cf. Kühner, as below) (cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 359; Krüger , § 38, 6f i., p. 147; Kühner, § 301 i., p. 671; Winer s Grammar, § 14, 4; (Buttmann , 49 (42))) (subjunctive 2 person plural κάθησθε, Luke 22:30 Tr marginal reading; but WH text κάθησθε; see Veitch , under the word; Krüger , § 38, 6, 1 (cf. καθίζω ), infinitive καθῆσθαι, participle καθήμενος); imperfect ἐκαθήμην; and once the rare (cf. Veitch , p. 347) future καθήσομαι, Luke 22:30 T Tr text WH marginal reading (so WH in Matthew 19:28 also; cf. καθίζω , at the end); (ἧμαι); a verb of which only the present and imperfect are in use in classical Greek (cf. Buttmann , 60 (52)); the Sept. for יָשַׁב;TGL κάθημαι.2

    1. to sit down, seat oneself: followed by ἐν with the dative of place (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 52, 4, 9), Mark 4:1; Luke 22:55 (here T Tr WH μέσος); εἰς, Mark 13:3 (Buttmann , § 147, 16); μετά with the genitive of person, Matthew 26:58; κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, i. e. be a partner of my power, Matthew 22:44; Mark 12:36 (Tr text WH marginal reading κάθισον); Luke 20:42; Acts 2:34; Hebrews 1:13 (Psalms 109:1 (Psalms 110:1)); κάθου ὧδε ὑπό with the accusative, James 2:3. παρά with the accusative of place, Matthew 13:1; ἐπάνω with the genitive of place, Matthew 28:2; with ἐκεῖ, Matthew 15:29; John 6:3 (Tdf. ἐκαθέζετο); the place to be supplied from the context, Matthew 13:2.TGL κάθημαι.3

    2. to sit, be seated, of a place occupied: followed by ἐν with the dative of place (Winer 's Grammar, as under 1), Matthew 11:16; Matthew 26:69; ἐν τῇ δεξιά τοῦ Θεοῦ, Colossians 3:1; ἐν τοῖς δεξιοῖς, Mark 16:5; ἐπί τίνος, Matthew 24:3; Matthew 27:19; (Acts 20:9 R G ); ἐπί τοῦ θρόνου (but also, especially in the critical editions, with the dative and the accusative (see below); cf. Alford on the following passages), Revelation 4:2 etc.; τῆς νεφέλης (or with the accusative), Revelation 14:15, and in other examples; ἐπί τίνι, Acts 3:10; ἐπί τί (cf. Buttmann , 338 (291)), Matthew 9:9; Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27; John 12:15; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2 (R dative (as in the following)) Revelation 6:4; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 17:3; Revelation 19:11; παρά τήν ὁδόν, Matthew 20:30; Mark 10:46; Luke 18:35; πρός τό φῶς, Luke 22:56; ἐπάνω τίνος, Matthew 23:22; Revelation 6:8; περί τινα, Mark 3:32, Mark 3:34; ἀπέναντι τίνος, Matthew 27:61; ἐκ δεξιῶν τίνος, Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62; Luke 22:69; ἐκεῖ, Mark 2:6; οὗ, where, Acts 2:2 (L καθεζόμενοι); Revelation 17:15; without specification of place, Mark 5:15; Luke 5:17; Luke 8:35; John 2:14; John 9:8; 1 Corinthians 14:30. κάθημαι as descriptive of a certain state or condition is used of those who sit in discharging their office, as judges, κάθῃ κρίνων, Acts 23:3; of a queen, equivalent to to occupy the throne, to reign (A. V. I sit a queen), Revelation 18:7; of money-changers, John 2:14; of mourners and penitents: ἐν σάκκῳ, clothed in sackcloth, ἐν σποδῷ, covered with ashes, Luke 10:13; of those who, enveloped in darkness, cannot walk about, Matthew 4:16; Luke 1:79 (Isaiah 42:7); of a lame man, Acts 14:8. equivalent to to have a fixed abode, to dwell: ἐπί πρόσωπον τῆς γῆς, Luke 21:35; Revelation 14:6 (where Rec. κατοικοῦντας); ἐπί θρόνον, Revelation 20:11 G T (WH marginal reading; but see above); ἐν Ἱερουσαλήμ, Nehemiah 11:6; (ἐν ὄρει Σαμαρείας, Sir. 50:26. Compare: συγκάθημαι).TGL κάθημαι.4

    καθημέρανκαθημέραν, equivalent to καθ' ἡμέραν, see ἡμέρα , 2, p. 278{a}.TGL κάθημαι.5


    (2522) καθημερινός, καθημερινῇ, καθημερινον (from καθ' ἡμέραν), daily: Acts 6:1. (Judith 12:15; Theophrastus , Athen. , Plutarch , Alciphron , epistles 1:5;. Josephus , Antiquities 3, 10, 1; (11, 7, 1); Polyaen. 4, 2, 10.) Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 53 ((yet see Liddell and Scott); W, 25 (25f)).TGL καθημερινός.2


    (2523) καθίζω; future καθίσω (Buttmann , 37 (32)); 1 aorist ἐκάθισα (impv. 2 singular κάθισον once, Mark 12:36 Tr text WH marginal reading); perfect κεκαθικα (Mark 11:2 (not WH Tr marginal reading; Hebrews 12:2 L T Tr WH ; a late form, see Veitch , under the word)); 1 aorist middle subjunctive 2 person plural καθίσησθε (Luke 22:30 Rec. ); future middle καθίσομαι; from Homer down; (cf. Buttmann , 60 (52));TGL καθίζω.2

    1. transitive, to make to sit down (κατά; which see III. 1), to set, appoint; the Sept. for הושִׁיב: τινα ἐπί θρόνου (L T Tr WH τόν θρόνον), to confer the kingdom upon one, Acts 2:30; τινα ἐν δεξιά αὐτοῦ, Ephesians 1:20; τινα, to appoint one to act as judge, 1 Corinthians 6:4 (δικαστήν, Plato , legg. 9, p. 873 e.; Polybius 40, 5, 3; συνέδριον κριτῶν, Josephus , Antiquities 20, 9, 1).TGL καθίζω.3

    2. intransitive; the Sept. for יָשַׁב;TGL καθίζω.4

    a. to sit down; universally, Matthew 5:1; Matthew 13:48; Mark 9:35; Luke 4:20; Luke 5:3; Luke 14:28, Luke 14:31; Luke 16:6; John 8:2; Acts 13:14; Acts 16:13; with a telic infinitive 1 Corinthians 10:7; with specification of the place or seat: ἐν δεξιά τίνος, Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 12:2; ἐπί τίνι, Mark 11:7 (Rec. ); εἰς τόν ναόν, 2 Thessalonians 2:4 (Buttmann , § 147, 16; Winer 's Grammar, 415 (386)); ἐπί with the accusative (cf. Buttmann , 338 (290)), Revelation 20:4; John 12:14; Mark 11:2 (7 L T Tr WH ); Luke 19:30; (add Acts 2:3, see Buttmann , § 129, 17; Winer 's Grammar, 516 (481)); ἐπί τοῦ βήματος, of a judge, John 19:13; Acts 12:21; Acts 25:6, Acts 25:17; κατέναντι (or ἀπέναντι Tr etc.) τίνος, Mark 12:41; with adverbs of place, Mark 14:32; Matthew 26:36.TGL καθίζω.5

    b. to sit: (absolutely (of a dead man restored to life) ἐκάθισεν sat, sat up, Luke 7:15 L marginal reading WH marginal reading); ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ, Revelation 3:21; ἐπί with the genitive of the seat, Matthew 23:2; Matthew 25:31; ἐκ δεξιῶν σου καί εἷς ἐξ εὐωνύμων σου, Matthew 20:21, Matthew 20:23; Mark 10:37, Mark 10:40. equivalent to to have fixed one's abode, i. e. to sojourn (cf. our settle, settle down), Acts 18:11; followed by ἐν with the dative of place, Luke 24:49 (here A. V. tarry) (Exodus 16:29; Jeremiah 30:11 (Jeremiah 49:33); (Nehemiah 11:25)). Middle (passive? cf. Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 336f) to sit: ἐπί θρόνων, Luke 22:30 (R G L : see κάθημαι ); ἐπί θρόνους, Matthew 19:28 (WH καθήσεσθε; see κάθημαι . Compare: ἀνακαθίζω, ἐπικαθίζω, παρακαθίζω, περικαθίζω, συγκαθίζω.)TGL καθίζω.6


    (2524) καθίημι: 1 aorist καθῆκα; (from Homer on); to send down, let down: εἰς, Luke 5:19; διά with the genitive of place, ibid. and Acts 9:25; present passive participle καθιεμενος let down, ἐπί τῆς γῆς, Acts 10:11; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Acts 11:5.TGL καθίημι.2


    (2525) καθίστημι (also καθιστάω, whence the participle καθιστῶντες Acts 17:15 R G ; and καθιστάνω, whence καθιστάνοντες Acts 17:15 L T Tr WH ; see ἵστημι , at the beginning); future καταστήσω; 1 aorist κατέστησα; passive, present καθισταμαι; 1 aorist κατεστάθην; 1 future κατασταθήσομαι; the Sept. for הֵשִׂים, הֵקִים, הִפְקִיד, הִתְיַצֵּב, הֶעֱמִיד, נָתַן; (properly, to set down, put down), to set, place, put:TGL καθίστημι.2

    a. τινα ἐπί τίνος, to set one over a thing (in charge of it), Matthew 24:45; Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23; Luke 12:42; Acts 6:3; also ἐπί τίνι, Matthew 24:47; Luke 12:44; ἐπί τί, Hebrews 2:7 Rec. from Psalms 8:7.TGL καθίστημι.3

    b. τινα, to appoint one to administer an office (cf. German bestellen): πρεσβυτέρους, Titus 1:5; τινα εἰς τό with an infinitive, to appoint to do something, Hebrews 8:3; τά πρός τόν Θεόν to conduct the worship of God, Hebrews 5:1; followed by ἵνα, ibid.; τινα with a predicate accusative indicating the office to be administered (to make one so and so; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 32, 4b.; Buttmann , § 131, 7) (so very often in Greek writings from Herodotus down), Luke 12:14; Acts 7:10, Acts 7:27, Acts 7:35; Hebrews 7:28.TGL καθίστημι.4

    c. "to set down as, constitute (Latinsisto ), equivalent to to declare, show to be": passive with ἁμαρτωλός, δίκαιος, Romans 5:19 (cf. Prof. T. Dwight in New Englander for 1867, p. 590ff; Dietzsch, Adam u. Christus (Bonn, 1871), p. 188).TGL καθίστημι.5

    d. "to constitute (Latinsisto ) equivalent to to render, make, cause to be": τινα οὐκ ἀργόν, οὐδέ ἀκαρπον, i. e. (by litotes) laborious and fruitful, 2 Peter 1:8.TGL καθίστημι.6

    e. to conduct or bring to a certain place: τινα, Acts 17:15 (2 Chronicles 28:15 for הֵבִיא; Joshua 6:23; 1 Samuel 5:3; Homer , Odyssey 13, 274; Xenophon , an. 4, 8, 8 and in other secular authors).TGL καθίστημι.7

    f. Middle to show or exhibit oneself; come forward as: with a predicate nominative, James 4:4; γλῶσσα... σπιλοῦσα, James 3:6. (Compare: ἀντικαθίστημι, ἀποκαθίστημι.)TGL καθίστημι.8


    (2526) καθό (i. e. καθ' ), adverb (from Lysias , and Plato down), according to what, i. e.:TGL καθό.2

    1. as: Romans 8:26.TGL καθό.3

    2. according as; in so far as, so far forth as: 1 Peter 4:13 (Rec.elz καθώς); 2 Corinthians 8:12 (Winer s Grammar, 307 (288); cf. Buttmann , § 139, 30).TGL καθό.4


    (2527) καθόλου (i. e. καθ' ὅλου ( as it is written in authors before Aristotle (Liddell and Scott))), adverb, wholly, entirely, at all: Acts 4:18. ((Exodus 22:11); Ezekiel 13:3, Ezekiel 13:22; Amos 3:3, Amos 3:4; Xenophon , Plato , Demosthenes , Aristotle , and following.)TGL καθόλου.2


    (2528) καθοπλίζω: perfect passive participle καθωπλισμένος; "to arm (fully (cf. κατά , III. 1 at the end)), furnish with arms": Luke 11:21. (Xenophon , Plutarch , and others; the Sept. .)TGL καθοπλίζω.2


    (2529) καθοράω, καθόρω:TGL καθοράω.2

    1. to look down, see from above, view from on high (Homer , Herodotus , Xenophon , Plato , others).TGL καθοράω.3

    2. "to see thoroughly (cf. κατά , III. 1 at the end), perceive clearly, understand" (German erschauen): present passive 3 person singular καθορᾶται, Romans 1:20 (3Macc. 3:11, and often in classical Greek). Cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, i., p. 61.TGL καθοράω.4


    (2530) καθότι (i. e. καθ' τί), according to what, i. e.TGL καθότι.2

    1. so far as, according as: Acts 2:45; Acts 4:35 (Polybius 18, 19 (36), 5; for כַּאֲשֶׁר, Exodus 1:12, Exodus 1:17))TGL καθότι.3

    2. because that, because (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 8): Luke 1:7; Luke 19:9; Acts 2:24, and L T Tr WH (for Rcc. διότι) in Acts 17:31 (Tobit 1:12 Tobit 13:4; Polybius 18, 21 (38),6).TGL καθότι.4

    3. as, just as: Baruch 6 (Epistle Jer.) Baruch 6:1; Judith 2:13, 15 Judith 10:9, and often in Thucydides , et al.TGL καθότι.5


    (2531) καθώς (i. e. καθ' ὡς), a particle found occasionally in secular authors from Aristotle down for the Attic καθά and καθό, but emphatically censured by Phryn. and the Atticists; cf. Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 74ff; Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 425f; (Winer 's Grammar, 26 (25));TGL καθώς.2

    1. according as, just as, even as: in the first member of a comparison, Luke 6:31; 1 John 2:27; followed by οὕτως in the second member (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 5), Luke 11:30; Luke 17:26; John 3:14; 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 10:7; Colossians 3:13; 1 John 2:6; followed by καί also, John 15:9; John 17:18; John 20:21; 1 John 2:18; 1 John 4:17; 1 Corinthians 15:49; it is annexed to preceding words after the demonstrative οὕτως, Luke 24:24; with οὕτως unexpressed, Matthew 21:6; Matthew 28:6; Mark 16:7; Luke 1:2, Luke 1:55, Luke 1:70; Luke 11:1; John 1:23; John 5:23; Acts 10:47 (here L T Tr WH ὡς); Acts 15:8; Romans 1:13; Romans 15:7; 1 Corinthians 8:2; 1 Corinthians 10:6; 2 Corinthians 1:14; 2 Corinthians 9:3; 2 Corinthians 11:12; Ephesians 4:17, and often; καθώς διδάσκω, agreeably to my method of teaching, 1 Corinthians 4:17; καθώς γέγραπται, Matthew 26:24; Mark 9:13; Acts 7:42; Acts 15:15; Romans 1:17, and often in Paul; the apodosis lacking, and to be gathered from the context: καθώς παρεκάλεσα σε... ἐν πίστει, namely, οὕτω καί νῦν παρακαλῶ, 1 Timothy 1:3, cf. Winer s Grammar, 570 (530); (Buttmann , 386 (331)); ἤρξατο αἰτεῖσθαι (namely, οὕτω ποιεῖν αὐτοῖς), καθώς κτλ.. Mark 15:8 (Buttmann , § 151, 23 b.; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 584 (543f)); in comparison by contrary we find the negligent use: ἀγαπῶμεν ἀλληλου, οὐ καθώς Κάϊν κτλ., 1 John 3:11, cf. DeWette at the passage and Winer 's Grammar, 623 (579); οὗτος ἐστιν ἄρτος... οὐ καθώς etc., not such as they ate etc., John 6:58. with the verb εἰμί, equivalent to Latin qualis , such as, 1 John 3:2; in a parenthesis, 1 Thessalonians 2:13 (as it is in truth).TGL καθώς.3

    2. according as i. e. in proportion as, in the degree that: Mark 4:33; Acts 7:17 (cf. Meyer at the passage); Acts 11:29; 1 Corinthians 12:11, 1 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Peter 4:10.TGL καθώς.4

    3. since, seeing that, agreeably to the fact that (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 8; 448 (417)): John 17:2; Romans 1:28 (yet here others regard καθώς as corresponsive rather than causal or explanatory); 1 Corinthians 1:6; 1 Corinthians 5:7; Ephesians 1:4; Philippians 1:7.TGL καθώς.5

    4. it is put for the simple ὡς,TGL καθώς.6

    a. after verbs of speaking, in indirect discourse, Acts 15:14; it serves to add an epexegesis, 3 John 1:3 (to σου τῇ ἀλήθεια).TGL καθώς.7

    b. of time, when, after that (cf. Latin ut ): 2 Macc. 1:31; (Nehemiah 5:6); here many bring in Acts 7:17; but see 2 above.TGL καθώς.8


    (2532) καί, a conjunction, and; the most frequent by far of all the particles in the N. T. (On its uses see Winer s Grammar, § 53, 3ff; Buttmann , 361 (310ff), and cf. Ellicott on Philippians 4:12; on the difference between it and τέ see under the word τέ at the beginning)TGL καί.2

    I. It serves as a copulative i. e. to connect (Latin et, atque , German und);TGL καί.3

    1. it connects single words or terms:TGL καί.4

    a. universally, as οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί Σαδδουκαῖοι, Matthew 16:1; Θεός καί πατήρ, he who is God and Father (see Θεός , 3); ἐν καρδία καλή καί ἀγαθή, Luke 8:15; πολυμερῶς καί πολυτρόπως, Hebrews 1:1; it is repeated before single terms, to each of which its own force and weight is thus given: υἱοθεσία καί δόξα καί αἱ διαθῆκαι καί νομοθεσία καί λατρεία καί αἱ ἐπαγγελίαιt, Romans 9:4; ἁτια καί διακαια καί ἀγαθή, Romans 7:12; add, Matthew 23:23; Luke 14:21; John 16:8; Acts 15:20, Acts 15:29; Acts 21:25; Hebrews 9:10; Revelation 5:12; Revelation 18:12; cf. Winer s Grammar, 519f (484).TGL καί.5

    b. it connects numerals; and so that (contrary to the more common usage) the greater number precedes: δέκα καί ὀκτώ, Luke 13:4, Luke 13:11 (but in both passages, L and Tr brackets, WH omits καί; Tdf. δεκαοκτώ), 16; τεσσαράκοντα καί ἕξ, John 2:20; add, John 5:5 G T ; Acts 13:20; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 37, 4; (Lightfoot on Galatians 1:18; noteworthy also is its use in 2 Corinthians 13:1 (cf. Deuteronomy 19:15, the Sept. ) ἐπί στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καί τριῶν (in Matthew 18:16 τριῶν cf. Winer s Grammar, 440 (410) note) at the mouth of two witnesses and (should there be so many) of three; a similar use of καί, to lend a certain indefiniteness to the expression, occurs occasionally with other than numerical specifications, as James 4:13 σήμερον καί (Rst G ; but L T Tr WH ) αὔριον; cf. Kühner, § 521, 2; Ebeling, Lex. Homer , under the word, p. 614a).TGL καί.6

    c. it joins to partitive words the general notion; so that it is equivalent to and in general, and in a word, in short: Πέτρος καί οἱ ἀπόστολοι, Acts 5:29; οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς (καί οἱ πρεσβύτεροι Rec. ) καί τό συνέδριον ὅλον, Matthew 26:59; καί δικαιώμασι σαρκός, Hebrews 9:10 Rec. Tr brackets WH marginal reading; καί ἐπί τόν Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ, Galatians 6:16, and often in Greek writings; cf. Winer s Grammar, 437f (407); 520f (485); (Buttmann , 363 (311f); 400 (343)); with τέ preceding, τέ... αὐτοῦ δύναμις καί θειότης, Romans 1:20 (see τέ , 2 a.); and, on the other hand, it joins to a general idea something particular, which is already comprised indeed in that general notion but by this form of expression is brought out more emphatically (which Strabo 8 (1), p. 340 calls συνκαταλέγειν τό μέρος τῷ ὅλῳ); so that it is equivalent to and especially (cf. Winer 's Grammar, as above): τά πάντα καί τά τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, Matthew 8:33; τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ καί τῷ Πέτρῳ, Mark 16:7; αἱ φωναί αὐτῶν καί τῶν ἀρχιερέων, Luke 23:23 (R G ); σύν γυναιξί καί Μαριάμ, Acts 1:14; ἐν Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 1 Macc. 2:6; πᾶς Ιουδα καί Ἱερουσαλήμ, 2 Chronicles 35:24, cf. 2 Chronicles 32:33; often so in Greek writings also.TGL καί.7

    2. It connects clauses and sentences;TGL καί.8

    a. universally, as διακαθαριεῖ τήν ἅλωνα αὐτοῦ καί συνάξει τόν σῖτον κτλ., Matthew 3:12; εἰσῆλθον... καί ἐδίδασκον, Acts 5:21; and in innumerable other examplesTGL καί.9

    b. In accordance with the simplicity of the ancient popular speech, and especially of the Hebrew tongue, it links statement to statement, the logical relations of which the more cultivated language expresses either by more exact particles, or by the use of the participial or the relative construction (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 60, 3; Buttmann , 288 (248ff); 361f (310f)): e. g. that very frequent formula ἐγένετο... καί (see γίνομαι , 2 b.); καί εἶδον καί (equivalent to ὅτι) σεισμός ἐγένετο, Revelation 6:12; τέξεται υἱόν καί καλέσεις τό ὄνομα αὐτοῦ (equivalent to οὗ ὄνομα καλέσεις), Matthew 1:21; καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καί (equivalent to ὅθεν) ποιήσωμεν σκηνάς, Mark 9:5; clauses are thus connected together in clusters; as, Matthew 7:25, Matthew 7:27 (an example of six clauses linked together by καί); Matthew 14:9; Mark 1:12-14; Luke 18:32-34; John 2:13-16; John 10:3; 1 Corinthians 12:5-6; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:8, Revelation 6:12-16; Revelation 9:1-4 (where nine sentences are strung together by καί), etc. after a designation of time καί annexes what will be or was done at that time: ἤγγικεν ὥρα καί παραδίδοται κτλ., Matthew 26:45; ἦν δέ ὥρα τρίτῃ καί ἐσταύρωσαν αὐτόν, Mark 15:25; ἐγγύς ἦν τό πάσχα... καί ἀνέβη εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα Ἰησοῦς, John 2:13; ἡμέραι ἔρχονται καί συντελέσω, Hebrews 8:8; add, Luke 23:44; John 4:35; John 5:1; John 11:55; Acts 5:7; and not infrequent so in Greek writings, as ἤδη δέ ἦν ὀψέ καί οἱ Κορίνθιοι ἐξαπίνης πρυμναν ἀκρουοντο, Thucydides 1, 50; cf. Matthiae , § 620, 1 a., p. 1481; Winer s Grammar, 430 (405f); (Buttmann , 301 (310)).TGL καί.10

    c. it joins affirmative to negative sentences, as μή συνκοφαντησατε καί ἀρκεῖσθε, Luke 3:14; οὔτε ἄντλημα ἔχεις καί τό φρέαρ ἐστι βαθύ, John 4:11; οὔτε... ἐπιδέχεται καί... κωλύει, 3 John 1:10 (rarely so in Greek writings, as Euripides , Iph. Taur. 578; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 714); much more often it annexes a clause depending on the preceding negative: μήποτε σε παραδῷ... καί κριτής σε παραδῷ... καί εἰς φυλακήν βληθήσῃ, Matthew 5:25; add, Matthew 7:6; Matthew 10:38; Matthew 13:15; Matthew 27:64; Luke 12:58; Luke 21:34; John 6:53; John 12:40; Acts 28:27; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; 1 Timothy 6:1; Hebrews 12:15; Revelation 16:15; (see Buttmann , 368 (315) d.; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 56, 2 a.).TGL καί.11

    d. it annexes what follows from something said before (καί consecutive), so as to be equivalent to and so: Matthew 5:15 (καί λάμπει); Matthew 23:32 (καί πληρώσατε); 2 Corinthians 11:9 (καί ἐν παντί); Hebrews 3:19; 1 John 3:19 (καί ἔμπροσθεν); 2 Peter 1:19 (καί ἔχομεν); so in statements after imperatives and words having the force of an imperative: δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου, καί ποιήσω ὑμᾶς etc. Matthew 4:19; εἶπε λόγῳ, καί ἰαθήσεται παῖς μου, Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:7; (ἀντισητε τῷ διαβόλῳ καί φεύξεται ἀφ' ὑμῶν, James 4:7; add, Matthew 7:7; Mark 6:22; Luke 10:28; John 14:16; Revelation 4:1; cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, pp. 187 (and 416) (cf. Sir. 2:6 Sir. 3:17).TGL καί.12

    e. with a certain rhetorical emphasis, it annexes something apparently at variance with what has been previously said; so that it is equivalent to and yet (cf. Stallbaum on Plato , Apology, p. 29 b.); so the Latin atque (cf. Beier on Cicero , de off. 3, 11, 48): Matthew 3:14 (καί σύ ἔρχῃ πρός με); Matthew 6:26; Matthew 10:29; Mark 12:12; John 1:5 (καί σκοτία κτλ.); John 1:10 (καί κόσμος); John 3:11, John 3:32; John 5:40 (καί οὐ θέλετε); John 6:70; John 7:28; John 8:49, John 8:55 (καί οὐκ ἐγνώκατε); John 9:30; 1 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 6:9; Hebrews 3:9; Revelation 3:1 (... ζῇς, καί νεκρός εἰ), etc. when a vain attempt is spoken of: Matthew 12:43 (ζητεῖ καί οὐχ εὑρίσκει); Matthew 13:17; Matthew 26:60; Luke 13:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:18.TGL καί.13

    f. like the Hebrew וְ (see Gesenius, Thesaurus, i., p. 396{a}), it begins an apodosis, which is thus connected with the protasis, cf. the German da (or English then) (in classical Greek sometimes δέ; see δέ , 8) (cf. Buttmann , 362 (311) d.; Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 3 f.; Ellicott on Philippians 1:22): with ὅτε or a temporal ὡς preceding in the protasis (as sometimes in Greek prose (e. g. Thucydides 2, 93, where see Krüger )), Luke 2:21; Acts 13:18 (here WH text omit καί; see ὡς , I. 7); ὡς... καί ἰδού, Luke 7:12; Acts 1:10; Acts 10:17 (R G Tr marginal reading brackets); ἐάν... καί εἰσελεύσομαι, Revelation 3:20 T WH marginal reading, although here καί may be rendered also (I also will come in, etc.), declaring that, if the first thing (expressed in the protasis) be done, the second (expressed in the apodosis) will be done also.TGL καί.14

    g. as in classical Greek, it begins a question thrown out with a certain impassioned abruptness and containing an urgent rejoinder to another's speech (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 53, 3 a.; Matthiae , § 620, 1 d.; Kühner, § 521, 3 ii., p. 791f): καί τίς δύναται σωθῆναι; Mark 10:26; καί τίς ἐστι μου πλησίον; Luke 10:29; καί τίς ἐστιν κτλ., John 9:36 (G T Tr WH ); add, John 14:22 (G T ). Peculiar Isaiah 2:1-22 Corinthians 2:2: εἰ γάρ ἐγώ λυπῶ ὑμᾶς, καί τίς... ἐμοῦ (a swarm of examples of this form of speech occur in Clement. homil. 2, 43, e. g. εἰ Θεός ψεύδεται, καί τίς ἀληθευει;) where the writer after the conditional protasis, interrupting himself as it were, utters the substance of the negative apodosis in a new question, where we render who then is he that etc., for then there is no one who etc.TGL καί.15

    h. it introduces parentheses (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 62, 1): καί ἐκωλύθην ἀξρηι τοῦ δεῦρο, Romans 1:13 (Demosthenes , Lept., p. 488, 9; so the Latin et , e. g. praeda — et aliquantum ejus fuit — militi concessa , Livy 27, 1); cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, i., p. 35f.TGL καί.16

    3. It annexes epexegetically both words and sentences (καί epexegetical or 'explicative'), so that it is equivalent to and indeed, namely (Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 3 e.; cf. § 66, 7 at the end): χάριν καί ἀποστολήν, Romans 1:5, where cf. Fritzsche; περί ἐλπίδος καί ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Acts 23:6; πολλά... καί ἑτέρα, Luke 3:18; πολλά... καί ἀλλά σημεῖα, John 20:30; πολλά καί βαρέα αἰτιώματαa, Acts 25:7; πολλοί καί ἀνυπότακτοι, Titus 1:10 (R G ; on the preceding use of καί cf. πολύς , d. α. at the end); καί (L brackets καί) ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ, and indeed (i. e. viz.) when he shall be taken away etc. Luke 5:35 (others find here an aposiopesis; cf. Meyer at the passage (edited by Weiss)); καί χάριν, ἀντί χάριτος, John 1:16; καί περισσόν ἔχωσιν, John 10:10, add 33 (where the words καί ὅτι κτλ. show what kind of blasphemy is meant); Acts 5:21 (on which see γερουσία ); Romans 2:15 (where καί μεταξύ κτλ. adds an explanation respecting the testimony of conscience); 1 Corinthians 3:5; 1 Corinthians 15:38, etc.; cf. Bornemann, Scholia, p. 38; Fritzsche, Quaest. Lucian , p. 9ff; so the Latin et in Cicero , Tusc. 3, 20, 48 laudat, et saepe, virtutem ; pro Mil. 25 te enim jam appello et ea voce ut me exaudire possis ; cf. Ramshorn, Latin Gram. ii., p. 809; (Harpers' Latin Dict. under the word et, II. A.); equivalent to and indeed, to make a climax, for and besides: καί ἀκατάκριτον, Acts 22:25; καί τοῦτον ἐσταυρωμένον, 1 Corinthians 2:2; καί τοῦτο, Latin idque (Cicero , off. 1, 1, 1 te... audientem Cratippum idque Athenis ), our and this, and that, and that too, equivalent to especially: Romans 13:11; 1 Corinthians 6:6, and L T Tr WH in 8 (4 Macc. 14:9); also καί ταῦτα (common in Greek writings), 1 Corinthians 6:8 Rec. ; Hebrews 11:12; cf. Klotz, Devar. i., p. 108; it. 2, p. 652f; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 162 (153)).TGL καί.17

    4. it connects whole narratives and expositions, and thus forms a transition to new matters: Matthew 4:23; Matthew 8:14, Matthew 8:23, Matthew 8:28; Matthew 9:1, Matthew 9:9, Matthew 9:27, Matthew 9:35; Matthew 10:1; Mark 5:1, Mark 5:21; Mark 6:1, Mark 6:6; Luke 8:26; John 1:19 (cf. John 1:15); 1 John 1:4, etc.; especially in the very common καί ἐγένετο, Matthew 7:28; Luke 7:11; Luke 8:1, etc. (see γίνομαι , 2 b.).TGL καί.18

    5. καί... καί, a repetition which indicates that of two things one takes place no less than the other: both... and, as well... as, not only... but also (Winer 's Grammar, § 53, 4): it serves to correlate — not only single terms, as καί (L brackets καί) ψυχήν καί σῶμα, Matthew 10:28; add, Mark 4:41; John 4:36 (here Tr WH omit first καί); Romans 11:33; Philippians 2:13; Philippians 4:12, etc.; καί ἐν ὀλίγῳ καί πολλῷ (L T Tr WH μεγάλῳ) both with little effort and with great (but see μέγας , 1 a. γ. at the end), Acts 26:29; but also clauses and sentences, as Mark 9:13; John 7:28; John 9:37; John 12:28; 1 Corinthians 1:22; and even things that are contrasted (cf. Winer s Grammar, as above; Buttmann , § 149, 8 b.): John 15:24; Acts 23:3; καί... καί οὐ, Luke 5:36; John 6:36; now... now, Mark 9:22; καί οὐ... καί, John 17:25.TGL καί.19

    6. τέ... καί, see τέ , 2.TGL καί.20

    II. It marks something added to what has already been said, or that of which something already said holds good; accordingly it takes on the nature of an adverb, also (Latin etiam, quoque , German auch (cf. Winer s Grammar and Buttmann 's Grammar, as at the beginning In this use it generally throws an emphasis upon the word which immediately follows it; cf. Klotz, Devar. ii. 2, p. 638.));TGL καί.21

    1. used simply,TGL καί.22

    a. also, likewise: Matthew 5:39; Matthew 12:45; Mark 2:28; Luke 3:14; John 8:19; Romans 8:17; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 1 Corinthians 11:6, etc.; very frequent with pronouns: καί ὑμεῖς, Matthew 20:4, Matthew 20:7; Luke 21:31; John 7:47, etc.; κἀγώ, καί ἐγώ, see κἀγώ , 2; καί αὐτός, see αὐτός , I. 1 a. preceded by an adverb of comparison in the former part of the sentence: καθώς... καί, Luke 6:31 (WH text omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets, καί ὑμεῖς); John 6:57; John 13:15, John 13:33; 1 John 2:18; 1 John 4:17; 1 Corinthians 15:49; ὥσπερ... οὕτω καί, Romans 11:30; 1 Corinthians 15:22; Galatians 4:29; καθάπερ... οὕτω καί, 2 Corinthians 8:11; ὡς... καί, Matthew 6:10; Luke 11:2 R L brackets; Acts 7:51 (L καθώς; 2 Corinthians 13:2 see ὡς , L 1 at the end); Galatians 1:9; Philippians 1:20 (Thucydides 8, 1; ὥσπερ... καί, Xenophon , mem. (2, 2, 2 (and Kühner, at the passage)); 3, 1, 4; (4, 4, 7; cf. Buttmann , 362 (311) c.)); with εἰ; preceding, Galatians 4:7. sometimes καί stands in each member of the comparison: 1 Thessalonians 2:14; Romans 1:13; Colossians 3:13 (2 Macc. 2:10 2Macc. 6:14; also in Greek writings, cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 2, p. 635; Kühner, on Xenophon , mem. 1, 1, 6 (also in his Greek Gram. § 524, 2 vol. ii. 799; cf. Ellicott on Ephesians 5:23; Winer s Grammar, § 53, 5)).TGL καί.23

    b. equivalent to even (A. V. sometimes yea) (Latin vel, adeo ; German sogar, selbst): Matthew 5:46; Matthew 10:30; Mark 1:27; Luke 10:17; 1 Corinthians 2:10; Galatians 2:17; Ephesians 5:12, etc.TGL καί.24

    c. before a comparative it augments the gradation, even, still (German noch): Matthew 11:9; (John 14:12); Hebrews 8:6 (Buttmann , 363 (311) g.; others regard the καί in this passage as corresponsive (also) rather than ascensive, and connect it with ὅσῳ).TGL καί.25

    d. with a participle equivalent to although (cf. Krüger , § 56, 13, 2): Luke 18:7 R G (see μακροθυμέω , 2).TGL καί.26

    2. joined with pronouns and particles, also;TGL καί.27

    a. with comparative adverbs: ὡς καί, Acts 11:11; 1 Corinthians 7:7; 1 Corinthians 9:5, etc.; καθώς καί, Romans 15:7; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 2 Corinthians 1:14; Ephesians 4:17, Ephesians 4:32; Ephesians 5:2, etc.; οὕτω καί, Romans 5:15 (WH brackets καί), 18f; 6:11; 1 Corinthians 11:12, etc.; ὁμοίως καί, John 6:11; ὡσαύτως καί, Luke 22:20 (R G L Tr marginal reading, T Tr text WH καί ὡς. (but WH reject the passage)); 1 Corinthians 11:25; καθάπερ καί (see καθάπερ ).TGL καί.28

    b. added to words designating the cause, it marks something which follows of necessity from what has been previously said: διό καί, Luke 1:35; Acts 10:29; Romans 1:24 Rec. ; Hebrews 13:12; (1 Peter 2:6 R ); διά τοῦτο καί, Luke 11:49; John 12:18 (here Tr text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καί).TGL καί.29

    c. after the interrogative τί, καί (which belongs not to τί, but to the following word (to the whole sentence, rather; cf. Bäumlein , Partikeln: p. 152)) points the significance of the question, and may be rendered besides, moreover, (German noch) (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 53, 3 a. at the end; especially Krüger , § 69, 32, 16): τί καί βαπτίζονται; (A. V. why then etc.), 1 Corinthians 15:29; τί καί ἐλπίζει; (properly, why doth he also or yet hope for, and not rest in the sight?), Romans 8:24 (R G T ); ἵνα τί καί, Luke 13:7.TGL καί.30

    d. ἀλλά καί, but also: Luke 24:22; John 5:18; Romans 1:32; Romans 5:3, Romans 5:11; Romans 8:23; Romans 9:10; 2 Corinthians 7:7; 2 Corinthians 8:10, 2 Corinthians 8:19, 2 Corinthians 8:21; 2 Corinthians 9:12; 1 John 2:2, etc.; equivalent to Latin at etiam (in an apodosis after εἰ): Romans 6:5 (Winer s Grammar, 442 (412)).TGL καί.31

    e. δέ καί, and δέ... καί, but also, and also: Matthew 3:10 (R G ); Matthew 18:17; Matthew 27:44; Mark 14:31 (WH brackets δέ); Luke 2:4; Luke 9:61; Luke 14:12, Luke 14:26 (L text Tr WH ἔτι τέ καί, see ἔτι , 2 at the end); Luke 18:1 (R G ), Luke 18:9 (L brackets καί); John 2:2; John 3:23; John 18:2, John 18:5; Acts 5:16; 1 Corinthians 1:16; 1 Corinthians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 14:15; 1 Corinthians 15:15; 2 Corinthians 4:3, etc. καί... γάρ, ἐάν καί, εἰ καί, καί, καίγε, καί... δέ, see γάρ II. 10, ἐάν I. 3, εἰ III. 6f, 4 c., γέ 3 e., δέ 9. The examples of crasis with καί in the N. T., viz. κἀγώ (κἀμοί, κἀμέ), κἀκεῖ, κἀκεῖθεν, κἀκεῖνος, κἄν, are noticed each in its place; for references see especially κἀγώ , at the beginningTGL καί.32


    (2533) Καϊάφας (WH Καϊάφας; (cf. Iota, at the end); Lachmann in Luke 3:2 Καιφας), Καϊάφα (Buttmann , 20 (18); Winer 's Grammar, § 8, 1), (supposed by many to be the same as כֵּפָא, a stone, a rock; others more correctly equivalent to כָּיְפָא, depression, Targ. on Proverbs 16:26 (according to Delitzsch (Brief and. Röm. ins Hebrew etc., p. 28) קַיָפָא)), Caiaphas; according to Josephus (Antiquities 18, 2, 2) Ιωσηπος, καί Καϊάφας (Ιωσηπον, τόν καί Καϊάφαν ἐπικαλούμενον, Antiquities 18, 4, 3), high priest of the Jews. He was appointed to that office by Valerius Gratus, governor of Judaea, after the removal of Simon, son of Camith, A.D. 18 (cf. Schürer , N. T. Zeitgesch. § 23 iv.), and was removed A.D. 36 by Vitellius, governor of Syria, who appointed Jonathan, son of the high priest Ananus (i. e. Annas, father-in-law of Caiaphas, John 18:13), his successor (Josephus , Antiquities 18, 4, 3): Matthew 26:3, Matthew 26:57; Luke 3:2; John 11:49; John 18:13, John 18:24, John 18:28; Acts 4:6. Cf. Hausrath, in Schenkel iii. 463f.TGL Καϊάφας.2

    καί γε

    (2534) καίγε, see γέ , 3 e. See related Strong's entry Strong's 2532 and Strong's 1065.TGL καί γε.2


    (2535) Κάϊν (WH Κάϊν (cf. Ἰ´, at the end)), , indeclinable (in Josephus with a Greek ending, Καις, Καιτος; Hebrew קַיִן i. e. a spear, although the author of Genesis, Genesis 4:1, derives it from קָנָה to produce, beget, acquire, so that it is equivalent to קִנְיָן, Psalms 104:24 (cf. B. D. American edition under the word)), Cain, the fratricide, the first-born son of Adam: Hebrews 11:4; 1 John 3:12; Jude 1:11.TGL Κάϊν.2


    (2536) Καιναν (so R G L both 1 and 2; Tr Καιναν in 1 and Tr text in 2, but Tr marginal reading Καϊνάμ in 2, WH Καϊνάμ 1 and 2; T Καϊνάμ both 1 and 2), (Hebrew קֵינָן a lance-maker (others, 'possessor' or 'possession')), Cainan;TGL Καϊνάμ.2

    1. son of Enos (Genesis 5:9): Luke 3:37.TGL Καϊνάμ.3

    2. son of Arphaxad, according to the Sept. of Genesis 10:24; Genesis 11:12; (1 Chronicles 1:18 Alex. ), which Luke follows in Luke 3:36. (See B. D. , under the word.)TGL Καϊνάμ.4


    (2537) καινός, καινή, καινόν (from Aeschylus and Herodotus down); the Sept. for חָדָשׁ; new, i. e.TGL καινός.2

    a. as respects form; recently made, fresh, recent, unused, unworn (opposed to παλαιός old, antiquated): as ἀσκός, Matthew 9:11; Mark 2:22 (T omits; Tr WH brackets the clause); Luke 5:38 ἱμάτιον, Luke 5:36; πλήρωμα, Mark 2:21; μνημεῖον, Matthew 27:60; with ἐν οὐδέπω οὐδείς ἐτέθη added, John 19:41; καινά καί παλαιά, Matthew 13:52; new, which as recently made is superior to what it succeeds: διαθήκη, Matthew 26:28 (T WH omit καινά); Mark 14:24 R L ; Luke 22:20 (WH reject the passage); 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Hebrews 8:8, Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 9:15 (Jeremiah 38:31 (Jeremiah 31:31)); καινοί οὐρανοί, καινή γῆ, 2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1 (Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22); Ἱερουσαλήμ (see Ἱεροσόλυμα , at the end), Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2; ἄνθρωπος (see the word, 1 f.), Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24 (καρδία, πνεῦμα, Ezekiel 18:31; Ezekiel 36:26); καινά πάντα ποιῶ, I bring all things into a new and better condition, Revelation 21:5; γέννημα τῆς ἀμπέλου, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25.TGL καινός.3

    b. as respects substance; of a new kind; unprecedented, novel, uncommon, unheard of (ἑτέρα καί καινά δαιμόνια, Xenophon , mem. 1, 1, 1): διδαχή, Mark 1:27; Acts 17:19; ἐντολή, given now for the first time, John 13:34; 1 John 2:7; 2 John 1:5; ὄνομα, with the added explanation οὐδείς οἶδεν (ἔγνω Rec. ), Revelation 2:17 (Isaiah 62:2; Isaiah 65:15); ᾠδή, Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3 (Psalms 143:9 (Psalms 144:9); ὕμνος, Isaiah 42:10; ᾆσμα, Psalms 32:3 (Psalms 33:3); Psalms 39:4 (Psalms 40:4), etc.); λέγειν τί καί ( L T Tr WH ) ἀκούειν καινότερον, Acts 17:21 (newer namely, than that which is already; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 244 (228f))); κτίσις, Galatians 6:15; καινά τά πάντα, all things are new, previously non-existent, begin to be far different from what they were before, 2 Corinthians 5:17 (L T Tr WH omit τά πάντα); μηκέτι οὔσης τῆς ἀνομίας, καινων δέ γεγονότων πάντων ὑπό κυρίου, the Epistle of Barnabas 15, 7 [ET]. γλῶσσαι (see γλῶσσα , 2): Mark 16:17 (Tr text WH text omit; Tr marginal reading brackets καινων)TGL καινός.4


    (2538) καινότης, καινότητος, (καινός), newness: ἐν καινότητι πνεύματος, in the new state (of life) in which the Holy Spirit places us, Romans 7:6; ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς in a new condition or state of (moral) life, Romans 6:4 (εἰς καινοτητα ἀϊδίου ζωῆς, so as to produce a new state which is eternal life, Ignatius ad Eph. 19 [ET]; among secular writers it is used by Thucydides 3, 38; Isocrates , Athen. , others; often by Plutarch (applied to the 'novelties' of fashion (Frenchnouveaute ))).TGL καινότης.2


    (2539) καίπερ (Treg. καί περ in Heb.; from Homer , Odyssey 7, 224 down), conjunc. (originally even very much, cf. Donaldson § 621; Bäumlein , p. 200f; Krüger , § 56, 13, 2; Buttmann , § 144, 23; Winer s Grammar, § 45, 2 at the end), although; it is joined to a participle (in Greek writings sometimes also to an adjective, so that ὤν must be supplied): Philippians 3:4; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:5; Hebrews 12:17; 2 Peter 1:12; contrary to ordinary usage (yet so occasionally in Greek writings) with a finite verb, καίπερ ἐστιν, Revelation 17:8 Rec. ; but since Griesbach καί παρέσται (correctly παρέσται (see in πάρειμι )) has been restored after the best manuscriptsTGL καίπερ.2


    (2540) καιρός, καιροῦ, (derived by some from κάρα or κάρη, τό, the head, summit (others besides; cf. Vanicek , p. 118)); the Sept. for עֵת and מועֵד; in Greek writings (from Hesiod down):TGL καιρός.2

    1. due measure; nowhere so in the Biblical writings.TGL καιρός.3

    2. a measure of time; a larger or smaller portion of time; hence,TGL καιρός.4

    a. universally, a fixed and definite time: Romans 13:11; 2 Corinthians 6:2; ὕστεροι καιροί, 1 Timothy 4:1; ἄχρι καιροῦ, up to a certain time, for a season, Luke 4:13 (but in ἄχρι, 1 b. referred apparently to b. below; cf. Fritzsche, Romans, i., p. 309f); Acts 13:11; πρός καιρόν, for a certain time only, for a season, Luke 8:13; 1 Corinthians 7:5; πρός καιρόν ὥρας, for the season of an hour, i. e. for a short season, 1 Thessalonians 2:17; κατά καιρόν, at certain seasons (from time to time), John 5:4 (R G L ); at the (divinely) appointed time, Romans 5:6 (others bring this under b.); before the time appointed, Matthew 8:29; 1 Corinthians 4:5; ἔσται καιρός, ὅτε etc. 2 Timothy 4:3; ὀλίγον καιρόν ἔχει, a short time (in which to exercise his power) has been granted him, Revelation 12:12; ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ, Matthew 11:25; Matthew 12:1; Matthew 14:1; Ephesians 2:12; κατ' ἐκεῖνον τῷ καιρῷ, Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23; κατά τῷ καιρῷ τοῦτον, Romans 9:9; ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ Luke 13:1; ἐν καιρῷ, Acts 7:20; ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, Romans 3:26; Romans 11:5; 2 Corinthians 8:14 (13); ἐν παντί καιρῷ always, at every season (Aristotle , top. 3, 2, 4, p. 117{a}, 35), Luke 21:36; Ephesians 6:18; εἰς τινα καιρόν, 1 Peter 1:11. with the genitive of a thing, the time of etc. i. e. at which it will occur: τῆς ἐμῆς ἀναλύσεώς, 2 Timothy 4:6; τῆς ἐπισκοπῆς, 1 Peter 5:6 Lachmann; Luke 19:44; περιασμου, Luke 8:13; τοῦ ἄρξασθαι τό κρίμα, for judgment to begin, 1 Peter 4:17; καιροί τῶν λόγων, of the time when they shall be proved by the event, Luke 1:20; — or when a thing usually comes to pass: τοῦ θερισμοῦ, Matthew 13:30; τῶν καρπῶν, when the fruits ripen, Matthew 21:34, Matthew 21:41; σύκων, Mark 11:13. with the genitive of a person: καιποι ἐθνῶν, the time granted to the Gentiles, until God shall take vengeance on them, Luke 21:24; ἑαυτοῦ (T Tr WH αὐτοῦ) καιρῷ, the time when antichrist shall show himself openly, 2 Thessalonians 2:6; καιρός μου, the time appointed for my death, Matthew 26:18; τῶν νεκρῶν κριθῆναι, the time appointed for the dead to be recalled to life and judged, Revelation 11:18 (Buttmann , 260 (224)); ἐμός, ὑμέτερος, the time for appearing in public, appointed (by God) for me, for you, John 7:6, John 7:8; καιρῷ ἰδίῳ, the time suited to the thing under consideration, at its proper time, Galatians 6:9; plural, 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 6:15; Titus 1:3. καιρός alone, the time when things are brought to a crisis, the decisive epoch waited for: so of the time when the Messiah will visibly return from heaven, Mark 13:33; καιρός ἤγγικεν, Luke 21:8; ἐγγύς ἐστιν, Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:10.TGL καιρός.5

    b. opportune or seasonable time: with verbs suggestive of the idea of advantage, καιρόν μεταλαμβάνειν, Acts 24:25; ἔχειν, Galatians 6:10 (Plutarch , Luke 16:1-31); ἐξαγοράζεσθαι, Ephesians 5:16; Colossians 4:5, see ἐξαγοράζω , 2; followed by an infinitive, opportunity to do something, Hebrews 11:15; παρά καιρόν ἡλικίας, past the opportunity of life (A. V. past age), Hebrews 11:11 (simply παρά καιρόν, Pindar Ol. 8, 32; several times in Plato , cf. Ast, Platonic Lexicon, ii., p. 126).TGL καιρός.6

    c. the right time: ἐν καιρῷ (often in classical Greek), in due season, Matthew 24:45; Luke 12:42; Luke 20:10 R G L ((stereotype edition only)); 1 Peter 5:6; also καιρῷ, Luke 20:10 L T Tr WH ; τό καιρῷ, Mark 12:2.TGL καιρός.7

    d. a (limited) period of time: (1 Corinthians 7:29); plural the periods prescribed by God to the nations, and bounded by their rise and fall, Acts 17:26; καιροί καρποφοροι, the seasons of the year in which the fruits grow and ripen, Acts 14:17 (cf. Genesis 1:14, the Sept. ); καιρόν καί καιρούς καί ἥμισυ καιροῦ, a year and two years and six months (A. V. a time, and times, and half a time; cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 27, 4), Revelation 12:14 (cf. 6; from Daniel 7:25; Daniel 12:7); stated seasons of the year solemnly kept by the Jews, and comprising several days, as the passover, pentecost, feast of tabernacles, Galatians 4:10 (2 Chronicles 8:13; cf. Baruch 1:14). in the divine arrangement of time adjusted to the economy of salvation: καιρός (πεπλήρωται), the preappointed period which according to the purpose of God must elapse before the divine kingdom could be founded by Christ, Mark 1:15; plural, the several parts of this period, Ephesians 1:10; καιρός ἐνεστως, the present period, equivalent to αἰών οὗτος (see αἰών , 3), Hebrews 9:9, opposed to καιρός διορθώσεως, the time when the whole order of things will be reformed (equivalent to αἰών μέλλων), Hebrews 9:10; καιρός οὗτος, equivalent to αἰών οὗτος (see αἰών , 3), Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30; νῦν καιρός, Romans 8:18; ἐν καιρῷ ἐσχάτῳ, the last period of the present age, the time just before the return of Christ from heaven (see ἔσχατος , 1 under the end, etc.), 1 Peter 1:5; καιροί ἀναψύξεως ἀπό προσώπου τοῦ κυρίου, denotes the time from the return of Christ on, the times of the consummated divine kingdom, Acts 3:20 (19).TGL καιρός.8

    e. as often in Greek writings, and like the Latintempus , καιρός; is equivalent to what time brings, the state of the times, the things and events of time: Luke 12:56; δουλεύειν τῷ καιρῷ, Latintempori servire (see δουλεύω , 2 a.), Romans 12:11 Rec.st ; τά σημεῖα τῶν καιρῶν, equivalent to οἱ καιροί σημαινουσι, Matthew 16:3 (here T brackets WH reject the passage); καιροί χαλεποί, 2 Timothy 3:1; χρονοι καιροί (times or seasons, German Zeitumstände), Acts 1:7; οἱ χρονοι καί οἱ καιροί 1 Thessalonians 5:1; and in the opposite order, Daniel 2:21 the Sept. ; Wis. 8:8.TGL καιρός.9


    (2541) Καῖσαρ, Καίσαρος (Alexander Buttmann (1873) 16 (15)), , Caesar (properly, the surname of Julius Caesar, which being adopted by Octavianus Augustus and his successors afterward became an appellative, and was appropriated by the Roman emperors as a part of their title (cf. Dict. of Biogr. and Mythol. under the word )): Matthew 22:17, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:14, Mark 12:16; Luke 2:1; Luke 3:1; Luke 20:22; Luke 23:2; John 19:12; Acts 11:28 (Rec. ); Acts 17:7, etc.; Philippians 4:22.TGL Καῖσαρ.2


    (2542) Καισάρεια (Καισαρια Tdf. (cf. his note on Acts 9:30), WH ; see Iota), Καισαριας, , Caesarea; there were two cities of this name in Palestine:TGL Καισάρεια.2

    1. Caesarea Philippi (Καισάρεια Φιλίππου), situated at the foot of Lebanon near the sources of the Jordan in Gaulanitis, and formerly called Paneas (ἥν Πανεαδα Φοίνικες προσαγορεύουσιν, Eus. h. e. 7, 17); but after being rebuilt by Philip the tetrarch, it was called by him Caesarea in honor of Tiberius Caesar (Josephus , Antiquities 18, 2, 1f); subsequently it was called Neronias by Agrippa II., in honor of Nero (Josephus , Antiquities 20, 9, 4); now Banias, a village of about 150 ((?) "about 50" (Bädeker), some forty (Murray)) houses: Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27.TGL Καισάρεια.3

    2. Caesarea (more fully Caesarea of Palestine (modern Kaisariyeh)), built near the Mediterranean by Herod the Great on the site of Strato's Tower, between Joppa and Dora. It was provided with a magnificent harbor and had conferred upon it the name of Caesarea, in honor of Augustus. It was the residence of the Roman procurators, and the majority of its inhabitants were Greeks (Josephus , Antiquities 13, 11, 2; 15, 9, 6; 19, 8, 2; b. j. 2, 9, 1): Acts 8:40; Acts 9:30; Acts 10:1, Acts 10:24; Acts 11:11; Acts 12:19; Acts 18:22; Acts 21:8, Acts 21:16; Acts 23:23, Acts 23:33; Acts 25:1, Acts 25:4, Acts 25:6, Acts 25:13. Cf. Winer s RWB (and BB. DD. ) under the word ; Arnold in Herzog ii., p. 486ff; Overbeck in Schenkel i., p. 499f; (Schürer § 23, i. 9; and for ether references cf. McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia under the word ).TGL Καισάρεια.4


    (2543) καίτοι (from καί and τοι), conjunction, with a participle (but in classical Greek with a finite verb also (as in Acts below); Krüger , § 56, 13, 2; cf. references under the word καίπερ), and yet, although: Hebrews 4:3 (although the work of creation had been finished long ago, so that the rest spoken of cannot be understood to be that of God himself resting from that work (cf. Kurtz, in the place cited)); (Acts 14:17 L T Tr Wit (but Tr καί τοι)).TGL καίτοι.2


    (2544) καίτοιγε, see γέ , 3 f.TGL καίτοιγε.2


    (2545) καίω (Vanicek , p. 98); passive, present καίομαι; perfect participle κεκαυμενος; 1 future καυθήσομαι (1 Corinthians 13:3 Tdf. , where R G L Tr give the solecistic future subjunctive καυθήσωμαι, on which cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 720f; Winer s Grammar, § 13, 1 e.; Buttmann , 35f (31)); (Sophocles Lexicon, Introduction, p. 40; WH s Appendix, p. 172; Tdf Proleg., p. 122. WH text, Lachmann's stereotyped edition read καυχήσωμαι (with א A B etc.); on this reading see WH s Appendix, ad loc.; A. W. Tyler in Bib. Sacr. for July 1873, p. 502f; cf. Scrivener , Introduction, etc., p. 629f; Tregelles, Printed Text etc., p. 191f; Tdf. ad loc.; Bp. Lghtft on Col., 7th ed., p. 395 n.); the Sept. for בִּעֵר, שָׂרַף etc.; (from Homer down);TGL καίω.2

    1. to set fire to, light: λύχνον, Matthew 5:15; passive participle καιόμενος, burning, Luke 12:35; Revelation 4:5; Revelation 8:10; Revelation 19:20; with πυρί added, Hebrews 12:18; Revelation 8:8; Revelation 21:8; in figurative discourse λύχνος καιόμενος, a light showing the right way, John 5:35 (a comparison pointed at the Jews, to whom John the Baptist had been as a torch lighted for a merry-making); metaphorically, καρδία ἦν καιομένη was glowing, burning, i. e. was greatly moved, Luke 24:32 (Winer s Grammar, § 45, 5; Buttmann , § 144, 28).TGL καίω.3

    2. to burn, consume with fire: passive, John 15:6; 1 Corinthians 13:3 (see above); with πυρί added (cf. igni cremare, Caesar b. g. 1, 4), Matthew 13:40 G Tr for R L T WH κατακαίεται. (Compare: ἐκκαίω, κατακαίω.)TGL καίω.4


    (2546) κἀκεῖ; (Griesbach κἀκεῖ; cf. κἀγώ and references) (by crasis from καί and ἐκεῖ (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 3; Buttmann , p. 10; especially Tdf. Proleg., p. 96));TGL κἀκεῖ.2

    1. and there: Matthew 5:28 (Tr marginal reading καί ἐκεῖ); Matthew 10:11; Matthew 28:10 (Tdf. καί ἐκεῖ); Mark 1:35 (Lachmann καί ἐκεῖ); John 11:54; Acts 14:7; Acts 22:10; Acts 25:20; Acts 27:6.TGL κἀκεῖ.3

    2. there also: Mark 1:38 (G WH καί ἐκεῖ); Acts 17:13.TGL κἀκεῖ.4


    (2547) κἀκεῖθεν (Griesbach κἀκεῖθεν; see κἀγώ and references) (by crasis from καί and ἐκεῖθεν (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 3; Buttmann , 10; especially Tdf. Proleg. 96f)); Latinet inde ;TGL κἀκεῖθεν.2

    a. of place, and from thence, and thence: Mark 9:30 (R G καί ἐκεῖθεν); Mark 10:1 (L T Tr WH καί ἐκεῖθεν; Luke 11:53 T Tr text WH ); Acts 7:4; Acts 14:26; Acts 16:12 (ἐκεῖθεν τί R G ); Acts 20:15; Acts 21:1; Acts 27:4,Acts 27:12 (L T Tr WH ἐκεῖθεν); Acts 28:15.TGL κἀκεῖθεν.3

    b. of time, and thereafter, and afterward (cf. Bornem. Scholia in Luc., p. 90f): Acts 13:21.TGL κἀκεῖθεν.4


    (2548) κἀκεῖνος (Griesbach κἀκεῖνος; see κἀγώ and references), κακεινη, κακεινο (by crasis from καί and ἐκεῖνος (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 3; especially Tdf. Proleg., p. 97));TGL κἀκεῖνος.2

    1. ἐκεῖνος referring to the more remote subject;TGL κἀκεῖνος.3

    a. and he (Latinet ille ): Luke 11:7; Luke 22:12; Acts 18:19; ταῦτα... κἀκεῖνα (A. V. the other), Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42.TGL κἀκεῖνος.4

    b. he also: Acts 15:11; Romans 11:23 (Rec.st καί ἐκεῖνος); 1 Corinthians 10:6.TGL κἀκεῖνος.5

    2. ἐκεῖνος referring to the nearer subject (cf. ἐκεῖνος , 1 c.);TGL κἀκεῖνος.6

    a. and he (Latinet is , German und selbiger): Matthew 15:18; John 7:29; John 19:35 (L Tr WH καί ἐκεῖνος).TGL κἀκεῖνος.7

    b. he also (German auch selbiger): Matthew 20:4 (T WH καί ἐκεῖνος); Mark 12:4; Mark 16:11, Mark 16:13; Luke 22:12; John 14:12; John 17:24.TGL κἀκεῖνος.8


    (2549) κακία, κακίας, (κακός) (from Theognis down), the Sept. chiefly for רַע, and רָעָה;TGL κακία.2

    1. malignity, malice, ill-will, desire to injure: Romans 1:29; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; Titus 3:3; James 1:21; 1 Peter 2:1.TGL κακία.3

    2. wickedness, depravity: 1 Corinthians 5:8 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 120 (114)); 1 Corinthians 14:20; Acts 8:22 (cf. Acts 8:21); wickedness that is not ashamed to break the laws, 1 Peter 2:16.TGL κακία.4

    3. Hellenistically, evil, trouble: Matthew 6:34 (as Amos 3:6; (1 Samuel 6:9); Ecclesiastes 7:15 (Ecclesiastes 7:14); Ecclesiastes 12:1; Sir. 19:6; 1 Macc. 7:23, etc.).TGL κακία.5


    (2550) κακοήθεια (κακοηθια WH ; see Iota), κακοηθείας, (from κακοήθης, and this from κακός and ἦθος), bad character, depravity of heart and life, Xenophon , Plato , Isocrates , others; 4 Macc. 1:4, where cf. Grimm, p. 299; specifically used of malignant subtlety, malicious craftiness: Romans 1:29 (3Macc. 3:22; Additions to Esther 8:1, Esther 8:12 [Esther 8:238:12f , Esther 8:32p ]; Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 35, 5 [ET]; Josephus , Antiquities 1, 1, 4; 16, 3, 1; (contra Apion 1, 24, 4); Polybius 5, 50, 5, etc.). On the other hand, Aristotle , rhet. 2, 13 (3, p. 81) defines it τό ἐπί τό χεῖρον ὑπολαμβάνειν πάντα (taking all things in the evil part, Genevan N. T. Cf. Trench , § xi.).TGL κακοήθεια.2


    (2551) κακολογέω, κακολόγω; 1 aorist infinitive κακολογῆσαί; (κακολόγος); equivalent to κακῶς λέγω (which the old grammarians prefer, see Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 200);TGL κακολογέω.2

    1. to speak ill of, revile, abuse, one; to calumniate, traduce: τινα, Mark 9:39; τί, Acts 19:9; (2 Macc. 4:1; Lysias , Plutarch , others).TGL κακολογέω.3

    2. Hellenistically, to imprecate evil on, curse: τινα, Matthew 15:4; Mark 7:10 (so for קִלֵּל, Proverbs 20:20; Ezekiel 22:7; Exodus 22:28).TGL κακολογέω.4


    (2552) κακοπάθεια (κακοπαθία WH ; see Iota), κακοπαθείας, (κακοπαθής suffering evil, afflicted), properly, the suffering of evil, i. e. trouble, distress, affliction: James 5:10 (Malachi 1:13; Malachi 2:1-17 Macc. 2:26f; (Antiphon ); Thucydides 7, 77; Isocrates , Polybius , Diodorus , others).TGL κακοπάθεια.2


    (2553) κακοπαθέω, κακοπαθῶ; 1 aorist imperative 2 singular κακοπάθησον; (κακοπαθής); to suffer (endure) evils (hardship, troubles); to be afflicted: 2 Timothy 2:9; James 5:13 (Winer s Grammar, § 41 a. 3 at the end; cf. § 60, 4 c.; Buttmann , § 139, 28) (the Sept. Jonah 4:10; Xenophon , Plutarch , others); used frequently of the hardships of military service (Thucydides 4, 9; Polybius 3, 72, 5; Josephus , Antiquities 10, 11, 1; b. j. 1, 7, 4); hence, elegantly κακοπάθησον (L T Tr WH συγκακοπαθέω (T WH συν- (which see at the end)) κακοπάθησον) ὡς καλός στρατιώτης, 2 Timothy 2:3; 2 Timothy 4:5. (Compare: συγκακοπαθέω.)TGL κακοπαθέω.2


    (2554) κακοποιέω, κακοποιῶ; 1 aorist infinitive κακοποιῆσαι; (κακοποιός);TGL κακοποιέω.2

    1. to do harm: Mark 3:4; Luke 6:9.TGL κακοποιέω.3

    2. to do evil, do wrong: 1 Peter 3:17; 3 John 1:11. ((Aeschylus , Aristophanes ), Xenophon , Polybius , Antoninus , Plutarch ; the Sept. .)TGL κακοποιέω.4


    (2555) κακοποιός, κακοποιον (κακόν and ποιέω), doing evil; a substantive, an evil-doer, malefactor: John 18:30 (but L marginal reading T Tr WH κακόν ποιῶν); 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 2:14; 1 Peter 3:16 (T Tr marginal reading WH omit the clause); 1 Peter 4:15. (Proverbs 12:4; Pindar , Aristotle , Polybius , Plutarch .)TGL κακοποιός.2


    (2556) κακός, κακῇ, κακόν, the Sept. for רָע (from Homer down), bad (A. V. (almost uniformly) evil);TGL κακός.2

    1. universally, of a bad nature; not such as it ought to be.TGL κακός.3

    2. (morally, i. e.) of a mode of thinking, feeling, acting; base, wrong, wicked: of persons, Matthew 21:41 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 637 (592); also Buttmann , 143 (126)); Matthew 24:48; Philippians 3:2; Revelation 2:2. διαλογισμοί;, Mark 7:21; ὁμιλίαι, 1 Corinthians 15:33; ἐπιθυμία, Colossians 3:5 (Proverbs 12:12); ἔργα (better ἔργον), Romans 13:3. neuter κακόν, τό κακόν, evil i. e. what is contrary to law, either divine or human, wrong, crime: (John 18:23); Acts 23:9; Romans 7:21; Romans 14:20; Romans 16:19; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Hebrews 5:14; 1 Peter 3:10; 3 John 1:11; plural (evil things): Romans 1:30; 1 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Timothy 6:10 (πάντα τά κακά all kinds of evil); James 1:13 (Winer s Grammar, § 30, 4; Buttmann , § 132, 24); κακόν ποιεῖν, to do, commit evil: Matthew 27:23; Mark 15:14; Luke 23:22; 2 Corinthians 13:7; 1 Peter 3:12; τό κακόν, Romans 13:4; τά κακά, Romans 3:8; κακόν, τό κακόν πράσσειν, Romans 7:19; Romans 9:11. (Rec. ); Romans 13:4; (2 Corinthians 5:10 R G L Tr marginal reading); τό κακόν κατεργάζεσθαι, Romans 2:9. specifically of wrongs inflicted: Romans 12:21; κακόν ἐργάζομαι τίνι (to work ill to one), Romans 13:10; ἐνδείκνυμι, 2 Timothy 4:14; ποιῶ, Acts 9:13; ἀποδίδωμι κακόν ἀντί κακοῦ, Romans 12:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Peter 3:9.TGL κακός.4

    3. troublesome, injurious, pernicious, destructive, baneful: neuter κακόν, an evil, that which injures, James 3:8 (Winer s Grammar, § 59, 8 b.; Buttmann , 79 (69)); with the suggestion of wildness and ferocity, θηρία, Titus 1:12; substantially equivalent to bad, i. e. distressing, whether to mind or to body: ἕλκος κακόν καί πονηρόν (A. V. a noisome and grievous sore), Revelation 16:2; κακόν πράσσω ἐμαυτῷ, Latinvim mihi infero , to do harm to oneself, Acts 16:28; κακόν τί πάσχω, to suffer some harm, Acts 28:5; τά κακά, evil things, the discomforts which plague one, Luke 16:25 (opposed to τά ἀγαθά, the good things, from which pleasure is derived). (Synonym: cf. κακία .)TGL κακός.5


    (2557) κακοῦργος, κακουργον (contracted from κακοεργος, from κακόν and ἘΡΓΩ; cf. πανοῦργος , and on the accent of both see Göttling , Lehre v. Accent, p. 321; (Chandler § 445)), as a substantive, a malefactor: 2 Timothy 2:9; of a robber, Luke 23:32 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 530 (493); Buttmann , § 150, 3), 39. (Proverbs 21:15; in Greek writings from (Sophocles and) Herodotus down.)TGL κακοῦργος.2


    (2558) κακουχέω, κακούχω: (from the obsolete κακουχος, from κακόν and ἔχω); to treat ill, oppress, plague: τινα; present passive participle κακουχόμενοι, maltreated, tormented, Hebrews 11:37; Hebrews 13:3. (1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 11:39 Alex. ; Diodorus 3, 23; 19, 11; Dio C. 35 (36), 9 (11); Plutarch , mor., p. 114 e.) (Compare: συγκακουχέω.)TGL κακουχέω.2


    (2559) κακόω, κακῷ: future κακώσω; 1 aorist ἐκάκωσα; (κακός);TGL κακόω.2

    1. to oppress, afflict, harm, maltreat: τινα, Acts 7:6, Acts 7:19; Acts 12:1; Acts 18:10; 1 Peter 3:13 (Exodus 5:22; Exodus 23:9 Alex. ; in Greek writings from Homer down).TGL κακόω.3

    2. by a usage foreign to the classics, to embitter (Vulg. ad iracundiam concito ); render evil affected (Psalms 105:32 (Psalms 106:32); Josephus , Antiquities 16, 1, 2; 7, 3; 8, 6): τήν ψυχήν τίνος κατά τίνος, against one, Acts 14:2.TGL κακόω.4


    (2560) κακῶς (κακός), adverb (from Homer on down), badly, ill, i. e.TGL κακῶς.2

    a. (in a physical sense) miserably: ἔχειν, to be ill, sick (see ἔχω , II. a.), Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16; Matthew 9:12; Matthew 14:35; (Matthew 17:15 L Tr text WH text); Mark (Mark 1:32, Mark 1:34); Mark 2:17; (Mark 6:55); Luke 5:31; Luke 7:2, etc.; πάσχειν, Matthew 17:15 (R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); δαιμονίζεσθαι, Matthew 15:22; κακούς κακῶς ἀπολέσει, Matthew 21:41, on this combination of words with verbs of destroying, perishing, etc., which is frequent in Greek writings also, cf. Kuinoel at the passage; Winer s Grammar, § 68, 1.TGL κακῶς.3

    b. (morally) improperly, wrongly: John 18:23; κακῶς εἰπεῖν τινα, to speak ill of, revile, one, Acts 23:5; with bad intent, αἰτεῖσθαι, James 4:3.TGL κακῶς.4


    (2561) κάκωσις, κακώσεως, (κακόω), ill-treatment, ill-usage (Vulg. afflictio ): Acts 7:34. (Psalm 17:19 (Psalms 18:19); Exodus 3:7, Exodus 3:17; Job 31:29 (Symm. ); Thucydides , Xenophon , Plutarch , others.)TGL κάκωσις.2


    (2562) καλάμη, καλάμης, , a stalk of grain or of a reed, the stalk (left after the ears are cut off), stubble: 1 Corinthians 3:12. (Exodus 5:12; Exodus 15:7; Isaiah 17:6; Homer and following.)TGL καλάμη.2


    (2563) κάλαμος, καλάμου, , from Pindar down, Latincalamus , i. e.TGL κάλαμος.2

    a. a reed: Matthew 11:7; Matthew 12:20 (from Isaiah 42:3); Luke 7:24.TGL κάλαμος.3

    b. a staff made of a reed, a reed-staff (as in 2 Kings 18:21): Matthew 27:29, Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:19, Mark 15:36.TGL κάλαμος.4

    c. a measuring reed or rod: Revelation 11:1; Revelation 21:15 (Ezekiel 40:3-6; Ezekiel 42:16-19).TGL κάλαμος.5

    d. a writer's reed, a pen: 3 John 1:13; (see Gardthausen, Griech. Palaeogr., p. 71f).TGL κάλαμος.6


    (2564) καλέω, καλῷ; imperfect ἐκάλουν; future καλέσω (Winer 's Grammar, § 13, 3 c.); 1 aorist ἐκάλεσα; perfect κέκληκά; passive, present καλοῦμαι; perfect 3 person singular κέκληται (1 Corinthians 7:18 L T Tr WH ; (Revelation 19:13 L T Tr WH )), participle κεκλημένος; 1 aorist ἐκλήθην; 1 future κληθήσομαι; (from Homer down); Hebrew קָרָא; Latinvoco ; i. e.:TGL καλέω.2

    1. to call (German rufen (cf. βοάω , at the end));TGL καλέω.3

    a. to call aloud, utter in a loud voice: ἄχρις οὗ τό σήμερον καλεῖται, as long as the word 'today' is called out or proclaimed, Hebrews 3:13; τινα, to call one to approach or stand before one, Matthew 20:8; Matthew 22:3 (where εἰς τούς γάμους seems to belong to τούς κεκλημένος); Matthew 25:14; (Mark 3:31 L T Tr WH ); Luke 19:13; τά ἰδίᾳ πρόβατα κατ' ὄνομα, his own sheep each by its name, John 10:3 (where L T Tr WH φωνεῖ); used of Christ, calling certain persons to be his disciples and constant companions, Matthew 4:21 (note what precedes in 19: δεῦτε ὀπίσω μου); Mark 1:20; to order one to be summoned, Matthew 2:15 (see just below); before the judges, Acts 4:18; Acts 24:2; followed by ἐκ with the genitive of place, equivalent to to call out, call forth from: Matthew 2:15, cf. Hebrews 11:8. metaphorically, to cause to pass from one state into another: τινα ἐκ σκότους εἰς τό φῶς, 1 Peter 2:9.TGL καλέω.4

    b. like the Latinvoco equivalent to to invite; properly: εἰς τούς γάμους, Matthew 22:3, Matthew 22:9; Luke 14:8; John 2:2; to a feast, Luke 14:16; 1 Corinthians 10:27 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 593 (552)); Revelation 19:9; καλέσας, Luke 7:39; Luke 14:9; κεκληκώς τινα, Luke 14:10, Luke 14:12; οἱ κεκλημένοι, Matthew 22:8; Luke 14:7, Luke 14:17, Luke 14:24; (2 Samuel 13:23; Esther 5:12; and often so in Greek writings from Homer , Odyssey 4, 532; 11,187 down). β. metaphorically: to invite one, εἰς τί, to something i. e. to participate in it, enjoy it; used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel (διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, 2 Thessalonians 2:14) to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom: εἰς τήν βασιλείαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Thessalonians 2:12; εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, 1 Timothy 6:12; εἰς δόξαν αἰώνιον, 1 Peter 5:10; εἰς τήν κοινωνίαν τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:9; so καλεῖν τινα used alone: Romans 8:30; Romans 9:24; 1 Corinthians 7:17, 1 Corinthians 7:20-22, 1 Corinthians 7:24; τινα καλεῖν κλήσει, 2 Timothy 1:9; ἐν ἐκληθημεν, in whom lies the reason why we were called, who is the ground of our having been invited, Ephesians 1:11 Lachmann; ἄξιος τῆς κλήσεως, ἧς (by attraction for (or perhaps ἥν; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 24, 1; Buttmann , 287 (247); Ellicott, in the place cited)) ἐκλήθητε, Ephesians 4:1; God is styled καλῶν τινα (he that calleth one, the caller, cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 45, 7), Galatians 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:24; and καλέσας τινα, Galatians 1:6; Colossians 1:12 Lachmann; 1 Peter 1:15; 2 Peter 1:3. οἱ κεκλημένοι, Hebrews 9:15; καλεῖν and καλεῖσθαι are used with a specification of the mediate end (for the highest or final end of the calling is eternal salvation): ἐπ' ἐλευθερία, Galatians 5:13; οὐκ ἐπ' ἀκαθαρσία ἀλλ' ἐν ἁγιασμῷ, 1 Thessalonians 4:7; ἐν εἰρήνη, 1 Corinthians 7:15; ἐν ἑνί ἐλπίδι, that ye might come into one hope, Ephesians 4:4 (see ἐν , I. 7 (yet cf. Winer s Grammar, 417 (389); Buttmann , 329 (283); especially Ellicott in loc.), and ἐπί, Buttmann , 2 a. ζ'.); εἰς εἰρήνην τοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν ἑνί σώματι, that ye may be in one body i. e. be members of one and the same body, Colossians 3:15; εἰς τοῦτο (which refers to what precedes) followed by ἵνα, 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 3:9; (but everywhere in the N. T. Epistles only those are spoken of as called by God who have listened to his voice addressed to them in the gospel, hence those who have enlisted in the service of Christ — see Romans 8:30 and Rückert's Commentary, at the passage cited, p. 464, cf. 1 Corinthians 1:24; those who have slighted the invitation are not reckoned among the called); Christ also is said καλεῖν τινα, namely, to embrace the offer of salvation by the Messiah, in Matthew 9:13 and Mark 2:17 (in both passages Rec. adds εἰς μετάνοιαν). God is said to call those who are not yet born, viz. by promises of salvation which have respect to them, so that καλεῖν is for substance equivalent to to appoint one to salvation, Romans 9:12 (11); καλοῦντος τά μή ὄντα ὡς ὄντα, Romans 4:17, where cf. Fritzsche (others besides, cf. Meyer (especially Weiss edition) at the passage). to call (equivalent to to select) to assume some office, τινα, of God appointing or committing an office to one (German berufen): Galatians 1:15; Hebrews 5:4 (Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:1; Isaiah 51:2). to invite equivalent to to rouse, summon: to do something, εἰς μετάνοιαν, Luke 5:32, added in Rec. also in Matthew 9:13 and Mark 2:17.TGL καλέω.5

    2. to call i. e. to name, call by name;TGL καλέω.6

    a. to give a name to; with two accusatives, one of the object the other of the name as a predicate (to call one (by) a name: Matthew 10:25 Rec. ; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 32, 4 b.; Buttmann , 151 (132) note); passive with the nominative of the name, to receive the name of, receive as a name: Matthew 2:23; Matthew 27:8; Luke 1:32, Luke 1:60, Luke 1:62; Luke 2:4, etc.; καλούμενος, called, whose name or surname is, Luke 7:11; Luke 9:10; Luke 10:39; Acts 7:58; Acts 27:8, Acts 27:16; καλούμενος (on its position cf. Buttmann , § 144, 19): Luke 6:15; Luke 8:2; (Luke 22:3 T Tr WH ); Luke 23:33; Acts 1:23; Acts 10:1; Acts 13:1; (Acts 15:22 L T Tr WH ); Acts 27:14; Revelation 12:9; Revelation 16:16; with ὀνόματι added, Luke 19:2; καλεῖσθαι ὀνόματι τίνι, to be called by a name, Luke 1:61; καλεῖν τινα ἐπί τῷ ὀνόματι τίνος, Luke 1:59 (see ἐπί , Buttmann , 2 a. ., p. 233{b}); after the Hebrew אֶת־שְׁמו קָרָא, καλεῖν τό ὄνομα τίνος, with the name in the accusative, to give some name to one, call his name: Matthew 1:21, Matthew 1:23, Matthew 1:25; Luke 1:13, Luke 1:31; passive, Luke 2:21; Revelation 19:13; Genesis 17:19; 1 Samuel 1:20, etc. (similarly sometimes in Greek writings, cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 45 (Buttmann , 151 (132))).TGL καλέω.7

    b. Passive καλοῦμαι with predicate nominative to be called i. e. to bear a name or title (among men) (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 65, 8): Luke 1:35; Luke 22:25; Acts 8:10 (Rec. omits καλοῦμαι); 1 Corinthians 15:9; to be said to be (equivalent to to be acknowledged, pass as, the nominative expressing the judgment passed on one): Matthew 5:9, Matthew 5:19; Luke 1:32, Luke 1:35, Luke 1:76; Luke 2:23; Luke 15:19; Romans 9:26; James 2:23; opposed to εἶναι, 1 John 3:1 L T Tr WH ; Hebraistically (Genesis 21:12) ἐν Ἰσαάκ κληθήσεται σοι σπέρμα, through (better in, cf. ἐν , I. 6 c. and Meyer (edited by Weiss) ad Romans, the passage cited) Isaac shall a seed be called for thee, i. e. Isaac (not Ishmael) is the one whose posterity shall obtain the name and honor of thy descendants, Romans 9:7 and Hebrews 11:18.TGL καλέω.8

    c. καλῷ τινα, with an accusative of the predicate or a title of honor, to salute one by a name: Matthew 23:9; passive, Matthew 23:7, Matthew 23:10; Revelation 19:11 (but Tr marginal reading WH brackets καλῷ); to give a name to one and mention him at the same time, Matthew 22:43, Matthew 22:45; Luke 20:44. (Compare: ἀντικαλέω, ἐνκαλέω, εἰσκαλέω (καλέομαι), ἐπικαλέω, μετακαλέω, παρακαλέω, συνπαρακαλέω, προκαλέω, προσκαλέω, συγκαλέω.)TGL καλέω.9


    (2565) καλλιέλαιος, καλλιελαιου, (from κάλλος and ἐλαία), the garden olive (A. V. good olive tree) (opposed to ἀγριέλαιος the wild olive): Romans 11:24. Aristotle , de plant. 1, 6, p. 820{b}, 40.TGL καλλιέλαιος.2


    (2566) καλλίων, see καλός , at the end. See related Strong's entry Strong's 2570.TGL καλλίον.2


    (2567) καλοδιδάσκαλος, καλοδιδασκαλου, , (διδάσκαλος and καλόν, cf. ἱεροδιδασκαλος, νομοδιδάσκαλος , χοροδιδάσκαλος), teaching that which is good, a teacher of goodness: Titus 2:3. Nowhere else.TGL καλοδιδάσκαλος.2

    Καλοὶ λιμένες

    (2568) Καλοι Λιμενες (καλός and λιμήν), Fair Havens (German Schönhafen; Luth.Gutfurt ), a bay of Crete, near the city Lasaea; so called because offering good anchorage; now Limenes kali (BB. DD. ): Acts 27:8.TGL Καλοὶ λιμένες.2


    (2569) καλοποιέω, καλοποιῶ; (equivalent to καλῶς ποιῶ, cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 199f (Winer s Grammar, 25)); to do well, act uprightly: 2 Thessalonians 3:13. (Etym. Magn. 189, 24; (Leviticus 5:4 Ald. (as quoted in) Philo de somn. l. ii. § 44).)TGL καλοποιέω.2


    (2570) καλός, καλή, καλόν (probably primarily 'sound,' 'hale,' 'whole;' cf. Vanicek , p. 140f; Curtius , § 31), the Sept. for יָפֶה beautiful, but much more often for טוב good; beautiful, applied by the Greeks to everything so distinguished in form, excellence, goodness, usefulness, as to be pleasing; hence (according to the context) equivalent to "beautiful, handsome, excellent, eminent, choice, surpassing, precious, useful, suitable, commendable, admirable";TGL καλός.2

    a. beautiful to look at, shapely, magnificent: λίθοις καλοῖς κεκόσμηται (A. V. goodly), Luke 21:5.TGL καλός.3

    b. good, excellent in its nature and characteristics, and therefore well adapted to its ends: joined to the names of material objects, universally, 1 Timothy 4:4 (equivalent to pure); especially of things so constituted as to answer the purpose for which that class of things was created; good of its kind: τά καλά, of fish, opposed to such as are thrown away (τά σαπρά), Matthew 13:48; σπέρμα, Matthew 13:24, Matthew 13:21, Matthew 13:37; καρπός, Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:17-19; Matthew 12:33; Luke 3:9 (L WH brackets καλόν); Luke 6:43; δένδρον, opposed to σαπρόν, Matthew 12:33; Luke 6:43; γῆ, Matthew 13:8, Matthew 13:23; Mark 4:8, Mark 4:20; Luke 8:15; καλόν τό ἅλας (is an excellent thing), Mark 9:50; Luke 14:34; so too νόμος, good in its substance and nature, and fitted to beget good, Romans 7:16; 1 Timothy 1:8; διδασκαλία, true and approved teaching, 1 Timothy 4:6; καρδία καλή καί ἀγαθή, Luke 8:15; παραθήκη (which see) (containing (rather, consisting of) καλά), 2 Timothy 1:14; μέτρον, ample measure (rabbinical, טובה מדה; English good measure), Luke 6:38; βαθμός (firm (but see βαθμός )), 1 Timothy 3:13; also θεμέλιος, 1 Timothy 6:19; equivalent to genuine, approved, πάντα δοκιμάζετε, τό καλόν κατέχετε, 1 Thessalonians 5:21; equivalent to precious (A. V. goodly), μαργαρῖται, Matthew 13:45; equivalent to superior to other kinds, οἶνος, John 2:10; joined to names of men designated by their office, competent, able, such as one ought to be: ποιμήν, John 10:11, John 10:14; διάκονος, 1 Timothy 4:6; οἰκονόμος, 1 Peter 4:10; στρατιώτης, 2 Timothy 2:3; joined to nouns denoting an effect estimated by the power it involves, or by its constancy, or by the end aimed at by its author, equivalent to praiseworthy, noble: στρατεία, 1 Timothy 1:18; ἀγών, 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 4:7; ὁμολογία, 1 Timothy 6:12; ἔργον, Matthew 26:10; Mark 14:6; John 10:33; 1 Timothy 3:1; plural John 10:32. καλόν ἐστιν, it is expedient, profitable, wholesome: followed by an infinitive as subject, 1 Corinthians 7:1; with τίνι added (so in 1 Corinthians, the passage cited also), Matthew 18:8 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 241 (226); Buttmann , § 149, 7); Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, R G (also L Tr marginal reading in 47); 1 Corinthians 7:26; 1 Corinthians 9:15; καλόν ἐστιν followed by the accusative and infinitive, Mark 9:43, Mark 9:45, Mark 9:47, L (but see above) T Tr (but not marginal reading, see above) WH ; Hebrews 13:9; followed by εἰ (cf. Buttmann , 217 (187f); Winer 's Grammar, 282 (265)), Matthew 26:24; Mark 9:42; Mark 14:21; followed by ἐάν (Buttmann and Winer 's Grammar, as above), 1 Corinthians 7:8; it is pleasant, delightful, followed by an accusative with an infinitive: Matthew 17:4; Mark 9:5; Luke 9:33.TGL καλός.4

    c. beautiful by reason of purity of heart and life, and hence praiseworthy; morally good, noble, (Latinhonestus ; (cf. Aristotle , τό καθ' αὐτό καλόν)): διάκρισις καλοῦ τέ καί κακοῦ, Hebrews 5:14; ἔργα, Matthew 5:16; 1 Timothy 5:10, 1 Timothy 5:25; 1 Timothy 6:18; Titus 2:7, Titus 2:14; Titus 3:8, Titus 3:14; Hebrews 10:24; 1 Peter 2:12, and Lachmann in 2 Peter 1:10; ἀναστροφή, James 3:13; 1 Peter 2:12; καλή συνείδησις, consciousness of good deeds (A. V. a good conscience), Hebrews 13:18; καλά, καλόν ἐνώπιον τίνος, in one's judgment, Romans 12:17; 2 Corinthians 8:21; 1 Timothy 2:3 and Rec. in 1 Timothy 5:4; ζηλοῦσθαι ἐν καλῷ, Galatians 4:18; τό καλόν κατεργάζεσθαι, Romans 7:18; ποιεῖν, Romans 7:21; 2 Corinthians 13:7; Galatians 6:9; James 4:17; καλόν ἐστιν, it is right, proper, becoming, followed by an infinitive: Matthew 15:26 (L T ἔξεστιν); (Mark 7:27); Galatians 4:18 (here Tr marginal reading imperative); Romans 14:21.TGL καλός.5

    d. honorable, conferring honor: μαρτυρία, 1 Timothy 3:7; ὄνομα, James 2:7; οὐ καλόν τό καύχημα ὑμῶν, 1 Corinthians 5:6.TGL καλός.6

    e. affecting the mind agreeably, comforting and confirming: Θεοῦ ῤῆμα (the Sept. for טוב דָּבָר, which is spoken of the divine promises, Joshua 21:45; Zechariah 1:13), the gospel and its promises full of consolation, Hebrews 6:5. Compar. καλλίων, κάλλιον, better: neut, adverbially, σύ κάλλιον ἐπιγινώσκεις, i. e. better than by thy question thou seemest to know, Acts 25:10 (Winer s Grammar, 242 (227)). The word is not found in the Apocalypse. (Cf. Trench , § cvi. at the end; Zezschwitz, Profangräcität as above with, p. 60f (cf. ἀγαθός , at the end); Westcott on John 10:11.)TGL καλός.7


    (2571) κάλυμμα, καλυμματος, τό (καλύπτω), a veil, a covering: 2 Corinthians 3:13 (Exodus 35:33); (κάλυμμα, or its equivalent, is suggested to the reader by the context in 1 Corinthians 11:4 κατά κεφαλῆς ἔχων; see ἔχω , I. 1 b.); metaphorically, 2 Corinthians 3:14-16, of that which prevents a thing from being understood. (Homer , Tragg., Aristophanes , others; the Sept. .)TGL κάλυμμα.2


    (2572) καλύπτω; future καλύψω; 1 aorist ἐκάλυψα; passive, present infinitive καλύπτεσθαι; perfect participle κεκαλυμμενος; (allied with κρύπτω; Vanicek , p. 1091; Curtius , Das Verbum, i. 242;) the Sept. for כִּסָּה; often in Homer , Tragg. and other poets, more rarely in prose; to cover, cover up; properly: τινα, Luke 23:30; τί τίνι, a thing with anything, Luke 8:16; passive Matthew 8:24; tropically, to hide, veil, i. e. to hinder the knowledge of a thing: perfect passive, Matthew 10:26; 2 Corinthians 4:3; πλῆθος ἁμαρτιῶν, not to regard or impute them, i. e. to pardon them, 1 Peter 4:8; to procure pardon of them from God, James 5:20; cf. Psalms 84:3 (Psalms 85:3) (2); Psalms 31:1 (Psalms 32:1) (Compare: ἀνακαλύπτω, ἀποκαλύπτω, ἐπικαλύπτω, κατακαλύπτω, παρακαλύπτω, περικαλύπτω, συγκαλύπτω.)TGL καλύπτω.2


    (2573) καλῶς (καλός), adverb (from Homer down), beautifully, finely, excellently, well: (universally, διά τό καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι (Tr οἰκοδομεῖσθαι, which see), Luke 6:48 T Tr WH ); specifically,TGL καλῶς.2

    a. rightly, so that there shall be no room for blame: joined to verbs of speaking (ἀποκρινεσθια, λαλεῖν, λέγειν, προφητεύειν, etc.), well, truly, Matthew 15:7; Mark 7:6; Luke 20:39; John 4:17; John 8:48; John 13:13; (John 18:23); Acts 28:25; fitly, i. e. agreeably to the facts and words of the case, Mark 12:28; καλῶς "Right! Well!" an expression of approval: Mark 12:32; Romans 11:20; of deeds: καλῶς ποιεῖν, to do well, act uprightly, James 2:19; 1 Corinthians 7:37 (where the teaching is, that one can do καλῶς, but another κρεῖσσον); καλῶς ποιεῖν with participle to do well that, etc. (Buttmann , § 144, 15 a.; Winer 's Grammar, 345 (323)), Acts 10:33; Philippians 4:14; 2 Peter 1:19; 3 John 1:6. (1 Macc. 12:18, 22; 2 Macc. 2:16, etc.); with verbs denoting a duty or office which one fulfils well: 1 Timothy 3:4, 1 Timothy 3:12; 1 Timothy 5:17; specifically honestly, uprightly: Galatians 4:17; ἀναστρέφεσθαι, Hebrews 13:18; ποιεῖν, James 2:8.TGL καλῶς.3

    b. excellently, nobly, commendably: 1 Corinthians 14:17; Galatians 5:7; καλῶς πάντα πεποίηκε, Mark 7:37; with bitter irony, Mark 7:9 (where cf. Fritzsche, p. 271f); 2 Corinthians 11:4.TGL καλῶς.4

    c. honorably, in honor: James 2:3 (others give it here an outward reference, equivalent to in a good place, comfortably).TGL καλῶς.5

    d. καλῶς εἰπεῖν τινα, to speak well of one, Luke 6:26; καλῶς ποιεῖν τινα, to do good to, benefit one, Matthew 5:44 Rec. ; τίνι (Winer 's Grammar, § 32, 1 β.; Buttmann , 146 (128)), Luke 6:27; καλῶς ποιεῖν, simply, to do good: Matthew 12:12.TGL καλῶς.6

    e. καλῶς ἔχειν, to be well (of those recovering health): Mark 16:18.TGL καλῶς.7


    (2574) κάμηλος, καμήλου, , , Hebrew גָּמָל (from Herodotus down), a camel (BB. DD. under the word; Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 58ff): Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6; in proverbs, Matthew 19:24; Mark 10:25; Luke 18:25, (meaning, 'something almost or altogether impossible' (cf. Farrar in The Expositor for 1876 i., p. 369ff; especially Wetzstein in the Sitzungsberichte d. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu München, 1873, pp. 581-596)); Matthew 23:24 (of one who is careful not to sin in trivial matters, but pays no heed to the more important matters).TGL κάμηλος.2


    (2575) κάμινος, καμίνου, , (Homer , epistle 14, 2 etc., Herodotus on), a furnace (either for smelting, Xenophon , vectig. 4, 49, or for burning earthen ware, or baking bread, Genesis 19:28; Exodus 19:18; Jeremiah 11:4; Daniel 3:6): Matthew 13:42, Matthew 13:50; Revelation 1:15; Revelation 9:2.TGL κάμινος.2


    (2576) καμμύω, a form which passed over from the epic (cf. Homer batrach. 191) and common language (Apoll. Dysc. synt. 323, 22; 326, 9) into the Alexandrian and decaying Greek; condemned by Phryn. (as below); derived by syncope and assimilation from καταμύω (which the earlier and more elegant Greeks use) (cf. καμμέν, καμμονη, κάμμορος, from κατά μέν, καταμονη, καταμορος, cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Gram. § 117, 2 Anm. 2; Ausf. Gram. ii., p. 373; Fischer, De vitiis lexamples N. T., p. 678f; Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc., p. 173f; Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 339f; Schäfer ad Lamb. Bos, p. 368; (cf. Buttmann , 62 (55); Winer 's Grammar, 24, 46)): 1 aorist ἐκάμμυσα; to shut the eyes, close the eyes: often with τούς ὀφθαλμούς added; so Matthew 13:15 and Acts 28:27 (from the Sept. Isaiah 6:10, for הָשַׁע, i. e. to besmear), in both passages the phrase designates the inflexible pertinacity and obstinacy of the Jews in their opposition to the gospel. (Isaiah 29:10; Lamentations 3:43; καμμύειν τό τῆς ψυχῆς ὄμμα, Philo de somn. i. § 26.)TGL καμμύω.2


    (2577) κάμνω; 2 aorist ἔκαμον; perfect κέκμηκα;TGL κάμνω.2

    1. to grow weary, be weary (so from Homer down): Revelation 2:3 Rec. ; Hebrews 12:3.TGL κάμνω.3

    2. to be sick: James 5:15 (Sophocles (Herodotus ), Aristophanes , Euripides , Xenophon , Plato , Aristotle , Diodorus , Lucian , others).TGL κάμνω.4


    (2578) κάμπτω; future καμψω; 1 aorist ἐκαμψα;TGL κάμπτω.2

    a. to bend, bow: τό γόνυ (and τά γούνατα), the knee (the knees), used by Homer of those taking a seat or sitting down to rest (Iliad 7, 118; 19, 72); in Biblical Greek with the dative of person to one i. e. in honor of one, in religious veneration; used of worshippers: Romans 11:4 and 1 Kings 19:18 (where for כָּרַע followed by לְ); πρός τινα, toward (unto) one, Ephesians 3:14.TGL κάμπτω.3

    b. reflexively, to bow oneself: κάμψει πᾶν γόνυ ἐμοί, shall bow to me (in honor), i. e. everyone shall worship me, Romans 14:11 (from Isaiah 45:23); ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ, in devout recognition of the name (of κύριος) which Jesus received from God, Philippians 2:10 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 390 (365); Lightfoot , Meyer, in the place cited; also ὄνομα, especially sub at the end. Compare: ἀνακάμπτω, συγκάμπτω).TGL κάμπτω.4


    (2579) κἄν (Griesbach κἄν; see κἀγώ , at the beginning), by crusts for καί ἐάν (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 3; Buttmann , p. 10; Tdf Proleg., p. 97; WH 's Appendix, p. 145{b}); hence joined with the subjunctive;TGL κἄν.2

    1. and if: Matthew 10:23 G L ; Mark 16:18; (Luke 12:38 (bis) T Tr text WH ; John 8:55 L T Tr WH ; 1 Corinthians 13:2{a} L WH , 2^b Tr text WH , 3^a L Tr WH , 3^b L WH ); James 5:15; by aposiopesis with the suppression of the apodosis, κἄν μέν ποιήσῃ καρπόν, namely, εὖ ἔχει it is well (or some such phrase), Luke 13:9; cf. Winer s Grammar, 600 (558); (Buttmann , § 151, 26).TGL κἄν.3

    2. also or even if;TGL κἄν.4

    a. if only, at least, in abridged discourse: κἄν τόν ἱματίων αὐτοῦ, namely, ἅψωμαι, Mark 5:28; also ἵνα (namely, ἅψωνται αὐτοῦ) κἄν τοῦ κρασπέδου... ἅψωνται, Mark 6:56: ἵνα ἐρχομένου Πέτρου (namely, τί αὐτοῦ ἐπισκιάσῃ αὐτῶν) κἄν σκιά etc. Acts 5:15; κἄν ὡς ἄφρονα namely, δεξησθε με, 2 Corinthians 11:16; (Wis. 14:4 Wis. 15:2). Cf. Buttmann , § 149, 6; (Winer s Grammar, 584 (543); Green , Gram. of the N. T., p. 230; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 139f; Liddell and Scott, under the word; Sophocles Lexicon, under the word).TGL κἄν.5

    b. even if: Matthew 21:21; Matthew 26:35; John 8:14; John 10:38; (John 11:25); Hebrews 12:20.TGL κἄν.6


    (2580) Κανά (Κανά WH ; cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 103; Winer 's Grammar, § 6, 1 m.), (Buttmann , 21 (19)), Cana, indeclinable (Winer 's Grammar, 61 (60); but dative Κανά Rec.st in John 2:1, John 2:11), proper name of a village of Galilee about three hours distant from Nazareth toward the northwest, surviving at present in a place (partly uninhabited and partly ruinous) called Kana el-Jelil; cf. Robinson, Biblical Researches, ii. 346f; also his Later Biblical Researches, p. 108; cf. Ewald, Gesch. Christus as above with, p. 147 (1st edition); Rüetschi in Herzog vii. 234; (Porter in Alex.'s Kitto under the word. Several recent writers are inclined to reopen the question of the identification of Cana; see e. g. B. D. American edition under the word; Zeller, in Quart. Statem. of Palest. Expl. Fund, No. iii., p. 71f; Arnaud, Palestine, p. 412f; Conder, Tent Work etc. i. 150f) John 2:1, John 2:11; John 4:46; John 21:2.TGL Κανά.2


    (2581) Κανανίτης, Κανανιτου, (from Chaldean קַנְאָן, Hebrew קָנָא), equivalent to ζηλωτής (according to the interpr. of Luke in Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13), which see, the Zealot, a surname of the apostle Simon R G (the latter with a small kappa κ') in Matthew 10:4 and Mark 3:18.TGL Καναναῖος.2


    (2582) Κανδάκη, Κανδάκης, , Candace, a name common to the queens of a region of Ethiopia whose capital was Napata; just as the proper name Ptolemy was common to the Egyptian kings, and Henry to the Reuss princes (Strabo 17, 1, 54, p. 820; Pliny , h. n. 6, 35; Dio Cassius , 54, 5): Acts 8:27; cf. Laurent, Die Königin Kandake, in the Zeitschr. f. d. luth. Theol. for 1862, p. 632ff (reprinted in his N. T. Studien, p. 140f; cf. especially B. D. American edition, under the word).TGL Κανδάκη.2


    (2583) κανών, κανόνος, (κάννα, Hebrew קָנֶה a cane, reed; Arabic: a reed, and a spear, and a straight stick or staff (cf. Vanicek , Fremdwörter etc., p. 21)), properly, a rod or straight piece of rounded wood to which anything is fastened to keep it straight; used for various purposes (see Passow (or Liddell and Scott), under the word); a measuring rod, rule; a carpenter's line or measuring tape, Schol. on Euripides , Hippolytus, 468; hence, equivalent to τό μέτρον τοῦ πηδηματος (Pollux , Onom. 3, 30, 151), the measure of a leap, as in the Olympic games; accordingly in the N. T.TGL κανών.2

    1. "a definitely bounded or fixed space within the limits of which one's power or influence is confined; the province assigned one; one's sphere of activity": 2 Corinthians 10:13, 2 Corinthians 10:15.TGL κανών.3

    2. Metaphorically, any rule or standard, a principle or law of investigating, judging, living, acting (often so in classical Greek, as τοῦ καλοῦ, Euripides , Hec. 602; ὁροι τῶν ἀγαθῶν καί κανονες, Demosthenes , pro cor., p. 324, 27): Galatians 6:16; Philippians 3:16 Rec. Cf. Credner, Zur Gesch. des Kanons (Hal., 1847), pp. 6ff; (especially Westcott, The Canon of the N. T., Appendix A; briefly in B. D. under the word Canon of Scripture ; for examples of later usage see Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word).TGL κανών.4


    (2584) Καπερναούμ or more correctly (with L T Tr WH (cf. WH s Appendix, p. 160; Scrivener , Introduction, p. 561)) Καφαρναούμ (כָּפָר a village, and נָחוּם consolation; hence 'the village of consolation,' (others, 'village of Nachum' (a proper name)); Καπαρναουμ, Ptolemy , 5, 16, 4), , Capernaum or Capharnaum, a flourishing city of Galilee (Matthew 11:23; Luke 10:15), situated on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee or Lake of Gennesaret (John 6:17, John 6:24; hence παραθαλασσια, Matthew 4:13), near the place where the Jordan flows into the lake. Being nowhere mentioned in the O. T. it seems to have been built after the exile (cf. also B. D. under the word ). Josephus mentions (b. j. 3, 10, 8) a fountain in Galilee called by the neighboring residents Καφαρναούμ, and (vita 72) 'κώμην Κεφαρνωμην', and it is quite probable that he meant the town we are speaking of. It is mentioned in the N. T. (besides the passage already cited) in Matthew 8:5; Matthew 17:24; Mark 1:21; Mark 2:1; Mark 9:33; Luke 4:23, Luke 4:31; Luke 7:1; John 2:12; John 4:46; John 6:59. Cf. Winer s RWB under the word; Vaihinger in Herzog vii. 369; Furrer in Schenkel iii. 493f; (the last named writing gives at length (see also Zeitschr. d. Deutsch. Palaest.-Vereins for 1879, p. 63ff) his reasons for preferring (contra Robinson, Sepp, etc.) to identify C. with Tell Hum; so (after earlier writings; cf. Arnaud, p. 414), Winer as above, Dr. Wilson, Lynch, Ritter, Delitzsch, Tristram (Land of Israel, edition 3, p. 428ff) and more recently Capt. Wilson (`Our Work in Palestine,' p. 186f and 'Recovery of Jerusalem,' p. 266f (292ff)). But Conder (Tent Work in Palestine ii. 182ff) argues from Jewish authorities in favor of Khan Minyeh; see B. D. American edition under the word).TGL Καφαρναούμ.2


    (2585) καπηλεύω; (κάπηλος, i. e.TGL καπηλεύω.2

    a. an inn-keeper, especially a vintner;TGL καπηλεύω.3

    b. a petty retailer, a huckster, pedler;TGL καπηλεύω.4

    cf. Sir. 26:29 οὐ δικαιωθήσεται κάπηλος ἀπό ἁμαρτίας);TGL καπηλεύω.5

    a. to be a retailer, to peddle;TGL καπηλεύω.6

    b. with the accusative of the thing, to make money by selling anything; to get sordid gain by dealing in anything, to do a thing for base gain (οἱ τά μαθήματα περιαγοντες κατά πόλεις καί πωλοῦντες καί καπηλεύοντες, Plato , Prot., p. 313 d.; μάχην, Aeschylus the Sept. 551 (545); Latin cauponari bellum , i. e. to fight for gain, trade in war, Ennius quoted in Cicero , offic. 1, 12, 38; ἑταιραν τό τῆς ὥρας ἄνθος καπηλευουσαν, Philo de caritat. § 14, cf. leg. ad Gaium § 30, and many other examples in other authors). Hence, some suppose that καπηλεύειν τόν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ in 2 Corinthians 2:17 is equivalent to to trade in the word of God, i. e. to try to get base gain by teaching divine truth. But as pedlers were in the habit of adulterating their commodities for the sake of gain (οἱ κάπηλοί σου μίσγουσι τόν οἶνον ὕδατι, Isaiah 1:22 the Sept. ; κάπηλοί, οἱ τόν οἶνον κεραννύντες, Pollux , onomast. 7, 193; οἱ φιλοσοφοι ἀποδιδονται τά μαθήματα, ὥσπερ οἱ κάπηλοί, κερασάμενοι γέ οἱ πολλοί καί δολωσαντες καί κακομετρουντες, Lucian . Hermot. 59), καπηλεύειν τί was also used as synonymous with to corrupt, to adulterate (Themistius , or. 21, p. 247, Hard. edition says that the false philosophers τό θειοτατον τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἀγαθῶν κιβδηλεύειν τέ καί αἰσχύνειν καί καπηλεύειν); and most interpreters rightly decide in favor of this meaning (on account of the context) in 2 Corinthians 2:17, cf. δολουν τόν λόγον τοῦ Θεοῦ, 2 Corinthians 4:2. (Cf. Trench , § lxii.)TGL καπηλεύω.7


    (2586) καπνός; καπνοῦ, (fr Homer down), smoke: Revelation 8:4; Revelation 9:2, Revelation 9:17, Revelation 9:18; Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:8; Revelation 18:9, Revelation 18:18; Revelation 19:3; ἀτμίς καπνοῦ, A. V. vapor of smoke, Acts 2:19 after Joel 2:30 (Joel 3:3).TGL καπνός.2


    (2587) Καππαδοκία, Καππαδοκίας, , Cappadocia, a region of Asia Minor, bounded under the Roman empire on the north by Pontus, on the east by Armenia Minor, on the south by Cilicia and Commagene, on the west by Lycaonia and Galatia (BB. DD. , under the word): Acts 2:9; 1 Peter 1:1.TGL Καππαδοκία.2


    (2588) καρδία, καρδίας, , poetic κραδία and καρδιη (in the latter form almost always in Homer (only at the beginning of a line in three places; everywhere else by metathesis κραδιη; Ebeling, Lex. Homer , under the word)) (from a root signifying to quiver or palpitate; cf. Cartius § 39; Vanicek , p. 1097 (Etym. Magn. 491, 56 παρά τό κραδαίνω, τό σείω. ἀεικινητος γάρ καρδία); allied with Latin cor ; English heart); the Sept. for לֵב and לֵבָב; the heart;TGL καρδία.2

    1. properly, that organ in the animal body which is the center of the circulation of the blood, and hence, was regarded as the seat of physical life: 2 Samuel 18:14; 2 Kings 9:24; Tobit 6:5 (4), 7f (6f), 17 (16). Hence,TGL καρδία.3

    2. universally, καρδία denotes the seat and center of all physical and spiritual life; andTGL καρδία.4

    a. the vigor and sense of physical life (Psalms 101:5 (Psalms 102:5); στήρισον τήν καρδίαν σου ψωμῷ ἄρτου, Judges 19:5; to which add Psalms 103:15 (Psalms 104:15)): τρέφειν τάς καρδίας, James 5:5; ἐμπιπλῶν τάς καρδίας τροφῆς, Acts 14:17; βάρειν τῆς καρδίας κραιπάλῃ καί μέθη, Luke 21:34; (but see b. δ. below);TGL καρδία.5

    b. the center and seat of spiritual life, the soul or mind, as it is the fountain and seat of the thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, affections, purposes, endeavors (so in English heart, inner man, etc.);TGL καρδία.6

    α. universally: Matthew 5:8; Matthew 6:21; Mark 7:19; Luke 1:51; Luke 2:51; Luke 8:12, Luke 8:15; Acts 5:3; Romans 10:9; 1 Corinthians 14:25; 2 Corinthians 6:11; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; 1 Peter 3:4, etc.; plural: Matthew 9:4; Mark 2:6, Mark 2:8; Mark 4:16 (R L text Tr marginal reading); Luke 1:17; Luke 2:35; Luke 5:22; (Luke 24:38 R G L marginal reading; Acts 7:51 L T Tr WH text); Romans 2:15; Romans 16:18; 2 Corinthians 3:2; Galatians 4:6; Philippians 4:7; Ephesians 5:19 Lachmann; Hebrews 8:10 (T WH marginal reading singular); Hebrews 10:16, etc. καρδία is distinguished from τό στόμα or from τά χειλεα: Matthew 15:8, Matthew 15:18; Mark 7:6; 2 Corinthians 6:11; Romans 10:8; from τό πρόσωπον: 2 Corinthians 5:12; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; περιτομή καρδίας, Romans 2:29; ἀπερίτμητοι τῇ καρδία, Acts 7:51 (L T Tr WH text καρδίαις, WH marginal reading genitive καρδίας, cf. Buttmann , 170 (148)). of things done from the heart i. e. cordially or sincerely, truly (without simulation or pretence) the following phrases are used: ἐκ καρδίας (Aristophanes nub. 86), Romans 6:17; and L T Tr WH in 1 Peter 1:22, where R G ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας, as in 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22; ἀπό τῶν καρδιῶν, Matthew 18:35 (ἀπό καρδίας εὐχάριστος τοῖς θεοῖς, Antoninus 2, 3); ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ καρδία and ἐξ ὅλης τῆς καρδίας, Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30, Mark 12:33; Luke 10:27, and Rec. in Acts 8:37 (Deuteronomy 6:5; Deuteronomy 26:16; Psalm 118:34 (Psalms 119:34)); μετ' ἀληθινῆς καρδίας, Hebrews 10:22. ἐρευναν τάς καρδίας, Romans 8:27; Revelation 2:23; δοκιμάζειν, 1 Thessalonians 2:4; γινώσκειν, Luke 16:15 (ἐτάζειν, Jeremiah 17:10; Psalms 7:10); διανοίγειν τήν καρδίαν (see διανοίγω , 2), Acts 16:14; ἦν καρδία καί ψυχή μία, there was perfect unanimity, agreement of heart and soul, Acts 4:32; τιθέναι τί ἐν τῇ καρδία (בְּלֵב and לֵב עַל שׂוּם, 1 Samuel 21:12; Malachi 2:2; Daniel 1:8; τιθέναι ἐν στηθεσσιν, ἐν φρεσίν, etc., in Homer ), to lay a thing up in the heart to be considered more carefully and pondered, Luke 1:66; to fix in the heart i. e. to purpose, plan, to do something, Acts 5:4 (A. V. conceived in thy heart); also εἰς τήν καρδίαν (L T Tr WH ἐν τήν καρδίαν) followed by the infinitive, Luke 21:14; βάλλειν εἰς τήν καρδίαν τίνος, followed by ἵνα, to put into one's mind the design of doing a thing, John 13:2; also διδόναι followed by an infinitive, Revelation 17:17; ἀναβαίνει ἐπί τήν καρδίαν τίνος, followed by an infinitive, the purpose to do a thing comes into the mind, Acts 7:23; ἐν τῇ καρδία joined to verbs of thinking, reflecting upon, doubting, etc.: ἐνθυμεῖσθαι, διαλογίζεσθαι, Matthew 9:4; Mark 2:6, Mark 2:8; Luke 3:15; Luke 5:22; λέγειν, εἰπεῖν (בְּלִבּו אָמַר), to think, consider with oneself, Matthew 24:48; Luke 12:45; Romans 10:6; Revelation 18:7 (Deuteronomy 8:17; Deuteronomy 9:4); συμβάλλειν, to revolve in mind, Luke 2:19; διακρίνεσθαι, to doubt, Mark 11:23; διαλογισμοί ἀναβαινουσι, of persons in doubt, Luke 24:38 (R G L marginal reading plural); ἀναβαίνει τί ἐπί καρδίαν, the thought of a thing enters the mind, 1 Corinthians 2:9.TGL καρδία.7

    β. specifically, of the understanding, the faculty and seat of intelligence (often so in Homer also (cf. Nägelsbach, Homer . Theol., p. 319f; Zezschwitz, Profangräcität as above with, pp. 25f, 50); cor domicilium sapientiae, Lactantius , de opif. dei c. 10, cf. Cicero , Tusc. 1, 9; לֵב, 1 Kings 10:2; Job 12:3; Job 17:4, etc.; (cf. Meyer on Ephesians 1:18 and references)): Romans 1:21; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Ephesians 1:18 (Rec. διανοίας); 2 Peter 1:19; συνιέναι τῇ καρδία, Matthew 13:15; Acts 28:27; νόειν τῇ καρδία, John 12:40. of the dullness of a mind incapable of perceiving and understanding divine things the following expressions occur: ἐπαχύνθη καρδία, Matthew 13:15; Acts 28:27, (from Isaiah 6:10); πωρουν τήν καρδίαν, John 12:40; πεπωρωμένη καρδία, Mark 6:52; Mark 8:17; πώρωσις τῆς καρδίας, Mark 3:5; Ephesians 4:18; βραδύς τῇ καρδία, slow of heart, Luke 24:25; κάλυμμα ἐπί τήν καρδίαν κεῖται, 2 Corinthians 3:15.TGL καρδία.8

    γ. of the will and character: ἁγνίζειν καρδίας, James 4:8; καθαρίζειν τάς καρδίας, Acts 15:9 ῥερραντίσμενοι τάς καρδίας, Hebrews 10:22; καρδία εὐθεῖα (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 32), Acts 8:21; πονηρά, Hebrews 3:12 (cf. 11. § 132, 24; Winer 's Grammar, 194 (183)); ἀμετανόητος, Romans 2:5; γεγυμνασμενη πλεονεξίας, 2 Peter 2:14; στηρίζειν τάς καρδίας, 1 Thessalonians 3:13; βεβαιουν, in passive, Hebrews 13:9; σκληρύνειν, Hebrews 3:8; ἐπίνοια τῆς καρδίας, Acts 8:22; αἱ βουλαί τῶν καρδιῶν 1 Corinthians 4:5; προαιρεῖσθαι τῇ καρδία, 2 Corinthians 9:7; κρίνειν (to determine) and ἑδραῖος ἐν τῇ καρδία, 1 Corinthians 7:37.TGL καρδία.9

    δ. of the soul so far forth as it is affected and stirred in a bad way or good, or of the soul as the seat of the sensibilities, affections, emotions, desires, appetites, passions: καρδία καιομένη ἦν, of the soul as greatly and peculiarly moved, Luke 24:32; αἱ ἐπιθυμίαι τῶν καρδιῶν, Romans 1:24; στηρίζειν τάς καρδίας, of the cultivation of constancy and endurance, James 5:8. in reference to good-will and love: ἐήξειν τινα ἐν τῇ καρδία, to have one in one's heart, of constant remembrance and steadfast affection, Philippians 1:7 (`te tamen in toto pectore semper habet' Ovid . trist. 5, 4, 24); εἶναι ἐν τῇ καρδία τίνος, to be cherished in one's heart, to be loved by one perpetually and unalterably, 2 Corinthians 7:3; εὐδοκία τῆς καρδίας, Romans 10:1. in reference to joy and pleasure: ηὐφράνθη καρδία, Acts 2:26 (from Psalm 15:9 (Psalms 16:9)); χαρήσεται καρδία, John 16:22; ἀνήρ κατά τήν καρδίαν τοῦ Θεοῦ, i. e. in whom God delights, Acts 13:22; of the pleasure given by food, Acts 14:17 ((Winer 's Grammar, 156 (148) note) see 2 a. above). in reference to grief, pain, anguish, etc.: λύπη πεπλήρωκε τήν καρδίαν, John 16:6; ὀδύνη τῇ καρδία μου, Romans 9:2; καρδία ταράσσεται, John 14:1, John 14:27; συνοχή καρδίας, 2 Corinthians 2:4; βάρειν τῆς καρδίας μερίμναις βιωτικαῖς, Luke 21:34 (cf. 2 a. above); διαπρίομαι τῇ καρδία, Acts 7:54; συντετριμμένος τήν καρδίαν, Luke 4:18 R L brackets; κατενύγησαν τῇ καρδία, Acts 2:37 (L T Tr WH τήν καρδίαν); συνθρύπτειν τήν καρδίαν, Acts 21:13.TGL καρδία.10

    ε. of a soul conscious of good or bad deeds (our conscience): 1 John 3:20 (Ecclesiastes 7:22; so לֵבָב, Job 27:6; καρδία πατασσει τινα, 1 Samuel 24:6; 2 Samuel 24:10).TGL καρδία.11

    3. used of the middle or central or inmost part of anything, even though inanimate: τῆς γῆς (which some understand of Hades, others of the sepulchre), Matthew 12:40 (τῆς θαλάσσης, Jonah 2:4 for לֵב; and for the same ἐν μέσῳ θαλάσσης, Exodus 15:8, Exodus 15:19; add Baruch 6: (Epistle Jer.) Baruch 6:19; τῆς κλεψυδρας, Aristotle , probl. 16, 8 (others, κώδια)). Cf. Beck, Biblical Seelenlehre, chapter iii. § 20ff, p. 64ff; Delitzsch, Biblical Psychologie (Leipz. 1861) iv. § 12, p. 248ff (also in Herzog 2, vi. 57ff); Oehler in Herzog vi., p. 15ff (also in his O. T. Theol. (edited by Day) § 71); Wittichen in Schenkel iii. 71f.TGL καρδία.12


    (2589) καρδιογνώστης, καρδιογνωστου, (καρδία, γνώστης), knower of hearts: Acts 1:24; Acts 15:8. (Ecclesiastical writings (Winer 's Grammar, 100 (94)).)TGL καρδιογνώστης.2


    (2590) καρπός, καρποῦ, (cf. Latincarpo ; A-S. hearf-est (harvest i. e. the ingathering of crops); Curtius , § 42); Hebrew פְּרִי; from Homer down; fruit;TGL καρπός.2

    1. properly: the fruit of trees, Matthew 12:33; Matthew 21:19; Mark 11:14; Luke 6:44; Luke 13:6; of vines, Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:2; Luke 20:10; 1 Corinthians 9:7; of the fields, Luke 12:17; Mark 4:29; 2 Timothy 2:6; (James 5:7); βλαστάνειν, James 5:18; ποιεῖν, to bear fruit (after the Hebrew פְּרִי עָשָׂה (see ποιέω , I. 1 e.)), Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:17-19; Matthew 13:26; Luke 3:9; Luke 11:43; Luke 8:8; Luke 13:9; Revelation 22:2; διδόναι, Matthew 13:8; Mark 4:7; φέρειν, Matthew 7:18 T WH ; John 12:24; John 15:2, John 15:4; (trop. John 15:8, John 15:16); ἀποδιδόναι, to yield fruit, Revelation 22:2; to render (pay) the fruit, Matthew 21:41; by a Hebraism, καρπός τῆς κοιλίας, i. e. the unborn child, Luke 1:42 (בֶּטֶן פְּרִי, Deuteronomy 28:4, where the Sept. τά ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας); τῆς ὀσφύος the fruit of one's loins, i. e. his progeny, his posterity, Acts 2:30 (Genesis 30:2; Psalms 126:3 (Psalms 127:3); Psalms 131:11 (Psalms 132:11); Micah 6:7); cf. Winer 's Grammar, 33 (32).TGL καρπός.3

    2. Metaphorically, that which originates or comes from something; an effect, result;TGL καρπός.4

    a. equivalent to ἔργον, work, act, deed: with the genitive of the author, τοῦ πνεύματος, Galatians 5:22; τοῦ φωτός, Ephesians 5:9 (Rec. τοῦ πνεύματος); τῆς δικαιοσύνης, Philippians 1:11 (cf.TGL καρπός.5

    b. below); of Christian charity, i. e. benefit, Romans 15:28; καρπόν πολύν φέρειν, to accomplish much (for the propagation of Christianity and its furtherance in the souls of men), John 15:8, John 15:16; used of men's deeds as exponents of their hearts (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 372 (348)), Matthew 7:16, Matthew 7:20; ἀγαθοί, James 3:17; καρποί τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ, deeds required for the attainment of salvation in the kingdom of God, Matthew 21:43; ποιεῖν καρπούς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας, to exhibit deeds agreeing with a change of heart, Matthew 3:8; Luke 3:8 (cf. ἄξια τῆς μετανοίας ἔργα πράσσειν, Acts 26:20), b. advantage, profit, utility: Philippians 1:22; Philippians 4:17; ἔχειν καρπόν, to get fruit, Romans 1:13; Romans 6:21; τῆς δικαιοσύνης, benefit arising from righteousness (others make it genitive of apposition, Winer 's Grammar, § 59, 8 a.), Hebrews 12:11; which consists in righteousness (genitive of apposition), James 3:18 (cf. Philippians 1:11 in a. above, and Meyer ad loc.; Proverbs 11:30; Amos 6:12).TGL καρπός.6

    c. by a Hebraism οἱ καρποί τῶν χειλέων, praises, which are presented to God as a thank-offering: Hebrews 13:15 (Hosea 14:2; Proverbs 12:14; Proverbs 29:49 (Proverbs 31:31)). Cf. Winer s Grammar, 33 (32) note 1.TGL καρπός.7

    d. συνάγειν καρπόν εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, to gather fruit (i. e. a reaped harvest) into life eternal (as into a granary), is used in figurative discourse of those who by their labors have fitted souls to obtain eternal life, John 4:36.TGL καρπός.8


    (2591) Καρπός (cf. Winer 's Grammar, p. 51), καρποῦ, , Carpus, the name of an unknown man: 2 Timothy 4:13.TGL Κάρπος.2


    (2592) καρποφορέω, καρποφόρω; 1 aorist ἐκαρποφόρησα; present passive participle καρποφορουμενος; (καρποφόρος, which see); to bear fruit; (Vulg. fructifico ; Columella (), Tertullian );TGL καρποφορέω.2

    a. properly, ((Xenophon , Aristotle ), Theophrastus , de hist. plant. 3, 3, 7; Diodorus 2, 49): χόρτον, Mark 4:28 (φυτά, Wis. 10:7).TGL καρποφορέω.3

    b. metaphorically, to bear, bring forth, deeds: thus of men who show their knowledge of religion by their conduct, Matthew 13:23; Mark 4:20; Luke 8:15; ἐν (for R G L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ἐν (cf. Buttmann , 103 (90), see εἷς , 4 a.)) τριάκοντα etc. namely, καρποις, Mark 4:20 T Tr text WH text (see ἐν , I. 5 f.); ἐν παντί ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ, Colossians 1:10; τίνι (dative commodi]) to one who reaps the fruit, i. e. fruit acceptable to him, τῷ Θεῷ, Romans 7:4; τῷ θανάτῳ, i. e. (without the figure) to produce works rewarded with death, Romans 7:5; in middle to bear fruit of oneself, Colossians 1:6 (cf. Lightfoot at the passage).TGL καρποφορέω.4


    (2593) καρποφόρος, καρποφόρον (καρπός and φέρω), fruit-bearing, fruitful, productive: Acts 14:17. (Pindar , Xenophon , Theophrastus , Diodorus , the Sept. .)TGL καρποφόρος.2


    (2594) καρτερέω, καρτέρω: 1 aorist ἐκαρτέρησα; (καρτερός (from κάρτος i. e. κράτος, 'strong')); to be steadfast: Hebrews 11:27 (A. V. endured). (Job 2:9; Sir. 2:2 Sir. 12:15; often in Greek writings from Sophocles and Thucydides down.) (Compare: προσκαρτερέω.)TGL καρτερέω.2


    (2595) κάρφος, καρφεος (καρφους), τό (from κάρφω to contract, dry up, wither), a dry stalk or twig, a straw; chaff (A. V. mote): Matthew 7:3-5; Luke 6:41, where it figuratively denotes a smaller fault. (Genesis 8:11; in Greek writings from Aeschylus and Herodotus down.)TGL κάρφος.2


    (2596) κατά (on its neglect of elision before a vowel see Tdf, Proleg., p. 95; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 5, 1 a.; a. 10; WH 's Appendix, p. 146a), a preposition denoting motion or diffusion or direction from the higher to the lower; as in classical Greek, joined with the genitive and the accusative.TGL κατά.2

    I. With the genitive (Winer 's Grammar, § 47, k., p. 381 (357); (B, § 147, 20));TGL κατά.3

    1. properly,TGL κατά.4

    a. down from, down: κατά τοῦ κρημνοῦ, Matthew 8:32; Mark 5:13; Luke 8:33; κατεχην κατά τῆς κεφαλῆς (so that it flowed down from his head (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 381 (357) note); but it is more correct here to omit κατά with L T Tr WH ; see καταχέω ), Mark 14:3; hence κατά κεφαλῆς (a veil hanging down from his entry) ἔχων, 1 Corinthians 11:4 ((A. V. having his head covered) cf. καταπέτασμα (or rather κάλυμμα (which see), but see ἔχω , I. 1 b.)).TGL κατά.5

    b. down upon (down into) anything: Acts 27:14 (Winer s Grammar, 381 (357) note{1}; cf. B. D. American edition, under the word ); tropically, κατά βάθους πτωχεία reaching down into the depth, i. e. deep or extreme poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2 (cf. Strabo 9, 5, p. 419 ἐστι τό μαντεῖον ἄντρον κοῖλον κατά βάθους).TGL κατά.6

    c. used of motion or extension through a space from top to bottom; hence through, throughout: in the N. T. (and in Luke's writings; Buttmann , § 147, 20) everywhere with the adjective ὅλος, as καθ' ὅλης τῆς περιχώρου τῆς Ἰουδαίας, τῆς Ἰόππης, Luke 4:14; Luke 23:5; Acts 9:31; Acts 10:37 (διεσπάρησαν κατά τῆς νήσου, Polybius 3, 19, 7; ἐσκεδάσμενοι κατά τῆς χώρας, 1, 17, 10; 3, 76, 10; μή παραβαίνειν τάς ἁμαροτροχιας, ἀλλά κατ' αὐτῶν ἰέναι, Aelian v. h. 2, 27).TGL κατά.7

    2. metaphorically,TGL κατά.8

    a. after verbs of swearing, adjuring (the hand being, as it were, placed down upon the thing sworn by (cf. Bernhardy (1829), p. 238; Kühner, § 433 at the end)), by: Matthew 26:63; Hebrews 6:13, Hebrews 6:16 (Isaiah 45:23; 2 Chronicles 36:13; Judith 1:12; Demosthenes 553, 17; 554, 23).TGL κατά.9

    b. against (properly, down upon (Winer 's Grammar, 382 (358)); Hebrew עַל): opposed to ὑπέρ, Mark 9:40; 2 Corinthians 13:8; Romans 8:31; opposed to μετά, Matthew 12:30; Luke 11:23; after ἐπιθυμεῖν, Galatians 5:17; εἰπεῖν πονηρόν (ῤῆμα), Matthew 5:11; λαλεῖν, Acts 6:13; Jude 1:15; μαρτυρία, Mark 14:55; Matthew 26:59; μαρτυρεῖν, 1 Corinthians 15:15 (here many take κατά equivalent to with regard to, of; cf. DeWette at the passage; Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 272); ψευδομαρτύρειν, Mark 14:56; γογγύζειν, Matthew 20:11 (Exodus 15:24 Alex. ); διδάσκειν, Acts 21:28; ψεύδεσθαι, James 3:14 (Xenophon , Apology 13); συμβούλιον λαβεῖν or ποιεῖν, Matthew 27:1; Mark 3:6; αἰτεῖσθαι τί, Acts 25:3, Acts 25:15; after verbs of accusing, etc.: ἔχειν τί, Matthew 5:23; Mark 11:25; Revelation 2:4, Revelation 2:14, Revelation 2:20; κατηγορεῖν, Luke 23:14; κατηγορία, John 18:29 (Tdf. omits κατά); ἐγκάλειν, Romans 8:33; ἐντυγχάνειν τίνι, Romans 11:2; add, Acts 24:1; Acts 25:2; James 5:9; τό χειρόγραφον, Colossians 2:14; κρίσιν ποιεῖν, Jude 1:15; after verbs of rebelling, fighting, prevailing: Matthew 10:35; Matthew 12:25; Acts 14:2; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 2 Corinthians 10:5; 1 Peter 2:11; (Revelation 12:7 Rec. ); ἰσχύειν, Acts 19:16; ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, John 19:11.TGL κατά.10

    II. With the accusative; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 49 d.; Bernhardy (1829), p. 239ffTGL κατά.11

    1. of place;TGL κατά.12

    a. of the place through which anything is done or is extended (properly, down through; opposed to ἀνά, up through): καθ' ὅλην τήν πόλιν κηρύσσειν, Luke 8:39; ἐκφέρειν κατά τάς πλατείας, Acts 5:15 (R G ); add, Luke 9:6; Luke 13:22; Luke 15:14; Acts 8:1; Acts 11:1; Acts 15:23; Acts 21:21; Acts 24:5, Acts 24:12; Acts 27:2; τούς κατά τά ἔθνη (throughout Gentile lands) πάντας Ἰουδαίους, Acts 21:21, cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 1:1; κατά τήν ὁδόν, along the way i. e. on the journey (Winer 's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Luke 10:4; Acts 8:36; Acts 25:3; Acts 26:13; along (Latin secundum or praeter (R. V. off)), πέλαγος τό κατά τήν Κιλικίαν, Acts 27:5.TGL κατά.13

    b. of the place to which one is brought (down): γενόμενος (Tr WH omit γ.) κατά τόν τόπον (ἐλθών etc.), Luke 10:32 (cf. Field, Otium Norv. Pars iii at the passage); ἐλθόντες κατά τήν Μυσίαν, Acts 16:7; κατά τήν Κνίδον, Acts 27:7; κατ' αὐτόν (came) to him, i. e. to the place where he was lying, Luke 10:33.TGL κατά.14

    c. of direction; toward: Λιβύη κατά Κυρήνην, that Libya which lay toward Cyrene, i. e. Libya of Cyrene (i. e. the chief city of which was Cyrene), Acts 2:10; βλέπειν, to look, lie toward (see βλέπω , 3), Acts 27:12; πορεύεσθαι κατά μεσημβρίαν, Acts 8:26; κατά σκοπόν, toward the goal, my eye on the goal, Philippians 3:14. against (Latin adversus with the accusative); over against, opposite: κατά πρόσωπον, to the face, Galatians 2:11 (see πρόσωπον , 1 a.); equivalent to present, Acts 25:16 (A. V. face to face); 2 Corinthians 10:1; with the genitive of person added, before the face of, in the presence of, one: Luke 2:31; Acts 3:13; τά κατά πρόσωπον, the things that are open to view, known to all, 2 Corinthians 10:7; κατ' ὀφθαλμούς, before the eyes, Galatians 3:1; here, too, according to some (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 400 (374) note{3}) belongs κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27, but it is more correctly referred to 3 c. α. below.TGL κατά.15

    d. of the place where: κατ' οἶκον (opposed to ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ), at home, privately (Winer 's Grammar, 400 (374) note{1}), Acts 2:46; Acts 5:42.TGL κατά.16

    e. of that which so joins itself to one thing as to separate itself from another; our for, by: κατ' ἰδίαν, apart, see ἴδιος , 2; καθ' ἑαυτόν, alone (by himself), Acts 28:16; James 2:17 (R. V. in itself) (2 Macc. 13:13; οἱ καθ' αὑτούς Ἕλληνες, Thucydides 1, 138; οἱ Βοιωτοι καθ' αὑτούς, Diodorus 13, 72; other examples are given by Alberti , Observations, etc., p. 293; Loesner , Observations, e Philone, p. 460f); ἔχειν τί καθ' ἑαυτόν, to have a thing by and to oneself, i. e. to keep it hidden in one's mind, Romans 14:22 (Josephus , Antiquities 2, 11, 1; Heliodorus 7, 16; (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 401 (375) note{1})); hence, of that which belongs to some person or thing: κατά τήν οὖσαν ἐκκλησίαν, belonging to (A. V. in) the church that was there, Acts 13:1; ἐκκλησία κατ' οἶκον τίνος, belonging to one's household (see ἐκκλησία , 4 b. aa.); hence it forms a periphrasis — now for the genitive, as τά κατά Ἰουδαίους ἔθη (equivalent to τῶν Ἰουδαίων), Acts 26:3; now for the possessive pronoun, οἱ καθ' ὑμᾶς ποιηταί, your own poets, Acts 17:28 (here WH marginal reading καθ' ἡμᾶς, see their Introductory § 404); νόμου τοῦ καθ' ὑμᾶς (a law of your own), Acts 18:15; τό κατ' ἐμέ πρόθυμον, my inclination, Romans 1:15 (see πρόθυμος ); καθ' ὑμᾶς πίστις, Ephesians 1:15 ( κατά τόν τύραννον ὠματης τέ καί δύναμις, Diodorus 14, 12; μέχρι τῶν καθ' ἡμᾶς χρόνων, Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 2, 1; cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 4:21, p. 88; a throng of examples from Polybius may be seen in Schweighaeuser, Lex. Polybius , p. 323f; (cf. Winer s Grammar, 154 (146); 400 (374) note{2}; especially Buttmann , § 132, 2)).TGL κατά.17

    2. of Time (cf. Winer s Grammar, 401 (374)); during, about; Latin tempore : κατ' ἐκεῖνον, or τοῦτον τόν καιρόν, Acts 12:1; Acts 19:23; Romans 9:9; Hebrews 9:9 (R G ); κατά τό αὐτό, at the same time, together, Acts 14:1 (see αὐτός , III. 1); κατά τό μεσονύκτιον, Acts 16:25; κατά μέσον τῆς νυκτός, Acts 27:27; (possibly also κατά μεσημβρίαν, at noon, Acts 8:26 (see μεσημβρία , b.)); κατά καιρόν, see καιρός , 2 a.; κατ' ἀρχάς (Herodotus 3, 153), in the beginning (of things), Hebrews 1:10; κατά τήν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ, Hebrews 3:8 (as the Sept. in this passage have rendered the preposition כְּ in the context by ὡς (ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ, Psalms 94:8 (Psalms 95:8)), some would take it and κατά here equivalent to like as in the day etc.; Vulg. secundum ); κατά πᾶν σάββατον, Acts 13:27; Acts 15:21; Acts 18:4; καθ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, Hebrews 3:13; κατά μῆνα (ἕνα) ἕκαστον, Revelation 22:2; κατ' ὄναρ, during a dream, see ὄναρ .TGL κατά.18

    3. it denotes reference, relation, proportion, of various sorts;TGL κατά.19

    a. distributively, indicating a succession of things following one another (Winer s Grammar, 401 (374); Buttmann , § 147, 20);TGL κατά.20

    α. in reference to place: κατά πόλιν, in every city (city by city, from city to city), Luke 8:1, Luke 8:4; Acts 15:21; Acts 20:23; Titus 1:5 (Thucydides 1, 122); κατ' ἐκκλησίαν, in every church, Acts 14:23; with the plural, κατά πόλεις, Luke 13:22; κατά τάς κώμας, Luke 9:6 (Herodotus 1, 96); κατά τόπους, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8; Luke 21:11; κατά τάς συναγωγάς, in every synagogue, Acts 22:19; (cf. κατά τούς οἴκους εἰσπορευόμενος, Acts 8:3).TGL κατά.21

    β. in reference to time: κατ' ἔτος, yearly, year by year, Luke 2:41; also κατ' ἐνιαυτόν (see ἐνιαυτός ); καθ' ἡμέραν etc., see ἡμέρα , 2, p. 278{a}; κατά μίαν σαββάτου (R G σαββάτων), on the first day of every week, 1 Corinthians 16:2; κατά ἑορτήν, at any and every feast, Matthew 27:15; Mark 15:6; Luke 23:17 (Rec. ; cf. Buttmann , § 133, 26. Others understand the phrase in these passages (contextually) "at or during (see 2 above) the feast," viz. the Passover; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 401 (374)).TGL κατά.22

    γ. universally: καθ' ἕνα πάντες, all one by one, successively, 1 Corinthians 14:31, see more fully in εἷς , 4 c.; κατά δύο, by two, 1 Corinthians 14:27; κατά ἑκατόν καί κατά πεντήκοντα, by hundreds and by fifties, Mark 6:40 L T Tr WH ; κατά μέρος, severally, singly, part by part, Hebrews 9:5 (Herodotus 9, 25; Xenophon , anab. 3, 4, 22); κατ' ὄνομα, by name, i. e. each by its own name (Vulg. nominatim (or per nomen )): John 10:3; 3 John 1:15 (14); cf. Herm. ad Vig. , p. 858f.TGL κατά.23

    b. equivalent to the Latin ratione habita alicuius rei vel personae ; as respects; with regard to; in reference to; so far as relates to; as concerning; (Winer 's Grammar, 401 (375)): κατά σάρκα or κατά τήν σάρκα, as to the flesh (see σάρξ (especially 2b.)), Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3, Romans 9:5; 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 11:18; οἱ κύριοι κατά σάρκα (Luther well, die leiblichen Herren ), in earthly relations, according to the arrangements of society, Ephesians 6:5; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον, κατά τήν ἐκλογήν, Romans 11:28; add, Romans 1:4; Romans 7:22; Philippians 3:5; Hebrews 9:9; τά κατά τινα, one's affairs, one's case, Acts 24:22; Acts 25:14; Ephesians 6:21; Philippians 1:12; Colossians 4:7 (and very often in classical Greek); κατά πάντα τρόπον, in every way, in every respect, Romans 3:2; the opposite κατά μηδένα τρόπον, in no wise, 2 Thessalonians 2:3; κατά πάντα, in all respects, in all things, Acts 17:22; Colossians 3:20, Colossians 3:22; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 4:15 (Thucydides 4, 81).TGL κατά.24

    c. according to, agreeably to; in reference to agreement or conformity to a standard, in various ways (Winer 's Grammar, 401 (375));TGL κατά.25

    α. according to anything as a standard, agreeably to: περιπατεῖν κατά τί, Mark 7:5; Romans 8:1 (Rec. ), Romans 8:4; Romans 14:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:6; Ephesians 2:2; ζῆν κατά, Acts 26:5; Romans 8:12; πορεύεσθαι, 2 Peter 3:3; ἀποδιδόναι τίνι, Matthew 16:27, etc. (see ἀποδίδωμι , (especially 4)); λαμβάνειν, 1 Corinthians 3:8; so with many other verbs a thing is said to be done or to occur κατά, as in Luke 2:27, Luke 2:29; John 7:24; Colossians 2:8; Colossians 3:10; 1 Timothy 1:18; Hebrews 7:15; Hebrews 8:5, Hebrews 8:9; 1 John 5:14, etc.; (on the phrase κατ' ἄνθρωπον, see ἄνθρωπος , especially 1 c.; (cf. . below; Winer 's Grammar, 402 (376))); κατά τήν γραφήν, τάς γραφάς, James 2:8; 1 Corinthians 15:3.; κατά τό γεγραμμένον, 2 Corinthians 4:13; κατά τό εἰρημένον, Romans 4:18; κατά τόν νόμον, Luke 2:39; John 18:31; John 19:7; Hebrews 9:22; κατά τό εὐαγγέλιον μου, Romans 2:16; Romans 16:25; 2 Timothy 2:8, cf. 1 Timothy 1:11; κατά τό ὡρισμένον, Luke 22:22; καθ' ὁμοίωσιν Θεοῦ, James 3:9; κατά λόγον rightly, justly (A. V. reason would etc.), Acts 18:14; κατά τινα, agreeably to the will of anyone, as pleases him (Winer 's Grammar, 401f (375)): so κατά Θεόν, Romans 8:27 (cf. 1 c. above); 2 Corinthians 7:9, 2 Corinthians 7:11; κατά Χρσιτον Ἰησοῦν, Romans 15:5; κατά κύριον, 2 Corinthians 11:17; κατά τόν καθαρισμόν, after the manner of purifying, as the rite of purification prescribed, John 2:6; οἱ κατά σάρκα ὄντες, who bear, reflect, the nature of the flesh, equivalent to οἱ σαρκικοί, and οἱ κατά πνεῦμα ὄντες equivalent to οἱ πνευματικοί, Romans 8:5; κατά τί γνώσομαι; in accordance with what criterion i. e. by what sign shall I know? Luke 1:18. Here belongs the use of the preposition in the titles of the records of the life of Christ: εὐαγγέλιον (which word the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts omit) κατά Ματθαῖον, Μᾶρκον, etc., as Matthew etc. composed or wrote (it). This use of the preposition was not primarily a mere periphrasis for the genitive (Ματθαιου, etc., see II. 1 e. above), but indicated that the same subject had been otherwise handled by others, cf. παλαιά διαθήκη κατά τούς ἑβδομήκοντα (in tacit contrast not only to the Hebrew text, but also to the Greek translations made by others); οἱ ὑπομνηματισμοι οἱ κατά Νημιαν, 2 Macc. 2:13 (see Grimm at the passage). Subsequently κατά with an accusative of the writer came to take the place of the genitive, as κατά Μωϋσέα πεντάτευχος in Epiphanius (haer. 8, 4. Cf. Winer s Grammar, 402 (375); Buttmann , 3; 157 (137); and see, further, Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word εὐαγγέλιον, James Morison, Commentary on Matthew, Introductory § 4).TGL κατά.26

    β. in proportion to, according to the measure of: χαρίσματα κατά τήν χάριν τήν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν διάφορα, Romans 12:6; κατά τό μέτρον, 2 Corinthians 10:13; Ephesians 4:7; κατά τήν σκληρότητά σου, Romans 2:5; κατά τόν χρόνον, Matthew 2:16; ἑκάστῳ κατά τήν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, Matthew 25:15; without the article κατά δύναμιν, 2 Corinthians 8:3 (opposed to ὑπέρ δύναμιν, as Homer , Iliad 3, 59 κατ' Αισαν, ὀυδ' ὑπέρ Αισαν); καθ' ὅσον, by so much as, inasmuch as, Hebrews 3:3; Hebrews 7:20; Hebrews 9:27; κατά τοσοῦτο, by so much, Hebrews 7:22.TGL κατά.27

    γ. used of the cause; through, on account of, from, owing to (in accordance with i. e. in consequence of, by virtue of) (Winer 's Grammar, 402 (376)): κατά πᾶσαν αἰτίαν, (for every cause), Matthew 19:3; κατά τήν χάριν τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:9 (κατά τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ πρόνοιαν, Josephus , Antiquities 20, 8, 6); κατά χάριν, Romans 4:16; also opposed to κατά ὀφείλημα (R. V. as of... as of), Romans 4:4; οἱ κατά φύσιν κλάδοι, the natural branches, Romans 11:21 (cf. Buttmann , 162 (141)); κατά φύσιν ἀγριλαιος, the natural wild olive tree, Romans 11:24; κατά πίστιν δικαιοσύνη, righteousness proceeding from faith, Hebrews 11:7; add, Romans 8:28; Romans 9:11; Romans 11:5; Romans 16:25; 1 Corinthians 12:8; 2 Corinthians 13:10; Galatians 2:2; Galatians 3:29; Ephesians 1:5, Ephesians 1:7, Ephesians 1:9, Ephesians 1:11, Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 3:7, Ephesians 3:11, Ephesians 3:16, Ephesians 3:20; Colossians 1:11, Colossians 1:29; Philippians 1:20; Philippians 3:21; Philippians 4:11, Philippians 4:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Timothy 1:8; Hebrews 2:4; Hebrews 7:16; Titus 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 3:15. adverbial phrases (Winer 's Grammar, § 51, 2 g.): κατ' ἐξουσίαν (with authority), Mark 1:27; κατ' ἀνάγκην, κατά ἑκούσιον (q. v) (of necessity, of free will), Philemon 1:14; κατά γνῶσιν, 1 Peter 3:7; κατ' ἐπίγνωσιν, Romans 10:2 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 403 (376)); κατά ἄγνοιαν (in ignorance), Acts 3:17.TGL κατά.28

    δ. of likeness; as, like as: συντελέσω... διαθήκην καινήν, οὐ κατά τήν διαθήκην κτλ., Hebrews 8:8 (1 Kings 11:10); so with the accusative of a person (cf. under α. above), Galatians 4:28; 1 Peter 1:15; κατά Θεόν, after the image of God, Ephesians 4:24; κρίνεσθαι κατά ἀνθρώπους, ζῆν κατά Θεόν, to be judged as it is fit men should be judged, to live as God lives, 1 Peter 4:6. Hence, it is usedTGL κατά.29

    ε. of the mode in which a thing is done; of the quality: ἄνδρες οἱ κατ' ἐξοχήν τῆς πόλεως, the principal men of the city, Acts 25:23; καθ' ὑπομένην ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ, equivalent to ὑπομένοντες ἐν ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ (by constancy in well-doing), Romans 2:7; especially in adverbial phrases: κατά ταῦτα in (or after) the same (or this) manner, Luke 6:23 (L text T Tr WH κατά τά αὐτά, L marginal reading κατά ταῦτα) (26 (editions as before)); Luke 17:30 (T Tr WH κατά τά αὐτά, G L κατά ταῦτα); καθ' ὑπερβολήν, Romans 7:13; 1 Corinthians 12:31, etc. (cf. Winer s Grammar, 466 (434); Buttmann , 96 (84)); κατά πίστιν equivalent to πιστεύοντες (A. V. in faith; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 403 (376)), Hebrews 11:13; κατά συγγνώμην, οὐ κτἀ ἐπιταγήν, by way of concession, not by way of commandment, 1 Corinthians 7:6, cf. 2 Corinthians 8:8; κατά κράτος, Acts 19:20; καθ' ὁμοιότητα, Hebrews 4:15; on the phrase κατά ἄνθρωπον see ἄνθρωπος , 1 c. (cf. α. above).TGL κατά.30

    d. of the end aimed at; the goal to which anything tends; (Latin ad (Winer 's Grammar, 402f (376))): κατ' ἐπαγγελίαν ζωῆς, to proclaim life, 2 Timothy 1:1 (but see ἐπαγγελία , 1); κατ' εὐσέβειαν, tending to godliness (1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1) (see εὐσέβεια ; (yet others refer these examples and that which follows, to the use set forth above, in c.)); κατά πίστιν, to awaken, produce faith, Titus 1:1 (examples of this use of κατά from Homer , Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon , may be seen in Passow , under the word II. 3, p. 1598{b}; (Liddell and Scott, under the word B. III. 1); cf. Herm. ad Vig. , p. 632; Kühner, ii., p. 412); many refer to this head also κατ' ἀτιμίαν (to my dishonor (Winer 's Grammar, 402f (376))) λέγω, 2 Corinthians 11:21 (κατ' τήν τιμήν τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦτο ποιῶν, to the honor of God, Josephus , Antiquities 3, 11, 4); but see ἀτιμία .TGL κατά.31

    III. In Composition κατά denotes,TGL κατά.32

    1. from, down from, from a higher to a lower place: with special reference to the terminus from which, as καταβαίνω, καταβιβάζω, etc. (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 431 (401f)); with more prominent reference to the lower terminus (down), as καταβάλλω, καταπατέω, etc. (cf. Winer 's Grammar, as above); also of the situation or local position, as κατάκειμαι, καθεύδω, κατατίθημι, καθίζω, etc. from top to bottom, metaphorically, of things done with care, thoroughly, as καταμανθάνω, καθοράω, etc.TGL κατά.33

    2. in succession, in course: καθξης; one part after another, καταρτίζω, κατευθύνω, etc.TGL κατά.34

    3. under, underneath: καταχθόνιος; the idea of putting under resides in verbs denoting victory, rule, etc., over others, as katadunasteuoo], κατακυριεύω, κατεξουσιάζω, καταδουλόω; likewise in verbs naming that with which anything is covered, concealed, overwhelmed etc., as κατακαλύπτω, καταλιθάζω, κατασφραγίζω, κατασκιάζω, καταισχύνω (where the German uses the prefix über (English over), as überschatten, überdecken , or the syllable be , as beschatten, besiegeln ); also in adjj. denoting an abundance of that with which a thing is filled up or as it were covered up; see below in κατείδωλος .TGL κατά.35

    4. like the German ver-, zer- , it denotes separation, dissolution, in verbs of wasting, dissolving, etc., as κατακόπτω, κατάγνυμι, κατακαίω, κατακλάω, καταλύω, κατακλύζω, καταναλίσκω, καταφθείρω, etc.TGL κατά.36

    5. equivalent to after, behind: καταδιώκω, καταλείπω, κατακολουθέω, etc.TGL κατά.37

    6. used of proportion and distribution, as κατακληροδοτέω, κατακληρονομέω, etc.TGL κατά.38

    7. of hostility, against etc.: καταδικάζω, κατακρίνω, καταλαλέω, καταγινώσκω, etc. Cf. Herm. ad Vig. , p. 637ff (On the construction of verbs compounded with κατά, see Winer s Grammar, as above; cf. Buttmann , 165 (143f).)TGL κατά.39


    (2597) καταβαίνω; imperfect 3 person plural κατέβαινον; future καταβήσομαι; 2 aorist κατέβην, imperative κατάβηθι (Matthew 27:40; Luke 19:5; John 4:49; Acts 10:20) and κατάβα (Mark 15:30 (R G (where L T Tr WH participle καταβάς)), see ἀναβαίνω ); perfect καταβέβηκα; (from Homer on); the Sept. for יָרַד; to go down, come down, descend;TGL καταβαίνω.2

    1. of persons;TGL καταβαίνω.3

    a. properly: absolutely, the place from which one has come down being evident from the context, καταβάς ἔστη, Luke 6:17 (cf. Luke 6:12); Luke 17:31 (followed here by an infinitive, so Matthew 24:17); Luke 19:5; John 5:7; Acts 20:10; Ephesians 4:10; followed by ἀπό with the genitive of the place, Matthew 8:1; Matthew 14:29; Matthew 17:9 Rec. ; Matthew 27:40,Matthew 27:42; Mark 9:9 (L Tr marginal reading WH text ἐκ); Mark 15:30,Mark 15:32; by ἐκ with the genitive of place, Matthew 17:9 G L T Tr WH (see ἐκ , I. 3); by εἰς with the accusative of place, Mark 13:15 (R G L brackets Tr ; others omit εἰς etc.); Acts 8:38; (Romans 10:7); Ephesians 4:9.TGL καταβαίνω.4

    b. to come down, as from the temple at Jerusalem, from the city of Jerusalem; also of celestial beings coming down to earth: absolutely, Matthew 3:16; Luke 2:51; Luke 10:31; John 4:47, John 4:49, John 4:51; Acts (Acts 7:34); Acts 8:15; Acts 10:20; (Acts 23:10); Acts 24:1,Acts 24:22; followed by ἀπό with the genitive of the place, Mark 3:22; Luke 10:30; Acts 25:7; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, Matthew 28:2; John 1:32; John 3:13; John 6:33, John 6:38 (R G ; others ἀπό), 41f, 50f, 58 (on these passages cf. Buttmann , 297 (255)); Revelation 10:1; Revelation 18:1; Revelation 20:1, followed by εἰς with the accusative of place, Luke 10:30; Luke 18:14; John 2:12; Acts 7:15; Acts 14:25; Acts 16:8; Acts 18:22; Acts 25:6; by ἐπί with the accusative of place, John 6:16; with the accusative of the person; Mark 1:10 (R G L marginal reading); Luke 3:22; John 1:33, John 1:51 (John 1:52); by ἐν with dative of place, John 5:4 (R L ) (see ἐν , I. 7); by πρός with the accusative of person, Acts 10:21; Acts 14:11; contextually equivalent to to be cast down, of the devil, Revelation 12:12.TGL καταβαίνω.5

    2. of things, to come (i. e. be sent) down: Acts 10:11 (Rec. adds ἐπ' αὐτόν); Acts 11:5; followed by ἀπό with a genitive of person, James 1:17; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀπό τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10; to come (i. e. fall) down: from the upper regions of the air; as βροχή, Matthew 7:25, Matthew 7:27; λαῖλαψ, Luke 8:23; πῦρ ἀπό (Lachmann ἐκ) τοῦ οὐρανοῦ Luke 9:54; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ εἰς τήν γῆν, Revelation 13:13; ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀπό τοῦ Θεοῦ, Revelation 20:9 (R G Tr ); χάλαζα ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐπί τινα, Revelation 16:21; θρόμβοι ἐπί τήν γῆν, Luke 22:44 (L brackets WH reject the passage); of a way leading downward, Acts 8:26.TGL καταβαίνω.6

    3. figuratively, καταβαίνειν ἕως ᾅδου, to (go i. e.) be cast down to the lowest state of wretchedness and shame: Matthew 11:23 L Tr WH ; (Luke 10:15 WH text Tr marginal reading Compare: συγκαταβαίνω.)TGL καταβαίνω.7


    (2598) καταβάλλω: passive and middle present participle καταβαλλόμενος; 1 aorist passive κατεβλήθην; (from Homer down); the Sept. for הִפִּיל;TGL καταβάλλω.2

    1. to cast down: τινα, passive, Revelation 12:10 Rec. ; to throw to the ground, prostrate: passive, 2 Corinthians 4:9 (where the metaphor is taken from an athlete or combatant).TGL καταβάλλω.3

    2. to put in a lower place: in the phrase θεμέλιον καταβάλλομαι, to lay (down) a foundation (Josephus , Antiquities 11, 4, 4; 15, 11, 3; Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 3, 69; others), Hebrews 6:1.TGL καταβάλλω.4


    (2599) καταβαρέω, καταβάρω: 1 aorist κατεβάρησα; properly, to press down by an imposed weight; to weigh down; metaphorically, to burden: τινα, anyone, 2 Corinthians 12:16. (Polybius , Diodorus Siculus, Appian , Lucian )TGL καταβαρέω.2


    (2600) κατάβασις, καταβάσεως, (καταβαίνω) (from Herodotus down), descent;TGL κατάβασις.2

    a. the act of descending.TGL κατάβασις.3

    b. the place of descent: τοῦ ὄρους, i. e. that part of the mountain where the descent is made, Luke 19:37; so Joshua 10:11 the Sept. ; Diodorus 4, 21; opposed to ἀνάβασις, the place of ascent way up, 1 Macc. 3:16, 24; Xenophon , Cyril 7, 2, 3. So Latindescensus ; cf. Herzog on Sall. Cat. 57, 3.TGL κατάβασις.4


    (2601) καταβιβάζω: 1 future passive καταβιβασθήσομαι; to cause to go down (Herodotus 1, 87; Xenophon , Cyril 7, 5, 18; the Sept. several times for הורִיד; to bring down, Baruch 3:29); to cast down, thrust down: passive, ἕως ᾅδου (see ᾅδης, 2), Matthew 11:23 R G T ; Luke 10:15 (Tr marginal reading WH text καταβήσῃ (which see 3)); εἰς ᾅδου, Ezekiel 31:16.TGL καταβιβάζω.2


    (2602) καταβολή, καταβολῆς, (καταβάλλω, which see);TGL καταβολή.2

    1. a throwing or laying down: τοῦ σπέρματος (namely, εἰς τήν μήτραν), the injection or depositing of the virile semen in the womb, Lucian , amor. 19; Galen , aphorism. iv. § 1; of the seed of animals and plants, Philo de opif. mund. §§ 22, 45; σπέρματα τά εἰς γῆν μήτραν καταβαλλομενα, Antoninus 4, 36; accordingly many interpret the words Σάρρα δύναμιν εἰς καταβολήν σπέρματος ἔλαβε in Hebrews 11:11, she received power to conceive seed. But since it belongs to the male καταβάλλειν τό σπέρμα, not to the female, this interpretation cannot stand ((according to the reading of WH marginal reading αὐτῇ Σάρρα, Abr. remains the subjunctive of ἔλαβεν; but see 2 below)); cf. Bleek (and, on the other side, Kurtz) at the passageTGL καταβολή.3

    2. a founding (laying down a foundation): εἰς καταβολήν σπέρματος, to found a posterity, Hebrews 11:11 (but compare above) (πυραννιδος, Polybius 13, 6, 2; ἅμα τῇ πρώτη καταβολή τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Plato , aquae et ignis comp. C. 2). ἀπό καταβολῆς κόσμου, from the foundation of the world: Matthew 13:35 (L T Tr WH omit κόσμου); Matthew 25:34; Luke 11:50; Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 9:28; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8; πρό καταβολῆς κόσμου, John 17:24; Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 1:20.TGL καταβολή.4


    (2603) καταβραβεύω, imperative 3 person singular καταβραβευέτω; (properly, βραβεύω to be an umpire in a contest, κατά namely, τίνος, against one); "to decide as umpire against one, to declare him unworthy of the prize; to defraud of the prize of victory": τινα, metaphorically, to deprive of salvation, Colossians 2:18, where cf. Meyer (Lightfoot , especially Field, Otium Norv. Pars iii.). (Eustathius ad Iliad 1, 93, 33 (vss. 402f) καταβραβευει αὐτόν, ὡς φασίν οἱ παλαιοι; but in the earlier Greek writings that have come down to us, it is found only in (pseudo-) dem. adv. middle, p. 544 at the end, where it is used of one who by bribing the judges causes another to be condemned.)TGL καταβραβεύω.2


    (2604) καταγγελεύς, καταγγελεως, (καταγγέλλω, which see), "announcer (Vulg. annuntiator ), proclaimer: with the genitive of the object, Acts 17:18. (Ecclesiastical writings.)TGL καταγγελεύς.2

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