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    Ἰάϊρος — Ἰταλικός


    (2383) Ἰάειρος, -ου [cf. Buttmann, 18 (16)], , (יָאִיר [i. e. whom Jehovah enlightens], Numbers 32:41), Jairus [pronoun, Ja-i'-rus], a ruler of the synagogue, whose daughter Jesus restored to life: Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41. [Cf. B. D. American edition, under the word.]TGL Ἰάϊρος.2


    (2384) Ἰακώβ, , (יַעֲקֹב [i. e. heel-catcher, supplanter]), Jacob;TGL Ἰακώβ.2

    1. the second of Isaac's sons: Matthew 1:2; Matthew 8:11; John 4:5; Acts 7:8; Romans 9:13, etc. Hebraistically equivalent to the descendants of Jacob: Romans 11:26, (Numbers 23:7; Isaiah 41:8; [Hebrew text] Jeremiah 33:26; Sir. 23:12; 1 Macc. 3:7, and often).TGL Ἰακώβ.3

    2. the father of Joseph, the husband of Mary the mother of the Saviour: Matthew 1:15.TGL Ἰακώβ.4


    (2385) Ἰάκωβος, Ἰακώβου, (see the preceding word (and cf. Buttmann , 6, 18 (16))), James;TGL Ἰάκωβος.2

    1. son of Zebedee, an apostle, and brother of the apostle John (commonly called James the greater or elder). He was slain with the sword by the command of king Herod Agrippa I. (circa A.D. 44 ): Matthew 4:21; Matthew 10:2 (Matthew 10:3); Matthew 17:1; Mark 1:19, Mark 1:29; Mark 3:17; Mark 5:37; Mark 9:2; Mark 10:35, Mark 10:41; Mark 13:3; Mark 14:33; Luke 5:10; Luke 6:14; Luke 8:51; Luke 9:28, Luke 9:54; Acts 1:13; Acts 12:2.TGL Ἰάκωβος.3

    2. James (commonly called the less), an apostle, son of Alphaeus: Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; apparently identical with Ἰάκωβος μικρός James the little (A. V. the less), the son of Mary, Mark 15:40 (Matthew 27:56); Mark 16:1, wife of Cleophas (i. e. Clopas, which see) or Alphaeus, John 19:25; see in Ἁλφαῖος, and in Μαρία, 3.TGL Ἰάκωβος.4

    3. James, the brother of our Lord (see ἀδελφός , 1): Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3; Galatians 1:19 (where εἰ μή is employed according to a usage illustrated under εἰ, III. 8 c. β'.); Galatians 2:9,Galatians 2:12; Acts 12:1?; Acts 15:13; Acts 21:18; 1 Corinthians 15:7 (?); James 1:1, the leader of the Jewish Christians, and by them surnamed δίκαιος the Just, the overseer (or bishop) of the church at Jerusalem down to the year 62 or 63 (or according to Hegesippus in Eusebius , h. e. 2, 23 (translated in B. D. , p. 1206) down to 69, which is hardly probable (see Heinichen's note at the passage)), in which year he suffered martyrdom, Josephus , Antiquities 20, 9, 1. In opposition to the orthodox opinion (defended in B. D. under the word ), which identifies this James with James the son of Alphaeus, and understands ἀδελφός τοῦ κυρίου to mean his cousin, cf. especially Clemen in Winer 's Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 1829, p. 351ff; Blom, Diss. de τοῖς ἀδελφοῖς... τοῦ κυρίου. Lugd. 1839; Wilib. Grimm in Ersch u. Gruber's Encycl., Sect. 2, vol. 23, p. 80ff; Schaff, Das Verhältniss des Jacobus, Bruders des Herrn, zu Jacobus Alphäi. Beth 1842 (also his Church Hist. (1882) i., 272f); Hilgenfeld, Galaterbrief etc., p. 138ff; Hausrath in Sehenkel iii., p. 175ff; (Sieffert in Herzog edition 2, vi., 464ff; and references under the word ἀδελφός, 1 (especially Lightfoot )).TGL Ἰάκωβος.5

    4. An unknown James, father of the apostle Judas (or Jude): Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13, according to the opinion of those interpreters who think that not ἀδελφόν but υἱόν must be supplied in the phrase Ιουδαν Ἰακώβου; see Ἰούδας , 8.TGL Ἰάκωβος.6


    (2386) ἴαμα, -τος, τό, (ἰάομαι);TGL ἴαμα.2

    1. a means of healing, remedy, medicine; (Wis. 11:4; Wis. 16:9; Herodotus 3, 130; Thucydides 2, 51; Polybius 7, 14, 2; Plutarch, Lucian, others).TGL ἴαμα.3

    2. a healing: plural, 1 Corinthians 12:9, 1 Corinthians 12:28, 1 Corinthians 12:30; (Jeremiah 40:6 (Jeremiah 33:6), etc.; Plato, legg. 7, p. 790 d.).TGL ἴαμα.4


    (2387) Ἰαμβρῆς, , and Ἰαννῆς [cf. Buttmann, 20 (18)], Jambres (for which the Vulg. seems to have read Μαμβρῆς, as in the Babylonian Talmud tract. Menach. c. 9 in the Gemara; cf. Buxtorf, Lex. Talm., p. 945f [p. 481f, Fischer edition]), and Jannes, two Egyptian magicians who in the presence of Pharaoh imitated the miracles of Aaron in order to destroy his influence with the king: 2 Timothy 3:8 (cf. Exodus 7:11). The author of the Epistle derived their names from the tradition of the Talmudists and the Rabbins, [cf. B. D. article Jannes and Jambres]. These Magi are mentioned not only in the tract of the Babylonian Talmud just referred to, but also in the Targ. of Jonath. on Exodus 7:11; the book Sohar on Numbers 22:22; Numenius περὶ τἀγαθοῦ in Origen contra Celsus 4, 51; Eusebius, praep. evang. 9, 8; Evang. Nicod. c. 5, and other writings enumerated by Thilo in his Cod. apocr., p. 552f; [and Wetstein on 2 Timothy, the passage cited; Holtzmann ibid., p. 140f].TGL Ἰαμβρῆς.2


    (2388) Ἰαννά, (L T Tr WH Ἰανναί); Jannai, Vulg. Janne [Tdf. text (cod. Amiat.) Iannae], indeclinable proper name of one of the ancestors of Jesus: Luke 3:24.TGL Ἰανναί.2


    (2389) Ἰάννης, , see Ἰαμβρῆς .TGL Ἰάννης.2

    Related entry: Ἰαμβρῆς, , and Ἰαννῆς [cf. Buttmann, 20 (18)], Jambres (for which the Vulg. seems to have read Μαμβρῆς, as in the Babylonian Talmud tract. Menach. c. 9 in the Gemara; cf. Buxtorf, Lex. Talm., p. 945f [p. 481f, Fischer edition]), and Jannes, two Egyptian magicians who in the presence of Pharaoh imitated the miracles of Aaron in order to destroy his influence with the king: 2 Timothy 3:8 (cf. Exodus 7:11). The author of the Epistle derived their names from the tradition of the Talmudists and the Rabbins, [cf. B. D. article Jannes and Jambres]. These Magi are mentioned not only in the tract of the Babylonian Talmud just referred to, but also in the Targ. of Jonath. on Exodus 7:11; the book Sohar on Numbers 22:22; Numenius περὶ τἀγαθοῦ in Origen contra Celsus 4, 51; Eusebius, praep. evang. 9, 8; Evang. Nicod. c. 5, and other writings enumerated by Thilo in his Cod. apocr., p. 552f; [and Wetstein on 2 Timothy, the passage cited; Holtzmann ibid., p. 140f].TGL Ἰάννης.3


    (2390) ἰάομαι, -ῶμαι; [perhaps from ἰός, Lob. Technol., p. 157f; cf. Vanicek, p. 87]; a deponent verb, whose present, imperfect ἰώμην, future ἰάσομαι, and 1 aorist middle ἰασάμην have an active significance, but whose perfect passive ἴαμαι, 1 aorist passive ἰάθην, and 1 future passive ἰαθήσομαι have a passive significance (cf. Krüger § 40, under the word; [Veitch, under the word; Buttmann, 52 (46); Winers Grammar § 38, 7 c.]); [from Homer down]; Sept. for רָפָא; to heal, cure: τινά, Luke 4:18 R L brackets; Luke 5:17; Luke 6:19; Luke 9:2 [here T WH omit; Tr brackets the accusative], Luke 9:11, Luke 9:42; Luke 14:4; Luke 22:51; John 4:47; Acts 9:34; Acts 10:38; Acts 28:8; passive, Matthew 8:8, Matthew 8:13; Matthew 15:28; Luke 7:7; Luke 8:47; Luke 17:15; John 5:13 [Tdf. ἀσθενῶν]; and Acts 3:11 Rec. ; τινὰ ἀπό τινος, to cure (i. e. by curing to free) one of [literally, from; cf. Buttmann, 322 (277)] a disease: passive, Mark 5:29; Luke 6:18 (Luke 6:17). tropically, to make whole i. e. to free from errors and sins, to bring about (one's) salvation: Matthew 13:15; John 12:40; Acts 28:27, (from Isaiah 6:10); passive, 1 Peter 2:24; James 5:16; in figurative discourse, in passive: Hebrews 12:13.TGL ἰάομαι.2


    (2391) Ἰαρέδ (T WH Ἰάρετ, Lachmann Ἰαρεθ; [on the accent in manuscripts see Tdf. Proleg., p. 103]), , (Heb. יֶרֶד descent), Jared, indeclinable proper name (Ἰαράδης [Ἰαρέδες, Bekker edition] in Josephus, Antiquities 1, 2, 2), the father of Enoch (Genesis 5:15, Genesis 5:18; 1 Chronicles 1:2 [here A. V. Jered]): Luke 3:37.TGL Ἰάρετ.2


    (2392) ἴασις, -εως, , a healing, cure: Luke 13:32; Acts 4:22, Acts 4:30. (Proverbs 3:8; Proverbs 4:22; [Archilochus], Hippocrates, Sophocles, Plato, Lucian, others.)TGL ἴασις.2


    (2393) ἴασπις, -ιδος, , [from Plato down], jasper; a precious stone of divers colors (for some are purple, others blue, others green, and others of the color of brass; Pliny, h. n. 37, 37 (8)): Revelation 4:3; Revelation 21:11, Revelation 21:18. [But many think (questionably) the diamond to be meant here; others the precious opal; see Riehm, HWB, under the word Edelsteine, 8 and 10; B. D. under the word Jasper; cf. 'Bible Educator' 2:352.]TGL ἴασπις.2


    (2394) Ἰάσων, Ἰάσονος, , Jason, a Thessalonian, Paul's host: Acts 17:5-7, Acts 17:9; whether he is the same who is mentioned in Romans 16:21 as a kinsman of Paul is uncertain.TGL Ἰάσων.2


    (2395) ἰατρός, -οῦ, , (ἰάομαι) [from Homer down], a physician: Matthew 9:12; Mark 2:17; Mark 5:26; Luke 5:31; Luke 8:43 [here WH omits; Tr marginal reading brackets the clause]; Colossians 4:14; ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν, a proverb, applied to Christ in this sense: 'come forth from your lowly and mean condition and create for yourself authority and influence by performing miracles among us also, that we may see that you are what you profess to be,' Luke 4:23.TGL ἰατρός.2


    (2396) ἴδε (so occasionally Griesbach and Rec.bez elz ; e. g. Galatians 5:2; Romans 11:22) and (later) ἴδε (ἴδε ἀττικως ὡς τό εἶπε, λαβέ, εὗρε. ἴδε ἑλληνικως, Moeris (p. 193, Pierson edition); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 6, 1 a.; (Buttmann , 62 (54))), imperative from εἶδον, which see; (from Homer down). In so far as it retains the force of an imperative it is illustrated under εἰδῶ, I. 1 e. and 3. But in most places in the N. T. it stands out of construction like an interjection, even when ninny are addressed (cf. Buttmann , 70 (61); and especially 139 (121f)); Latin en , ecce ; See! Behold! Lo!TGL ἴδε.2

    a. at the beginning of sentences: as the utterance of one who wishes that something should not be neglected by another, Matthew 26:65; Mark 2:24; Mark 11:21; Mark 13:1; John 5:14; John 18:21; Romans 2:17 Rec. ; equivalent to German sieh' doch (see, pray; yet see), John 11:36; John 16:29; John 19:4; Galatians 5:2; or of one who brings forward something new and unexpected, John 7:26; John 11:3; John 12:19; or of one pointing out or showing, German hier ist , da ist , dieses ist : ἴδε τόπος (French, voici le lieu ), Mark 16:6; add, Mark 3:34 (L Tr marginal reading ἰδού); John 1:29, John 1:36, John 1:47 (John 1:48); John 19:5 (T Tr WH ἰδού), John 19:14,John 19:26 (where some ἰδού); where we (might) use simply here, Matthew 25:25; with adverbs of place: ἴδε (R G L ἰδού) ὧδε Χριστός, ἴδε (R G ἰδού) ἐκεῖ, Mark 13:21.TGL ἴδε.3

    b. inserted into the midst of a sentence, in such a way that the words which precede it serve to render the more evident the strangeness of what follows: Matthew 25:20, Matthew 25:22; John 3:26.TGL ἴδε.4


    (2397) ἰδέα, -ας, , (from εἶδον, ἰδεῖν), form, external appearance; aspect, look: Matthew 28:3 (T Tr WH εἰδέα, which see), cf. Alberti, Observv. at the passage; [Tdf. Proleg. p. 81]. (Greek writings from Pindar and Herodotus down; 2 Macc 3:16; for רְּמוּת Genesis 5:3) [Cf. Schmidt ch. 182, 3.]TGL ἰδέα.2

    Related entry: εἰδέα, -ας, , Matthew 28:3 T Tr WH, a poetic form for ἰδέα, which see [cf. WH's Appendix, p. 153], (Baruch 6 [epistle of Jeremiah] 62; Aristophanes Thesm. 438 variant). Cf. Buttmann 5; [Winers Grammar 48 (47); see εἰ ].TGL ἰδέα.3


    (2398) ἴδιος, ἰδίᾳ, ἴδιον (in secular authors (especially Attic) also of two term.) (from Homer down);TGL ἴδιος.2

    1. pertaining to oneself, one's own; usedTGL ἴδιος.3

    a. universally, of what is one's own as opposed to belonging to another: τά ἰδίᾳ πρόβατα, John 10:3,John 10:12; τά ἱμάτια τά ἰδίᾳ, Mark 15:20 R G Tr (for which T τά ἰδίᾳ ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ, L WH τά ἱμάτια αὐτοῦ); τό ἴδιον (for his own use) κτῆνος, Luke 10:34; διά τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος, Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 13:12 (ἰδίῳ αἵματι, 4 Macc. 7:8); τό ἴδιον μίσθωμα, which he had hired for himself (opposed to ξεναι (which see), 23), Acts 28:30; add, John 5:43; John 12:18; Acts 3:12; Acts 13:36; Romans 11:24; Romans 14:4; 1 Corinthians 3:8 (ἴδιον κόπον); 1 Corinthians 6:18; 1 Corinthians 7:4, 1 Corinthians 7:37; 1 Corinthians 9:7; 1 Corinthians 11:21; Galatians 6:5; 1 Timothy 3:4, 1 Timothy 3:12; 1 Timothy 5:4; 2 Timothy 1:9; 2 Timothy 4:3; πράσσειν τά ἰδίᾳ, to do one's own business (and not intermeddle with the affairs of others), 1 Thessalonians 4:11; ἰδίᾳ ἐπίλυσις, an interpretation which one thinks out for himself, opposed to that which the Holy Spirit teaches, 2 Peter 1:20 (see γίνομαι , 5 e. α.); τήν ἰδίαν δικαιοσύνην, which one imagines is his due, opposed to δικαιοσύνη Θεοῦ, awarded by God, Romans 10:3; ἰδίᾳ ἐπιθυμία, opposed to divine prompting, James 1:14; κατά τάς ἰδίας ἐπιθυμίας, opposed to God's requirements, 2 Timothy 4:3; with the possessive pronoun αὐτῶν added (Buttmann , 118 (103); cf. Winer 's Grammar, 154 (146)), 2 Peter 3:3; ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης, Titus 1:12; with αὐτοῦ added, Mark 15:20 Tdf. (see above); τά ἰδίᾳ (cf. Buttmann , § 127, 24), those things in which one differs from others, his nature and personal character — in the phrase ἐκ τῶν ἰδίων λαλεῖν, John 8:44; (cf. the figurative, τά ἰδίᾳ τοῦ σώματος, 2 Corinthians 5:10 L marginal reading (cf. Tr marginal reading); see διά , A. I. 2); ἴδιος, my own: ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσί (unassisted by others), 1 Corinthians 4:12; thine own: ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ, Luke 6:41.TGL ἴδιος.4

    b. of what pertains to one's property, family, dwelling, country, etc.; of property, οὐδέ εἰς τί τῶν ὑπαρχόντων αὐτῷ ἔλεγεν ἴδιον εἶναι, Acts 4:32; τά ἰδίᾳ, res nostrae , our own things, i. e. house, family, property, Luke 18:28 L T Tr WH (cf. Buttmann , § 127, 24; Winer 's Grammar, 592 (551)); τῇ ἰδίᾳ γενεά, in his own generation, i. e. in the age in which he lived, Acts 13:36; ἰδίᾳ πόλις, the city of which one is a citizen or inhabitant, Luke 2:3 (R G Tr marginal reading); Matthew 9:1; τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ, in their native tongue, Acts 1:19 (WH omits; Tr brackets ἰδίᾳ); Acts 2:6, Acts 2:8; ἰδίᾳ δισιδαιμονια, their own (national) religion, Acts 25:19; οἱ ἴδιοι, one's own people (German die Angehörigen ), one's fellow-countrymen, associates, John 1:11, cf. John 1:2 Macc. 12:22; one's household, persons belonging to the house, family, or company, John 13:1; Acts 4:23; Acts 24:23; 1 Timothy 5:8; εἰς τά ἰδίᾳ (German in die Heimat ), to one's native land, home, John 1:11 (meaning here, the land of Israel); John 16:32; John 19:27 (3Macc. 6:27; 1 Esdr. 5:46 (47); for אֶל־בֵּיתו, Esther 5:10; Esther 6:12); ἴδιος ἀνήρ, a husband, 1 Corinthians 7:2 (Buttmann , 117 (102) note; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 154 (146)); plural, Ephesians 5:22; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:5; Ephesians 5:24 R G ; Colossians 3:18 R ; οἱ ἴδιοι σεποται (of slaves), Titus 2:9. of a person who may be said to belong to one, above all others: υἱός, Romans 8:32; πατήρ, John 5:18; μαθηταί, Mark 4:34 T WH Tr marginal readingTGL ἴδιος.5

    c. harmonizing with, or suitable or assigned to, one's nature, character, aims, acts; appropriate: τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐξουσία, Acts 1:7; τόν ἴδιον, μισθόν, due reward, 1 Corinthians 3:8; τό ἴδιον σῶμα, 1 Corinthians 15:38; κατά τήν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, Matthew 25:15; ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ τάγματι, 1 Corinthians 15:23; τό ἴδιον οἰκητήριον, Jude 1:6; εἰς τόν τόπον τόν ἴδιον, to the abode after death assigned by God to one according to his deeds, Acts 1:25 (Ignatius ad Magnes. 5 [ET]; Baal Turim on Numbers 24:25 Balaam ivit in locum suum, i. e. in Gehennam; see τόπος , 1 a. at the end); καιρῷ ἰδίῳ, at a time suitable to the matter in hand (A. V. in due season), Galatians 6:9; plural, 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 6:15; Titus 1:3.TGL ἴδιος.6

    d. By a usage foreign to the earlier Greeks, but found in the church Fathers and the Byzantine writings (see Winer s Grammar, § 22, 7; cf. Fritzsche on Romans, ii., p. 208f; (Buttmann , 117f (103))), it takes the place of the possessive pronoun αὐτοῦ: Matthew 22:5; Matthew 25:14; John 1:41 (42) (Wis. 10:1).TGL ἴδιος.7

    2. private (in classical Greek opposed to δημόσιος, κοινός): ἰδίᾳ (cf. Winer s Grammar, 591 (549) note) adverb severally, separately, 1 Corinthians 12:11 (often in Greek writings). On κατ' ἰδίαν (WH' 'alt.' in Matthew 14:23; Matthew 17:1, Matthew 17:19; Matthew 20:17; Matthew 24:3; Mark 4:34; Mark 6:31; Mark 9:28; Mark 13:3), see their App. pp. 143, 145; Meisterhans n.306 κατ' ἰδίαν (namely, χώραν),TGL ἴδιος.8

    α. apart: Matthew 14:13; Matthew 17:19; Matthew 20:17; Matthew 24:3; Mark 6:31; Mark 7:33; Mark 9:2, Mark 9:28; Mark 13:3; Luke 9:10; Luke 10:23; Acts 23:19 (Polybius 4, 84, 8); with μόνος added, Mark 9:2;TGL ἴδιος.9

    β. in private, privately: Mark 4:34; Galatians 2:2 (Diodorus 1, 21, opposed to κοινῇ, 2 Macc. 4:5; Ignatius ad Smyrn. 7, 2 [ET]). The word is not found in the book of Revelation.TGL ἴδιος.10


    (2399) ἰδιώτης, -ου, , (ἴδιος), very common in Greek writings from Herodotus down; properly, a private person, opposed to a magistrate, ruler, king; but the noun has many other meanings also, each one of which is understood from its antithesis, as e. g. a common soldier, as opposed to a military officer; a writer of prose, as opposed to a poet. In the N. T. an unlearned, illiterate, man, opposed to the learned, the educated: Acts 4:13; as often in classical Greek, unskilled in any art: in eloquence (Isocrates, p. 43 a.), with the dative of respect, τῷ λόγῳ, 2 Corinthians 11:6 [A. V. rude in speech]; a Christian who is not a prophet, 1 Corinthians 14:24; destitute of the 'gift of tongues,' 1 Corinthians 14:16, 1 Corinthians 14:23. [Cf. Trench § lxxix.]TGL ἰδιώτης.2


    (2400) ἰδού, a demonstrative particle (in Greek writings from Sophocles down), found in the N. T. especially in the Gospels of Matthew and of Luke, used very often in imitation of the Hebrew הִנֵּה, and giving a peculiar vivacity to the style by bidding the reader or hearer to attend to what is said: "Behold! See! Lo!" It is inserted in the discourse after a genitive absolutely, Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:1, Matthew 2:13; Matthew 9:18; Matthew 12:46; Matthew 17:5; Matthew 26:47; Matthew 28:11. καί ἰδού is used, when at the close of a narrative something new is introduced, Matthew 2:9; Matthew 3:16; Matthew 4:11; Matthew 8:2, Matthew 8:24, Matthew 8:29, Matthew 8:32, Matthew 8:34; Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:20; Matthew 12:10; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 17:3; Matthew 19:16; Matthew 26:51; Matthew 27:51; Matthew 28:2, Matthew 28:7; Luke 1:20, Luke 1:31, Luke 1:36; Luke 2:9 (R G L Tr brackets),Luke 2:25; Luke 9:30,Luke 9:38; Luke 10:25; Luke 14:2; Luke 24:13; Acts 12:7; Acts 16:1; when a thing is specified which is unexpected yet sure, 2 Corinthians 6:9 (καί ἰδίου ζῶμεν, and nevertheless we live), cf. Matthew 7:4; when a thing is specified which seems impossible and yet occurs, Luke 11:41; Acts 27:24. The simple ἰδού is the exclamation of one pointing out something, Matthew 12:2, Matthew 12:47 (WH here in marginal reading only); Matthew 13:3; Matthew 24:26; Mark 3:32; Luke 2:34; and calling attention, Mark 15:35 (T Tr WH ἴδε); Luke 22:10; John 4:35; 1 Corinthians 15:51; 2 Corinthians 5:17; James 5:9; Jude 1:14; Revelation 1:7; Revelation 9:12; Revelation 11:14; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 22:7 (Rec. ); in other places it is equivalent to observe or consider: Matthew 10:16; Matthew 11:8; Matthew 19:27; Matthew 20:18; Matthew 22:4; Mark 10:28, Mark 10:33; Mark 14:41; Luke 2:48; Luke 7:25; Luke 18:28, Luke 18:31, etc.; also καί ἰδού, Matthew 28:20; Luke 13:30; ἰδού γάρ, Luke 1:44, Luke 1:48; Luke 2:10; Luke 6:23; Luke 17:21; Acts 9:11; 2 Corinthians 7:11; ἰδού where examples are adduced: James 3:4; James 5:4,James 5:7,James 5:11; for the Hebrew הִנְנִי, so that it includes the copula: Luke 1:38; equivalent to here I am: Acts 9:10; Hebrews 2:13. ἰδού is inserted in the midst of a speech, Matthew 23:34 (here WH marginal reading Ἰδού (see the commentaries)); Luke 13:16; Acts 2:7; Acts 13:11; Acts 20:22, Acts 20:25. The passages of the O. T. containing the particle which are quoted in the New are these: Matthew 1:23; Matthew 11:10; Matthew 12:18; Matthew 21:5; Mark 1:2; Luke 7:27; John 13:15; Romans 9:33; Hebrews 2:13; Hebrews 8:8; Hebrews 10:7, Hebrews 10:9; 1 Peter 2:6. Like the Hebrew הִנֵּה, ἰδού and καί ἰδού stand before a nominative which is not followed by a finite verb, in such a way as to include the copula or predicate (cf. Buttmann , 139 (121f)): e. g., was heard, Matthew 3:17; is, is or was here, exists, etc., Matthew 12:10 L T Tr WH , 41; Mark 13:21 R G L ; Luke 5:12, Luke 5:18; Luke 7:37; Luke 11:31; Luke 13:11 (R G add ἦν); Luke 17:21; Luke 19:2,Luke 19:20; Luke 22:38,Luke 22:47; Luke 23:50; John 19:26 (Rec. , 27 R G ); Acts 8:27, Acts 8:36; 2 Corinthians 6:2; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:5, Revelation 6:8; Revelation 7:9 (not L ); Revelation 12:3; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:11; Revelation 21:3; is approaching, Matthew 25:6 G L T Tr WH (Rec. adds ἔρχεται); but also in such a way as to have simply a demonstrative force: Matthew 11:19; Luke 7:34.TGL ἰδού.2


    (2401) Ἰδουμαία, -ας, , Idumæa, the name of a region between southern Palestine and Arabia Petræa, inhabited by Esau or Edom (Genesis 36:30) and his posterity (the Edomites), (Joshua 15:1, Joshua 15:21; Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7). The Edomites were first subjugated by David; but after his death they disputed Solomon's authority and in the reign of Joram recovered their liberty, which they maintained, transmitting from generation to generation their hatred of Israel, until they were conquered again by Hyrcanus and subjected to the government of the Jews: Mark 3:8. [For details of boundary and history, see Bertheau in Schenkel and Porter in B. D. under the word Edom; also the latter in Kitto's Cycl. under the word Idumæa.]TGL Ἰδουμαία.2


    (2402) ἱδρώς, -ῶτος, , [allied with Latin sudor , English sweat; Curtius § 283; from Homer down], sweat: Luke 22:44 [L brackets WH reject the passage; (Tr accents ἱδρώς, yet cf. Chandler § 667)].TGL ἱδρώς.2


    (2403) Ἰεζάβελ ([so G T WH, L Ἱεζ.; Tr -βέλ]; Rec. Ἰεζάβήλ), , (אִיזֶבֶל ['perhaps intact, chaste; cf. Agnes' (Gesenius)]), Jezebel [modern: Isabel], wife of Ahab ([circa] B. C. 917-897; 1 Kings 16:29), an impious and cruel queen, who protected idolatry and persecuted the prophets (1 Kings 16:312 Kings 9:30); in Revelation 2:20 equivalent to a second Jezebel, the symbolic name of a woman who pretended to be a prophetess, and who, addicted to antinomianism, claimed for Christians the liberty of eating things sacrificed to idols, Revelation 2:20.TGL Ἰεζάβελ.2


    (2404) Ἱεράπολις [WH Ἱερὰ Πόλις; cf. Buttmann 74; Lob. ad Phryn. 604f], -εως, , Hierapolis, a city of Greater Phrygia, near the river Maeander [or rather, near the Lycus a few miles above its junction with the Maeander], not far from Colossæ and Laodicea, now Pambuck Kulasi, [for references see Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, p. 1f; B. D. American edition, under the word]: Colossians 4:13.TGL Ἱεράπολις.2


    (2405) ἱερατεία [WH -τια; see Ι, ι], -ας, , (ἱερατεύω), the priesthood, the office of priest: Luke 1:9; Hebrews 7:5. (Sept. for כְּהֻנָּה; Aristotle, pol. 7, 8; Dionysius Halicarnassus; Boeckh, Inscriptions ii., pp. 127, 23; 363, 27.)TGL ἱερατεία.2


    (2406) ἱεράτευμα, -τος, τό, (ἱερατεύω), [priesthood i. e.]TGL ἱεράτευμα.2

    a. the office of priest.TGL ἱεράτευμα.3

    b. the order or body of priests (see ἀδελφότης , αἰχμαλωσία , διασπορά , θεραπεία ); so Christians are called, because they have access to God and offer not external but 'spiritual' (πνευματικά) sacrifices: 1 Peter 2:5; also ἱεράτ. βασίλειον, 1 Peter 2:9 (after Exodus 19:6, Sept. ), priests of kingly rank, i. e. exalted to a moral rank and freedom which exempts them from the control of everyone but God and Christ. ([Exodus 23:22, etc.; 2 Macc. 2:17]; not found in secular authors.)TGL ἱεράτευμα.4


    (2407) ἱερατεύω; (from ἱεράομαι and the verbal adjective ἱερατός, though this adjective does not occur); to be priest, discharge the priest's office, be busied in sacred duties: Luke 1:8. (Josephus, Antiquities 3, 8, 1; Herodian, 5, 6, 6 [3 edition, Bekker]; Pausanias, Heliodorus, Inscriptions [see Liddell and Scott]; Sept. for כִּהֵן.)TGL ἱερατεύω.2


    (2408) Ἰερεμίας [WH Ἰερ. (see their Introductory § 408); so Rec.st in Matthew 27:9], -ου [Buttmann, 17 (16), 8], , (יִרְמְיָה or יִרְמְיָהוּ, equivalent to יָהּ יִרְמֶה 'Jehovah casts forth' (his enemies?), or 'Jehovah hurls' (his thunderbolts?); cf. Bleek, Einl. in das A. T. § 206, p. 469, [cf. B. D. under the word Jeremiah]), Jeremiah [A. V. also Jeremias, Jeremy], a famous Hebrew prophet, who prophesied from [circa] B. C. 627 until the destruction of Jerusalem [B. C. 586]. Afterward, he departed into Egypt, where he appears to have died; [cf. B. D. under the word Jeremiah, I. 6]: Matthew 2:17; Matthew 16:14; Matthew 27:9 (in the last passage his name is given by mistake, for the words quoted are found in Zechariah 11:12; [cf. Prof. Brown in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature and Exegesis for December, 1882, p. 101ff; Toy, Quot. in N. T., p. 68ff; for a history of attempted explanations, see Dr. James Morison, Commentary on Matthew, the passage cited]).TGL Ἰερεμίας.2


    (2409) ἱερεύς, -έως, , (ἱερός) [from Homer down], Hebrew כֹּהֵן, a priest; one who offers sacrifices and in general is busied with sacred rites;TGL ἱερεύς.2

    a. properly, of the priests of the Gentiles, Acts 14:13; of the priests of the Jews, Matthew 8:4; Matthew 12:4; Mark 1:44; [Mark 2:26]; Luke 1:5; Luke 5:14; John 1:19; [Hebrews 7:14 L T Tr WH], Hebrews 7:20 (Hebrews 7:21); Hebrews 8:4, etc.; of the high priest, Acts 5:24 R G (Exodus 35:18; 1 Kings 1:8; 1 Macc. 15:1; Josephus, Antiquities 6, 12, 1); and in the same sense Christ is called ἱερεύς in Hebrews 5:6 (from Psalms 109:4 (Psalms 110:4); Hebrews 7:17; also ἱερεὺς μέγας, Hebrews 10:21 (see ἀρχιερεύς , 3) [others take the adjective here not as blending with ἱερ. into a technical or official appellation, but as descriptive, great; cf. Hebrews 4:14].TGL ἱερεύς.3

    b. metaphorically, of Christians, because, purified by the blood of Christ and brought into close contact with God, they devote their life to him alone (and to Christ): Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:6, cf. Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9.TGL ἱερεύς.4


    (2410) Ἱεριχώ (Tdf. Ἱερειχώ [see his Proleg., p. 85; WH's Appendix, p. 155, and under the word ει, ι; WH Ἰερ. see their Introductory § 408; on its accent in manuscripts cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 103]), , indeclinable (on its declension in other writings cf. Winers Grammar § 10, 2; in Strabo Ἱερικούς -οῦντος; Ἱεριχοῦς, -οῦντος in Josephus, cf. Winer's Grammar, the passage cited; Hebrew יְרִיחו, from רִיחַ, to smell, so called from its fertility in aromatics), Jericho, a noted city, abounding in balsam [i. e. perhaps the opobalsamum; cf. Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 337; B. D. under the word Balm], honey, cyprus [probably Arabic "el-henna "; cf. Tristram as above, under the word Camphire], myrobalanus [Arabic "zukkum "], roses, and other fragrant productions. It was situated not far from the northern shore of the Dead Sea, in the tribe of Benjamin, between the city of Jerusalem and the river Jordan, 150 stadia from the former and 60 from the latter. Josephus, b. j. 4, 8, 3 calls its territory θεῖον χωρίον. It is mentioned in the N. T. in Matthew 20:29; Mark 10:46; Luke 10:30; Luke 18:35; Luke 19:1; Hebrews 11:30. As balsam was exported thence to other countries, we read Luke 19:2 that τελῶναι were stationed there, with an ἀρχιτελώνης, for the purpose of collecting the revenues. For a fuller account of the city see Winers RWB, under the word; Arnold in Herzog vi., p. 494f; Furrer in Schenkel iii., 209f; Keim, iii., 17f [English translation, 5:21f; BB. DD. under the word; cf. also Robinson, Researches etc. i. 547ff].TGL Ἰεριχώ.2


    (2411) ἱερόν, -οῦ, τό, (neuter of the adjective ἱερός, , -όν; cf. τὸ ἅγιον), [from Herodotus on], a sacred place, temple: of the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, Acts 19:27; of the temple at Jerusalem twice in the Sept. , Ezekiel 45:19; 1 Chronicles 29:4; more frequent in the O. T. Apocrypha; in the N. T. often in the Gospels and Acts; once elsewhere, viz. 1 Corinthians 9:13. τὸ ἱερόν and ναός differ, in that the former designates the whole compass of the sacred enclosure, embracing the entire aggregate of buildings, balconies, porticos, courts (viz., that of the men or Israelites, that of the women, that of the priests), belonging to the temple; the latter designates the sacred edifice properly so called, consisting of two parts, the 'sanctuary' or 'Holy place' (which no one except the priests was allowed to enter), and the 'Holy of holies' or 'most holy place' (see ἅγιος , 1 a.) (which was entered only on the great day of atonement by the high priest alone); [cf. Trench, Synonyms, § iii]. ἱερόν is employed in the N. T. either explicitly of the whole temple, Matthew 12:6; Matthew 24:1; Mark 13:3; Luke 21:5; Luke 22:52; Acts 4:1; Acts 24:6; Acts 25:8; 1 Corinthians 9:13, etc.; or so that certain definite parts of it must be thought of, as the courts, especially where Jesus or the apostles are said to have gone up, or entered, 'into the temple,' to have taught or encountered adversaries, and the like, 'in the temple,' Matthew 21:12, Matthew 21:14; Matthew 26:55; Mark 14:49; Luke 19:47; Luke 21:37; Luke 22:53; Luke 24:53; John 5:14; John 7:14, John 7:28; John 8:20; John 18:20; Acts 3:2; Acts 5:20; Acts 21:26, etc.; of the courts and sanctuary, Matthew 12:5; of the court of the Gentiles, out of which Jesus drove the buyers and sellers and money-changers, Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15; Luke 19:45; John 2:14; of the court of the women, Luke 2:37; of any portico or apartment, Luke 2:46, cf. John 10:23. On the phrase τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ see πτερύγιον , 2.TGL ἱερόν.2


    (2412) ἱεροπρεπής, -ές, (from ἱερός, and πρέπει it is becoming), befitting men, places, actions or things sacred to God; reverent: Titus 2:3. (4 Macc 10:25; 4 Macc 11:19; Plato, Philo, Josephus, Lucian, others) [Cf. Trench § 92 at the end.]TGL ἱεροπρεπής.2


    (2413) ἱερός, , -όν, [its primary sense is thought to be mighty; cf. Curtius § 614; Vanicek, p. 88; yet see Schmidt as below; from Homer down], sacred, consecrated to the deity, pertaining to God: ἱερὰ γράμματα, sacred Scriptures, because inspired by God, treating of divine things and therefore to be devoutly revered, 2 Timothy 3:15 (Josephus, Antiquities prooem. 3; [10, 10, 4 at the end]; b. j. 6, 5, 4; contra Apion 1 [10, 3; 18, 6]; 26, 1; ἱεραὶ βίβλοι, Antiquities 2, 16, 5; [contra Apion 1, 1; 23, 4], etc.; οὐκ ἐνετράφης οὐδὲ ἐνησκήθης τοῖς ἱεροῖς γράμμασι, Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 29, Mang. edition ii., p. 574); [κήρυγμα, Mark 16:1-20 WH in (rejected) 'Shorter Conclusion']; neuter plural as a substantive, τὰ ἱερά, the holy things, those which pertain to the worship of God in the temple, 1 Corinthians 9:13, cf. ἐργάζομαι , 2 a. [See references under the word ἅγιος, at the end; especially Schmidt, chapter 181.]TGL ἱερός.2


    (2414) Ἱεροσόλυμα (WH Ιεροσόλυμα, see their Introductory § 408), Ἱεροσολύμων, τά (the invariable form in Mark and John, almost everywhere in Matt. and Josephus (c. Apion 1, 22, 13, etc.; Philo , leg. ad Gaium § 36; (cf. Polybius 16, 39, 4); others)), and Ἱερουσαλήμ (WH Ἰερουσαλήμ (see reference as above)), , indeclinable (the invariable form in the Sept. (Joshua 10:1, etc.; Philo de somn. 2:39 at the beginning; so Aristotle , in Josephus , contra Apion 1, 22, 7 (where see Müller)); in the N. T. where a certain sacred emphasis, so to speak, resides in the very name, as Galatians 4:25 (see Lightfoot at the passage); Hebrews 12:22; Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10; thus in direct address: Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34; both forms are used promiscuously (yet with a marked preference for the indeclinable form) in the O. T. Apocrypha, and in the writings of Luke and of Paul; (cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 119; WH 's Appendix, p. 160). Whether there is also a third and unusual form Ἱεροσόλυμα, ἱεροσολυμης, , in Matthew 2:3; Matthew 3:5, is extremely doubtful; for in the phrase ἐξεπορεύετο... Ἱεροσόλυμα, Matthew 3:5, the noun can be taken as a neuter plural with a singular verb, cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 58, 3 a.; and in the former passage, Matthew 2:3, the unusual coupling of the feminine πᾶσα with the neuter plural Ἱεροσόλυμα is easily explained by the supposition that the appellative idea, πόλις, was in the writer's mind; see Fritzsche and Bleek at the passage; cf. Buttmann , 18 (16); (yet see Pape , Eigennamen, under the word). Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלִַם and יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, Chaldean יְרוּשְׁלֶם, Syriac mLSrw) []. Many suppose that the Hebrew name is composed of יְרוּשׁ possession, and שָׁלֵם, so that it signifies tranquil possessions, habitation of peace; but the matter is very uncertain and conjectures vary; cf. Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 628f; (B. D. under the word); on the earlier name of the city see below in Σαλήμ ; LatinHierosolyma ,Hierosolymorum , also (Vulg. e. g. manuscripts Amiat. and Fuld. Matthew 23:37; but especially) in the church fathersHierusalem , but the formHierosolyma ,Hierosolymae , is uncertain (yet see even Old Latin manuscripts in Matthew 2:1, Matthew 2:3)), — Jerusalem (A. V. Hierusalem and Ierusalem), the capital of Palestine, situated nearly in the center of the country, on the confines of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah, in a region so elevated that ἀναβαίνειν, עָלָה, to go up, fitly describes the approach to it from any quarter. The name is used in the N. T.:TGL Ἱεροσόλυμα.2

    1. to denote, either the city itself, Matthew 2:1; Mark 3:8; John 1:19, etc.; or its inhabitants, Matthew 2:3; Matthew 3:5; Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34.TGL Ἱεροσόλυμα.3

    2. νῦν Ἱερουσαλήμ (the Jerusalem that now is), with its present religious institutions, i. e. the Mosaic system, so designated from its primary external location, Galatians 4:25, with which is contrasted ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ (after the rabbinical phrase מעלה שׁל ירושׁלים, Jerusalem that is above, i. e. existing in heaven, according to the pattern of which the earthly Jerusalem מטה שׁל ירושׁלים was supposed to be built (cf. Schöttgen , Horae Hebrew i., 1207ff)), i. e. metaphorically, the City of God founded by Christ, now wearing the form of the church, but after Christ's return to put on the form of the perfected Messianic kingdom, Galatians 4:26; Ἱερουσαλήμ ἐπουράνιος, the heavenly Jerusalem, i. e. the heavenly abode of God, Christ, the angels, beatified men (as well the saints of the O. T. as Christians), and as citizens of which true Christians are to be regarded while still living on earth, Hebrews 12:22; καινή Ἱερουσαλήμ in the visions of John 'the Revelator,' the new Jerusalem, a splendid visible city to be let down from heaven after the renovation of the world, the future abode of the blessed: Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10.TGL Ἱεροσόλυμα.4


    (2415) Ἱεροσολυμίτης [Tdf. -μείτης, see ει , ι; WH Ἰεροσολυμείτης, see their Introductory § 408], -ου, , a citizen or inhabitant of Jerusalem: Mark 1:5; John 7:25. [Josephus, Antiquities 5, 1, 17, etc.]TGL Ἱεροσολυμίτης.2


    (2416) ἱεροσυλέω, ; (ἱερόσυλος, which see); to commit sacrilege, to rob a temple: Romans 2:22, where the meaning is, 'thou who abhorrest idols and their contamination, dost yet not hesitate to plunder their shrines'; cf. Fritzsche [and Delitzsch] at the passage (Aristophanes, Plato, Demosthenes, others.)TGL ἱεροσυλέω.2


    (2417) ἱερόσυλος, -ον, (from ἱερόν and συλάω), guilty of sacrilege: Acts 19:37 [A. V. robbers of temples; cf. Bp. Lightfoot in The Contemp. Rev. for 1878, p. 294f]. (2 Macc. 4:42; Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, Polybius, Diodorus, others.)TGL ἱερόσυλος.2


    (2418) ἱερουργέω, -ῶ; (from ἱερουργός, and this from ἱερός and ΕΡΓΩ); to be busied with sacred things; to perform sacred rites (Philo, Herodian); used especially of persons sacrificing (Josephus, Antiquities 7, 13, 4, etc.); translated, to minister in the manner of a priest, minister in priestly service: τὸν νόμον, of those who defend the sanctity of the law by undergoing a violent death, 4 Macc. 7:8; τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, of the preaching of the gospel, Romans 15:16 (where Fritzsche treats the word fully; [cf. Winer's Grammar, 222f (209)]).TGL ἱερουργέω.2


    (2419) Ἱερουσαλήμ, see Ἱεροσόλυμα .TGL Ἰερουσαλήμ.2


    (2420) ἱερωσύνη [on the ω see ἀγαθωσύνη , init.], -ης, , (ἱερός), priesthood, the priestly office: Hebrews 7:11, Hebrews 7:14, R G, 24. (Sir. 45:24; 1 Esdr. 5:38; 1 Macc. 2:54; 1 Macc. 3:49; 4 Macc. 5:34; Herodotus, Plato, Demosthenes, Diodorus, Joseph, Plutarch, Herodian, others.)TGL ἱερωσύνη.2


    (2421) Ιεσσαι (Ἰεσσαῖος in Josephus), , (יִשַׁי [cf. B. D. American edition, under the word]), Jesse, the father of David the king (1 Samuel 16:1, 1 Samuel 16:10; 1 Samuel 17:12 Alex. ; 1 Samuel 20:27): Matthew 1:5; Luke 3:32; Acts 13:22; Romans 15:12.TGL Ἰεσσαί.2


    (2422) Ἰεφθάε (Ἰεφθής, -οῦ, in Josephus), , (יִפְתָּח [future 3 singular masculine], from פָּתַח to open), Jephthah, the son of Gilead [cf. B. D. American edition, under the word Gilead, 4], and a judge of Israel (Judges 11:1-40f): Hebrews 11:32.TGL Ἰεφθάε.2


    (2423) Ἰεχονίας, -ου, , (יְהויָכִין Jehoiakin, i. e. whom Jehovah appointed; Sept. Ἰωαχίν [(?) see B. D. American edition uner the word, Jehoiachin]), Jechoniah, king of Judah, carried off into exile by Nebuchadnezzar [circa] B. C. 600 after a reign of three months, 2 Kings 24:8-17; 2 Chronicles 36:9; Jeremiah 52:31. He is mentioned in Matthew 1:11. But he was not, as is there stated, the son of Josiah, but of Jehoiakim; nor did he have 'brethren,' but his father had them. Accordingly, in the Evangelist's geneaology the names יְהויָקִים and יְהויָכִין have been confounded; [cf. B. D. as above, and references there].TGL Ἰεχονίας.2


    (2424) Ἰησοῦς, -οῦ, dative -οῦ, accusative -οῦν, vocative -οῦ, [Winer's Grammar, § 10, 1], , Jesus (יְהושֻׁעַ and according to a later form, יֵשׁוּעַ, Syriac gfvwey, i. e. whose help is Jehovah; German Gotthilf; but later writings gave the name the force of יְשׁוּעָה, see Matthew 1:21, cf. Sir. 46:1 Ἰησοῦς ὃς ἐγένετο κατὰ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μέγας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ, of Joshua, the successor of Moses; Philo, nom. mutat. § 21 Ἰησοῦς ἑρμηνεύεται σωτηρία κυρίου), a very common proper name among the Israelites; cf. Delitzsch, Der Jesusname, in the Zeitschr. f. d. Luth. Theol. for 1876, p. 209 sq. [Keim i. 384 sq. (Eng. trans. ii. 97 sq.)]."TGL Ἰησοῦς.2

    In the N.T.TGL Ἰησοῦς.3

    1. Joshua [fully Jehoshua], the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses' successor: Acts 7:45; Hebrews 4:8.TGL Ἰησοῦς.4

    2. Jesus, son of Eliezer, one of Christ's ancestors: Luke 3:29 L T Tr WH.TGL Ἰησοῦς.5

    3. Jesus, the Son of God, the Saviour of mankind: Matthew 1:21, Matthew 1:25; Luke 1:31; Luke 2:21, and very often; see κύριος and Χριστός.TGL Ἰησοῦς.6

    4. Jesus Barabbas; see Βαραββᾶς .TGL Ἰησοῦς.7

    5. Jesus, surnamed Justus, a Jewish Christian, an associate with Paul in preaching the gospel: Colossians 4:11.TGL Ἰησοῦς.8


    (2425) ἱκανός, ἱκανή, ἱκανόν (from ἵκω, ἱκανῷ; properly, 'reaching to', 'attaining to'; hence, 'adequate'); as in Greek writings from Herodotus and Thucydides down, sufficient;TGL ἱκανός.2

    a. of number and quantity; with nouns, many enough, or enough with a genitive: ὄχλος ἱκανός, a great multitude (A. V. often much people), Mark 10:46; Luke 7:12; Acts 11:24, Acts 11:26; Acts 19:26; λαός, Acts 5:37 R G ; κλαυθμός, Acts 20:37; ἀργύρια ἱκανά (A. V. large money, cf. the colloquial, 'money enough'), Matthew 28:12; λαμπάδες, Acts 20:8; λόγοι, Luke 23:9; φῶς ἱκανόν, a considerable light (A. V. a great light), Acts 22:6. of time: ἱκανῷ χρόνῳ (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31, 9; Buttmann , § 133, 26) for a long time (Luke 8:27 T Tr text WH ); Acts 8:11; also ἱκανόν χρόνον, Acts 14:3; and plural Luke 20:9; ἐξ ἱκανοῦ, of a long time, now for a long time, Luke 23:8 R G ; also ἐκ χρόνων, ἱκανῶν, Luke 8:27 R G L Tr marginal reading; Luke 23:8 L T Tr WH ; (ἀπό ἱκανῶν ἐτῶν, these many years, Romans 15:23 WH Tr text); ἱκανοῦ... χρόνου διαγενομένου, much time having elapsed, Acts 27:9; ἐφ' ἱκανόν for a long while, Acts 20:11 (2 Macc. 8:25; Diodorus 13, 100; Palaeph. 28); ἡμέραι (cf. Lightfoot on Galatians, p. 89 n.), Acts 9:23, Acts 9:43; Acts 18:18; Acts 27:7. absolutely, ἱκανοί, many, a considerable number: Luke 7:11 (R G L brackets T Tr marginal reading brackets); Acts 12:12; Acts 14:21; Acts 19:19; 1 Corinthians 11:30 (1 Macc. 13:49, etc.). ἱκανόν ἐστιν, it is enough, equivalent to enough has been said on this subject, Luke 22:38 (for Jesus, saddened at the paltry ideas of the disciples, breaks off in this way the conversation; the Jews, when a companion uttered anything absurd, were accustomed to use the phrase לָכֶם רַב (A. V. let it suffice thee, etc.), as in Deuteronomy 3:26, where the Sept. ἱκανούσθω) ἱκανόν τῷ τοιούτῳ ἐπιτιμία αὕτη, SC. ἐστι, sufficient... is this punishment, 2 Corinthians 2:6; after the Latin idiom satisfacere alicui, τό ἱκανόν ποιεῖν τίνι, to take away from one every ground of complaint (A. V. to content), Mark 15:15 (Polybius 32, 7, 13; Appendix, Puff., p. 68, Toll. edition (sec. 74, i., p. 402 edition Schweig.); (Diogenes Laërtius 4, 50); τό ἱκανο λαμβάνω (Latinsatis accipio ), to take security (either by accepting sponsors, or by a deposit of money until the case had been decided), Acts 17:9.TGL ἱκανός.3

    b. sufficient in ability, i. e. meet, fit (German tüchtig (A. V. worthy, able, etc.)): πρός τί, for something, 2 Corinthians 2:16; followed by an infinitive (Buttmann , 260 (223f)), Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; 1 Corinthians 15:9; 2 Corinthians 3:5; 2 Timothy 2:2; followed by ἵνα with subjunctive (Buttmann , 240 (207); cf. Winer 's Grammar, 335 (314)): Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:6.TGL ἱκανός.4


    (2426) ἱκανότης, -ητος, , sufficiency, ability or competency to do a thing: 2 Corinthians 3:5. (Plato, Lysias [p. 215. a.] quoted in Pollux; [others].)TGL ἱκανότης.2


    (2427) ἱκανόω, -ῶ: 1 aorist ἱκάνωσα; (ἱκανός); to make sufficient, render fit; with two accusatives, one of the objects, the other of the predicate: to equip one with adequate power to perform the duties of one, 2 Corinthians 3:6; τινὰ εἴς τι, Colossians 1:12. [Sept; Dionysius Halicarnassus, others.]TGL ἱκανόω.2


    (2428) ἱκετήριος, , -ον, (ἱκέτης a suppliant), pertaining to a suppliant, fit for a suppliant; ἱκετηρία, as a substantive, namely, ἐλαία or ῤάβδος;TGL ἱκετηρία.2

    1. an olive-branch; for suppliants approached the one whose aid they would implore holding an olive-branch entwined with white wool and fillets, to signify that they came as suppliants [cf. Trench, § 51, under the end]: λαμβάνειν ἱκετηρίαν, Herodotus 5, 51; ἱκετηρίαν τιθέναι or προβάλλεσθαι παρά τινι, etc.TGL ἱκετηρία.3

    2. equivalent to ἱκεσία, supplication (Isocrates, p. 186 d. var.; Polybius; 2 Macc. 9:18): plural joined with δεήσεις (Polybius 3, 112, 8; singular Job 40:22, Sept. ), Hebrews 5:7.TGL ἱκετηρία.4


    (2429) ἰκμάς, -άδος, , moisture: Luke 8:6. (Sept. Jeremiah 17:8; Homer, Iliad 17, 392; Josephus, Antiquities 3, 1, 3, and often in other authors.)TGL ἰκμάς.2


    (2430) Ἰκόνιον, -ου, τό, Iconium, a celebrated city of Asia Minor, which in the time of Xenophon, (an. 1, 2, 19) was 'the last city of Phrygia,' afterward the capital of Lycaonia (Strabo 12, p. 568; Cicero, ad divers. 15, 4); now Konia [or Konieh]: Acts 13:51; Acts 14:1, Acts 14:19, Acts 14:21; Acts 16:2; 2 Timothy 3:11. Cf. Overbeck in Schenkel, iii. 303f; [B. D. (especially American edition) under the word; Lewin, St. Paul, i. 144ff].TGL Ἰκόνιον.2


    (2431) ἱλαρός, , -όν, (ἴλαος propitious), cheerful, joyous, prompt to do anything: 2 Corinthians 9:7; Proverbs 19:12; Proverbs 22:8; Sir. 13:26 (Sir 13:25); Sirach 26:4; 3 Macc. 6:35; Aristophanes, Xenophon, others.TGL ἱλαρός.2


    (2432) ἱλαρότης, -ητος, , cheerfulness, readiness of mind: Romans 12:8. (Proverbs 18:22; [Diodorus, Philo (de plant. Noë § 40), Plutarch, others]; Acta Thom. § 14.)TGL ἱλαρότης.2


    (2433) ἱλάσκομαι; (see below); in classical Greek the middle of an act. ἱλάσκω (to render propitious, appease) never met with;TGL ἱλάσκομαι.2

    1. to render propitious to oneself, to appease, conciliate to oneself (from ἴλαος gracious, gentle); from Homer down; mostly with the accusative of a person, as Θεόν, Ἀθηνην, etc. (τόν Θεόν ἱλάσασθαι, Josephus , Antiquities 6, 6, 5); very rarely with the accusative of the thing, as τήν ὀργήν, Plutarch , Cat. min. 61 (with which cf. ἐξιλάσκεσθαι θυμόν, Proverbs 16:14 the Sept. ). In Biblical Greek used passively, to become propitious, be placated or appeased; in 1 aorist imperative ἱλάσθητι, be propitious, be gracious, be merciful (in secular authors ἱληθι and Doric, ἵλαθι, which the gramm. regard as the present of an unused verb ἵλημι, to be propitious; cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Sp. ii., p. 206; Kühner, § 343, i., p. 839; Passow , (or Liddell and Scott, or Veitch ) under the word ἵλημι), with the dative of the thing or the person: Luke 18:13 (ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις, Psalms 78:9 (Psalms 79:9); Psalm 87:38 (Ps. 88:38); τῇ ἁμαρτία, Psalm 24:11 (Psalms 25:11); ἱλάσθη κύριος περί τῆς κακίας, Exodus 32:14 Alex. ; ἱλασθήσεται κυρίου τῷ δούλῳ σου, 2 Kings 5:18).TGL ἱλάσκομαι.3

    2. by an Alexandrian usage, to expiate, make propitiation for (as ἐξιλάσκεσθαι in the O. T.): τάς ἁμαριτας, Hebrews 2:17 (ἡμῶν τάς ψυχάς, Philo , alleg. leg. 3, 61). (Cf. Kurtz, Commentary on Hebrews, at the passage cited; Winer 's Grammar, 227 (213); Westcott, Epistles of St. John, p. 83f.)TGL ἱλάσκομαι.4


    (2434) ἱλασμός, -οῦ, , (ἱλάσκομαι);TGL ἱλασμός.2

    1. an appeasing, propitiating, Vulg. propitiatio , (Plutarch, de sera num. vind. c. 17; plural joined with καθαρμαι, Plutarch, Sol. 12; with the genitive of the object τῶν θεῶν, the Orphica Arg. 39; Plutarch, Fab. 18; θεῶν μῆνιν ἱλασμοῦ καὶ χαριστηρίων δεομένην, vit. Camill. 7 at the end; ποιεῖσθαι ἱλασμόν, of a priest offering an expiatory sacrifice, 2 Macc. 3:33).TGL ἱλασμός.3

    2. in Alex. usage the means of appeasing, a propitiation: Philo, alleg. leg. 3 § 61; προσοίσουσιν ἱλασμόν, for חַטָּאת, Ezekiel 44:27; περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν, of Christ, 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10 (κριὸς τοῦ ἱλασμοῦ, Numbers 5:8; [cf. ἡμέρα τ. ἱλασμοῦ, Leviticus 25:9]; also for סְלִיחָה, forgiveness, Psalms 129:4 (Psalms 130:4); Daniel 9:9, Theodotion). [Cf. Trench § 77.]TGL ἱλασμός.4


    (2435) ἱλαστήριος, ἱλαστηρια, ἱλαστήριον (ἱλάσκομαι, which see), relating to appeasing or expiating, having placating or expiating force, expiatory: μνῆμα ἱλαστήριον, a monument built to propitiate God, Josephus , Antiquities 16, 7, 1; ἱλαστήριος θάνατος, 4 Macc. 17:22; χεῖρας ἱκετηριους, εἰ βούλει δέ ἱλαστηριους, ἐκτείνας Θεῷ, Niceph. in act. SS. edition Mai, vol. v., p. 335, 17. Neuter τό ἱλαστήριον, as a substantive, a means of appeasing or expiating, a propitiation (German Versöhnungs- oderSühnmittel ); cf. Winer 's Grammar, 96 (91); (592 (551)). So used of:TGL ἱλαστήριον.2

    1. the well-known cover of the ark of the covenant in the Holy of holies, which was sprinkled with the blood of the expiatory victim on the annual day of atonement (this rite signifying that the life of the people, the loss of which they had merited by their sins, was offered to God in the blood as the life of the victim, and that God by this ceremony was appeased and their sins were expiated); hence, the lid of expiation, the propitiatory, Vulg. propitiatorium ; Luth.Gnadensruhl (A. V. mercy-seat): Hebrews 9:5 (the Sept. Exodus 25:18; Leviticus 16:2, etc.; more fully ἱλαστήριον ἐπίθεμα, Exodus 25:17; Exodus 38:7 (Exodus 37:6), for the Hebrew כַּפֹּרֶת, from כִּפֶּר to cover, namely, sins, i. e. to pardon). Theodoret , Theophylact , Oecumenius , Luther, Grotius, Tholuck, Wilke, Philippi, Umbreit (Cremer (4te Aufl.)) and others give this meaning to the word also in Romans 3:25, viz. that Christ, besprinkled with his own blood, was truly that which the cover or 'mercy-seat' had been typically, i. e., the sign and pledge of expiation; but in opposed to this interpretation see Fritzsche, Meyer, Van Hengel (Godet, Oltramare) and others at the passageTGL ἱλαστήριον.3

    2. an expiatory sacrifice; a piacular victim (Vulg. propitiatio ): Romans 3:25 (after the analogy of the words χαριστηρια sacrifices expressive of gratitude, thank-offerings, σωτηρία sacrifices for safety obtained. On the other hand, in Dio Chrysostom or. 11, 121, p. 355, Reiske edition, the reference is not to a sacrifice but to a monument, as the preceding words show: καταλείψειν γάρ αὐτούς ἀνάθημα κάλλιστον καί μέγιστον τῇ Ἀθηνα καί ἐπιγράψειν, ἱλαστήριον Ἀχαιοι τῇ Ἰλιαδι). (See the full discussion of the word in Dr. Jets. Morison, Critical Exposition of the Third Chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, pp. 281-303.)TGL ἱλαστήριον.4


    (2436) ἵλεως, -ων, (Attic for ἴλαος [cf. Winers Grammar, 22], from Homer down), propitious, merciful: ἔσομαι ἵλ. ταῖς ἀδικίαις, i. e. I will pardon, Hebrews 8:12; Jeremiah 38:34 (Jeremiah 31:34); Jeremiah 43:3 (Jeremiah 36:3); also ταῖς ἁμαρτίαις, 1 Kings 8:34; 2 Chronicles 6:25, 2 Chronicles 6:27, etc.; ἵλεώς σοι, namely, ἔστω [or εἴη, Buttmann § 129, 22] Θεός, i. e. God avert this from thee, Matthew 16:22; Sept. for חָלִילָה followed by לְ, be it far from one, 2 Samuel 20:20; 2 Samuel 23:17.TGL ἵλεως.2


    (2437) Ἰλλυρικόν, -οῦ, τό, Illyricum, a region lying between Italy, Germany, Macedonia and Thrace, having on one side the Adriatic Sea, and on the other the Danube: Romans 15:19 [cf. B. D. American edition].TGL Ἰλλυρικόν.2


    (2438) ἱμάς, -άντος, , (from ἵημι to send; namely, a vessel, which was tied to thongs of leather and let down into a well for the purpose of drawing water; hence, ἱμάω also, to draw something made fast to a thong or rope [recent etymology connect it with Skt. si to bind; cf. Curtius § 602; Vanicek, p. 1041]); from Homer down; a thong of leather, a strap; in the N. T. of the thongs with which captives or criminals were either bound or beaten (see προτείνω ), Acts 22:25 (4 Macc. 9:11; Sir. 30:35); of the thongs or ties by which sandals were fastened to the feet, Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; John 1:27, (so also in Isaiah 5:27; Xenophon, anab. 4, 5, 14; Plutarch, symp. 4, 2, 3; Suidas ἱμάς. σφαιρωτὴρ σανδαλίου, ζανίχιον, οἷον τὸ λώριον τοῦ ὑποδήματος).TGL ἱμάς.2


    (2439) ἱματίζω: perfect passive participle ἱματισμένος; (ἱμάτιον); to clothe: Mark 5:15; Luke 8:35. (Found neither in the Sept. nor in secular authors [cf. Winer's Grammar, 26 (25)].)TGL ἱματίζω.2


    (2440) ἱμάτιον, ἱματίου, τό (diminutive of ἱμα equivalent to εἷμα, an article of clothing, garment; and this from ἕννυμι to clothe, cf. German Hemd); (from Herodotus down); the Sept. mostly for בֶּגֶד, also for שִׂמְלָה, שַׂלְמָה, etc.;TGL ἱμάτιον.2

    1. a garment (of any sort): Matthew 9:16; Matthew 11:8 (R G L brackets; others omit; cf. Winer s Grammar, 591 (550); Buttmann , 82 (72)); Mark 2:21; Mark 15:20; Luke 5:36; Luke 7:25; Hebrews 1:11; plural garments, i. e. the cloak or mantle and the tunic (cf. Winer s Grammar, 176 (166); Buttmann , 24 (23)): Matthew 17:2; Matthew 24:18 (Rec. ); Matthew 27:31, Matthew 27:35; John 19:23; Acts 7:58; James 5:2, etc.; to rend τά ἱμάτια (see διαρρήγνυμι ), Matthew 26:65; Acts 14:14; Acts 22:23.TGL ἱμάτιον.3

    2. the upper garment, the cloak or mantle (which was thrown over the tunic, χιτών) (Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 22): Matthew 9:20; (xxiv. 18 L T Tr WH ); Mark 5:2; Luke 8:44; John 19:2; Revelation 19:16; it is distinguished from the χιτών in Matthew 5:40; Luke 6:29; (cf. John 19:23); Acts 9:39. (Cf. Trench , § l.; BB. DD. under the word ; Edersheim, Jewish Social Life, chapter xiii.; especially 'Jesus the Messiah,' 1:620ff) ἱματισμός, ἱματισμοῦ, (ἱματίζω), clothing, apparel: universally, Luke 7:25; Acts 20:33; 1 Timothy 2:9; of the tunic, Matthew 27:35 Rec. ; John 19:24; of the cloak or mantle, Luke 9:29. (The Sept. ; Theophrastus , Polybius , Diodorus , Plutarch , Athen. ) (Cf. Trench , § l.)TGL ἱμάτιον.4


    (2441) ἱματισμός, -οῦ, , (ἱματίζω, clothing, apparel: univ., Luke 7:25; Acts 20:33; 1 Timothy 2:9; of the tunic, Matthew 27:35, Rec.; John 19:24; of the cloak or mantle, Luke 9:29. (Sept.; Theophr., Polyb., Diod., Plut., Athen.) [Cf. Trench § 1.]*TGL ἱματισμός.2


    (2442) ἱμείρω: middle ἱμείρομαι; (ἵμερος desire, longing, [allied with ἵλεως; Vanicek, p. 88]; cf. οἰκτείρω ); to desire, long for, especially of the longing of love: ὑμῶν [Winer's Grammar § 30, 10 b.], i. e. your souls, to win them to Christ, 1 Thessalonians 2:8 Rec. ; see ὁμείρομαι . (Sept. Job 3:21; in Greek writings from Homer down.)TGL ὁμείρομαι.2


    (2443) ἵνα,TGL ἵνα.2

    I. an adverb of place, from Homer down, especially in the poets;TGL ἵνα.3

    a. where; in what place.TGL ἵνα.4

    b. to what place; whither. Of the former signification C. F. A. Fritzsche (on Matthew, p. 836; differently in Fritzschiorum Opusco., p. 186ff) thought he had found two examples in Biblical Greek, and H. A. W. Meyer agrees with him. The first, viz. ἵνα μή φυσιοῦσθε, 1 Corinthians 4:6, they explain thus: where (i. e. in which state of things, viz. when ye have learned from my example to think humbly of yourselves) the one is not exalted to the other's disadvantage; the second, ἵνα αὐτούς ζηλοῦτε, Galatians 4:17, thus: where ye zealously court them; but see II. 1 d. below.TGL ἵνα.5

    II. a final conjunction (for from local direction, indicated by the adverb, the transition was easy to mental direction or intention) denoting purpose and end: to the intent that; to the end that, in order that; ἵνα μή, that not, lest; it is used:TGL ἵνα.6

    1. properly, of the purpose or end;TGL ἵνα.7

    a. followed by the optative; only twice, and then preceded by the present of a verb of praying or beseeching, where the wish (optatio) expressed by the prayer gave occasion for the use of the optative: Ephesians 1:17 but WH marginal reading subjunctive; Ephesians 3:16 R G ; cf. Winer s Grammar, 290 (273); Buttmann , 233 (201); and yet in both instances the relic force of the particle is so weakened that it denotes the substance rather than the end of the prayer; see 2 below.TGL ἵνα.8

    b. followed by the subjunctive, not only (according to the rule observed by the best Greek writers) after the primary tenses (present, perfect, future) or the imperative, but (in accordance with that well-known negligence with which in later times and especially by Hellenistic writers the distinction between the subjunctive and the optative was disregarded) after preterites even where the more elegant Greek writers were accustomed to use the optative; cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 847ff; Klotz ad Der. ii., 2 p. 616ff; Winer s Grammar, 287ff (270ff); Buttmann , 233 (201).TGL ἵνα.9

    α. after a present: Mark 4:21; Mark 7:9; Luke 6:34; Luke 8:12; Luke 16:28; John 3:15; John 5:34; John 6:30; Acts 2:25; Acts 16:30; Romans 1:11; Romans 3:19; Romans 11:25; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 1 Corinthians 9:12; 2 Corinthians 1:17; Galatians 6:13; Philippians 3:8; Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 6:12; Hebrews 9:25; 1 John 1:3; Revelation 3:18; Revelation 11:6, and often.TGL ἵνα.10

    β. after a perfect: Matthew 1:22; Matthew 21:4; John 5:23, (John 5:36 T Tr WH ; cf. e.); John 6:38; John 12:40,John 12:46; John 14:29; John 16:1,John 16:4; John 17:4; John 20:31; 1 Corinthians 9:22; 1 John 5:20 (here T Tr WH present indicative; see d.).TGL ἵνα.11

    γ. after an imperative (either present or aorist): Matthew 7:1; Matthew 9:6; Matthew 14:15; Matthew 17:27; Matthew 23:26; Mark 11:25; Mark 13:18; John 4:15; John 5:14; John 7:3 (R G L ); John 10:38; 1 Corinthians 7:5; 1 Corinthians 11:34; 1 Timothy 4:15; Titus 3:13, etc.; also after a hortative or deliberative subjunctive: Mark 1:38; Luke 20:14; John 6:5 (Rbez L T Tr WH ); John 11:16; Hebrews 4:16, etc.TGL ἵνα.12

    δ. after a future: Luke 16:4; Luke 18:5; John 5:20 (here Tdf. present indicative; see d.); John 14:3, John 14:13, John 14:16; 1 Corinthians 15:28; Philippians 1:26.TGL ἵνα.13

    ε. after Historic tenses: after the imperfect, Mark 3:2 (here L Tr future indicative; see c.); Mark 6:41; Mark 8:6; Luke 6:7; Luke 18:15, etc.; after the pluperfect, John 4:8; after the aor, Matthew 19:13; Mark 3:14; Mark 11:28; Mark 14:10 (R. § 139, 37); Luke 19:4, Luke 19:15; John 5:36 (R G L ; cf. β.); John 7:32; John 12:9; Acts 19:4 (?); Romans 6:4; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 11:35; 1 Timothy 1:16; 1 John 3:5, 1 John 3:8, etc.TGL ἵνα.14

    c. As secular authors join the final particles ὄφρα, μή, and especially ὅπως, also with the future indicative (cf. Matthiae , § 519, 8 ii., p. 1186ff), as being in nature akin to the subjunctive, so the N. T. writings, according to a usage extremely doubtful among the better Greek writings (cf. Klotz, the passage cited, p. 629f), also join ἵνα with the same (cf. WH s Appendix, p. 171{b} following; Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word ἵνα, 17): ἵνα θήσω, 1 Corinthians 9:18; L T Tr WH in the following instances: σταυρωσουσιν, Mark 15:20 (not WH (see as above)), δώσουσιν, Luke 20:10; κενώσει, 1 Corinthians 9:15 (not Lachmann) (καταδουλώσουσιν, Galatians 2:4 (but cf. Hort in WH as above, p. 167a)); κερδηθήσονται, 1 Peter 3:1; σφάξουσιν, Revelation 6:4; δώσει, Revelation 8:3; προσκυνήσουσιν (Revelation 9:20); Revelation 13:12 ((cf. 2 a. at the end below)); (ἀναπαήσονται, Revelation 14:13 (see ἀναπαύω ) cf. 4 b.); L Tr in the following: κατηγορήσουσιν, Mark 3:2 (cf. b. e. above); προσκυνήσουσιν, John 12:20; T Tr WH in (θεωρήσουσιν, John 7:3); ξυρήσονται, Acts 21:24; L T WH Tr marginal reading in ἀδικήσουσιν, Revelation 9:4 ((cf. 2 b. below)); (add, ἐρεῖ, Luke 14:10 T WH Tr text; ἐξομολογήσεται, Philippians 2:11 T L marginal reading Tr marginal reading; καυθήσομαι, 1 Corinthians 13:3 T ; δώσει, John 17:2 WH Tr marginal reading; ἀναπαύσονται, Revelation 6:11 WH ; δώσει, Revelation 13:16 WH marginal reading) (ἵνα καταργήσει τόν θάνατον καί τήν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀνάστασιν δείξει, the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 6 [ET] (so manuscript א, but Hilgenf., Müller, Gebh., others, adopt the subjunctive; yet see Cunningham's note at the passage)); so that the future alternates with the subjunctive: ἵνα ἔσται... καί εἰσέλθωσιν, Revelation 22:14; γένηται καί ἔσῃ (Vulg. sis ), Ephesians 6:3; in other passages L T Tr WH have restored the indicative, as ἵνα ἥξουσι καί προσκυνήσουσιν... καί γνῶσιν, Revelation 3:9; ἵνα... πίνητε... καί καθίσεσθε or καθήσεσθε (but WH text κάθησθε) (Vulg. et sedeatis ), Luke 22:30; κάμψῃ καί ἐξομολογήσεται, Philippians 2:11 (T L marginal reading Tr marginal reading); cf. Buttmann , § 139, 88; Winer 's Grammar, § 41 b. 1 b.TGL ἵνα.15

    d. By a solecism frequently in the ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings. ἵνα is joined with the indicative present: 1 Corinthians 4:6 (φυσιοῦσθε); Galatians 4:17 (ζηλοῦτε); (cf. Test xii. Patr. , test. Gad § 7; the Epistle of Barnabas 6, 5 [ET]; 7, 11 [ET]; Ignatius ad Eph. 4, 2 [ET]; ad Trall. 8, 2 [ET], and other examples in Winer s and Alexander Buttmann (1873) as below; but see Hort in WH 's Appendix, p. 167{a}, cf., pp. 169^b, 171f); but the indicative is very doubtful in the following passages: (John 4:15 Tr text); John 5:20 (Tdf. θαυμάζετε); John 17:3 T Tr text; Galatians 6:12 T L marginal reading; (1 Thessalonians 4:13 L marginal reading); Titus 2:4 T Tr L marginal reading; 2 Peter 1:10 L ; (1 John 5:20 T Tr WH (cf. b. β. above)); Revelation 12:6 (T Tr τρέφουσιν); (Revelation 13:17 WH marginal reading); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 41 b. 1 c.; Buttmann , § 139, 39; Meyer on 1 Corinthians 4:6; Wieseler on Galatians 4:17; (Sophocles as above). (In the earlier Greek writings ἵνα is joined with the indicative of the past tenses alone, 'to denote something which would have been, if something else had been done, but now has not come to pass' Hermann ad Vig. p. 847, cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii., 2, p. 630f; Kühner, § 553, 7 ii., 903; (Jelf , § 813; cf. Jebb in the Appendix to Vincent and Dickson's Modern Greek, § 79).)TGL ἵνα.16

    e. the final sentence is preceded by preparatory demonstrative expressions (Winer 's Grammar, § 23, 5): εἰς τοῦτο, to this end, John 18:37; 1 John 3:8; Romans 14:9; 2 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 3:9; 1 Peter 4:6 (the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 1, 11 [ET]; (14, 5 [ET])); εἰς αὐτό τοῦτο, Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; διά τοῦτο, John 1:31; 2 Corinthians 13:10; Philemon 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:16; τούτου χάριν, Titus 1:5.TGL ἵνα.17

    2. In later Greek, and especially in Hellenistic writers, the final force of the particle ἵνα is more or less weakened, so that it is frequently used where the earlier Greeks employed the infinitive, yet so that the leading and the dependent sentence have each its own subject. The first extant instance of this use occurs in the Amphictyonic decree in (pseudo-) Demosthenes , p. 279, 8 (i. e. de coron. § 155): πρεσβευσαι πρός Φίλιππον καί ἀξιουν ἵνα βοηθήσῃ (cf. Odyss. 3, 327 λίσσεσθαι... ἵνα νημερτες ἐνισπη (cf. 3, 19)), but it increased greatly in subsequent times; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 44, 8; R. 237 (204); (Green 171f; Goodwin § 45 N. 5 b.; Jebb in the Appendix to Vincent and Dickson's Modern Greek, § 55). Accordingly, ἵνα stands with the subjunctive in such a way that it denotes the purport (or object) rather than the purpose of the action expressed by the preceding verb. This occursTGL ἵνα.18

    a. after verbs of caring for, deciding, desiring, striving: βλέπειν, 1 Corinthians 16:10; Colossians 4:17; 2 John 1:8; ζητῶ, 1 Corinthians 4:2; 1 Corinthians 14:12; φυλάσσομαι, ἵνα μή, 2 Peter 3:17; μεριμνάω, 1 Corinthians 7:34; ζηλόω, 1 Corinthians 14:1; βουλεύομαι, John 11:53 (R G Tr marginal reading συμβουλεύομαι); John 12:10; ἀφίημι, Mark 11:16; John 12:7 L T Tr WH ; θέλημα ἐστι, Matthew 18:14; John 6:39; θέλω, Matthew 7:12; Mark 6:25; Mark 9:30; Mark 10:35; Luke 6:31; so that it alternates with the infinitive, 1 Corinthians 14:5; δίδωμι, to grant, that, Mark 10:37; Revelation 9:5, etc.; ποιῶ, Revelation 13:12 (here L T Tr WH future indicative (cf. 1 c. above)).TGL ἵνα.19

    b. after verbs of saying (commanding, asking, exhorting; but by no means after κελεύειν (cf. Buttmann , 275 (236))): εἰπεῖν, in the sense of to bid, Matthew 4:3; Mark 3:9; Luke 4:3; also λέγειν, Acts 19:4; 1 John 5:16; ἐρρήθη, Revelation 6:11 (WH future indicative); Revelation 9:4 (L T Tr marginal reading WH indicative future (see 1 c. above)); διαμαρτύρομαι, 1 Timothy 5:21 (otherwise (viz. telic) in Luke 16:28); ἐρωτῶ, to ask, beseech, Mark 7:26; Luke 7:36; Luke 16:27; John 4:47; John 17:15, John 17:21; John 19:31; 2 John 1:5; παρακαλῶ, Matthew 14:36; Mark 5:10, Mark 5:18; Mark 7:32; Mark 8:22; Luke 8:32; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 16:12, 1 Corinthians 16:15; 2 Corinthians 8:6; 2 Corinthians 9:5; 2 Corinthians 12:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; 2 Thessalonians 3:12, (Josephus , Antiquities 12, 3, 2); προσεύχομαι (which see), Matthew 24:20; (Mark 13:18); Mark 14:35; δέομαι, Luke 9:40; Luke 22:32 (Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 1, 83); ἐπιτίμω, Matthew 12:16; (Matthew 16:20 L WH text); Matthew 20:31; Mark 3:12; Mark 8:30; Mark 10:48; Luke 18:39; ἐντέλλομαι, Mark 13:34; John 15:17; ἐντολήν δίδωμι or λαμβάνω, John 11:57; John 13:34; John 15:12; γράφω, with the involved idea of prescribing, Mark 9:12 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 462 (430) and the text of L T ); Mark 12:19; Luke 20:28; διαστέλλομαι, Matthew 16:20 (L WH text ἐπιτίμω (see above)); Mark 5:43; Mark 7:36; Mark 9:9; παραγγέλλω, Mark 6:8 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 578 (538)); συντίθεμαι, John 9:22; ἀγγαρεύω, Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; κηρύσσω, Mark 6:12; ἀπαγγέλλω, Matthew 28:10; ἐξορκίζω, Matthew 26:63. (For examples (of its use with the above verbs and others) drawn from the later Greek writings, see Sophocles , Glossary etc. § 88, 1.)TGL ἵνα.20

    c. after words by which judgment is pronounced concerning that which someone is about to do (or which is going to happen), as to whether it is expedient, befitting, proper, or not; as συμφέρει, Matthew 18:6; Matthew 5:29; John 11:50; John 16:7; λυσιτελεῖ, Luke 17:2; ἀρκετόν, ἐστι, Matthew 10:25; also after ἄξιος, John 1:27; ἱκανός, Matthew 8:8; Luke 7:6; ἐλάχιστον μοι ἐστιν, ἵνα, 1 Corinthians 4:3; ἠγαλλιάσατο ἵνα ἴδῃ, John 8:56; χρείαν ἔχω, John 2:25; John 16:30; 1 John 2:27; ἔδει, ἵνα ἐπί ξύλου πάθη, the Epistle of Barnabas 5, 13 [ET]. (For other examples see Sophocles as above § 88, 3, 4.)TGL ἵνα.21

    d. after substantives, to which it adds a more exact definition of the thing; after a substantive of time: χρόνον, ἵνα μετανοήσῃ, Revelation 2:21; after ὥρα, John 12:23; John 13:1; John 16:2, John 16:32 (elsewhere ὅτε, John 4:23; John 5:25); in these examples the final force of the particle is still apparent; we also can say time that she should repent (cf. Winer s Grammar, 389 (318); Buttmann , 240 (207)); but in other expressions this force has almost disappeared, as in ἐστιν συνήθεια ὑμῖν, ἵνα... ἀπολύσω, John 18:39; after μισθός, 1 Corinthians 9:18.TGL ἵνα.22

    e. it looks back to a demonstrative pronoun; cf. Winer s Grammar, 338 (317); (Buttmann , § 139, 45): πόθεν μοι τοῦτο, ἵνα ἔλθῃ κτλ. for τό ἐλθεῖν τήν etc. Luke 1:43; especially in John, cf. John 6:29, John 6:50; John 15:13; John 17:3 (here T Tr text indicative; see 1 d. above); 1 John 3:11, 1 John 3:23; 1 John 5:3; 2 John 1:6; Philippians 1:9; ἐν τούτῳ, John 15:8; 1 John 4:17 (Θεοῦ δέ τό δυνατόν ἐν τούτῳ δεικνυται, ἵνα... ἐξ οὐκ ὄντων ποιῇ τά γινόμενα, Theophil. ad Autol. 2, 13; after τόδε, Epictetus diss. 2, 1, 1; (other examples in Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word 6)).TGL ἵνα.23

    3. According to a very ancient tenet of the grammarians, accepted by Kühner, § 563, 2 Anm. 3; (T. S. Green , N. T. Gram., p. 172f), and not utterly rejected by Alex. Alexander Buttmann (1873) N. T. Gr., p. 238f (206), ἵνα is alleged to be used not only τελικως, i. e. of design and end, but also frequently ἐκβατικως, i. e. of the result, signifying with the issue, that; with the result, that; so that (equivalent to ὥστε). But C. F. A. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 836ff and Winer 's 338 (317) and 457ff (426ff) have clearly shown, that in all the passages adduced from the N. T. to prove this usage the telic (or final) force prevails: thus in ἵνα μή λυθῇ νόμος Μωϋσέως, that the law of Moses may not be broken (which directs a man to be circumcised on the eighth and on no other day), John 7:23; οὐκ ἐστε ἐν σκότει, ἵνα ἡμέρα ὑμᾶς... καταλάβῃ, that the day should overtake you (cf. the final force as brought out by turning the sentence into the passive form in German um vom Tage erfusst zu werden ), 1 Thessalonians 5:4; προσευχέσθω, ἵνα διερμηνεύῃ, let him pray (intent on this, or with this aim), that (subsequently) he may interpret, 1 Corinthians 14:18; likewise ἐπενθήσατε, ἵνα etc. 1 Corinthians 5:2, and μετενόησαν, ἵνα μή, Revelation 9:20; μετάθεσιν,... ἵνα etc. that the change may be to this end, that etc. Hebrews 12:27; ἵνα μή... ποιῆτε, that ye may not do, Galatians 5:17 (where σάρξ and τό πνεῦμα are personified antagonistic forces contending for dominion over the will of the Christian; cf. Wieseler at the passage); the words ἵνα... φραγῇ κτλ. in Romans 3:19 describe the end aimed at by the law. In many passages where ἵνα has seemed to interpreters to be used ἐκβατικως, the sacred writers follow the dictate of piety, which bids us trace all events back to God as their author and to refer them to God's purposes (Jo. Damascen. orthod. fid. 4, 19 ἔθος τῇ γραφή, τινα ἐκβατικως ὀφείλοντα λέγεσθαι, αἰτιολογικως λέγειν); so that, if we are ever in doubt whether ἵνα is used of design or of result, we can easily settle the question when we can interpret the passage 'that, by God's decree,' or 'that, according to divine purpose' etc.; passages of this sort are the following: Mark 4:12; Luke 9:45; Luke 11:50; Luke 14:10; John 4:36; John 9:2; John 12:40; John 19:28; Romans 5:20; Romans 7:13; Romans 8:17; Romans 11:31; 1 Corinthians 7:29; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 7:9; also the phrase ἵνα πληρωθῇ, accustomed to be used in reference to the O. T. prophecies: Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; Matthew 4:14; Matthew 12:17 L T Tr WH ; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 26:56; Matthew 27:35 Rec. ; John 13:18; John 17:12; John 19:24, John 19:36; ἵνα πληρωθῇ λόγος, John 12:38; John 15:25, cf. John 18:9,John 18:32. (Cf. Winer s 461 (429). Prof Sophocles although giving (Lex. under the word ἵνα, 19) a copious collection of examples of the ecbatic use of the word, defends its telic sense in the phrase ἵνα πληρωθῇ, by calling attention not merely to the substitution of ὅπως πληρωθῇ in Matthew 8:17; Matthew 13:35 (cf. Matthew 2:23), but especially to 1 Esdr. 1:54 (εἰς ἀναπλήρωσιν ῤήματος τοῦ κυρίου ἐν στόματι Ιερεμιου); 1 Esdr. 2:1 (εἰς συντέλειαν ῤήματος κυρίου κτλ.); 2 Esdr. 1:1 (τοῦ τελεσθῆναι λόγον κυρίου ἀπό στόματος Ιερεμιου); Josephus , Antiquities 8, 8, 2 at the end ταῦτα δ' ἐπραττετο κατά τήν τοῦ Θεοῦ βουλησιν ἵνα λάβῃ τέλος προεφήτευσεν Αχιας; cf. Bib. Sacr. 1861, p. 729ff; Luthardt's Zeitschr. 1883, p. 632ff)TGL ἵνα.24

    4. The elliptical use of the particle;TGL ἵνα.25

    a. the telic ἵνα often depends on a verb not expressed, but to be repeated or educed from the context (cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 840f; Winer s Grammar, 316 (297); (Buttmann , § 139, 47)): ἀλλ' (namely, ἦλθεν, cf. verse 7) ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ, John 1:8; ἀλλ' (namely, ἐγένετο ἀπόκρυφον) ἵνα εἰς φανερόν ἔλθῃ, Mark 4:22; ἀλλ' (namely, κρατεῖτε με) ἵνα etc. Mark 14:49; add, John 15:25; 1 John 2:19.TGL ἵνα.26

    b. the weakened ἵνα (see 2 above) with the subjunctive (or indicative future (cf. 1 c.), Revelation 14:13 L T Tr WH ) denotes something which one wishes to be done by another, so that before the ἵνα a verb of commanding (exhorting, wishing) must be mentally supplied (or, as is commonly said, it forms a periphrasis for the imperative): ἵνα... ἐπιθῇς τάς χεῖρας αὐτῇ, Mark 5:23; γυνή ἵνα φοβῆται τόν ἄνδρα, Ephesians 5:33; Galatians 2:10; add 2 Corinthians 8:7; ἵνα ἀναπαύσωνται (L T Tr WH ἀναπαήσονται (see ἀναπαύω at the beginning)), German sie sollen ruhen (A. V. that they may rest etc.), Revelation 14:13; (perhaps also Colossians 4:16, cf. Lightfoot at the passage) (2 Macc. 1:9; Epictetus ench. 23 (17); diss. 4,1,41; among the earlier Greeks once so, Sophocles O. C. 155; in Latin, Cicero , ad divers. 14, 20 'ibi ut sint omnia parata'; in German stern commands: ' dass du gehest !' ' dass du nicht säumest !' cf. Winer s Grammar, § 43, 5 a.; (Buttmann , 241 (208))).TGL ἵνα.27

    c. ἵνα without a verb following — which the reader is left to gather from the context; thus we must mentally supply ἐυαγγελιζωμεθα, ἐυαγγελιζωνται in Galatians 2:9, cf. Winer s Grammar, 587 (546); (Buttmann , 394 (338)); ἵνα κατά χάριν, namely, , that the promise may be a gift of grace, Romans 4:16 (Winer s Grammar, 598 (556); Buttmann , 392 (336)); ἵνα ἄλλοις ἄνεσις namely, γένηται, 2 Corinthians 8:13 (Winer s Grammar, 586 (545); Buttmann , § 129, 22); ἵνα namely, γένηται, 1 Corinthians 1:31, unless preference be given there to an anacoluthon (Winer s Grammar, 599 (557); Buttmann , 234 (201)): ἵνα... καυχάσθω for καυχαται. (ἵνα ὡς ἄνθρωπος, namely, ἐργάζῃ, Epictetus diss. 3, 23, 4.)TGL ἵνα.28

    5. Generally ἵνα stands first in the final sentence; sometimes, however, it is preceded by those words in width the main force of the sentence lies (Winer s Grammar, 550 (511); Buttmann , § 151, 18): Acts 19:4; Romans 11:31 (join τῷ ὑμετέρῳ ἐληι ἵνα); 1 Corinthians 9:15 at the end (R G ); 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 12:7; Galatians 2:10; τό λοιπόν ἵνα κτλ., 1 Corinthians 7:29 Rec.elz L T. Among N. T. writers, John uses this particle more often, Luke more rarely, than the rest; (on John's use see Winer s Grammar, 338f (317f); 461 (430); Buttmann , 236 (203); 244 (210) note; § 140, 10 and 12; on Luke's cf. Buttmann , 235f (203)). It is not found in the Epistle of Jude. (For Schaeffer's references to Greek usage (and editions) see the Lond. (Valpy's) edition of Stephanus under the word, col. 4488.)TGL ἵνα.29


    (2444) ἵνα τί [so L WH uniformly, also Tr except (by mistake?) in Matthew 27:46], and written unitedly ἱνατί [so Rec.st bez G T uniformly; see Winers Grammar § 5, 2]; Latin ut quid? i. e. for what purpose? wherefore? why? an elliptical formula, due to the fact that a questioner begins an answer to his own question with the word ἵνα, but not knowing how to complete it reverts again to the question, as if to ask what will complete the answer: that (what?) may or might happen (ut (quid ?) fiat or fieret ); see Herm. ad Vig., p. 847; Kühner § 587,5 ii., p. 1020; Winers Grammar § 25, 1 at the end; [Buttmann § 149, 2]: Matthew 9:4; Matthew 27:46; Luke 13:7; Acts 4:25; Acts 7:26; 1 Corinthians 10:29. Add, from the Sept. , Genesis 4:6; Genesis 25:32; Genesis 27:46; Numbers 14:3; Numbers 22:32 [Ald. ]; Judges 6:13 [Alex. , Ald. , Complutensian]; 1 Samuel 1:8; 2 Samuel 3:24; 2 Samuel 15:19; Job 3:12; Job 10:18; Jeremiah 2:29; Jeremiah 14:19; Jeremiah 15:18; Daniel 10:20 [Theodotion]; Psalms 2:1; Psalms 10:1 (Psalm 9:22); Psalms 21:2 (Psalms 22:2), etc.; Sir. 14:3; 1 Macc. 2:7. (Aristophanes, nub. 1192; Plato, Apology c. 14, p. 26 c.; others.)TGL ἱνατί.2


    (2445) Ἰόππη (to which common spelling the ancient lexicographers prefer Ἰοπη, cf. Movers, Phönizier, ii. 2, p. 176 Anm.), -ης, , (Hebrew יָפו i. e. beauty, from יָפָה to shine, be beautiful; [others make the name mean 'an eminence'; others besides]), Joppa, a city of Palestine on the Mediterranean, lying on the border of the tribes of Dan and Ephraim. It was subject to the Jews from the time of the Maccabees. It had a celebrated but dangerous port and carried on a flourishing trade; now Yafa (not Jaffa): Acts 9:36, Acts 9:38, Acts 9:42; Acts 10:5, Acts 10:8, Acts 10:23, Acts 10:32; Acts 11:5, Acts 11:13. Cf. Winers RWB under the word Joppe; Rüetschi in Herzog vii., p. 4f; Fritzsche in Schenkel iii., 376f; [BB. DD. ].TGL Ἰόππη.2


    (2446) Ἰορδάνης, -ου [Buttmann, 17], , [cf. Winer's Grammar § 18, 5 a.], (יַרְדֵּן, from יָרַד to descend; for other opinions about the origin of the name see Gesenius, Thesaurus, ii., p. 626 [cf. Alex.'s Kitto under the word Jordan]), the Jordan, the largest and most celebrated river of Palestine, which has its origin in numerous torrents and small streams at the foot of Anti-Lebanon, flows at first into Lake Samochonitis (Merom so-called; [modern: el-Huleh; see BB. DD. under the word Merom (Waters of)]), and issuing thence runs into the Lake of Tiberius (the Sea of Galilee). After quitting this lake it is augmented during its course by many smaller streams, and finally empties into the Dead Sea: Matthew 3:5,Matthew 3:13; Matthew 4:15,Matthew 4:25; Matthew 19:1; Mark 1:5, Mark 1:9; Mark 3:8; Mark 10:1; Luke 3:3; Luke 4:1; John 1:28; John 3:26; John 10:40; cf. Winers RWB [and BB. DD. ] under the word Jordon; Arnold in Herzog vii., p. 7ff; Furrer in Schenkel, iii., p. 378ff; [Robinson, Phys. Geogr. of the Holy Land, pp. 144-186].TGL Ἰορδάνης.2


    (2447) ἰός, οῦ, , (on its very uncertain derivation see Kreussler in Passow, under the word; Curtius § 591; [Vanicek, p. 969]);TGL ἰός.2

    1. poison (of animals): ἰὸς ἀσπίδων ὑπὸ τὰ χείλη αὐτῶν, the poison of asps is under their lips, spoken of men given to reviling and calumniating and thereby injuring others, Romans 3:13 (from Psalms 139:3 (Psalms 140:4)); by the same figure, (γλῶσσα) μεστὴ ἰοῦ θανατηφόρου, James 3:8; (in Greek writings from Pindar down).TGL ἰός.3

    2. rust: James 5:3; (Ezekiel 24:6, Ezekiel 24:11; Baruch 6:11, 23 [Epistle Jeremiah 1:12, 24]; Theognis, Theocritus, Plato, Theophrastus, Polybius, Lucian, others).TGL ἰός.4


    (2448) Ἰούδα (see Ἰούδας , at the beginning and 1), indeclinable, Judah, a proper name; in the Sept. :TGL Ἰούδα.2

    1. the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob;TGL Ἰούδα.3

    2. the tribe that sprang from him.TGL Ἰούδα.4

    3. the region which this tribe occupied (cf. Winer's Grammar, 114 (108)); so in the N. T. in Matthew 2:6 (twice); πόλις Ἰούδα (Judges 17:8), a city of the tribe of Judah, Luke 1:39, where it is a matter of dispute what city is meant; the most probable conjecture seems to be that Hebron is referred to — a city assigned to the priests, situated 'in the hill country' (Χεβρὼν ἐν τῷ ὄρει Ἰούδα, Joshua 21:11), the native place of John the Baptist according to Jewish tradition. [Cf. B. D. American edition under the word Juda, a City of.]TGL Ἰούδα.5


    (2449) Ἰουδαία, Ἰουδαίας, (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 18, 5 a.) (namely, γῆ, which is added John 3:22, or χώρα, Mark 1:5; from the adjective Ἰουδαῖος, which see), Judaea (Hebrew יְהוּדָה); in the O. T. a region of Palestine, named after the tribe of Judah, which inhabited it: Judges 17:7-9; Ruth 1:1; 2 Samuel 2:1, etc. Its boundaries are laid down in Joshua 15:1 After the time of David, when the kingdom had been rent asunder, the name was given to the kingdom of Judah, to which were reckoned, besides the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, certain cities of the tribes of Dan and Simeon, together with the metropolis of Jerusalem: 1 Kings 14:21, 1 Kings 14:29; 1 Kings 15:7, etc. In the N. T. the name is given:TGL Ἰουδαία.2

    1. in a narrower sense, to the southern part of Palestine lying on this side of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, to distinguish it from Samaria, Galilee, Peraea, Idumaea (Mark 3:8): Matthew 2:1, Matthew 2:5, Matthew 2:22; Matthew 3:5; Matthew 4:25; Matthew 24:16; Mark 3:7; Mark 13:14; Luke 2:4; John 4:3, John 4:47, John 4:54; Acts 1:8; Acts 8:1, etc.; it stands for its inhabitants in Matthew 3:5; Mark 1:5 (2 Chronicles 32:33; 2 Chronicles 35:24).TGL Ἰουδαία.3

    2. in a broader sense, to all Palestine: Luke 1:5; (Luke 4:44 WH Tr marginal reading); Luke 7:11; Luke 23:5; Acts 2:9; Acts 10:37; Acts 11:1, Acts 11:29 (and perhaps 2 Corinthians 1:16; Galatians 1:22); πᾶσα χώρα τῆς Ἰουδαίας, Acts 26:20; εἰς τά ὅρια τῆς Ἰουδαίας πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου, into the borders of Judaea (in the broader sense) beyond the Jordan, i. e. into Peraea, Matthew 19:1; on the contrary, in the parallel passage, Mark 10:1 R G , εἰς τά ὅρια τῆς Ἰουδαίας διά τοῦ πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου, Jesus is said to have come into the borders of Judaea (in the narrower sense) through Peraea; but according to the reading of L T Tr WH , viz. καί πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου and (in particular that part of Judaea which lay) beyond the Jordan, Mark agrees with Matthew; (others regard πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου here as parallel with τῆς Ἰουδαίας and like it dependent upon ὅρια). Ἰουδαΐζω; (from Ἰουδαῖος, cf. Ἑλληνιστής (Winer s Grammar, 92 (87))), to adopt Jewish customs and rites, imitate the Jews, Judaize: of one who observes the ritual law of the Jews, Galatians 2:14. (Esther 8:17; Ignatius ad Magnes. 10, 3 [ET]; Evang. Nicod. c. 2; Plutarch , Cicero 7; to favor the Jews, Josephus , b. j. 2, 18, 2.)TGL Ἰουδαία.4


    (2450) Ἰουδαίζω; (from Ἰουδαῖος, cf. Ἑλληνιοτής [Winer's Grammar, 92 (87)]), to adopt Jewish customs and rites, imitate the Jews, Judaize: of one who observes the ritual law of the Jews, Galatians 2:14. (Esther 8:17; Ignat. ad Magnes. 10, 3; Evang. Nicod. c. 2; Plut. Cic. 7; to favor the Jews, Joseph. b. j. 2, 18, 2.)TGL ἰουδαΐζω.2


    (2451) Ἰουδαϊκός, , -όν, Jewish: Titus 1:14. (2 Macc. 8:11; 2 Macc. 13:21; Josephus, Antiquities 20, 11, 1; Philo [in Flac. § 8].)TGL Ἰουδαϊκός.2


    (2452) Ἰουδαϊκῶς, adverb, Jewishly, after the manner of the Jews: Galatians 2:14. [(Josephus, b. j. 6, 1, 3.)]TGL Ἰουδαϊκῶς.2


    (2453) Ἰουδαῖος, Ἰουδαία, Ἰουδαῖον (Ιουδα) (Aristotle (in Josephus , contra Apion 1, 22, 7 where see Müller), Polybius , Diodorus , Strabo , Plutarch , others; the Sept. ; (cf. Sophocles Lexicon, under the word)), Jewish;TGL Ἰουδαῖος.2

    a. joined to nouns, belonging to the Jewish race: ἀνήρ, Acts 10:28; Acts 22:3 (1 Macc. 2:23); ἄνθρωπος, Acts 21:39; ψευδοπροφήτης, Acts 13:6; ἀρχιερεύς, Acts 19:14; γυνή, Acts 16:1; Acts 24:24; γῆ, John 3:22; χώρα, Mark 1:5.TGL Ἰουδαῖος.3

    b. without a noun, substantively, Jewish as respects birth, race, religion; a Jew: John 4:9; Acts 18:2, Acts 18:24; Romans 2:23; plural, Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9; οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι (יְהוּדִים, before the exile citizens of the kingdom of Judah; after the exile all the Israelites (cf. Wright in B. D. under the word )), the Jews, the Jewish race: Matthew 2:2; Matthew 27:11, Matthew 27:29; Mark 7:3; Mark 15:2; John 2:6; John 4:22; John 5:1; John 18:33, etc.; Ἰουδαῖοι τέ καί Ἕλληνες, Acts 14:1; Acts 18:4; Acts 19:10; 1 Corinthians 1:24; Ἰουδαῖοι τέ καί προσήλυτοι, Acts 2:11 (10); ἔθνη τέ καί Ἰουδαῖοι, Acts 14:5; singular, Romans 1:16; Romans 2:9; οἱ κατά τά ἔθνη Ἰουδαῖοι, who live in foreign lands, among the Gentiles, Acts 21:21; Ἰουδαῖοι is used of converts from Judaism, Jewish Christians (see ἔθνος , 5) in Galatians 2:13. [SYNONYMS: Ἑβραῖος, Ἰουδαῖος, Ἰσραηλίτης: "restricting ourselves to the employment of these three words in the N. T. we may say that in the first is predominantly noted language; in the second, nationality; in the third (the augustest title of all), theocratic privileges and glorious vocation" (Trench , § xxxix.); cf. B. D. under the word Hebrew, Isarelite, Jew. E. Höhne in the Ztschrft. f. kirchl. Wissensch. u. s. w. 1886, pp. 607-617.] The apostle John, inasmuch as agreeably to the state of things in his day he looked upon the Jews as a body of men hostile to Christianity, with whom he had come to see that both he and all true Christians had nothing in common as respects religious matters, even in his record of the life of Jesus not only himself makes a distinction between the Jews and Jesus, but ascribes to Jesus and his apostles language in which they distinguish themselves from the Jews, as though the latter sprang from an alien race: John 11:8; John 13:33. And those who (not only at Jerusalem, but also in Galilee, cf. John 6:41, John 6:52) opposed his divine Master and his Master's cause — especially the rulers, priests, members of the Sanhedrin, Pharisees — he does not hesitate to style οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, since the hatred of these leaders exhibits the hatred of the whole nation toward Jesus: John 1:19; John 2:18, John 2:20; John 5:10, John 5:15,John 5:18; John 6:41,John 6:52; John 7:1,John 7:11,John 7:13; John 9:18,John 9:22; John 10:24,John 10:31,John 10:33; John 18:14. (Cf. B. D. under the word; Franke, Stellung d. Johannes z. Volke d. alt. Bundes. (Halle, 1882).) Ἰουδαϊσμός, Ιουδαϊσμοῦ, , (Ἰουδαΐζω), the Jewish faith and worship, the religion of the Jews, Judaism: Galatians 1:13 (2 Macc. 2:21, etc.; cf. Grimm, commentary on 2 Maccabees, p. 61. (B. D. American edition under the word ).)TGL Ἰουδαῖος.4


    (2454) Ἰουδαϊσμός, -οῦ, , (ἰουδαΐζω), the Jewish faith and worship, the religion of the Jews, Judaism: Galatians 1:13 (2 Macc. 2:21, etc.; cf. Grimm, Com. on 2 Macc. p. 61. [B.D. American edition under the word Judaism].)TGL Ἰουδαϊσμός.2


    (2455) Ἰούδας, Ιουδα, dative Ιουδα, accusative, Ιουδαν (Buttmann , 20 (18)), (יְהוּדָה, from the Hoph. of יָדָה, praised, celebrated; see Genesis 29:35), Judah or Judas (see below);TGL Ἰούδας.2

    1. the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob: Matthew 1:2; Luke 3:33; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 7:5; by metonymy, the tribe of Judah, the descendants of Judah: Hebrews 7:14; οἶκος Ιουδα, citizens of the kingdom of Judah, Hebrews 8:8.TGL Ἰούδας.3

    2. Judah (or Judas) an unknown ancestor of Christ: Luke 3:26 R G L .TGL Ἰούδας.4

    3. another of Christ's ancestors, equally unknown: Luke 3:30.TGL Ἰούδας.5

    4. Judas surnamed the Galilaean, a man who at the time of the census under Quirinus (better Quirinius), excited a revolt in Galilee: Acts 5:37 (Josephus , Antiquities 18, 1, 1, where he is called Γαυλανιτης because he came from the city Gamala, near the Lake of Galilee in lower Gaulanitis; but he is called also Γαλιλαῖος by Josephus , Antiquities 18, 1, 6; 20, 5, 2; b. j. 2, 8, 1).TGL Ἰούδας.6

    5. (Judas) a certain Jew of Damascus: Acts 9:11.TGL Ἰούδας.7

    6. Judas surnamed Ἰσκαριώτης (which see), of Carioth (from the city of Kerioth, Joshua 15:25; Jeremiah 31:41 (Jeremiah 48:41); Amos 2:2; (but see BB. DD. under the word ); some manuscripts in John 6:71 (cf. Tdf. 's note at the passage cited); John 12:4, read ἀπό Καριωτου instead of Ἰσκαριώτης), the son of one Simon (who in John 6:71 L T Tr WH ; John 13:26 T Tr WH , is himself surnamed Ἰσκαριώτης), one of the apostles of Jesus, who betrayed him: Matthew 10:4; Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:25, Matthew 26:47; Matthew 27:3; Mark 3:19; Mark 14:10, Mark 14:43; Luke 6:16; Luke 22:3, Luke 22:47; John 6:71; John 12:4; John 13:2, John 13:26, John 13:29; John 18:2,John 18:5; Acts 1:16, Acts 1:25. Matthew (Matthew 27:5), Luke (Acts 1:18), and Papias (cf. Wendt in Meyer's Apostelgesch. 5te Aufl., p. 23 note) in a fragment quoted by Oecumenius on Acts 1:18 differ in the account of his death (see B. D. American edition under the word); on his avarice cf. John 12:6.TGL Ἰούδας.8

    7. Judas, surnamed Barsabas (or Barsabbas, see the word), a prophet of the church at Jerusalem: Acts 15:22, Acts 15:27, Acts 15:32.TGL Ἰούδας.9

    8. Judas, an apostle, John 14:22, who is called Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου in Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13 (see Ἰάκωβος , 4), and, as it should seem, was surnamed Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (see Θαδδαῖος ). According to the opinion of the church that he wrote the Epistle of Jude.TGL Ἰούδας.10

    9. Judas, the brother of our Lord: Matthew 13:55; Mark 6:3, and very probably Jude 1:1; see Ἰάκωβος , 3.TGL Ἰούδας.11


    (2456) Ἰουλία, -ας, , Julia, a Christian woman [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Philip., p. 177]: Romans 16:15 [L marginal reading Ἰουνίαν].TGL Ἰουλία.2


    (2457) Ἰούλιος, -ου, , Julius, a Roman centurion: Acts 27:1, Acts 27:3.TGL Ἰούλιος.2


    (2458) Ἰουνίας [others, -νιᾶς, as contracted from Junianus; cf. Winer's Grammar, 102f (97)], [but cf. Buttmann, 17f (16)], , Junias, a convert from Judaism, Paul's kinsman and fellow-prisoner: Romans 16:7 [(here A. V. Junia (a woman's name) which is possible). The name occurs again as the name of a Christian at Rome in Romans 16:15 Lachmann marginal reading (where others, Ἰουλίαν).]TGL Ἰουνιᾶς.2


    (2459) Ἰοῦστος, -ου, , Justus [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 4:11], the surnameTGL Ἰοῦστος.2

    1. of Joseph, a convert from Judaism, who was also surnamed Barsabas [better Barsabbas which see]: Acts 1:23.TGL Ἰοῦστος.3

    2. of Titus, a Corinthian [a Jewish proselyte]: Acts 18:7.TGL Ἰοῦστος.4

    3. of a certain Jesus [a Jewish Christian]: Colossians 4:11.TGL Ἰοῦστος.5


    (2460) ἱππεύς, -έως, , (ἵππος), a horseman: Acts 23:23, Acts 23:32. [From Homer down.]TGL ἱππεύς.2


    (2461) ἱππικός, , -όν, equestrian; τὸ ἱππικόν, the horse (-men), cavalry: Revelation 9:16 (as Herodotus 7, 87; Xenophon, Plato, Polybius, others; more fully τὸ ἱππικὸν στράτευμα, Xenophon, Cyril 3, 3, 26; so τὸ πεζικόν, the foot (-forces), infantry, Xenophon, Cyril 5, 3, 38).TGL ἱππικός.2


    (2462) ἵππος, -ου, , [Curtius § 624; Peile, Greek and Latin Etymology, Index under the word], a horse: James 3:3; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:8; Revelation 9:7, Revelation 9:9, Revelation 9:17, [Revelation 9:19 G L T Tr WH]; Revelation 14:20; Revelation 18:13; Revelation 19:11-21. [From Homer down.]TGL ἵππος.2


    (2463) ἶρις, -ιδος, , (Iris), a rainbow: Revelation 4:3; Revelation 10:1. (Homer, Aristotle, Theophrastus, others).TGL ἶρις.2


    (2464) Ἰσαάκ, , indeclinable (יִצְחָק, from צָחַק to laugh: Genesis 21:6; Genesis 17:17; in Josephus, Ἴσακος, -ου), Isaac, the son of Abraham by Sarah: Matthew 1:2; Matthew 8:11; Matthew 22:32; Romans 9:7, Romans 9:10; Galatians 4:28; Hebrews 11:9, Hebrews 11:17, Hebrews 11:20; James 2:21, etc.TGL Ἰσαάκ.2


    (2465) ἰσάγγελος, -ον, (ἴσος and ἄγγελος, formed like ἰσόθεος [cf. ἰσάδελφος (Eur. Or. 1015), ἰσάστερος (4 Macc. 17:5), and other compounds in Koumanoudes, Συναγωγή κτλ. p. 166f.]), like the angels: Luke 20:36. (Ecclesiastic writings; [cf. ἴσος ἀγγέλοις γεγονώς, Philo de sacr. Ab. et Cain. § 2; Winers Grammar § 34, 3 cf. p. 100 (95)].)TGL ἰσάγγελος.2


    (2466) Ἰσασχάρ [Rec.elz ] and Ἰσαχάρ [Rst G L] (Ἰσσάχαρ Tdf. , Ἰσσαχάρ Tr WH), , (יִשְׁשָׂכָר, from יֵשׁ there is, and שָׂכָר a reward [(cf. Jeremiah 31:16) yet cf. Mühlau u. Volck under the word]; Josephus, Ἰσάσχαρις [Ἰσάχαρις]), Issachar, the son of the patriarch Jacob by Leah (Genesis 30:18): Revelation 7:7.TGL Ἰσσαχάρ.2


    (2467) ἴσημι, found only in the Doric form ἴσαμι, to know; from which some derive the forms ἴστε and ἴσμεν, contracted from ἴσατε and ἴσαμεν; but these forms are more correctly derived from εἴδω, ἴσμεν equivalent to ἴδμεν, etc. (cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i., p. 548); on the phrase ἴστε [R ἐστε] γινώσκοντες, Ephesians 5:5, see γινώσκω , I. 2 b.TGL ἴσημι.2


    (2468) *For 2468 see Strong's entry Strong's 1510.TGL ἴσθι.2


    (2469) Ἰσκαριώτης, and (Lachmann in Matthew 10:4; T WH in Mark 14:10; L T Tr WH in Mark 3:19; Luke 6:16) Ἰσκαριώθ, i. e. קְרִיּות אִישׁ; see Ἰούδας , 6 and Σίμων, 5. ἴσος (not ἴσος (yet often so Rst elz G Tr ), which is Epic; cf. Bornemann, Scholia in Luc., p. 4; Göttling , Lehre vom Accent, p. 305; (Chandler § 406); Lipsius , Grammat. Untersuch., p. 24; (Liddell and Scott, under the word at the end; Winer 's Grammar, 52)), ἴση, ἴσον, equal, in quality or in quantity: ἴση δωρεά, the same gift, Acts 11:17; ἴσαι μαρτυρίαι, agreeing testimonies, Mark 14:56, Mark 14:59; ἴσον ποιεῖν τινα τίνι, to make one equal to another, in the payment of wages, Matthew 20:12; ἑαυτόν τῷ Θεῷ, to claim for oneself the nature, rank, authority, which belong to God, John 5:18; τά ἴσα ἀπολαβεῖν, Luke 6:34. The neuters ἴσον and ἴσα are often used adverbially from Homer down (cf. Passow , under the word, p. 1505a; (Liddell and Scott, under the word IV. 1); Winer 's Grammar, § 27, 3 at the end): ἴσα εἶναι (Buttmann , § 129, 11), of measurement, Revelation 21:16; of state and condition, τῷ Θεῷ, Philippians 2:6 (on which see in μορφή ).TGL Ἰσκαριώθ.2


    (2470) ἴσος (not ἶσος [yet often so Rst elz G Tr], which is Epic; cf. Bornemann, Scholia in Luc. p. 4; Göttling, Lehre vom Accent p. 305; [Chandler § 406]; Lipsius, Grammat. Untersuch. p. 24; [Liddell and Scott under the word at the end; Winer's Grammar 52]), , -ον, equal, in quality or in quantity: ἡ ἴση δωρεά, the same gift, Acts 11:17; ἴσαι μαρτυρίαι, agreeing testimonies, Mark 14:56, Mark 14:59; ἴσον ποιεῖν τινά τινι, to make one equal to another, in the payment of wages, Matthew 20:12; ἑαυτὸν τῷ θεῷ, to claim for one's self the nature, rank, authority, which belong to God, John 5:18; τὰ ἴσα ἀπολαβεῖν, Luke 6:34. The neuters ἴσον and ἴσα are often used adverbially from Homer down (cf. Passow under the word p. 1505a; [Liddell and Scott under the word IV. 1]; Winers Grammar § 27, 3 at the end): ἴσα εἶναι (Buttmann § 129, 11), of measurement, Revelation 21:16; of state and condition, τῷ θεῷ Philippians 2:6 (on which see in μορφή).TGL ἴσος.2


    (2471) ἰσότης, -ητος, , (ἴσος);TGL ἰσότης.2

    1. equality: ἐξ ἰσότητος [cf. ἐκ , V. 3] by equality, 2 Corinthians 8:13 (2 Corinthians 8:14), equivalent to ὅπως γένηται ἰσότης, 14.TGL ἰσότης.3

    2. equity, fairness, what is equitable, joined with τὸ δίκαιον: Colossians 4:1. (Euripides, Plato, Aristotle, Polybius, others; [cf. Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited, yet per contra Meyer].)TGL ἰσότης.4


    (2472) ἰσότιμος, -ον, (ἴσος and τιμή), equally precious; equally honored: τινί, to be esteemed equal to, ἰσότιμον ἡμῖν πίστιν [a like-precious faith with us], concisely for πίστιν τῇ ἡμῶν πίστει ἰσότιμον [Winers Grammar § 66, 2f.; Buttmann § 133, 10]: 2 Peter 1:1. (Philo, Josephus, Plutarch, Lucian, Aelian, others.)TGL ἰσότιμος.2


    (2473) ἰσόψυχος, -ον, (ἴσος and ψυχή), equal in soul [A. V. like-minded] (Vulg. unanimus): Philippians 2:20. (Psalm 54:14 (Psalms 55:13); Aeschylus Ag. 1470.)TGL ἰσόψυχος.2


    (2474) Ἰσραήλ (Josephus , Ἰσραηλος, Ἰσραηλου), , indeclinable, (יִשְׂרָאֵל, from שָׂרָה and אֵל, wrestler with God, Genesis 32:28; Hosea 12:4, cf. Genesis 35:10), Israel, a name given to the patriarch Jacob (and borne by him in addition to his former name from Genesis 32:28 on): οἶκος Ἰσραήλ, the family or descendants of Israel, the race of Israel (A. V. the house of Israel), Matthew 10:6; Matthew 15:24; Acts 7:42 (Exodus 16:31; 1 Samuel 7:2, and often); οἱ υἱοί Ἰσραήλ the (sons, i. e. the children, the) posterity of Israel, Luke 1:16; Acts 5:21; Acts 7:23, Acts 7:37; Romans 9:27; αἱ φυλαί τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 19:28; Luke 22:30; Revelation 7:4. By metonymy, for the posterity of Israel i. e. the Israelites (a name of especially honor because it made reference to the promises of salvation through the Messiah, which were given to Jacob in preference to Esau, and to be fulfilled to his posterity (see Ἰουδαῖος , b.)): Matthew 2:6; Matthew 8:10; Matthew 9:33; Luke 1:54, Luke 1:68, Luke 1:80; Acts 4:8 (R G ); Ephesians 2:12; Romans 11:2, Romans 11:7, Romans 11:26, etc. (Exodus 5:2; Exodus 11:7, and often); λαός Ἰσραήλ, Acts 4:10, Acts 4:27; γῆ Ἰσραήλ i. e. Palestine ((1 Samuel 13:19, etc.)), Matthew 2:20; βασιλεύς Ἰσραήλ, Matthew 27:42; John 1:49 (50); ἐλπίς τοῦ Ἰσραήλ Acts 28:20; Ἰσραήλ τοῦ Θεοῦ (genitive of possession), i. e. Christians, Galatians 6:16; Ἰσραήλ κατά σάρκα, Israelites by birth, i. e. Jews, 1 Corinthians 10:18; in an emphatic sense, οὐ γάρ πάντες οἱ ἐξ Ἰσραήλ κτλ., for not all those that draw their bodily descent from Israel are true Israelites, i. e. are those whom God pronounces to be Israelites and has chosen to salvation, Romans 9:6.TGL Ἰσραήλ.2


    (2475) Ἰσραηλίτης (T WH Ἰσραηλείτης, Tr only in John 1:47 (John 1:48); [see Tdf. Proleg., p. 86, and cf. under the word ει, ι]), -ου, , (Ἰσραήλ, which see), an Israelite (Hebrew יִשְׂרְאֵלִי; Sept. Ἰεζραηλίτης, 2 Samuel 17:25), one of the race of Israel, a name held in honor (see Ἰσραήλ ): John 1:47 (John 1:48); Romans 9:4; Romans 11:1; 2 Corinthians 11:22; ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλῖται [Winers Grammar § 65, 5 d.; Buttmann, 82 (72)], Acts 2:22; Acts 3:12; Acts 5:35; Acts 13:16; [Acts 21:28], (4 Macc. 18:1; Josephus, Antiquities 2, 9, 1). [Cf. B. D. (American edition) under the word. Synonym: see Ἰουδαῖος , b.]TGL Ἰσραηλίτης.2


    (2476) ἵστημι, more rarely ἱστάω (((from Herodotus down; cf. Veitch , under the word)) ἱστῶμεν, Romans 3:31 R G ) and ἱστάνω (((late; cf. Veitch , under the word)) ἱστάνομεν, Romans 3:31 L T Tr WH ) (cf. Buttmann , 44f (38f); Winer s Grammar, § 14,1f.; 87 (83); WH s Appendix, p. 168; Veitch , p. 337f); future στήσω; 1 aorist ἔστησα; 2 aorist ἔστην, imperative στῆθι, infinitive στῆναι, participle στάς; perfect ἕστηκα (with present force; Winer 's Grammar, 274 (257)), infinitive ἑστάναι (Relz st bez G Tr ἑστάναι in Acts 12:14) (nowhere ἑστηκεναι), participle masculine ἑστηκώς with neuter ἑστηκός, and in the shorter form ἑστώς, ἑστῶσα (John 8:9), with neuter ἑστώς and (L T Tr WH in Matthew 24:15 (here Rst also); Revelation 14:1) ἑστός (cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 208; (Rutherford, Babrius , p. 39f; Winer s Grammar, § 14, 1 i.; Buttmann , 48 (41))); pluperfect εἱστήκειν ((but WH uniformly ἱστ.; see Iota) with force of imperfect Winer 's Grammar, 274 (257)), 3 person plural εἱστήκεισαν (Matthew 12:46; John 18:18; Acts 9:7 and L T Tr WH in Revelation 7:11) and ἑστήκεσαν (Revelation 7:11 R G (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 14, 1 a.; yet Buttmann , 43 (38))); passive, 1 aorist ἐστάθην; 1 future σταθήσομαι; 1 future middle στήσομαι (Revelation 18:15);TGL ἵστημι.2

    I. Transitively in the present, imperfect, future, and 1 aorist active; likewise in the tenses of the passive (cf. Buttmann , 47 (41) contra Winer s Grammar, 252 (237)) (the Sept. for הֶעֱמִיד, הֵקִים, הִצִּיב); (from Homer down); to cause or make to stand; to place, put, set;TGL ἵστημι.3

    1. universally,TGL ἵστημι.4

    α. properly, τινα, to bid to stand by (set up): Acts 1:23; Acts 6:13; in the presence of others: ἐν μέσῳ, in the midst, John 8:3, and ἐν τῷ μέσῳ, Acts 4:7; ἐνώπιον τίνος, Acts 6:6; before judges: εἰς αὐτούς, before the members of the Sanhedrin, Acts 22:30; ἐν τῷ συνεδρίῳ, Acts 5:27; ἐπί with the genitive of the judge, passive σταθήσεσθε, Mark 13:9; τινα ἄμωμον κατενώπιον τίνος, to (set one i. e.) cause one to make his appearance faultless before etc. Jude 1:24; to place (i. e. designate the place for one to occupy): ἐν μέσῳ τινων, Matthew 18:2; Mark 9:36; παῥ ἑαυτῷ, Luke 9:47; ἐκ δεξιῶν, Matthew 25:33; ἐπί τί (accusative of place), Matthew 4:5; Luke 4:9. Middle to place oneself, to stand (German sich hinstellen , hintreten ): ἀπό μακρόθεν, Revelation 18:15; likewise in the passive: σταθείς, Luke 18:11, Luke 18:40; Luke 19:8; (ἐστάθησαν σκυθρωποί they stood still, looking sad, Luke 24:17 T WH Tr text (cf. II. 1 b. β.)); Acts 2:14; Acts 11:13; with ἐν μέσῳ τίνος, τινων, added, Acts 17:22; Acts 27:21; σταθέντες, when they had appeared (before the judge), Acts 25:18.TGL ἵστημι.5

    β. tropically, to make firm, fix, establish: τί, τινα, to cause a person or thing to keep his or its place; passive to stand, be kept intact (of a family, a kingdom): Matthew 12:25; Luke 11:18; equivalent to to escape in safety, Revelation 6:17; with ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου added, Luke 21:36; στῆσαι τινα, to cause one to preserve a right state of mind, Romans 14:4 (see Meyer); passive σταθήσεται, shall be made to stand, i. e. shall be kept from falling, ibid. τί, to establish a thing, cause it to stand, i. e. to uphold or sustain the authority or force of anything: Hebrews 10:9 (opposed to ἀναιρεῖν); τήν παράδοσιν, Mark 7:9; τήν ἰδίαν δικαιοσύνην, Romans 10:3; τόν νόμον (opposed to κατάργω), Romans 3:31 (τόν ὅρκον, Genesis 26:3; τήν διαθήκην, Exodus 6:4; Exodus 1:1-22 Macc. 2:27). equivalent to to ratify, confirm: σταθῇ, σταθήσεται πᾶν ῤῆμα, Matthew 18:16; 2 Corinthians 13:1. to appoint (cf. colloquial English set): ἡμέραν, Acts 17:31; cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. 4:59.TGL ἵστημι.6

    2. to set or place in a balance; to weigh: money to one (because in very early times, before the introduction of coinage, the metals used to be weighed) i. e. to pay, Matthew 26:15 (so in Greek writings from Homer down; cf. Passow , under the word, p. 1508b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word A. IV.); the Sept. for שָׁקַל, Isaiah 46:6; Jeremiah 39:9 (Jeremiah 32:9); Zechariah 11:12; Zechariah 1:1-21 Esdr. 8:25ff; etc.); this furnishes the explanation of the phrase μή στήσῃς αὐτοῖς τήν ἁμαρτίαν ταύτην, do not reckon to them, call them to account for, this sin (A. V. lay not this sin to their charge), Acts 7:60 ((cf. Meyer at the passage)).TGL ἵστημι.7

    II. Intransitively in the perfect and pluperfect (having the sense of a present and an imperfect (see above)), also in 2 aorist active, to stand; the Septuagint for נִצַּב עָמַד קוּם;TGL ἵστημι.8

    1. properly,TGL ἵστημι.9

    a. followed by prepositions or adverbs of place: followed by ἐν with the dative of place (cf. Buttmann , 329 (283)), Matthew 6:5; Matthew 20:3; Matthew 24:15; Luke 24:36; John 8:9; John 11:56; Acts 5:25; Acts 7:33 (L T Tr WH ἐπί with the dative); Revelation 5:6; Revelation 19:17; ἐνώπιον τίνος, Acts 10:30; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 8:2; Revelation 11:4; Revelation 12:4; πρός with the dative of place, John 18:16; ἐπί with the genitive of place (German auf, upon), Luke 6:17; Acts 21:40; Revelation 10:5, Revelation 10:8; with the genitive of the judge or tribunal, before (cf. ἐπί , A. I. 2 b.), Acts 24:20; Acts 25:10; πέραν with the genitive of place, John 6:22; πρό, Acts 5:23 (R G ; but L T Tr WH ἐπί τῶν θυρῶν (at, German an; cf. above and see ἐπί , A. I. 2 a.)); Acts 12:14; ἔμπροσθεν τίνος, before one as judge, Matthew 27:11; κύκλῳ (τίνος), around, Revelation 7:11; μέσος ὑμῶν, in the midst of you, living among you, John 1:26; ἐκ δεξιῶν τίνος, Luke 1:11; Acts 7:55; ἐν μέσῳ, John 8:9; πρός with the accusative (G L T Tr WH with the dative (see πρός , II.)) of place, John 20:11; ἐπί with the accusative of place (see ἐπί , C. I.), Matthew 13:2; Revelation 3:20; Revelation 7:1; Revelation 14:1; Revelation 15:2; ἐπί τούς πόδας, to stand upright, Acts 26:16; Revelation 11:11; παρά with the accusative, Luke 5:2; Luke 7:38; εἰς, John 21:4 (L T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading ἐπί (see ἐπί , C. I. 1 d.)); ἐκεῖ, Matthew 27:47; Mark 11:5; James 2:3; ὧδε, Matthew 16:28; Matthew 20:6; Mark 9:1; Luke 9:27 (here T Tr WH αὐτοῦ, which see); ὅπου, Mark 13:14; ἔξω, Matthew 12:46, Matthew 12:47 (here WH in marginal reading only); Mark 3:31; Luke 8:20; Luke 13:25; μακρόθεν, Luke 18:13; Luke 23:49 (R G Tr text); ἀπό, μακρόθεν, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:17; (Luke 23:49 L T WH Tr marginal reading (but ἀπό in brackets)); πόρρωθεν, Luke 17:12.TGL ἵστημι.10

    b. absolutely;TGL ἵστημι.11

    α. to stand by, stand near (in a place already mentioned, so that the reader readily understands where): Matthew 26:73; John 1:35; John 3:29; John 7:37; John 12:29; John 18:18, John 18:25; John 20:14; Acts 16:9; Acts 22:25; with a participle or adjective (indicating the purpose or act or condition of the one standing): Matthew 20:6; Luke 23:10; Acts 1:11; Acts 9:7; Acts 26:6; opposed to καθίζειν, Hebrews 10:11TGL ἵστημι.12

    β. if what is said to stand had been in motion (walking, flowing, etc.), to stop, stand still: Matthew 2:9 (Rec. ἔστη, L T Tr WH ἐστάθη (cf. I. 1 a.)); Matthew 20:32; Mark 10:49; Luke 8:44; Acts 8:38.TGL ἵστημι.13

    γ. contextually, to stand immutable, stand firm, of the foundation of a building: 2 Timothy 2:19.TGL ἵστημι.14

    2. metaphorically,TGL ἵστημι.15

    a. to stand, i. e. continue safe and sound, stand unharmed: Acts 26:22.TGL ἵστημι.16

    b. to stand ready or prepared: with a participle, Ephesians 6:14.TGL ἵστημι.17

    c. to be of a steadfast mind; so in the maxim in 1 Corinthians 10:12.TGL ἵστημι.18

    d. followed by a participle of quality, Colossians 4:12; ὅς ἕστηκεν ἑδραῖος, who does not hesitate, does not waver, 1 Corinthians 7:37; in a figure, of one who vanquishes his adversaries and holds the ground, Ephesians 6:13; also of one who in the midst of the fight holds his position πρός τινα, against the foe, Ephesians 6:11 (cf. Exodus 14:13; [Psalms 36:12] Psalms 35:13 (Ps. 36:13)). to persist, continue, persevere: τῇ πίστει, dative commodi (so as not to fall from thy faith (others take the dative instrumentally, by thy faith; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 31, 6 c.; Buttmann , § 133, 24)), Romans 11:20; ἐν τῇ ἀλήθεια, John 8:44 (where the meaning is, his nature abhors, is utterly estranged from, the truth; Vulg. incorrectly, in veritate non stetit ; Luther, ist nicht bestanden (A. V. abode not etc.); but the Zürich version correctly, besteht nicht (WH read ἔστηκεν, imperfect of στήκω, which see)); ἐν τῇ χάριτι, Romans 5:2; ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ, 1 Corinthians 15:1; εἰς ἥν (namely, χάριν) ἑστήκατε, into which ye have entered, that ye may stand fast in it, 1 Peter 5:12 (but L T Tr WH read στῆτε (2 aorist active imperative 2 person plural) enter and stand fast; Buttmann , § 147, 16, cf. p. 329 (283)). Note: From ἕστηκα is formed the verb στήκω, which see in its place. (Compare: ἀνίστημι, ἐπανίστημι, ἐξανίστημι, ἀνθίστημι, ἀφίστημι, διΐστημι, ἐνίστημι, ἐξίστημι, ἐπιστημι (ἐπίστημαι), ἐφίστημι, κατεφιστημι, συνεφίστημι, καθίστημι, ἀντικαθίστημι, ἀποκαθίστημι, μεθίστημι, παρίστημι, περιΐστημι, προστημι, συνίστημι.)TGL ἵστημι.19


    (2477) ἱστορέω: 1 aorist infinitive ἱστορῆσαι; (ἴστωρ [allied with οἶδα (ἱστῶ), videre (visus), etc.; Curtius, § 282], -ορος, one that has inquired into, knowing, skilled in); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down;TGL ἱστορέω.2

    1. to inquire into, examine, investigate.TGL ἱστορέω.3

    2. to find out, learn, by inquiry.TGL ἱστορέω.4

    3. to gain knowledge of by visiting: something (worthy of being seen), τὴν χώραν, Plutarch, Thes. 30; Pomp. 40; τινά, some distinguished person, to become personally acquainted with, know face to face: Galatians 1:18; so too in Josephus, Antiquities 1, 11, 4; b. j. 6, 1, 8 and often in the Clement. homilies; cf. Hilgenfeld, Galaterbrief, p. 122 note; [Ellicott on Galatians, the passage cited].TGL ἱστορέω.5


    (2478) ἰσχυρός, ἰσχυρά, ἰσχυρόν (ἰσχύω) (from Aeschylus down), the Sept. mostly for אֵל, גִּבּור, חָזָק, עָצוּם, and Chaldean תַּקִּיף; strong, mighty;TGL ἰσχυρός.2

    a. of living beings: strong either in body or in mind, Matthew 12:29; Mark 3:27; Luke 11:21; Revelation 5:2; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 18:21; ἐν πολέμῳ, mighty i. e. valiant, Hebrews 11:34, cf. Revelation 19:18; of one who has strength of soul to sustain the assaults of Satan, 1 John 2:14; universally strong, and therefore exhibiting many excellences, 1 Corinthians 4:10 (opposed to ἀσθενής); comparitive, Matthew 3:11; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16; mighty, — of God, 1 Corinthians 1:25; Revelation 18:8 (Deuteronomy 10:17; Deuteronomy 2:1-37 Macc. 1:24, etc.); of Christ raised to the right hand of God, 1 Corinthians 10:22; of those who wield great influence among men by their rank, authority, riches, etc., τά ἰσχυρά equivalent to τούς ἰσχυρούς (on the neuter cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 27, 5), 1 Corinthians 1:27 (οἱ ἰσχυροί τῆς γῆς, 2 Kings 24:15); joined with πλούσιοι, Revelation 6:15 (Rec. οἱ δυνατοί).TGL ἰσχυρός.3

    b. of inanimate things: strong equivalent to violent, ἄνεμος, Matthew 14:30 (T WH omit ἰσχυρόν); forcibly uttered, φωνή, Revelation 18:2 (Rec. μεγάλη) (Exodus 19:19); κραυγή, Hebrews 5:7; βρονταί, Revelation 19:6; λιμός, great, Luke 15:14; ἐπιστολαί (stern (forcible)), 2 Corinthians 10:10; strong equivalent to firm, sure, παράκλησις, Hebrews 6:18; fitted to withstand a forcible assault, πόλις, well fortified, Revelation 18:10 (τεῖχος, 1 Macc. 1:33; Xenophon , Cyril 7, 5, 7; πύργος, Judges 9:51). (Cf. δύναμις , at the end.)TGL ἰσχυρός.4


    (2479) ἰσχύς, -ύος, , (ἴσχω [allied with ἔσχον; to hold in check]) [from Hesiod down], Sept. especially for כֹּחַ, חַיִל, עֹז, גְּבוּרָה; ability, force, strength, might: 2 Peter 2:11 (joined with δύναμις); Revelation 5:12; Revelation 7:12; τὸ κράτος τῆς ἰσχύος, power (over external things) afforded by strength, Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 6:10, (Isaiah 40:26); δόξα τῆς ἰσχ. (see δόξα , III. 3 b. α. at the end), 2 Thessalonians 1:9; κράζειν ἐν ἰσχύει, with strength, mightily, Revelation 18:2 Rec. ; ἐξ ἰσχύος, of one's strength, to the extent of one's ability, 1 Peter 4:11; with ὅλης added, Mark 12:30, Mark 12:33; Luke 10:27 [here L text T Tr WH read ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύϊ]. [Synonym: see δύναμις , at the end.]TGL ἰσχύς.2


    (2480) ἰσχύω; imperfect ἴσχυον; future ἰσχύσω; 1 aorist ἴσχυσα; (ἰσχύς); the Sept. for חָזַק, אָמֵץ, עָצַם, etc.; to be strong, i. e.:TGL ἰσχύω.2

    1. to be strong in body, to be robust, to be in sound health: οἱ ἰσχύοντες, as a substantive, Matthew 9:12; Mark 2:17 (Sophocles Tr . 234; Xenophon , Cyril 6, 1, 24; joined with ὑγιαίνειν, id. mem. 2, 7, 7).TGL ἰσχύω.3

    2. to have power (from Aeschylus down), i. e.TGL ἰσχύω.4

    a. to have a power evinced in extraordinary deeds, i. e. to exert, wield, power: so of the gospel, Acts 19:20; Hebraistically, to have strength to overcome: οὐκ ἴσχυσαν (A. V. prevailed not i. e.) succumbed, were conquered (so יָכֹל לֹא, Genesis 32:26 (25)), Revelation 12:8; κατά τίνος, against one, i. e. to use one's strength against one, to treat him with violence, Acts 19:16.TGL ἰσχύω.5

    b. equivalent to to be of force, avail (German gelten): Hebrews 9:17; τί, Galatians 5:6, and Rec. in Galatians 6:15.TGL ἰσχύω.6

    c. to be serviceable: εἰς τί (A. V. good for), Matthew 5:13.TGL ἰσχύω.7

    d. followed by an infinitive to be able, can: Matthew 8:28; Matthew 26:40; Mark 5:4; (Mark 9:18 (infinitive to be supplied)); Mark 14:37; Luke 6:48; Luke 8:43; (Luke 13:24); Luke 14:6,Luke 14:29; Luke 16:3; Luke 20:26; John 21:6; Acts 6:10; Acts 15:10; Acts 25:7; Acts 27:16 (Plutarch , Pomp. 58). with the accusative, πάντα, Philippians 4:13; πολύ, James 5:16. (Compare: ἐνισχύω, ἐξισχύω, ἐπισχύω, κατισχύω.)TGL ἰσχύω.8


    (2481) ἴσως (ἴσος, which see), adverb [from Sophocles down];TGL ἴσως.2

    1. equally, in like manner.TGL ἴσως.3

    2. agreeably to expectation, i. e. it may be, probably; frequently an urbane expression of one's reasonable hope (German wohl, hoffentlich ): Luke 20:13, and often in Attic writings.TGL ἴσως.4


    (2482) Ἰταλία, -ας, , Italy: Acts 18:2; Acts 27:1, Acts 27:6; Hebrews 13:24.TGL Ἰταλία.2


    (2483) Ἰταλικός, , -όν, (Ἰταλία), [from Plato down], Italian: σπεῖρα Ἰταλική, the Italian cohort (composed of Italian, not provincial, soldiers), Acts 10:1; cf. Schürer, in the Zeitschrift f. wissensch. Theol. for 1875, p. 422ff; [Hackett, in B. D. American edition under the word Italian Band].TGL Ἰταλικός.2

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