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    διϊσχυρίζομαι — δῶρον


    (1340) διϊσχυρίζομαι [L WH διισχ. (see Ι, ι)]: imperfect διϊσχυριζόμην;TGL διϊσχυρίζομαι.2

    1. to lean upon.TGL διϊσχυρίζομαι.3

    2. to affirm stoutly, to assert confidently: Luke 22:59; Acts 12:15. (Lysias, Isaeus, Plato, Demosthenes, Josephus, Antiquities 2, 6, 4; Aelian hist. an. 7, 18; Dio Cassius, 57, 23; others.)TGL διϊσχυρίζομαι.4


    (1341) δικαιοκρισία; -ας, , righteous judgment: Romans 2:5. (an uncertain translation in Hosea 6:5 [where the Sept. κρίμα] Test. xii. patr. [test. Levi § 3], p. 547, and [§ 15], p. 581, Fabric. edition; Justin Martyr, resp. de resurrect. xi. (15) 28, p. 360 edition tert. Otto; [Hippolytus, p. 801 a. Migne edition]; Basil, iii., p. 476 d., Garn. edition or p. 694, Par. edition alt. 1839. [Cf. Winer's Grammar, 25; 99 (94)].)TGL δικαιοκρισία.2


    (1342) δίκαιος, -αία, -αιον, (from δίκη right), [from Homer down], properly, the Hebrew צַדִּיק, observant of δίκη, righteous, observing divine and human laws; one who is such as he ought to be; (German rechtbeschaffen; in the earlier language, whence appropriated by Luther, gerecht in a broad sense; in Greek writings used even of physical things, as ἵππος, Xenophon, mem. 4, 4, 5; γήδιον δικαιότατον, most fertile, Xenophon, Cyril 8, 3, 38; [ἅρμα δίκαιον, ibid. 2, 2, 26]);TGL δίκαιος.2

    1. in a wide sense, upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God;TGL δίκαιος.3

    a. universally: Matthew 1:19 (the meaning is, it was not consistent with his uprightness to expose his betrothed to public reproach); Matthew 10:41; Matthew 13:43, Matthew 13:49; Matthew 23:28; Matthew 25:37, Matthew 25:46; Luke 1:6, Luke 1:17; Luke 14:14; Luke 18:9; Luke 20:20; Romans 5:7 [cf. Winer's Grammar, 117 (111)]; 1 Timothy 1:9; James 5:6, James 5:16; 1 Peter 3:12; 1 John 3:7, [10 Lachmann]; Revelation 22:11; opposed to ἁμαρτωλοὶ καὶ ἀσεβεῖς, 1 Peter 4:18; δίκαιοι καὶ ἄδικοι, Matthew 5:45; Acts 24:15; used of O. T. characters noted for piety and probity: Matthew 13:17; [Matthew 23:29]; Hebrews 12:23; thus of Abel, Matthew 23:35; Hebrews 11:4; of Lot, 2 Peter 2:7. (Wis. 10:4f); of those who seem to themselves to be righteous, who pride themselves on their virtues, whether real or imaginary: Matthew 9:13; Mark 2:17; Luke 5:32; Luke 15:7 (Ecclesiastes 7:17 (Ecclesiastes 7:16)). Joined with εὐλαβής, Luke 2:25 (ἤθη ἐυλαβῆ κ. δίκαια, τὸ δίκαιον κ. ἐυλαβές, Plato, polit., p. 311 a. b.); with ἅγιος, Mark 6:20; with ἀγαθός, Luke 23:50; with φοβούμενος τὸν θεόν, Acts 10:22; ἔργα δίκαια, opposite to πονηρά, 1 John 3:12. Neuter τὸ δίκαιον, that which regard for duty demands, what is right: 2 Peter 1:13; plural Philippians 4:8; δίκαιόν ἐστι, Ephesians 6:1; Philippians 1:7; with the addition of ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ, God being judge, Acts 4:19.TGL δίκαιος.4

    b. the negative idea predominating: innocent, faultless, guiltless, (for נָקִי, Proverbs 1:11; Job 9:23, etc.); thus used of Christ in the speech of Gentiles: Matthew 27:19, Matthew 27:24 R G L brackets Tr brackets WH marginal reading; Luke 23:47; αἷμα δίκαιον, (Proverbs 6:17; Joel 3:19 (Joel 3:24); Jonah 1:14), Matthew 23:35; [Matthew 27:4 Tr marginal reading WH text]; ἐντολὴ ἁγία κ. δικαία (having no fellowship with sin [others besides, see the commentaries at the passage]) κ. ἀγαθή, Romans 7:12.TGL δίκαιος.5

    c. preeminently, of him whose way of thinking, feeling, and acting is wholly conformed to the will of God, and who therefore needs no rectification in heart or life; in this sense Christ alone can be called δίκαιος: Acts 7:52; Acts 22:14; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 2:1; ἅγιος κ. δίκαιος, Acts 3:14; among the rest of mankind it is rightly denied that one δίκαιος can be found, Romans 3:10 (Ecclesiastes 7:21 (Ecclesiastes 7:20) ἄνθρωπος οὐκ ἔστι δίκαιος ἐν τῇ γῇ, ὃς ποιήσει ἀγαθὸν καὶ οὐχ ἁμαρτήσεται). of God: holy, Romans 3:26 (where it is to be closely rendered just or righteous, on account of the following καὶ τὸν δικαιοῦντα, and the justifier or who pronounces righteous, but the substantial meaning is holy, that quality by virtue of which he hates and punishes sin); 1 John 2:29.TGL δίκαιος.6

    d. contextually, approved of God, acceptable to God, (German gottwohlgefällig): Romans 5:19; with the addition ἐκ πίστεως, acceptable to God by faith [Winer's Grammar, 136 (129)]: Romans 1:17; Galatians 3:11; Hebrews 10:38; δίκ. παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, Romans 2:13.TGL δίκαιος.7

    2. In a narrower sense, rendering to each his due; and that in a judicial sense, passing just judgment on others, whether expressed in words or shown by the manner of dealing with them: Titus 1:8; so of God recompensing men impartially according to their deeds, Revelation 16:5; in the same sense also in John 17:25 (who does not award the same fate to the loving and faithful disciples of Christ and to 'the world'); 1 John 1:9 (who executes the laws of his government, and therefore also the law concerning the pardon of sins); δίκαιος κριτής, of Christ, 2 Timothy 4:8; κρίσις δίκαια, John 5:30; John 7:24; 2 Thessalonians 1:5; plural, Revelation 16:7; Revelation 19:2; αἱ ὁδοὶ τ. θεοῦ δίκαια κ. ἀληθιναί, Revelation 15:3; neuter τὸ δικαίον, what is due to others, Colossians 4:1; what is agreeable to justice and law, Luke 12:57; δίκαιον namely ἐστίν, it is agreeable to justice, 2 Thessalonians 1:6; accordant with deserts, Matthew 20:4, and Matthew 20:7 Rec. [See references under the word δικαιόω, at the end; cf. ἀγαθός , at the end.]TGL δίκαιος.8


    (1343) δικαιοσύνη, -ης, , (δίκαιος); most frequently in the Sept. for צֶדֶק and צְדָקָה, rarely for חֶסֶד; the virtue or quality or state of one who is δίκαιος;TGL δικαιοσύνη.2

    1. in the broad sense, the state of him who is such as he ought to be, righteousness (German Rechtbeschaffenheit); the condition acceptable to God (German Gottwohlgefälligkeit);TGL δικαιοσύνη.3

    a. universally: λόγος τῆς δικαιοσύνης (like λόγος τῆς καταλλαγῆς, λ. τοῦ σταυροῦ), the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain to a state approved of God, Hebrews 5:13; βασιλεὺς δικαιοσύνης, the king who himself has the approbation of God, and who renders his subjects acceptable to God, Hebrews 7:2; cf. Bleek at the passage.TGL δικαιοσύνη.4

    b. integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling, and acting: Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:6, Matthew 5:10, Matthew 5:20; Matthew 6:1 G L T Tr WH; Acts 13:10; Acts 24:25; Romans 6:13, Romans 6:16, Romans 6:18-20 (opposed to ἁμαρτία, ἀνομία, and ἀκαθαρσία); Romans 8:10 (opposed to ἁμαρτία); Romans 14:17 (? [see c.]); 2 Corinthians 6:7, 2 Corinthians 6:14 (opposed to ἀνομία, as in Xenophon, mem. 1, 2, 24); 2 Corinthians 11:15; Ephesians 5:9; Ephesians 6:14; Philippians 1:11; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 4:8; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 1:9; Hebrews 12:11; James 3:18; 1 Peter 3:14; 2 Peter 2:5, 2 Peter 2:21; 2 Peter 3:13, and very often in the O. T.; ἐν ὁδῷ δικαιοσύνης, walking in the way of righteousness equivalent to an upright, righteous, man, Matthew 21:32; τοῦ θεοῦ, the righteousness which God demands, Matthew 6:33; James 1:20; of righteousness which manifests itself in beneficence: 2 Corinthians 9:9 (cf. Tobit 14:11; Gesenius, Thesaurus iii., p. 1151; so Chaldean צִדְקָה, Daniel 4:24, and in the Talmud and rabbinical writings [Buxtorf. col. 1891 (p. 941, Fischer edition); cf. Winer's Grammar, 32]); where δίκ. καὶ ὁσιότης are connected — Luke 1:75; Ephesians 4:24, (Wis. 9:3; Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 48, 4 and occasionally in secular writings), — the former denotes right conduct toward men, the latter piety toward God (cf. Plato, Gorgias, p. 507 b.; Grimm on Sap., p. 181f; [cf. Trench, § 88, p. 328f; for additional examples see Wetstein on Ephesians, the passage cited; cf. ὅσιος ]; εὐσέβεια κ. δικαιοσύνη, Diodorus 1, 2); ποιεῖν τὴν δικαιοσ. to do righteousness, to live uprightly: 1 John 2:29; 1 John 3:7; 1 John 3:10 [not Lachmann]; and in Revelation 22:11 according to the text now accepted; in like manner ἐργάζεσθαι δικαιοσύνην, Acts 10:35; Hebrews 11:33; ζῆν τῇ δικαιοσύνη, to live, devote the life, to righteousness, 1 Peter 2:24; πληροῦν πᾶσαν δικαιοσύνην, to perform completely whatever is right, Matthew 3:15. When affirmed of Christ, δικαιοσύνη denotes his perfect moral purity, integrity, sinlessness: John 16:8, John 16:10; when used of God, his holiness: Romans 3:5, Romans 3:25.TGL δικαιοσύνη.5

    c. in the writings of Paul δικαιοσύνη has a peculiar meaning, opposed to the views of the Jews and Judaizing Christians. To understand this meaning, the following facts especially must be kept in view: the Jews as a people, and very many who had become converts from among them to Christianity, supposed that they secured the favor of God by works conformed to the requirements of the Mosaic law, as though by way of merit; and that they would thus attain to eternal salvation. But this law demands perfect obedience to all its precepts, and threatens condemnation to those who do not render such obedience (Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:12). Obedience of this kind no one has rendered (Romans 3:10), neither Jews nor Gentiles (Romans 1:24-32Romans 2:1) — for with the latter the natural law of right written on their souls takes the place of the Mosaic law (Romans 2:14). On this account Paul proclaims the love of God, in that by giving up Christ, his Son, to die as an expiatory sacrifice for the sins of men he has attested his grace and good-will to mankind, so that they can hope for salvation as if they had not sinned. But the way to obtain this hope, he teaches, is only through faith (see πίστις [especially 1 b. and d.]), by which a man appropriates that grace of God revealed and pledged in Christ; and this faith is reckoned by God to the man as δικαιοσύνη; that is to say, δ. denotes the state acceptable to God which becomes a sinner's possession through that faith by which he embraces the grace of God offered him in the expiatory death of Jesus Christ (see δικαιόω , 3 b.). In this sense δικαιοσύνη is used without an adjunct in Romans 4:5, Romans 4:11; Romans 5:17, Romans 5:21; Romans 9:30; Romans 14:17 (? [see b.]); 1 Corinthians 1:30; Galatians 5:5; δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ, τοῦ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη, the righteousness which God ascribes, what God declares to be righteousness [Winer's Grammar, 186 (175)], Romans 1:17; Romans 3:21; Romans 10:3; by a pregnant use, equivalent to that divine arrangement by which God leads men to a state acceptable to him, Romans 10:4; as abstract for concrete, equivalent to those whom God accounts righteous, 2 Corinthians 5:21; δικ. θεοῦ διὰ πίστεως, Romans 3:22; δικ. τῆς πίστεως, which is acquired by faith, or seen in faith, Romans 4:11, Romans 4:13; ἐκ θεοῦ δικαιοσ. which comes from God, i. e. is adjudged, imputed, Philippians 3:9 (where the addition ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει depends on ἔχων, having... founded upon faith [cf. Winer's Grammar, 137 (130); 392 (367); yet cf. Ellicott, at the passage]); ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοσ. which comes from faith, Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6; διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ, Philippians 3:9; κατὰ πίστιν δικαιοσ. according to, appropriate to, faith, Hebrews 11:7 (but it should be kept in mind that the conception of 'faith' in the Epistle to the Hebrews is broader than in Paul's writings [cf. e. g. Kurtz, at the passage]); Christ is called δικαιοσύνη, as being the one without whom there is no righteousness, as the author of righteousness, 1 Corinthians 1:30; εἰς δικαιοσύνην, unto righteousness as the result, to obtain righteousness, Romans 10:4, Romans 10:10; πίστις λογίζεταί τινι εἰς δικαιοσύνην, faith is reckoned to one for righteousness, i. e. is so taken into account, that righteousness is ascribed to it or recognized in it: Romans 4:3, Romans 4:6, Romans 4:9, Romans 4:22; Galatians 3:6; James 2:23; διακονία τῆς δικαιοσ. (see διακονία , 2 b.), 2 Corinthians 3:9. Opposed to this δικαιοσύνη, arising from faith, is ἐκ νόμου δικαιοσ., a state acceptable to God which is supposed to result from obedience to the law, Romans 10:5; δικ. ἐν νόμῳ relying on the law, i. e. on imaginary obedience to it, Philippians 3:6; ἰδία δικαιοσ. and ἐμή δικ., such as one supposes that he has acquired for himself by his own works, Romans 10:3 Philippians 3:9, cf. Galatians 2:21; Galatians 3:21.TGL δικαιοσύνη.6

    2. in a closer sense, justice, or the virtue which gives each one his due; it is said to belong to God and Christ, as bestowing ἰσότιμον πίστιν upon all Christians impartially, 2 Peter 1:1; of judicial justice, Romans 9:28 R G Tr marginal reading in brackets; κρίνειν ἐν δικαιοσύνη, Acts 17:31; Revelation 19:11. [See references under the word δικαιόω at the end.]TGL δικαιοσύνη.7


    (1344) δικαιόω, -ῶ; future δικαιώσω; 1 aorist ἐδικαίωσα; passive [present δικαιοῦμαι]; perfect δεδικαίωμαι; 1 aorist ἐδικαιώθην; future δικαιωθήσομαι; (δίκαιος); Sept. for צִדֵּק and הִצְדִּיק;TGL δικαιόω.2

    1. properly, (according to the analogy of other verbs ending in όω, as τυφλόω, δουλόω) to make δίκαιος; to render righteous or such as he ought to be; (Vulg. justifico ); but this meaning is extremely rare, if not altogether doubtful; ἐδικαίωσα τὴν καρδίαν μου stands for לְבָבִי זִכִּיתִי in Psalms 72:13 (Psalms 73:13) (unless I have shown my heart to be upright be preferred as the rendering of the Greek there).TGL δικαιόω.3

    2. τινά, to show, exhibit, evince, one to be righteous, such as he is and wishes himself to be considered (Ezekiel 16:51; τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ, Jeremiah 3:11, and, probably, δικαιοῦν δίκαιον, Isaiah 53:11): σοφία ἐδικαιώθη ἀπὸ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς, the wisdom taught and exemplified by John the Baptist, and by Jesus, gained from its disciples (i. e. from their life, character, and deeds) the benefit of being shown to be righteous, i. e. true and divine [cf. Buttmann, 322 (277); others interpret, was acknowledged to be righteous on the part of (nearly equivalent to by) her children; cf. Buttmann, 325 (280); see ἀπό , II. 2 d. bb.], Luke 7:35; Matthew 11:19 [here T Tr text WH read ἔργων, i. e. by her works]; passive, of Christ: ἐδικαιώθη ἐν πνεύματι, evinced to be righteous as to his spiritual (divine [(?) cf. e. g. Ellicott at the passage or Meyer on Romans 1:4]) nature, 1 Timothy 3:16; of God: ὅπως δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου, Romans 3:4 from Psalms 50:6 (Psalms 51:6) (κύριος μόνος δικαιωθήσεται, Sir. 18:2); passive used reflexively, to show oneself righteous: of men, Revelation 22:11 Rec. ; (τί δικαιωθῶμεν; Genesis 44:16).TGL δικαιόω.4

    3. τινά, to declare, pronounce, one to be just, righteous, or such as he ought to be, (cf. ὁμοιόω to declare to be like, liken, i. e. compare; ὁσιόω, Wis. 6:11; ἀξιόω, which never means to make worthy, but to judge worthy, to declare worthy, to treat as worthy; see also κοινόω , 2 b.);TGL δικαιόω.5

    a. with the negative idea predominant, to declare guiltless one accused or who may be accused, acquitted of a charge or reproach, (Deuteronomy 25:1; Sir. 13:22 (Sir. 13:21), etc.; an unjust judge is said δικαιοῦν τὸν ἀσεβῆ in Exodus 23:7; Isaiah 5:23): ἑαυτόν, Luke 10:29; passive οὐ δεδικαίωμαι, namely, with God, 1 Corinthians 4:4; pregnantly with ἀπὸ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν added, to be declared innocent and therefore to be absolved from the charge of sins [cf. Buttmann, 322 (277)], Acts 13:38 (Acts 13:39) (so ἀπὸ ἁμαρτίας, Sir. 26:29; simply, to be absolved, namely, from the payment of a vow, Sir. 18:22 (Sir. 18:21)); hence, figuratively, by a usage not met with elsewhere, to be freed, ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας, from its dominion, Romans 6:7, where cf. Fritzsche or [(less fully) Meyer].TGL δικαιόω.6

    b. with the positive idea predominant, to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable, (God is said δικαιοῦν δίκαιον, 1 Kings 8:32): ἑαυτόν, Luke 16:15; ἐδικαίωσαν τὸν θεόν, declared God to be righteous, i. e. by receiving the baptism declared that it had been prescribed by God rightly, Luke 7:29; passive by God, Romans 2:13; ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, got his reputation for righteousness (namely, with his countrymen [but see Meyer (edited by Weiss) at the passage]) by works, Romans 4:2; ἐκ τῶν λόγων, by thy words, in contrast with καταδικάζεσθαι, namely, by God, Matthew 12:37. Especially is it so used, in the technical phraseology of Paul, respecting God who judges and declares such men as put faith in Christ to be righteous and acceptable to him, and accordingly fit to receive the pardon of their sins and eternal life (see δικαιοσύνη , 1 c.): thus absolutely, δικαιοῦν τινα, Romans 3:26; Romans 4:5; Romans 8:30, Romans 8:33 (namely, ἡμᾶς, opposed to ἐγκαλεῖν); with the addition of ἐκ (in consequence of) πίστεως, Romans 3:30; Galatians 3:8; of διὰ τῆς πίστεως, Romans 3:30; men are said δικαιοῦσθαι, δικαιωθῆναι, τῇ χάριτι τοῦ θεοῦ, Titus 3:7; δωρεὰν τῇ χάρ. τ. θεοῦ, Romans 3:24 πίστει, Romans 3:28; ἐκ πίστεως, by means of faith, Romans 5:1; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:24; ἐν τῷ αἵματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ (as the meritorious cause of their acceptance, as the old theologians say, faith being the apprehending or subjective cause), Romans 5:9; ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν, by confessing the name of the Lord (which implies faith in him, Romans 10:10, cf. 2 Corinthians 4:13), and by the Spirit of God (which has awakened faith in the soul), 1 Corinthians 6:11; ἐν Χριστῷ through Christ, Galatians 2:17; Acts 13:39; it is vehemently denied by Paul, that a man δικαιοῦται ἐξ ἔργων νόμου, Galatians 2:16 — with the addition ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ, i. e. of God, Romans 3:20, cf. Romans 3:28; Romans 4:2, (see δικαιοσύνη, 1 c. under the end); — a statement which is affirmed by James in James 2:21, James 2:24 (though he says simply ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦται, significantly omitting νόμου); to the same purport Paul denies that a man δικαιοῦται ἐν νόμῳ, in obeying the law, or by keeping it, Galatians 5:4; with the addition, παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, in the sight of God, Galatians 3:11. Luke 18:14 teaches that a man δικαιοῦται by deep sorrow for his sins, which so humbles him that he hopes for salvation only from divine grace.TGL δικαιόω.7

    The Pauline conceptions of δίκαιος, δικαιοσύνη, δικαιόω, are elucidated especially by Winzer, De vocabulis δίκαιος, etc., in Ep. ad Rom., Lipsius 1831; Usteri, Paulin. Lehrbegriff, p. 86f edition 4 etc.; Neander, Gesch. der Pfianzung as above with ii., p. 567ff et passim, edition 3 [Robinson's translation of edition 4, pp. 382ff, 417ff]; Baur, Paulus, p. 572ff [(Zeller's) edition 2, vol. ii 145-183; English translation, vol. ii, p. 134ff]; Rauwenhoff, Disquisitio etc., Lugd. Bat. 1852; Lipsius, Die paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, Lpz. 1853; Schmid, Biblical Theologie des N. T., p. 562ff edition 2 [p. 558ff edition 4; English translation, p. 495f]; Ernesti, Vom Ursprung der Sϋnde as above with i., p. 152ff; Messner, Lehre der Apostel, p. 256ff [summary by S. R. Asbury in Bib. Sacr. for 1870, p. 140f]; Jul. Kõstlin in the Jahrbb. fϋr deutsche Theol. 1856 fasc. 1, p. 85ff; Wieseler, Commentar ϋ. d. Br. an d. Galater, pp. 176ff [see in Schaff's Lange's Rom., p. 122f]; Kahnis, Lutherische Dogmatik, Bd. i., p. 592ff; Philippi, Dogmatik, v. 1, p. 208ff; Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. § 65; Ritschl, Die christl. Lehre v. d. Versõhnung u. Rechtf. ii. 318ff; Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 172ff [English translation, vol. i., p. 171ff; but especially Dr. James Morison, Critical Exposition of the Third Chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, pp. 163-198. On the patristic usage see Reithmayr, Galaterbrief, p. 177f; Cremer, Wõrterbuch, 4te Aufl., p. 285; Suicer, Thesaurus under the word].TGL δικαιόω.8

    In classic Greek δικαιόω (Ionic δικαιέω, Herodotus) is:TGL δικαιόω.9

    1. equivalent to δίκαιον νομίζω, to deem right or fair: τί, often followed by the infinitive; to choose what is right and fair, hence, universally, to choose, desire, decide: Herodotus, Sophocles, Thucydides, others.TGL δικαιόω.10

    2. with the accusative of person, τὸ δίκαιον ποιῶ τινα to do one justice, in a bad sense, viz. to condemn, punish, one: Herodotus, Thucydides, Plato, others; hence, δικαιοῦσθαι, to have justice done oneself, to suffer justice, be treated rightly, opposed to ἀδικεῖσθαι, Aristotle, eth. Nic. 5, 9, 11, p. 1136a, 18ff (In like manner the German rechtfertigen in its early forensic use bore a bad sense, viz. to try judicially (so for ἀνακρίνειν, Acts 12:19 Luther), then condemn; execute judgment, especially put to death.)TGL δικαιόω.11


    (1345) δικαίωμα, -τος, τό, (from δικαιόω; δεδικαίωται or τὸ δεδικαιωμένον), Sept. very often for חֹק, חֻקָה, and מִשְׁפָּט; for מִצְוָה, Deuteronomy 30:16; 1 Kings 2:3; plural occasionally for פִּקּוּדִים;TGL δικαίωμα.2

    1. that which has been deemed right so as to have the force of law;TGL δικαίωμα.3

    a. what has been established and ordained by law, an ordinance: universally, of an appointment of God having the force of law, Romans 1:32; plural used of the divine precepts of the Mosaic law: τοῦ κυρίου, Luke 1:6; τοῦ νόμου, Romans 2:26; τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου, collectively, of the (moral) precepts of the same law, Romans 8:4; δικαιώματα λατρείας, precepts concerning the public worship of God, Hebrews 9:1; δικαιώματα σαρκός, laws respecting bodily purity [(?) cf. Hebrews 7:16], Hebrews 9:10.TGL δικαίωμα.4

    b. a judicial decision, sentence; of God — either the favorable judgment by which he acquits men and declares them acceptable to him, Romans 5:16; or unfavorable: sentence of condemnation, Revelation 15:4, (punishment, Plato, legg. 9, 864 e.).TGL δικαίωμα.5

    2. a righteous act or deed: τὰ δικαιώματα τῶν ἁγίων, Revelation 19:8 (τῶν πατέρων, Baruch 2:19); ἑνὸς δικαίωμα, the righteous act of one (Christ) in his giving himself up to death, opposed to the first sin of Adam, Romans 5:18 (Aristotle, eth. Nic. 5, 7, 7, p. 1135a, 12f καλεῖται δέ μᾶλλον δικαιοπράγημα τὸ κοινόν, δικαίωμα δὲ τὸ ἐπανόρθωμα τοῦ ἀδικήματος [cf. rhet. 1, 13, 1 and Cope's note on 1, 3, 9]). [Cf. references in δικαιόω.]TGL δικαίωμα.6


    (1346) δικαίως, adverb, [from Homer down];TGL δικαίως.2

    1. justly, agreeably to right: κρίνειν (see δίκαιος , 2), 1 Peter 2:23; to suffer, Luke 23:41.TGL δικαίως.3

    2. properly, as is right: 1 Corinthians 15:34:TGL δικαίως.4

    3. uprightly, agreeably to the law of rectitude: 1 Thessalonians 2:10 (ὁσίως καὶ δικαίως, as Plato, rep. 1, p. 331 a. [cf. Trench, § 88, p. 328]); Titus 2:12.TGL δικαίως.5


    (1347) δικαίωσις, -εως, , (from δικαιόω, equivalent to τὸ δικαιοῦν, the act τοῦ δικαιουντος; in extra-biblical writings from Thucydides on, the justification or defense of a cause; sentence of condemnation; judgment in reference to what is just), the act of God's declaring men free from guilt and acceptable to him; adjudging to be righteous, [A. V. justification]: διὰ τὴν δικαίωσιν ἡμῶν, because God wished to declare us righteous, Romans 4:25; εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς, unto acquittal, which brings with it the bestowment of life, Romans 5:18. [Cf. references in δικαιόω].TGL δικαίωσις.2


    (1348) δικαστής, -οῦ, , (δικάζω), a judge, arbitrator, umpire: Luke 12:14 [here critical texts κριτήν]; Acts 7:27 (from Exodus 2:14); Acts 7:35. (Sept. for שֹׁפֵט; in Greek writings from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus on.)TGL δικαστής.2

    [Synonyms: δικαστής, κριτής: according to etymology and classic usage δ. is the more dignified and official term; κ. gives prominence to the mental process, whether the 'judge' be a magistrate or not. Schmidt ch. 18, 6.]TGL δικαστής.3


    (1349) δίκη, -ης, , [allied with δείκνυμι, Curtius, § 14], from Homer down;TGL δίκη.2

    1. custom, usage, [cf. Schmidt, chapter 18, 4 cf. 3].TGL δίκη.3

    2. right, justice.TGL δίκη.4

    3. a suit at law.TGL δίκη.5

    4. a judicial hearing, judicial decision, especially a sentence of condemnation; so in Acts 25:15 [L T Tr WH καταδίκην].TGL δίκη.6

    5. execution of the sentence, punishment, (Wis. 18:11; 2 Macc. 8:11): δίκην ὑπέχειν, Jude 1:7; δίκην τίνειν (Sophocles El. 298; Aj. 113; Euripides, Or. 7), to suffer punishment, 2 Thessalonians 1:9.TGL δίκη.7

    6. the goddess Justice, avenging justice: Acts 28:4, as in Greek writings often from Hesiod theog. 902 on; (of the avenging justice of God, personified, Wis. 1:8, etc.; cf. Grimm at the passage and commentary on 4 Macc., p. 318, [he cites 4 Macc. 4:13, 21; 8:13, 21; 9:9; 11:3; 12:12; 18:22; Philo adv. Flacc. § 18; Eusebius, h. e. 2, 6, 8]).TGL δίκη.8

    Related entry: καταδίκη, -ης, ;TGL δίκη.9

    1. damnatory sentence, condemnation: Acts 25:15 L T Tr WH; ([Epicharmus in Ath. 2, 3 p. 36 d.], Polybius, Plutarch, Irenaeus 1, 16, 3).TGL δίκη.10

    2. penalty, especially a fine; (Thucydides, Dem., Lucian).TGL δίκη.11


    (1350) δίκτυον, -ου, τό, [perhaps from ΔΙΚEΙΝ to cast, cf. Etym. Magn. col. 275, 21], a net: Matthew 4:20; Mark 1:18; Luke 5:2, Luke 5:4-6; John 21:6, John 21:8, John 21:11. (Homer and following.)TGL δίκτυον.2

    [Synonyms: δίκτυον, ἀμφίβληστρον, σαγήνη: δ. seems to be the general name for nets of all kinds; whereas άμφ. and σαγ. designate specifically nets for fishing: — the former a casting-net, generally pear-shaped; the latter a seine or drag-net. Cf. Trench § 64; B. D. under the word Net.]TGL δίκτυον.3


    (1351) δίλογος, -ον, (δίς and λέγω);TGL δίλογος.2

    1. saying the same thing twice, repeating: Pollux 2, 118, p. 212, Hemst. edition; whence διλογεῖν and διλογία, Xenophon, de re equ. 8, 2.TGL δίλογος.3

    2. double-tongued, double in speech, saying one thing with one person, another with another (with intent to deceive): 1 Timothy 3:8.TGL δίλογος.4


    (1352) διό, conjunction equivalent to δἰ , [from Thucydides and Plato down], wherefore, on which account: Matthew 27:8; Luke 1:35; Luke 7:7; Acts 10:29; Romans 1:24; Romans 2:1; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 2 Corinthians 6:17; Hebrews 3:7; James 1:21; 1 Peter 1:13, and often. [Cf. Winers Grammar, 445 (414); Buttmann, 233 (200); on Paul's use, see Ellicott on Galatians 4:31.]TGL διό.2


    (1353) διοδεύω: imperfect διώδευον; [1 aorist διώδευσα];TGL διοδεύω.2

    1. to pass or travel through: τόπον τινά, Acts 17:1; (Sept. , Polybius, Plutarch, others).TGL διοδεύω.3

    2. to travel hither and thither, go about: with κατὰ πόλιν καὶ κώμην added, through city and village, Luke 8:1.TGL διοδεύω.4


    (1354) Διονύσιος, -ου, , Dionysius, an Athenian, a member of the Areopagus, converted to Christianity by Paul's instrumentality: Acts 17:34. [Cf. B. D. , under the word.]TGL Διονύσιος.2


    (1355) διόπερ, conjunction (from διό and the enclitic particle πέρ [which see]), [from Thucydides down]; on which very account, [A. V. wherefore]: 1 Corinthians 8:13 [Treg. διό περ]; 1 Corinthians 10:14; 1 Corinthians 14:13 where L T Tr WH διό.TGL διόπερ.2


    (1356) διοπετής, -ές, (from Διός of Zeus, and πέτω for πίπτω; in secular writings also διϊπετής), fallen from Zeus, i. e. from heaven: τὸ διοπετές, namely, ἄγαλμα (which is expressed in Euripides, Iph. T. 977; Herodian, 1, 11, 2 [1, Bekker edition; cf. Winer's Grammar, 234 (219); 592 (551)]), an image of the Ephesian Artemis which was supposed to have fallen from heaven, Acts 19:35; [cf. Meyer at the passage; Farrar, St. Paul, 2:13f].TGL διοπετής.2


    (1357) διόρθωσις, -εως, , (from διορθόω);TGL διόρθωσις.2

    1. properly in a physical sense, a making straight, restoring to its natural and normal condition something which in some way protrudes or has got out of line, as (in Hippocrates) broken or misshapen limbs.TGL διόρθωσις.3

    2. of acts and institutions, reformation: καιρὸς διορθώσεως a season of reformation, or the perfecting of things, referring to the times of the Messiah, Hebrews 9:10. (Aristotle Pol. 3, 1, 4 [p. 1275b, 13]; νόμου, de mund. 6 p. 400b, 29; [cf. Josephus c. Ap. 2, 20, 2]; Polybius 3, 118, 12 τῶν πολιτευμάτων, Diodorus 1, 75 τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων, Josephus antiquities 2, 4, 4; b. j. 1, 20, 1; others; [cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 250f].)TGL διόρθωσις.4


    (1358) διορύσσω; passive, 1 aorist infinitive διορυχθῆναι (Matthew 24:43 T Tr WH; Luke 12:39 T WH Tr marginal reading); 2 aorist infinitive διορυγῆναι, [cf. WHs Appendix, p. 170; from Homer down]; to dig through: a house (Xenophon, symp. 4, 30; Job 24:16 Sept. ), Matthew 24:43; Luke 12:39; absolutely, Matthew 6:19 [Winers Grammar, 594 (552); Buttmann, 146 (127)].TGL διορύσσω.2


    (1359) Διόσκουροι (Phrynichus prefers the form Διόσκοροι; in earlier Attic the dual τὼ Διοσκόρω was more usual, cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 235), -ων, οἱ, (from Διός of Zeus, and κοῦρος; or κόρος, boy, as κόρη, girl), Dioscuri, the name given to Castor and [(Polydeuces, the Roman)] Pollux, the twin sons of Zeus and Leda, tutelary deities of sailors: Acts 28:11 [R. V. The Twin Brothers; cf. B. D. under the word Castor and Pollux].TGL Διόσκουροι.2


    (1360) διότι, conjunction, equivalent to διὰ τοῦτο, ὅτι;TGL διότι.2

    1. on this account that, because, [cf. Winer's Grammar, 445 (415)]: Luke 2:7; Luke 21:28; [Acts 18:35, where R G διό]; Acts 17:31 Rec. ; Acts 20:26 T WH Tr marginal reading; Acts 22:18; 1 Corinthians 15:9; Galatians 2:16 (L T Tr WH ὅτι); Philippians 2:26; 1 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; Hebrews 11:5, Hebrews 11:23; James 4:3; 1 Peter 1:16, 1 Peter 1:24; 1 Peter 2:6 [Rec. διὸ καί].TGL διότι.3

    2. for (cf. Fritzsche on Romans 1:19, vol. i., p. 57f; [per contra Meyer at the passage; Ellicott on Galatians 2:16; (cf. Jebb in Vincent and Dickson, Modern Greek etc. edition 2, Appendix, § 80, 3)]): Luke 1:13; Acts 10:20 Rec. ; Acts 18:10; Romans 1:19, Romans 1:21; Romans 3:20; Romans 8:7; (1 Thessalonians 2:18 L T Tr WH for R G διό); [1 Peter 1:16b Tdf. From Herodotus down.]TGL διότι.4


    (1361) Διοτρέφης [L WH -τρέφης; cf. Chandler §§ 634, 637], , (from Διός and τρέφω, nourished by Zeus, or foster-child of Zeus), Diotrephes, a Christian man, but proud and arrogant: 3 John 1:9 [Cf. B. D. (especially American edition) under the word.]TGL Διοτρεφής.2


    (1362) διπλόος (-οῦς), -όη (-ῆ), -όον, (-οῦν), [from Homer down], twofold, double: 1 Timothy 5:17; Revelation 18:6; διπλότερος (a comparitive found also in Appian. hist. praef. § 10, from the positive form διπλός [Buttmann, 27 (24)]) ὑμῶν, twofold more than yourselves, Matthew 23:15 [(cf. Justin Martyr, dialog 122)].TGL διπλοῦς.2


    (1363) διπλόω, -ῶ: [1 aorist ἐδιπλωσα]; (διπλόος); to double: διπλώσατε αὐτῇ [only R G] διπλᾶ [τὰ δ. T Tr WH brackets], i. e. return to her double, repay in double measure the evils she has brought upon you, Revelation 18:6 [R. V. double unto her the double]. (Xenophon, Hell. 6, 5, 19; Plutarch, Cam. 41; Diogenes Laërtius 6, 22.)TGL διπλόω.2


    (1364) δίς, adverb, [Curtius, § 277; from Homer down], twice: Mark 14:30, Mark 14:72; δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου twice in the week, Luke 18:12; καὶ ἅπαξ καὶ δίς (see ἅπαξ , c.), Philippians 4:16; 1 Thessalonians 2:18. In the phrase δὶς ἀποθανόντα, Jude 1:12, δίς is not equivalent to completely, absolutely; but the figure is so adjusted to the fact, that men are represented as twice dead in a moral sense, first as not having yet been regenerated, and secondly as having fallen from a state of grace; see ἀποθνῄσκω , I. 4; [but compare the various interpretations as given in (Meyer) Huther or in Schaff's Lange (Fronm.) at the passage. In the Babylonian Talmud (Ber. 10 a.) we read, 'Thou art dead here below, and thou shalt have no part in the life to come'].TGL δίς.2


    (1365) διστάζω: 1 aorist ἐδίστασα; (δίς); to doubt, waver: Matthew 14:31; Matthew 28:17. (Plato, [Sophocles], Aristotle, Plutarch, others.)TGL διστάζω.2


    (1366) δίστομος, -ον, (δίς and στόμα), having a double mouth, as a river, Polybius 34, 10, 5; [ὁδοί i. e. branching, Sophocles O. C. 900). As στόμα is used of the edge of a sword and of other weapons, so δίστομος has the meaning two-edged: used of a sword in Hebrews 4:12; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12, and according to Schott in Revelation 19:15; also Judges 3:16; Proverbs 5:4; Psalms 149:6: Sir. 21:3; ξίφος, Euripides, Hel. 983.TGL δίστομος.2


    (1367) δισχίλιοι, -αι, , two thousand: Mark 5:13. [From Herodotus down.]TGL δισχίλιοι.2


    (1368) διυλίζω [R G T Tr διϋλ. (see Υ, υ)]; (ὑλίζω to defecate, cleanse from dregs or filth); to filter through, strain thoroughly, pour through a filter: τὸν κώνωπα, to rid wine of a gnat by filtering, strain out, Matthew 23:24. (Amos 6:6 διυλισμένος οἶνος, Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 4, 48 ἔδοξαν διυλίζειν πρότερον τὸν οἶνον, Dioscorides 2, 86 διὰ ῤάκους λινοῦ διυλισθέν [et passim; Plutarch, quaest. conviv. 6, 7, 1, 5]; Archytas quoted in Stab. floril. i., p. 13, 40 metaphorically, θεός εἰλικρινῆ καὶ διυλισμέναν ἔχει τὴν ἀρετάν.)TGL διϋλίζω.2


    (1369) διχάζω: 1 aorist infinitive διχάσαι; (δίχα); to cut into two parts, cleave asunder, dissever: Plato, polit., p. 264 d.; metaphorically, διχάζω τινὰ κατά τινος, to set one at variance with [literally, against] another: Matthew 10:35. [Cf. Fischer, De vitiis examples etc., p. 334f.]TGL διχάζω.2


    (1370) διχοστασία, -ας, , (διχοστατέω to stand apart), dissension, division; plural: Romans 16:17; 1 Corinthians 3:3 [Rec. ]; Galatians 5:20. (Occasionally in Greek writings from Solon in Demosthenes, p. 423, 4 and Herodotus 5, 75 on; [1 Macc. 3:29].)TGL διχοστασία.2


    (1371) διχοτομέω, -ῶ: future διχοτομήσω; (διχοτόμος cutting in two); to cut into two parts (Exodus 29:17): Matthew 24:51; Luke 12:46 — in these passages many suppose reference to be made to that most cruel mode of punishment, in use among the Hebrews (1 Samuel 15:33) and other ancient nations (see Winers RWB under the word Lebensstrafen; (B. D. under the word Punishments, III. b. 3; especially Wetstein on Matthew, the passage cited]), by which criminals and captives were cut in two. But in the text the words which follow, and which imply that the one thus 'cut asunder' is still surviving, oppose this interpretation; so that here the word is more fitly translated cut up by scourging, scourge severely, [but see Meyer on Matthew, the passage cited]. (Occasionally in Greek writings from Plato down.)TGL διχοτομέω.2


    (1372) διψάω, -ῶ, subjunctive present 3 person singular δίψᾷ (John 7:37; Romans 12:20; often so from the Macedonian age on for the Attic δίψῇ, cf. Winers Grammar, § 13, 3 b.; [Buttmann, 44 (38)]; Lob. ad Phryn., p. 61); future διψήσω; 1 aorist ἐδίψησα; (δίψα, thirst); [from Homer down]; to thirst;TGL διψάω.2

    1. absolutely, to suffer thirst; suffer from thirst: properly, Matthew 25:35, Matthew 25:37, Matthew 25:42, Matthew 25:44; John 4:15; John 19:28; Romans 12:20; 1 Corinthians 4:11; figuratively, those are said to thirst who painfully feel their want of, and eagerly long for, those things by which the soul is refreshed, supported, strengthened: John 4:13; John 6:35; John 7:37; Revelation 7:16; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17; (Sir. 24:21 (Sir 24:20); Sir 51:24).TGL διψάω.3

    2. with an accusative of the thing desired: τὴν δικαιοσύνην, Matthew 5:6, (Psalms 62:2 (Psalms 63:2) in the better Greek writings with the genitive; cf. Winers Grammar, § 30, 10 b.; [Buttmann, 147 (129)]; ἐλευθερίας, Plato, rep. 8, p. 562 c.; τιμῆς, Plutarch, Cat. maj. 11; others; cf. Winer's Grammar, 17).TGL διψάω.4


    (1373) δίψος, -εος (-ους), τό, thirst: 2 Corinthians 11:27. [From Thucydides down, for the older δίψα.]TGL δίψος.2


    (1374) δίψυχος, -ον, (δίς and ψυχή), double-minded;TGL δίψυχος.2

    a. wavering, uncertain, doubting: James 1:8 (οἱ δίψυχοι καὶ οἱ διστάζοντες περὶ τῆς τοῦ θεοῦ δυνάμεως, Clement of Rome, 1 Corinthians 11:1-34, 1 Corinthians 11:2; ταλαίπωροί εἰσιν οἱ δίψυχοι, οἱ διστάζοντες τὴν ψυχήν [others τῇ ψυχῇ], ibid. 23, 3; μὴ γίνου δίψυχος ἐν προσευχῇ σου, εἰ ἔσται οὐ, Apostolic Constitutions 7, 11; μὴ γίνου δίψυχος ἐν προσευχῇ σου, μακάριος γὰρ μὴ διστάσας, Ignatius ad. Heron. 7; [cf. references in Mϋller's note on the Epistle of Barnabas, 19, 5]).TGL δίψυχος.3

    b. divided in interest namely, between God and the world: James 4:8. Not found in secular writings. [Philo, fragment 2:663].TGL δίψυχος.4


    (1375) διωγμός, -οῦ, , (διώκω), persecution: Matthew 13:21; Mark 4:17; Mark 10:30; Acts 8:1; Acts 13:50; Romans 8:35; plural, 2 Corinthians 12:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:4; 2 Timothy 3:11 [from Aeschylus down].TGL διωγμός.2


    (1376) διώκτης, -ου, , (διώκω), a persecutor: 1 Timothy 1:13. Not found in secular writings.TGL διώκτης.2


    (1377) διώκω; imperfect ἐδίωκον; future διώξω (Matthew 23:34; Luke 21:12; John 15:20; 2 Samuel 22:38; Wis. 19:2; a rarer form for the more common Attic διώξομαι, cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr: 2:154; Winers Grammar, 84 (80); [Buttmann, 53 (46); especially Veitch, under the word; Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 377]); 1 aorist ἐδίωξα; passive [present διώκομαι]; perfect participle δεδιωγμένος; 1 future διωχθήσομαι; (from δίω, to flee); Sept. commonly for רָדַף;TGL διώκω.2

    1. to make to run or flee, put to flight, drive away: (τινὰ) ἀπό πόλεως εἰς πόλιν, Matthew 23:34, cf. Matthew 10:23 Griesbach.TGL διώκω.3

    2. to run swiftly in order to catch some person or thing, to run after; absolutely (Homer, Iliad 23, 344; Sophocles El. 738, etc.; διώκειν δρόμῳ, Xenophon, an. 6, 5, 25; cf. 7, 2, 20), to press on: figuratively, of one who in a race runs swiftly to reach the goal, Philippians 3:12 (where distinguished from καταλαμβάνειν [cf. Herodotus 9, 58; Lucian, Hermot. 77]), Philippians 3:14. to pursue (in a hostile manner): τινά, Acts 26:11; Revelation 12:13. Hence,TGL διώκω.4

    3. in any way whatever to harass, trouble, molest one; to persecute, (cf. Latin persequor , German verfolgen): Matthew 5:10-12, Matthew 5:44; Matthew 10:23; Luke 21:12; [Luke 11:49 WH Tr marginal reading]; John 5:16; John 15:20; Acts 7:52; Acts 9:4; Acts 22:4, Acts 22:7; Acts 26:14; Romans 12:14; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Corinthians 15:9; 2 Corinthians 4:9; Galatians 1:13, Galatians 1:23; Galatians 4:29; Galatians 5:11; Philippians 3:6; 2 Timothy 3:12; passive with a dative denoting the cause, to be maltreated, suffer persecution on account of something, Galatians 6:12 [here L marginal reading T read διώκονται (others, -κωνται), see WHs Appendix, p. 169; on the dative see Winers Grammar, § 31, 6 c.; Buttmann, 186 (161)].TGL διώκω.5

    4. without the idea of hostility, to run after, follow after: someone, Luke 17:23.TGL διώκω.6

    5. metaphorically, with the accusative of thing, to pursue i. e. to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire: Romans 9:30 (distinguished here from καταλαμβάνειν); 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22, (in both passages opposed to φεύγειν); νόμον δικαιοσύνης, Romans 9:31, (Proverbs 15:9; τὸ δίκαιον, Deuteronomy 16:20; Sir. 27:8, where distinguished from καταλαμβάνειν); τ. φιλοξενίαν, Romans 12:13; τὰ τῆς εἰρήνης, Romans 14:19 [here L marginal reading Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading T read διώκομεν (for the διώκωμεν of others), see WH's Appendix, p. 169]; τ. ἀγάπην, 1 Corinthians 14:1; τὸ ἀγαθόν, 1 Thessalonians 5:15; εἰρήνην, Hebrews 12:14; 1 Peter 3:11 (here joined with ζητεῖν τι); times without number in Greek writings (from Homer, Iliad 17, 75 διώκειν ἀκιχητα on; as τιμάς, ἀρετήν, τὰ καλά, [cf. Winer's Grammar, 30]). [Compare: ἐκ-, καταδιώκω.]TGL διώκω.7


    (1378) δόγμα, -τος, τό, (from δοκέω, and equivalent to τὸ δεδογμένον), an opinion, a judgment (Plato, others), doctrine, decree, ordinance;TGL δόγμα.2

    1. of public decrees (as τῆς πόλεως, Plato, legg. 1, p. 644 d.; of the Roman Senate, [Polybius 6, 13, 2]; Herodian, 7, 10, 8 [5, Bekker edition]): of rulers, Luke 2:1; Acts 17:7; Hebrews 11:23 Lachmann, (Theodotion in Daniel 2:13; Daniel 3:10; Daniel 4:3; Daniel 6:13, etc. — where the Sept. uses other words).TGL δόγμα.3

    2. of the rules and requirements of the law of Moses, 3 Macc. 1:3; διατήρησις τῶν ἁγίων δογμάτων, Philo, alleg. legg. i., § 16; carrying a suggestion of severity, and of threatened punishment, τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασι, the law containing precepts in the form of decrees [A. V. the law of commandments contained in ordinances], Ephesians 2:15; τὸ καθ’ ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον τοῖς δόγμασι equivalent to τὸ τοῖς δόγμασι (dative of instrument) by ὃν καθ’ ἡμῶν, the bond against us by its decrees, Colossians 2:14; cf. Winers Grammar, § 31, 10 Note 1 [Buttmann, 92 (80); on both passages see Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians, the passage cited].TGL δόγμα.4

    3. of certain decrees of the apostles relative to right living: Acts 16:4. (Of all the precepts of the Christian religion: βεβαιωθῆναι ἐν τοῖς δόγμασιν τοῦ κυρίου καὶ τῶν ἀποστόλων, Ignatius ad Magnes. 13, 1; of the precepts ('sentences' or tenets) of philosophers, in the later secular writings: Cicero, acad. 2, 9, 27 de suis decretis, quae philosophi vocant dogmata. ) [On the use of the word in general, see Bp. Lightfoot as above; (cf. 'Teaching' etc. 11, 3).]TGL δόγμα.5


    (1379) δογματίζω: to decree, command, enjoin, lay down an ordinance: Diodorus 4, 83, etc.; Esther 3:9; Esther 2:1-23 Macc. 10:8 [etc.]; Sept. (not Theodotion) Daniel 2:13; passive [present δογματίζομαι]; ordinances are imposed upon me, I suffer ordinances to be imposed upon me: Colossians 2:20 [R. V. do ye subject yourselves to ordinances; cf. Winers Grammar, § 39, 1 a.; Buttmann, 188 (163); Meyer or Bp. Lightfoot at the passage].TGL δογματίζω.2


    (1380) δοκέω, -ῶ; imperfect ἐδόκουν; 1 aorist ἔδοξα; (akin to δέχομαι or δέκομαι, whence δόκος an assumption, opinion [cf. Latin decus, decet, dignus ; Curtius § 15; cf. his Das Verbum, i., pp. 376, 382]); [from Homer down];TGL δοκέω.2

    1. to be of opinion, think, suppose: followed by an accusative with an infinitive, Mark 6:49 [R G L Tr]; 2 Corinthians 11:16; 1 Corinthians 12:23; with an infinitive relating to the same subject as that of δοκέω itself, Luke 8:18 ( δοκεῖ ἔχειν); Luke 24:37 (ἐδόκουν πνεῦμα θεωρεῖν); John 5:39; John 16:2; Acts 12:9; Acts 27:13; 1 Corinthians 3:18; 1 Corinthians 7:40; 1 Corinthians 8:2; 1 Corinthians 10:12; 1 Corinthians 14:37; Galatians 6:3; Philippians 3:4; James 1:26; μὴ δόξητε λέγειν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς do not suppose that ye may think, Matthew 3:9; cf. Fritzsche at the passage followed by ὅτι, Matthew 6:7; Matthew 26:53; [Mark 6:49 T WH]; Luke 12:51; Luke 13:2, Luke 13:4; Luke 19:11; John 5:45; John 11:13, [John 11:31 T Tr WH]; John 13:29; John 20:15; 1 Corinthians 4:9; 2 Corinthians 12:19; James 4:5, so used that the object is easily understood from the context: Matthew 24:44 ( ὥρᾳ οὐ δοκεῖτε υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔρχεται); Luke 12:40; Luke 17:9 [R G L brackets Tr marginal reading brackets]; forming a parenthesis in the midst of a question: πόσῳ, δοκεῖτε, χείρονος ἀξιωθήσεται τιμωρίας; Hebrews 10:29; (Aristophanes Aeharn. 12 πῶς τουτ’ ἔσεισέ μου, δοκεῖς, τὴν καρδίαν; Anacreon 40, 15 [i. e., 35 (33), 16] πόσον, δοκεῖς, πονουσιν, ἔρως, ὅσους σὺ βάλλεις;). [Synonym: see ἡγέομαι , at the end.]TGL δοκέω.3

    2. intransitive, to seem, be accounted, reputed: Luke 10:36; Luke 22:24; Acts 17:18; Acts 25:27; 1 Corinthians 12:22; 2 Corinthians 10:9; Hebrews 12:11; ἔδοξα ἐμαυτῷ δεῖν πρᾶξαι, I seemed to myself, i. e. I thought, Acts 26:9 [cf. Buttmann, 111 (97)]; οἱ δοκοῦντες ἄρχειν those that are accounted to rule, who are recognized as rulers, Mark 10:42; οἱ δοκοῦντες εἶναί τι those who are reputed to be somewhat (of importance), and therefore have influence, Galatians 2:6, [Galatians 2:9 (often in Greek writings as Euripides, Hec. 295, where cf. Schäfer; [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 45, 7]). By way of courtesy, things certain are sometimes said δοκεῖν, as in Hebrews 4:1 (cf. Cicero, offic. 3, 2, 6 ut tute tibi defuisse videare ); 1 Corinthians 11:16 [but cf. Meyer at the passage]; cf. Winer's Grammar, § 65, 7 c.TGL δοκέω.4

    3. impersonally, δοκεῖ μοι, it seems to me; i. e.TGL δοκέω.5

    a. I think, judge: thus in questions, τί σοι (ὑμῖν) δοκεῖ; Matthew 17:25; Matthew 18:12; Matthew 21:28; Matthew 22:17, Matthew 22:42; Matthew 26:66; John 11:56; κατὰ τὸ δοκοῦν αὐτοῖς as seemed good to them, Hebrews 12:10, (Lucian, Tim. § 25, and παρὰ τὸ δοκοῦν ἡμῖν, Thucydides 1, 84).TGL δοκέω.6

    b. ἔδοξέ μοι it seemed good to, pleased, me; I determined: followed by an infinitive, Luke 1:3; Acts 15:22, Acts 15:25, Acts 15:28, Acts 15:34 Rec. ; also often in Greek writings. Compare: εὐ-, συν-, εὐδοκέω.TGL δοκέω.7

    [Synonyms: δοκεῖν2, φαίνεσθαι: φαίν. (primarily of luminous bodies) makes reference to the actual external appearance, generally correct but possibly deceptive; δοκ. refers to the subjective judgment, which may or may not conform to the fact. Hence such a combination as δοκεῖ φαίνεσθαι is no pleonasm. Cf. Trench § 80; Schmidt ch. 15.]TGL δοκέω.8


    (1381) δοκιμάζω; [future δοκιμάσω]; 1 aorist ἐδοκίμασα; passive, [present δοκιμάζομαι]; perfect δεδοκίμασμαι; (δόκιμος); Sept. chiefly for בָּחַן; as in Greek writings from [Herodotus, Thucydides], Xenophon, and Plato onward, to try;TGL δοκιμάζω.2

    1. to test, examine, prove, scrutinize (to see whether a thing be genuine or not), as metals: χρυσίον διὰ πυρός (Isocrates, p. 240 d. [i. e. Panathen. § 14]; ad Demon., p. 7 b. [here Bekker βασανίζομεν]; Sept. , Proverbs 8:10; Sir. 2:5; Wis. 3:6; ἄργυρον, Proverbs 17:3, [cf. Zechariah 13:9]), 1 Peter 1:7; other things: Luke 12:56; Luke 14:19; 2 Corinthians 8:8; Galatians 6:4; 1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Thessalonians 5:21; τὰ διαφέροντα, Romans 2:18; Philippians 1:10, [others refer these passages to 2; see διαφέρω , 2 b.]; men, 1 Timothy 3:10 (in the passive); ἑαυτόν, 1 Corinthians 11:28; 2 Corinthians 13:5, (cf. ἐξετάζειν ἑαυτόν, Xenophon, mem. 2, 5, 1 and 4); θεόν, Hebrews 3:9 (R G, from Psalms 94:9 (Psalms 95:9); on the sense of the phrase see πειράζω , 2 d. β.); τὰ πνεύματα, followed by εἰ whether etc. 1 John 4:1; followed by indirect discourse, Romans 12:2; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Ephesians 5:10.TGL δοκιμάζω.3

    2. to recognize as genuine after examination, to approve, deem worthy: 1 Corinthians 16:3; τινὰ σπουδαῖον ὄντα, 2 Corinthians 8:22; ἐν δοκιμάζει for ἐν τούτῳ, δοκιμάζει in that which he approves, deems right, Romans 14:22; δεδοκιμάσμεθα ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ πιστευθῆναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον we have been approved by God to be entrusted with the business of pointing out to men the way of salvation, 1 Thessalonians 2:4; our οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν θεόν ἔχειν ἐν ἐπιγνώσει they did not think God worthy to be kept in knowledge, Romans 1:28. [On δοκιμάζω (as compared with πειράζω) see Trench § lxxiv.; Cremer, under the word πειράζω. Compare: ἀποδοκιμάζω.]TGL δοκιμάζω.4

    Related entry: δοκιμασία, -ας, , a proving, putting to the proof: πειράζειν ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ to tempt by proving, Hebrews 3:9 L T Tr WH. ([Lysias] Xenophon, Plato, Dem., Polybius, Plutarch, others; λίθος δοκιμασίας, Sir. 6:21.)TGL δοκιμάζω.5


    (1382) δοκιμή, -ῆς, , (δόκιμος);TGL δοκιμή.2

    1. in an active sense, a proving, trial: θλίψεως, through affliction, 2 Corinthians 8:2.TGL δοκιμή.3

    2. approvedness, tried character: Romans 5:4; 2 Corinthians 2:9; Philippians 2:22; τῆς διακονίας, exhibited in the contribution, 2 Corinthians 9:13.TGL δοκιμή.4

    3. a proof [objectively], a specimen of tried worth: 2 Corinthians 13:3 (Dioscorides 4, 186 (183); occasionally in ecclesiastical writings.)TGL δοκιμή.5


    (1383) δοκίμιον, -ου, τό, (δοκιμή);TGL δοκίμιον.2

    1. equivalent to τὸ δοκιμάζειν, the proving: τῆς πίστεως, James 1:3.TGL δοκίμιον.3

    2. that by which something is tried or proved, a test: Dionysius Halicarnassus ars rhet. 11; γλῶσσα γεύσεως δοκίμιον, Longinus, de sublim. 32, 5; δοκίμιον δὲ στρατιωτῶν κάματος, Herodian, 2, 10, 12 [6, Bekker edition]; in the Sept. of a crucile or furnace for smelting: Proverbs 27:21; Psalms 11:7 (Psalms 12:7).TGL δοκίμιον.4

    3. equivalent to δοκιμή, 2: ὑμῶν τῆς πίστεως, your proved faith, 1 Peter 1:7. This word is treated of fully by Fritzsche in his Präliminarien as above with, pp. 40, 44.TGL δοκίμιον.5


    (1384) δόκιμος, -ον, (δέχομαι); from Herodotus down;TGL δόκιμος.2

    1. properly, accepted, particularly of coins and metals, Genesis 23:16; 2 Chronicles 9:17; Lucian, Herm. 68, etc.; hence, universally, proved, tried: in the N. T. one who is of tried faith and integrity [R. V. approved], Romans 16:10 (τὸν δόκιμον ἐν Χριστῷ, the approved servant of Christ); 1 Corinthians 11:19; 2 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 13:7; 2 Timothy 2:15 (παριστάναι ἑαυτὸν δόκιμον τῷ θεῷ); James 1:12.TGL δόκιμος.3

    2. accepted, equivalent to acceptable, pleasing: εὐάρεστος τῷ θεῷ κ. δόκιμος [L marginal reading -μοις] τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, Romans 14:18.TGL δόκιμος.4


    (1385) δοκός, -οῦ, , (from δέκομαι for δέχομαι in so far as it has the idea of bearing [cf. Curtius, § 11]); from Homer down; a beam: Matthew 7:3-5; Luke 6:41.TGL δοκός.2


    (1386) δόλιος, , -ον, (δόλος); from Homer on, deceitful: 2 Corinthians 11:13.TGL δόλιος.2


    (1387) δολιόω: (δόλιος); to deceive, use deceit: in Romans 3:13, from Psalms 5:10, imperfect ἐδολιοῦσαν an Alexandrian form for ἐδολίουν, see Lob. ad Phryn., p. 349; Winers Grammar, § 13, 2 f.; Mullach, p. 16; Buttmann, 43 (37); [cf. ἔχω ]. (Not found in secular writings; [Numbers 25:18; Psalms 104:25 (Psalms 105:25). Cf. Winer's Grammar, 26 (25)].)TGL δολιόω.2


    (1388) δόλος, -ου, , (from δέλω to catch with a bait [(?); Latin dolus , cf. Curtius, § 271]; see δελεάζω above); properly, bait, Homer, Odyssey 12, 252; a lure, snare; hence, craft, deceit, guile: Matthew 26:4; Mark 14:1; Mark 7:22; John 1:47 (John 1:48); Acts 13:10; 2 Corinthians 12:16; Romans 1:29; 1 Thessalonians 2:3 (οὐκ ἔστι ἐν δόλῳ, there is no deceit under it); 1 Peter 2:22 [1], and Revelation 14:5 Rec. , after Isaiah 53:9; λαλεῖν δόλον to speak deceitfully (Psalms 33:14 (Psalms 34:14)), 1 Peter 3:10.TGL δόλος.2


    (1389) δολόω, -ῶ; (δόλος);TGL δολόω.2

    1. to ensnare: Hesiod, Herodotus and succeeding writers.TGL δολόω.3

    2. to corrupt, ([βδέλλιον and λίβανον, Dioscorides 1, 80. 81]; τὸν οἶνον, Lucian, Hermot. 59): τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, divine truth by mingling with it wrong notions, 2 Corinthians 4:2. [Cf. Trench, § 62, and see καπηλεύω .]TGL δολόω.4


    (1390) δόμα, -τος, τό, (δίδωμι), a gift: Matthew 7:11; Luke 11:13; Ephesians 4:8; Philippians 4:17. (Plato, def., p. 415 b.; Plutarch; often in the Sept. , chiefly for מַתָּנָה.) Cf. Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 291f [who quotes Varro de ling. Latin 50 4, p. 48, Bip. edition "dos erit pecunia si nuptiarum causa data: haec Graece δωτίνη, ita enim hoc Siculi: ab eodem Donum. Nam Graece ut ipsi δῶρον, ut alii δόμα, et ut Attici δόσις."]TGL δόμα.2

    [Synonyms: δόμα, δόσις, δῶρον, δωρεά: δόσ. active, a giving, passive, thing given, cf. medical "dose"; δῶρ. specific "present," yet not always gratuitous or wholly unsuggestive of recompense; but δωρεά differs from δῶρ. in denoting a gift which is also a gratuity, hence of the benefactions of a sovereign; a δόσις θεοῦ is what God confers as possessor of all things; a δωρεὰ θεοῦ is an expression of his favor; a δῶρον θεοῦ is something which becomes the recipient's abiding possession. Philo de cherub. § 25, says πάνυ ἐκδήλως παριστάς (Numbers 28:2), ὅτι τῶν ὄντων τὰ μὲν χάριτος μέσης ἠξίωται, καλεῖται δόσις, τὰ δὲ ἀμείνονος, ἧς ὄνομα οἰκεῖον δωρεά. Again, de leg. alleg. 3 § 70 (on the same biblical passage), διατηρήσεις ὅτι δῶρα δομάτων διαφέρουσι· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἔμφασιν μεγέθους τελείων ἀγαθῶν δηλοῦσιν... τὰ δὲ εἰς βραχύτατον ἔσταλται κτλ. Hence δόμα, δόσις, gift; δωρεά, δῶρον, benefaction, bounty, etc.; yet cf. e. g. Test. 12 Patr. test. Zab. § 1 ἐγώ εἰμι Ζαβουλών, δόσις ἀγαθὴ τοῖς γονεὒσί μου, with Genesis 30:20 δεδώρηται θεός μοι δῶρον καλὸν... κ. ἐκάλεσε τὸ ὄνομα αὺτοῦ Ζαβουλών. Cf. Schmidt ch. 106.]TGL δόμα.3


    (1391) δόξα, -ης, , (δοκέω), [from Homer down], Sept. most frequently for כָּבוד, several times for הוד, הָדָר, etc.;TGL δόξα.2

    I. opinion, judgment, view: in this sense very often in secular writ; but in the Bible only in 4 Macc. 5:17 (18).TGL δόξα.3

    II. opinion, estimate, whether good or bad, concerning some one; but (like the Latin existimatio ) in secular writings generally, in the sacred writings always, good opinion concerning one, and as resulting from that, praise, honor, glory: Luke 14:10; Hebrews 3:3; 1 Peter 5:4; opposed to ἀτιμία, 2 Corinthians 6:8; opposed to αἰσχύνη, Philippians 3:19; joined with τιμή, Romans 2:7, Romans 2:10; 1 Peter 1:7; 2 Peter 1:17; δόξα τινός, praise or honor coming to someone, Luke 2:32; Ephesians 3:13; coming from some one, John 8:54; John 12:43; τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τοῦ θεοῦ, John 12:43; Romans 3:23; persons whose excellence is to redound to the glory of others are called their δόξα: thus, ὑμεῖς ἐστε δόξα ἡμῶν, 1 Thessalonians 2:20; ἀδελφοὶ ἡμῶν δόξα Χριστοῦ, 2 Corinthians 8:23. ζητεῖν τὴν ἰδίαν δόξαν, or τ. δόξ. αὐτοῦ, John 7:18; John 8:50; of God, to endeavor to promote the glory of God, John 7:18: ξητεῖν δόξαν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, 1 Thessalonians 2:6; τὴν δόξαν τ. παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ, John 5:44; λαμβάνειν δόξαν (Latin captare honorem ) to seek to receive, catch at glory, John 5:41, John 5:44; to receive glory, 2 Peter 1:17; Revelation 5:12; τὴν δόξαν, the glory due [cf. Winers Grammar, 105f (100f); Buttmann, 88 (77); Ellicott on Galatians 1:5, cf. Buttmann, 89 (78)], Revelation 4:11; διδόναι δόξαν τῷ θεῷ, לַיְהוָה כָּבוד שׂוּם or (Jeremiah 13:16) נָתַן, to give or ascribe glory to God, why and how being evident in each case from the context: thus, by declaring one's gratitude to God for a benefit received, Luke 17:18; by not distrusting God's promises, Romans 4:20; by celebrating his praises, Revelation 4:9; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 14:7; [Revelation 16:9]; Revelation 19:7 (τὴν δόξαν, the glory due); by rendering its due honor to God's majesty, Acts 12:23; δὸς δόξαν τῷ θεῷ, acknowledge that God knows all things, and show that you believe it by the confession you are about to make, John 9:24, cf. 1 Samuel 6:5; Joshua 7:19; Evang. Nicod. c. 14 [p. 622, Thilo edition, 296, Tdf. edition]; cf. Grimm on 4 Macc. 1:12. εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ, so as to honor God, to promote his glory (among men): Romans 15:7; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Philippians 1:11; Philippians 2:11; εἰς τὴν δόξ. τ. θεοῦ, Romans 3:7; 2 Corinthians 4:15; τῷ θεῷ πρὸς δόξαν, 2 Corinthians 1:20; πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κυρίου δόξαν, 2 Corinthians 8:19: ὑπὲρ τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ, John 11:4; in doxologies: δόξα ἐν ὑψίστοις θεῷ, Luke 2:14, cf. Luke 19:38; αὐτῷ δόξα, Romans 11:36; Ephesians 3:21; 2 Peter 3:18; δόξα, Romans 16:27; Galatians 1:5; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; τῷ θεῷ δόξα, Philippians 4:20; τιμὴ καὶ δόξα, 1 Timothy 1:17. [Even in classic Greek δόξα is a word of wide significance, ranging from one's private opinion, fancy, to public opinion, repute, renown (κλέος; cf. the relation of φήμη to φάναι). Coupled with τιμή it denotes rather the splendid condition (evident glory), τιμή, the estimate and acknowledgment of it (paid honor).]TGL δόξα.4

    III. As a translation of the Hebrew כָּבוד, in a use foreign to Greek writing [Winers Grammar, 32], splendor, brightness;TGL δόξα.5

    1. properly: τοῦ φωτός, Acts 22:11; of the sun, moon, stars, 1 Corinthians 15:40; used of the heavenly brightness, by which God was conceived of as surrounded, Luke 2:9; Acts 7:55, and by which heavenly beings were surrounded when they appeared on earth, Luke 9:31; Revelation 18:1; with which the face of Moses was once made luminous, 2 Corinthians 3:7, and also Christ in his transfiguration, Luke 9:32; δόξα τοῦ κυρίου, in the Sept. equivalent to כְּבוד יְהוָה, in the Targum and Talmud שְׁכִינָה, Shekinah or Shechinah [see BB. DD. under the word], the glory of the Lord, and simply δόξα, a bright cloud by which God made manifest to men his presence and power on earth (Exodus 24:17; Exodus 40:28 (Exodus 40:34ff), etc.): Romans 9:4; Revelation 15:8; Revelation 21:11, Revelation 21:23; hence, θεός τῆς δόξης (God to whom belongs δόξα) ὤφθη, Acts 7:2; Χερουβεὶν δόξης, on whom the divine glory rests (so δόξα, without the article, Exodus 40:28 (Exodus 40:34); 1 Samuel 4:22; Sir. 49:8), Hebrews 9:5.TGL δόξα.6

    2. magnificence, excellence, preeminence, dignity, grace: βασιλεῖαι τοῦ κόσμου κ. δόξα αὐτῶν, i. e. their resources, wealth, the magnificence and greatness of their cities, their fertile lands, their thronging population, Matthew 4:8; Luke 4:6; δόξα τῶν βασιλείων τῆς γῆς, Revelation 21:26 [Revelation 21:24; τῶν ἐθνῶν, ibid.]; used of royal state, splendid apparel, and the like: Matthew 6:29; Luke 12:27, (Esther 5:1; Josephus, Antiquities 8, 6, 5); glorious form and appearance: e. g. of human bodies restored to life, opposed to ἀτιμία which characterized them when they were buried, 1 Corinthians 15:43; δόξα τῆς σαρκός "omne id, quod in rebus humanis magnificum dicitur " (Calvin), 1 Peter 1:24; εἶναί τινι δόξα, to be a glory, ornament, to one, 1 Corinthians 11:15; universally, preeminence, excellence: 2 Corinthians 3:8-11.TGL δόξα.7

    3. majesty;TGL δόξα.8

    a. that which belongs to God; andTGL δόξα.9

    α. the kingly majesty which belongs to him as the supreme ruler; so in passages where it is joined with βασιλεία, δύναμις, κράτος, ἐξουσία, and the like: Matthew 6:13 Rec. ; especially in doxologies, 1 Peter 4:11; 1 Peter 5:11 R G; Jude 1:25; Revelation 1:6; these passages I have preferred to distinguish from those cited above, II. at the end, and yet in passages similar to each other in form it is not always clear whether δόξα is used to denote praise and honor, or regal majesty, as in Revelation 7:12 εὐλογία κ. δόξα κ. σοφία κ. εὐχαριστία κ. τιμὴ κ. ἰσχύς, Revelation 19:1 σωτηρία κ. δόξα κ. τιμὴ κ. δύναμις; likewise in Revelation 5:12, [Revelation 5:13]. of the judicial majesty of God as exhibited at the last day, Jude 1:24. ἀνὴρ εἰκὼν κ. δόξα θεοῦ ὑπάρχων, whose function of government reflects the majesty of the divine ruler, 1 Corinthians 11:7; () γυνὴ δόξα ἀνδρός, because in her the preeminence and authority of her husband are conspicuous, ibid.TGL δόξα.10

    β. majesty in the sense of the absolute perfection of the deity: Romans 1:23; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Hebrews 1:3; 2 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 4:14; ἐν δόξῃ, equivalent to ἐνδόξως, i. e. as accords with his divine perfection, Philippians 4:19 [cf. Meyer and Bp. Lightfoot at the passage]; of the majesty of his saving grace: Romans 9:23; Ephesians 1:12, Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 3:16; 1 Timothy 1:11; 2 Peter 1:3 [Winer's Grammar, 381 (356)]; more fully δόξα τῆς χάριτος. Ephesians 1:6; πατὴρ τῆς δόξης, the Father whose characteristic is majesty, Ephesians 1:17; the majesty of God as exhibited in deeds of power: John 11:40; Romans 6:4 (whence δόξα for עֹז, Sept. Isaiah 12:2; Isaiah 45:24); hence, τὸ κράτος τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ, the might in which His majesty excels, Colossians 1:11.TGL δόξα.11

    b. majesty which belongs to Christ; andTGL δόξα.12

    α. the kingly majesty of the Messiah, to which belongs his kingly state, the splendor of His external appearance, the retinue of angels, and the like (see in III. 1): Mark 10:37; in this sense it is said that Christ will come hereafter to set up the Messianic kingdom ἐν τῇ δόξῃ τοῦ πατρός, clothed by the Father in kingly array, Matthew 16:27; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; μετὰ δυνάμεως κ. δόξης πολλῆς, Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27 cf. Matthew 25:31; Titus 2:13; 1 Peter 4:13; also καθίσαι ἐπὶ θρόνου δόξης αὐτοῦ, Matthew 19:28; Matthew 25:31, cf. 1 Samuel 2:8; δόξα τῆς ἰσχύος αὐτοῦ, the majesty of his Messianic power with which he will punish his adversaries, 2 Thessalonians 1:9.TGL δόξα.13

    β. the absolutely perfect inward or personal excellence of Christ: 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 4:4; in which he excels by virtue of his nature as θεῖος λόγος, John 1:14; John 12:41; of which majesty he gave tokens in the miracles he performed, John 2:11 cf. John 11:40; κύριος τῆς δόξης, 1 Corinthians 2:8; James 2:1.TGL δόξα.14

    γ. the majesty (glory) of angels, as apparent in their exterior brightness, Luke 9:26; in a wider sense, in which angels are called δόξαι as being spiritual beings of preeminent dignity: Jude 1:8; 2 Peter 2:10.TGL δόξα.15

    4. a most glorious condition, most exalted state;TGL δόξα.16

    a. of that condition with God the Father in heaven to which Christ was raised after he had achieved his work on earth: Luke 24:26; John 17:5 (where he is said to have been in the same condition before his incarnation, and even before the beginning of the world); John 17:22, John 17:24; Hebrews 2:7, Hebrews 2:9; 1 Peter 1:11, 1 Peter 1:21; τὸ σῶμα τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ, the body in which his glorious condition is manifested, Philippians 3:21; ἀνελήφθη ἐν δόξῃ, was taken up (into heaven) so that he is now ἐν δόξῃ, 1 Timothy 3:16 [cf. Winers Grammar, 413 (385); Buttmann, 328 (283)].TGL δόξα.17

    b. the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Saviour's return from heaven: Romans 8:18, Romans 8:21; Romans 9:23; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Colossians 1:27 (twice; cf. Meyer at the passage); Colossians 3:4; 2 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 2:10; 1 Peter 5:1; which condition begins to be enjoyed even now through the devout contemplation of the divine majesty of Christ, and its influence upon those who contemplate it, 2 Corinthians 3:18; and this condition will include not only the blessedness of the soul, but also the gain of a more excellent body (1 Corinthians 15:43; Philippians 3:21); cf. Lipsius, Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, p. 203ff; δόξα τοῦ θεοῦ, which God bestows, Romans 5:2; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; δόξα τοῦ κυρ. ἡμ. Ἰησ. Χρ. the same in which Christ rejoices, 2 Thessalonians 2:14 (cf. Romans 8:17 etc.); εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶν, to render us partakers of δόξα, 1 Corinthians 2:7. Cf. Weiss, Biblical Theol. des N. T. § 76 d.TGL δόξα.18


    (1392) δοξάζω; [imperfect ἐδόξαζον]; future δοξάσω; 1 aorist ἐδόξασα; passive [present δοξάζομαι]; perfect δεδόξασμαι; 1 aorist ἐδοξάσθην; (δόξα); Vulg. honorifico, glorifico, clarifico ; Sept. chiefly for כָּבַד, several times for פֵּאֵר (in Exodus 34:29, Exodus 34:35 δοξάζεσθαι stands for קָרַן, to shine);TGL δοξάζω.2

    1. to think, suppose, be of opinion, (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Xenophon, Plato, Thucydides, and following; nowhere in this sense in the sacred writings).TGL δοξάζω.3

    2. from Polybius (6, 53, 10 δεδοξασμένοι ἐπ’ ἀρετῇ) on to praise, extol, magnify, celebrate: τινά, passive, Matthew 6:2; Luke 4:15; ἑαυτόν, to glorify oneself, John 8:54; Revelation 18:7; τὸν λόγον τοῦ κυρίου, Acts 13:48; τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου, Revelation 15:4; τὸν θεόν, Matthew 5:16; Matthew 9:8; Matthew 15:31; Mark 2:12; Luke 5:25; Luke 7:16; Luke 13:13; Luke 17:15; Luke 18:43; Luke 23:47; Acts 11:18; Acts 21:20 [Rec. κύριον]; Romans 15:6, Romans 15:9 [Winer's Grammar, § 44, 3 b.; 332 (311)]; 1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 4:14 Rec. ; with the addition of ἐπί τινι, for something, Luke 2:20; Acts 4:21; 2 Corinthians 9:13; ἐν ἐμοί, on account of me (properly, finding in me matter for giving praise [cf. Winer's Grammar, 387f (362f)]), Galatians 1:24; ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τούτῳ, 1 Peter 4:16 L T Tr WH.TGL δοξάζω.4

    3. to honor, do honor to, hold in honor: τὴν διακονίαν μου, by the most devoted administration of it endeavoring to convert as many Gentiles as possible to Christ, Romans 11:13; a member of the body, 1 Corinthians 12:26; θεόν, to worship, Romans 1:21; with the adjunct ἐν τῷ σώματι, by keeping the body pure and sound, 1 Corinthians 6:20; τῷ θανάτῳ, to undergo death for the honor of God, John 21:19.TGL δοξάζω.5

    4. By a use not found in secular writings to make glorious, adorn with lustre, clothe with splendor;TGL δοξάζω.6

    a. to impart glory to something, render it excellent: perfect passive δεδόξασμαι, to excel, be preeminent; δεδοξασμένος, excelling, eminent, glorious, 2 Corinthians 3:10; δεδοξασμένη χάρα, surpassing i. e. heavenly, joy [A. V. full of glory), 1 Peter 1:8.TGL δοξάζω.7

    b. to make renowned, render illustrious, i. e. to cause the dignity and worth of some person or thing to become manifest and acknowledged: τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, 2 Thessalonians 3:1; Christ, the Son of God, John 8:54; John 11:4; John 16:14; John 17:10; God the Father, John 13:31; John 14:13; John 15:8; John 17:1, John 17:4; 1 Peter 4:11; τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ, John 12:28.TGL δοξάζω.8

    c. to exalt to a glorious rank or condition (Isaiah 44:23; Isaiah 55:5, etc.; joined to ὑψοῦν, Isaiah 4:2; Esther 3:1): οὐχ ἑαυτὸν ἐδόξασε did not assume to himself the dignity (equivalent to οὐχ ἑαυτῷ τὴν τιμὴν ἔλαβε, Esther 3:4), the words γενηθῆναι ἀρχιερέα being added epexegetically (Winer's Grammar, § 44, 1), Hebrews 5:5;. of God exalting, or rather restoring, Christ his Son to a state of glory in heaven: John 7:39; John 12:16, [John 12:23]; John 13:31; John 17:1,John 17:5; Acts 3:13; (see δόξα , III. 4 a.); of God bringing Christians to a heavenly dignity and condition, (see δόξα , III. 4 b.): Romans 8:30. [Compare: ἐν-, συνδοξάζω.]TGL δοξάζω.9


    (1393) Δορκάς, -άδος, , (properly, a wild she-goat, a gazelle, "παρὰ τὸ δέρκω, τὸ βλέπω· ὀξυδερκὲς γὰρ τὸ ζῷον κ. εὐόμματον" Etym. Magn. [284, 6]), Dorcas, a certain Christian woman: Acts 9:36, Acts 9:39; see Ταβιθά .TGL Δορκάς.2


    (1394) δόσις, -εως, , (δίδωμι);TGL δόσις.2

    1. a giving, [from Herodotus down]: λόγος δόσεως κ. λήψεως, an account of giving and receiving [i. e. debit and credit accounts; cf. λόγος II. 3], Philippians 4:15; here Paul, by a pleasant euphemism, refers to the pecuniary gifts, which the church bestowing them enters in the account of expenses, but he himself in the account of receipts; cf. Van Hengel at the passage; so δόσις καὶ λῆψις, of money given and received, Sir. 41:19 Sir. 42:7; [Hermas, mand. 5, 2, 2], and plural Epictetus diss. 2, 9, 12.TGL δόσις.3

    2. a gift, [from Homer down]: James 1:17. [Synonym: see δόμα , at the end.]TGL δόσις.4


    (1395) δότης, -ου, , (δίδωμι), for the more usual δοτήρ, a giver, bestower: 2 Corinthians 9:7 from Proverbs 22:8. Not found elsewhere.TGL δότης.2


    (1396) δουλαγωγέω [Rec.st -αγαγ-], -ῶ; (δουλάγωγος, cf. παιδάγωγος ); to lead away into slavery, claim as one's slave, (Diodorus Siculus 12, 24, and occasionally in other later writings); to make a slave and to treat as a slave, i. e. with severity, to subject to stern and rigid discipline: 1 Corinthians 9:27. Cf. Fischer, De vitiis lexicorum N. T., p. 472f.TGL δουλαγωγέω.2


    (1397) δουλεία (Tdf. -ια, [see Ι, ι]), -ας, , (δουλεύω); slavery, bondage, the condition of a slave: τῆς φθορᾶς, the bondage which consists in decay [Winers Grammar, § 59, 8 a., cf. Buttmann, 78 (68)], equivalent to the law, the necessity, of perishing, Romans 8:21; used of the slavish sense of fear, devoid alike of buoyancy of spirit and of trust in God, such as is produced by the thought of death, Hebrews 2:15, as well as by the Mosaic law in its votaries, Romans 8:15 (πνεῦμα δουλείας); the Mosaic system is said to cause δουλεία on account of the grievous burdens its precepts impose upon its adherents: Galatians 4:24; Galatians 5:1. [From Pindar down.]TGL δουλεία.2


    (1398) δουλεύω; future δουλεύσω; 1 aorist ἐδούλευσα; perfect δεδούλευκα; (δοῦλος); Sept. for עָבַד;TGL δουλεύω.2

    1. properly, to be a slave, serve, do service: absolutely, Ephesians 6:7; 1 Timothy 6:2; τινί Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13; Romans 9:12; said of nations in subjection to other nations, John 8:33; Acts 7:7; men are said δουλεύειν who bear the yoke of the Mosaic law, Galatians 4:25 (see δουλεία ).TGL δουλεύω.3

    2. metaphorically, to obey, submit to;TGL δουλεύω.4

    a. in a good sense: absolutely, to yield obedience, Romans 7:6; τινί, to obey one's commands and render to him the services due, Luke 15:29; God: Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; κυρίῳ and τῷ κυρίῳ, Acts 20:19; Romans 12:11 (not Rec.st , see below); Ephesians 6:7; Christ: Romans 14:18; Colossians 3:24; νόμῳ θεοῦ, according to the context, feel myself bound to, Romans 7:25; τοῖς θεοῖς, to worship gods, Galatians 4:8; τῷ καιρῷ (Anth. 9, 441, 6), wisely adapt oneself to, Romans 12:11 Rec.st (see above), cf. Fritzsche at the passage; perform services of kindness and Christian love: ἀλλήλοις, Galatians 5:13; used of those who zealously advance the interests of anything: ὡς πατρὶ τέκνον σὺν ἐμοὶ ἐδούλευσεν εἰς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον equivalent to ὡς πατρὶ τέκνον δουλεύει, ἐμοὶ ἐδούλευσεν καὶ οὕτω σὺν ἐμοὶ ἐδούλ., etc. Philippians 2:22 [Winers Grammar, 422 (393); 577 (537)].TGL δουλεύω.5

    b. in a bad sense, of those who become slaves to some base power, to yield to, give oneself up to: τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, Romans 6:6; νόμῳ ἁμαρτίας, Romans 7:25; ἐπιθυμίαις κ. ἡδοναῖς, Titus 3:3, (Xenophon, mem. 1, 5, 5; Apology Socrates 16; Plato, Phaedrus, p. 238 e.; Polybius 17, 15, 16; Herodian, 1, 17, 22 [9, Bekker edition]); τῇ κοιλίᾳ, Romans 16:18, (γαστρί, Anthol. 11, 410, 4; Xenophon, mem. 1, 6, 8; abdomini servire , Seneca, de benef. 7, 26, 4; ventri obedire , Sall. [Cat. 1:1]); μαμωνᾷ, to devote oneself to getting wealth: Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13. τοῖς στοιχείοις τοῦ κόσμου, Galatians 4:9.TGL δουλεύω.6


    (1399) δοῦλος, , -ον, (derived by most from δέω, to tie, bind; by some from ΔΕΛΩ, to ensnare, capture, [(?) others besides; cf. Vanicek, p. 322]); serving, subject to: παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ, Romans 6:19. Then substantively, δούλη, a female slave, bondmaid, handmaid: τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου, one who worships God and submits to him, Acts 2:18 (from Joel 2:29 (Joel 3:2)); Luke 1:38, Luke 1:48. δοῦλος, Sept. for עֶבֶד;TGL δούλη.2

    1. a slave, bondman, man of servile condition;TGL δούλη.3

    a. properly: opposed to ἐλεύθερος, 1 Corinthians 7:21; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 6:8; Colossians 3:11; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:18; opposed to κύριος, δεσπότης, οἰκοδεσπότης, Matthew 10:24; Matthew 13:27; Luke 12:46; John 15:15; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:1; Titus 2:9, and very often.TGL δούλη.4

    b. metaphorically,TGL δούλη.5

    α. one who gives himself up wholly to another's will, 1 Corinthians 7:23; or dominion, τῆς ἁμαρτίας, John 8:34; Romans 6:17, Romans 6:20; τῆς φθορᾶς, 2 Peter 2:19, (τῶν ἡδονῶν, Athen. 12, p. 531 c.; τῶν χρημάτων, Plutarch, Pelop c. 3; τοῦ πίνειν, Aelian v. h. 2, 41).TGL δούλη.6

    β. the δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ, τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, are those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men: used of apostles, Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; of other preachers and teachers of the gospel, Colossians 4:12; 2 Timothy 2:24; Jude 1:1; of the true worshippers of Christ (who is κύριος πάντων, Acts 10:36), Ephesians 6:6. The δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ, יְהוָה עַבְדֵי, are those whose agency God employs in executing his purposes: used of apostles, Acts 4:29; Acts 16:17; of Moses (Joshua 1:1), Revelation 15:3; of prophets (Jeremiah 7:25; Jeremiah 25:4), Revelation 1:1; Revelation 10:7; Revelation 11:18; of all who obey God's commands, his true worshippers, Luke 2:29; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 7:3; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6; (Psalm 33:23 (Ps. 34:23); Psalm 68:37 (Ps. 69:37); Psalms 88:4, 21 (Psalms 89:4, Psalms 89:21)).TGL δούλη.7

    γ. δοῦλος τινος, devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests: Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44; strenuously laboring for another's salvation, 2 Corinthians 4:5.TGL δούλη.8

    2. a servant, attendant, (of a king): Matthew 18:23, Matthew 18:26. [Synonym: see διάκονος .]TGL δούλη.9


    (1400) δοῦλος, , -ον, (derived by most from δέω, to tie, bind; by some from ΔΕΛΩ, to ensnare, capture, [(?) others besides; cf. Vanicek, p. 322]); serving, subject to: παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ, Romans 6:19. Then substantively, δούλη, a female slave, bondmaid, handmaid: τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου, one who worships God and submits to him, Acts 2:18 (from Joel 2:29 (Joel 3:2)); Luke 1:38, Luke 1:48. δοῦλος, Sept. for עֶבֶד;TGL δοῦλον.2

    1. a slave, bondman, man of servile condition;TGL δοῦλον.3

    a. properly: opposed to ἐλεύθερος, 1 Corinthians 7:21; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 6:8; Colossians 3:11; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:18; opposed to κύριος, δεσπότης, οἰκοδεσπότης, Matthew 10:24; Matthew 13:27; Luke 12:46; John 15:15; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:1; Titus 2:9, and very often.TGL δοῦλον.4

    b. metaphorically,TGL δοῦλον.5

    α. one who gives himself up wholly to another's will, 1 Corinthians 7:23; or dominion, τῆς ἁμαρτίας, John 8:34; Romans 6:17, Romans 6:20; τῆς φθορᾶς, 2 Peter 2:19, (τῶν ἡδονῶν, Athen. 12, p. 531 c.; τῶν χρημάτων, Plutarch, Pelop c. 3; τοῦ πίνειν, Aelian v. h. 2, 41).TGL δοῦλον.6

    β. the δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ, τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, are those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men: used of apostles, Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; of other preachers and teachers of the gospel, Colossians 4:12; 2 Timothy 2:24; Jude 1:1; of the true worshippers of Christ (who is κύριος πάντων, Acts 10:36), Ephesians 6:6. The δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ, יְהוָה עַבְדֵי, are those whose agency God employs in executing his purposes: used of apostles, Acts 4:29; Acts 16:17; of Moses (Joshua 1:1), Revelation 15:3; of prophets (Jeremiah 7:25; Jeremiah 25:4), Revelation 1:1; Revelation 10:7; Revelation 11:18; of all who obey God's commands, his true worshippers, Luke 2:29; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 7:3; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6; (Psalm 33:23 (Ps. 34:23); Psalm 68:37 (Ps. 69:37); Psalms 88:4, 21 (Psalms 89:4, Psalms 89:21)).TGL δοῦλον.7

    γ. δοῦλος τινος, devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests: Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44; strenuously laboring for another's salvation, 2 Corinthians 4:5.TGL δοῦλον.8

    2. a servant, attendant, (of a king): Matthew 18:23, Matthew 18:26. [Synonym: see διάκονος .]TGL δοῦλον.9


    (1401) δοῦλος, , -ον, (derived by most from δέω, to tie, bind; by some from ΔΕΛΩ, to ensnare, capture, [(?) others besides; cf. Vanicek, p. 322]); serving, subject to: παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ, Romans 6:19. Then substantively, δούλη, a female slave, bondmaid, handmaid: τοῦ θεοῦ, τοῦ κυρίου, one who worships God and submits to him, Acts 2:18 (from Joel 2:29 (Joel 3:2)); Luke 1:38, Luke 1:48. δοῦλος, Sept. for עֶבֶד;TGL δοῦλος.2

    1. a slave, bondman, man of servile condition;TGL δοῦλος.3

    a. properly: opposed to ἐλεύθερος, 1 Corinthians 7:21; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:28; Ephesians 6:8; Colossians 3:11; Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:18; opposed to κύριος, δεσπότης, οἰκοδεσπότης, Matthew 10:24; Matthew 13:27; Luke 12:46; John 15:15; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:1; Titus 2:9, and very often.TGL δοῦλος.4

    b. metaphorically,TGL δοῦλος.5

    α. one who gives himself up wholly to another's will, 1 Corinthians 7:23; or dominion, τῆς ἁμαρτίας, John 8:34; Romans 6:17, Romans 6:20; τῆς φθορᾶς, 2 Peter 2:19, (τῶν ἡδονῶν, Athen. 12, p. 531 c.; τῶν χρημάτων, Plutarch, Pelop c. 3; τοῦ πίνειν, Aelian v. h. 2, 41).TGL δοῦλος.6

    β. the δοῦλοι Χριστοῦ, τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, are those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men: used of apostles, Romans 1:1; Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; 2 Timothy 2:24; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; of other preachers and teachers of the gospel, Colossians 4:12; 2 Timothy 2:24; Jude 1:1; of the true worshippers of Christ (who is κύριος πάντων, Acts 10:36), Ephesians 6:6. The δοῦλοι τοῦ θεοῦ, יְהוָה עַבְדֵי, are those whose agency God employs in executing his purposes: used of apostles, Acts 4:29; Acts 16:17; of Moses (Joshua 1:1), Revelation 15:3; of prophets (Jeremiah 7:25; Jeremiah 25:4), Revelation 1:1; Revelation 10:7; Revelation 11:18; of all who obey God's commands, his true worshippers, Luke 2:29; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 7:3; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6; (Psalm 33:23 (Ps. 34:23); Psalm 68:37 (Ps. 69:37); Psalms 88:4, 21 (Psalms 89:4, Psalms 89:21)).TGL δοῦλος.7

    γ. δοῦλος τινος, devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests: Matthew 20:27; Mark 10:44; strenuously laboring for another's salvation, 2 Corinthians 4:5.TGL δοῦλος.8

    2. a servant, attendant, (of a king): Matthew 18:23, Matthew 18:26. [Synonym: see διάκονος .]TGL δοῦλος.9


    (1402) δουλόω, -ῶ: future δουλώσω; 1 aorist ἐδούλωσα; perfect passive δεδούλωμαι; 1 aorist passive ἐδουλώθην; (δοῦλος); [from Aeschylus and Herodotus down]; to make a slave of, reduce to bondage;TGL δουλόω.2

    a. properly: τινά, Acts 7:6; τούτῳ καὶ [yet T WH omit; Tr brackets καὶ] δεδούλωται to him he has also been made a bondman, 2 Peter 2:19.TGL δουλόω.3

    b. metaphorically: ἐμαυτόν τινι, give myself wholly to one's needs and service, make myself a bondman to him, 1 Corinthians 9:19; δουλουσθαί τινι, to be made subject to the rule of some one, e. g. τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ, τῷ θεῷ, Romans 6:18, Romans 6:22; likewise ὑπό τι, Galatians 4:3; δεδουλωμένος οἴνῳ, wholly given up to, enslaved to, Titus 2:3 (δουλεύειν οἴνῳ, Libanius, epist. 319); δεδούλωμαι ἔν τινι, to be under bondage, held by constraint of law or necessity, in some matter, 1 Corinthians 7:15. [Compare: καταδουλόω.]TGL δουλόω.4


    (1403) δοχή, -ῆς, , (δέχομαι, to receive as a guest), a feast, banquet, [cf. our reception]: δοχὴν ποιῶ, Luke 5:29; Luke 14:13. (equivalent to מִשְׁתֶה, [Genesis 21:8]; Genesis 26:30; Esther 1:3; Esther 5:4; Athen. 8, p. 348 f.; Plutarch, moral., p. 1102 b. [i. e. non posse suav. vivi etc. 21, 9].)TGL δοχή.2


    (1404) δράκων, -οντος, , (apparently from δέρκομαι, 2 aorist ἔδρακον; hence, δράκων, properly, equivalent to ὀξὺ βλέπων [Etym. Magn. 286, 7; cf. Curtius, § 13]); Sept. chiefly for תָּנִּין; a dragon, a great serpent, a fabulous animal (so as early as Homer, Iliad 2, 308f, etc.). From it, after Genesis 3:1, is derived the figurative description of the devil in Revelation 12:3-17; Revelation 13:2, Revelation 13:4, Revelation 13:11; Revelation 16:13; Revelation 20:2. [Cf. Baudissin, Studien zur semitisch. Religionsgesch. vol. i. (iv. 4), p. 281ff.]TGL δράκων.2


    (1405) δράσσομαι; to grasp with the hand, to take: τινά, 1 Corinthians 3:19 [Buttmann, 291 (250); Winers Grammar, 352 (330)]. (In Greek writings from Homer down; Sept. .)TGL δράσσομαι.2


    (1406) δραχμή, -ῆς, , (δράσσομαι [hence, properly, a grip, a handful]), [from Herodotus down], a drachma, a silver coin of [nearly] the same weight as the Roman denarius (see δηνάριον ): Luke 15:8.TGL δραχμή.2


    (1407) δρέπανον, -ου, τό, (equivalent to δρεπάνη, from δρέπω, to pluck, pluck off), a sickle, a pruning-hook, a hooked vine-knife, such as reapers and vine-dressers use: Mark 4:29; Revelation 14:14-19. (Homer and subsequent writings; Sept. .)TGL δρέπανον.2


    (1408) δρόμος, -ου, , (from ΔΡΑΜΩ [which see]; cf. νόμος , τρόμος , and the like), a course (Homer and following); in the N. T. figuratively, the course of life or of office: πληροῦσθαι τὸν δρόμον, Acts 13:25; τελειοῦν, Acts 20:24; τελεῖν, 2 Timothy 4:7.TGL δρόμος.2


    (1409) Δρουσίλλα [others Δρούσιλλα, cf. Chandler § 120], -ης, , Drusilla, daughter of Agrippa the elder, wife of Felix, the governor of Judæa, a most licentious woman (Josephus, Antiquities 20, 7, 1f): Acts 24:24; cf. Winers RWB [and B. D. ] under the word; Schürer, Neutest. Zeitgesch., § 19, 4.TGL Δρούσιλλα.2


    (1410) δύναμαι, deponent verb, present indicative 2 person singular δύνασαι and, according to a rarer form occasional in the poets and from Polybius on to be met with in prose writings also (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 359; [WHs Appendix, p. 168; Winers Grammar, § 13, 2 b.; Veitch, under the word]), δύνῃ (Mark 9:22 L T Tr WH; [Luke 16:2 T WH Tr text]; Revelation 2:2); imperfect ἐδυνάμην and Attic ἠδυνάμην, between which forms the manuscripts and editions are almost everywhere divided, [in Mark 6:19; Mark 14:5; Luke 8:19; Luke 19:3; John 9:33; John 12:39 all editions read ἠδ., so R G in Matthew 26:9; Luke 1:22; John 11:37; Revelation 14:3; on the other hand, in Matthew 22:46; Luke 1:22; John 11:37; Revelation 14:3, L T Tr WH all read ἐδ., so T WH in Matthew 26:9; R G in Matthew 22:46. Cf. WHs Appendix, p. 162; Winer's Grammar, § 12, 1 b.; Buttmun, 33 (29)]; future δυνήσομαι; 1 aorist ἠδυνήθην and (in Mark 7:24 T WH, after manuscripts א Β only; in Matthew 17:16 manuscript B) ἠδυνάσθην (cf. [WH as above and p. 169]; Kühner, § 343, under the word; [Veitch, under the word; Winers Grammar, 84 (81); Buttmann, 33 (29); Curtius, Das Verbum, 2:402]); Sept. for יָכֹל; to be able, have power, whether by virtue of one's own ability and resources, or of a state of mind, or through favorable circumstances, or by permission of law or custom;TGL δύναμαι.2

    a. followed by an infinitive [Winers Grammar, § 44, 3] present or aorist (on the distinction between which, cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 7).TGL δύναμαι.3

    α. followed by a present infinitive: Matthew 6:24; Matthew 9:15; Mark 2:7; Mark 3:23; Luke 6:39; John 3:2; John 5:19; Acts 27:15; 1 Corinthians 10:21; Hebrews 5:7; 1 John 3:9; Revelation 9:20, and often.TGL δύναμαι.4

    β. followed by an aorist infinitive: Matthew 3:9; Matthew 5:14; Mark 1:45; Mark 2:4; Mark 5:3; Luke 8:19; Luke 13:11; John 3:3; John 6:52; John 7:34, John 7:36; Acts 4:16 [R G]; Acts 5:39; Acts 10:47; Romans 8:39; Romans 16:25; 1 Corinthians 2:14; 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 6:5; 2 Corinthians 3:7; Galatians 3:21; Ephesians 3:4, Ephesians 3:20; 1 Thessalonians 3:9; 1 Timothy 6:7, 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 2:13; 2 Timothy 3:7, 2 Timothy 3:15; Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 3:19; [Hebrews 11:19 Lachmann]; James 1:21; Revelation 3:8; Revelation 5:3; Revelation 6:17, and very often.TGL δύναμαι.5

    b. with an infinitive omitted, as being easily supplied from the context: Matthew 16:3 [here T brackets WH reject the passage]; Matthew 20:22; Mark 6:19; Mark 10:39; Luke 9:40; Luke 16:26; Luke 19:3; Romans 8:7.TGL δύναμαι.6

    c. joined with an accusative, δύναμαί τι, to be able to do something (cf. German ich vermag etwas): Mark 9:22; Luke 12:26; 2 Corinthians 13:8, (and in Greek writings from Homer on).TGL δύναμαι.7

    d. absolutely, like the Latin possum (as in Caes. b. gall. 1, 18, 6), equivalent to to be able, capable, strong, powerful: 1 Corinthians 3:2; 1 Corinthians 10:13. (2 Chronicles 32:13; 2 Chronicles 1:1-17 Macc. 5:40f; in 2 Macc. 11:13 manuscript Alex. , and often in Greek writings as Euripides, Or. 889; Thucydides 4, 105; Xenophon, an. 4, 5, 11f; Isocrates, Demosthenes, Aeschines)TGL δύναμαι.8


    (1411) δύναμις, -εως, ; [from Homer down]; Sept. for חַיִל, גְּבוּרָה, עֹז, כֹּחַ, צָבָא (an army, a host); strength, ability, power;TGL δύναμις.2

    a. universally, inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth: Luke 1:17; Acts 4:7; 1 Corinthians 4:20; 2 Corinthians 4:7; 2 Corinthians 12:9 ( δύναμις ἐν ἀσθένείᾳ τελεῖται [R G τελειοῦται]); 2 Corinthians 13:4; 1 Thessalonians 1:5; Hebrews 7:16; Hebrews 11:34; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 17:13; ἰδίᾳ δυνάμει, Acts 3:12; μεγάλῃ δυνάμει, Acts 4:33; ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν ἰδίαν δύναμιν, Matthew 25:15; ὑπὲρ δύναμιν, beyond our power, 2 Corinthians 1:8; ἐν δυνάμει namely, ὤν, endued with power, Luke 4:36; 1 Corinthians 15:43; so in the phrase ἔρχεσθαι ἐν δυνάμει, Mark 9:1; powerfully, Colossians 1:29; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; contextually, equivalent to evidently, Romans 1:4; ἐν δυνάμει σημείων κ. τεράτων, through the power which I exerted upon their souls by performing miracles, Romans 15:19; δύν. εἴς τι, Hebrews 11:11; δύν. ἐπὶ τὰ δαιμόνια καὶ νόσους θεραπεύειν, Luke 9:1; δύναμις τῆς ἁμαρτίας νόμος, sin exercises its power (upon the soul) through the law, i. e. through the abuse of the law, 1 Corinthians 15:56; τῆς ἀναστάσεως τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the power which the resurrection of Christ has, for instructing, reforming, elevating, tranquilizing, the soul, Philippians 3:10; τῆς εὐσεβείας, inhering in godliness and operating upon souls, 2 Timothy 3:5; δυνάμεις μέλλοντος αἰῶνος (see αἰών , 3), Hebrews 6:5; τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς δυνάμεως (see πνεῦμα , 5), 1 Peter 4:14 Lachmann; 2 Timothy 1:7; δύναμις is used of the power of angels: Ephesians 1:21 [cf. Meyer at the passage]; 2 Peter 2:11; of the power of the devil and evil spirits, 1 Corinthians 15:24; τοῦ ἐχθροῦ, i. e. of the devil, Luke 10:19; τοῦ δράκοντος, Revelation 13:2; angels, as excelling in power, are called δυνάμεις [cf. (Philo de mutat. nora. § 8 δυνάμεις ἀσωματοι) Meyer as above; Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 1:16; see ἄγγελος ]: Romans 8:38; 1 Peter 3:22. δύναμις τοῦ θεοῦ, universally, the power of God: Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24; Luke 22:69; Acts 8:10; Romans 1:20; Romans 9:17; 1 Corinthians 6:14; δύναμις ὑψίστου, Luke 1:35; δύναμις, especially in doxologies, the kingly power of God, Matthew 6:13 Rec. ; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 15:8; Revelation 19:1; and the abstract for the concrete (as הַגְּבוּרָה in Jewish writings; cf. Buxtorf, Lex. talm. col. 385 [p. 201f, Fischer edition]) equivalent to δυνατός, Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62; δύναμις τοῦ θεοῦ is used of the divine power considered as acting upon the minds of men, 1 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 6:7; Ephesians 3:7, Ephesians 3:20; [2 Timothy 1:8; 1 Peter 1:5]; εἴς τινα, 2 Corinthians 13:4 [but WH in brackets]; Ephesians 1:19; ἐνδύεσθαι δύναμιν ἐξ υψους, Luke 24:49; by metonymy, things or persons in which God's saving power shows its efficacy are called δυνάμεις θεοῦ: thus, Χριστος, 1 Corinthians 1:24; λόγος τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:18; τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, with the addition εἰς σωτηρίαν παντί, etc. Romans 1:16 [cf. Winer's Grammar, § 36, 3 b.]. δύναμις is ascribed to Christ, now in one sense and now in another: a power to heal disease proceeds from him, Mark 5:30; Luke 5:17; Luke 6:19; Luke 8:46 the kingly power of the Messiah is his, Matthew 24:30; [Mark 13:26]; Luke 21:27; 2 Peter 1:16; Revelation 5:12; ἄγγελοι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ (see ἄγγελος , 2), ministering to his power, 2 Thessalonians 1:7 [Winer's Grammar, § 34, 3 b. note]; metaphysical [or essential] power, viz. that which belongs to him as θεῖος λόγος, in the expression τὸ ῥῆμα τῆς δυνάμ. αὐτοῦ, the word uttered by his power, equivalent to his most powerful will and energy, Hebrews 1:3; moral power, operating on the soul, 2 Corinthians 12:9 R G; and called θεῖα αὐτοῦ δύναμις in 2 Peter 1:3; δύναμις τοῦ κυρίου, the power of Christ invisibly present and operative in Christian church formally assembled, 1 Corinthians 5:4. δύναμις τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος: Acts 1:8 [Winer's Grammar, 125 (119)]; πν. ἅγιον κ. δύναμις, Acts 10:38; ἀπόδειξις πνεύματος καὶ δυνάμεως (see ἀπόδειξις , b.), 1 Corinthians 2:4; ἐν τῇ δυνάμει τοῦ πνεύματος, under or full of the power of the Holy Spirit, Luke 4:14; ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου, by the power and influence of the Holy Spirit, Romans 15:13; by the power which, under the influence of the Holy Spirit, I exerted upon their souls, Romans 15:19.TGL δύναμις.3

    b. specifically, the power of performing miracles: Acts 6:8; πᾶσα δύναμις, every kind of power of working miracles (with the addition of καὶ σημείοις κ. τέρασι), 2 Thessalonians 2:9; plural: [Matthew 13:54; Matthew 14:2; Mark 6:14]; 1 Corinthians 12:28; Galatians 3:5; ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων, 1 Corinthians 12:10; by metonymy, of the cause for the effect, a mighty work [cf. Winers Grammar, 32; Trench, § xci.]: δύναμιν ποιεῖν, Mark 6:5; Mark 9:39; so in the plural, Mark 6:2; Luke 19:37; joined with σημεῖα, Acts 8:13; with σημεῖα κ. τέρατα, Acts 2:22; 2 Corinthians 12:12; Hebrews 2:4 [?]; ποιεῖν δυνάμεις, Matthew 7:22; [Matthew 13:58]; Acts 19:11; γίνονται δυνάμεις, Matthew 11:20, Matthew 11:23; Luke 10:13.TGL δύναμις.4

    c. moral power and excellence of soul: 1 Corinthians 4:19; 2 Corinthians 4:7; Ephesians 3:16; Colossians 1:11.TGL δύναμις.5

    d. the power and influence which belong to riches; (pecuniary ability), wealth: τοῦ στρήνους, 'riches ministering to luxury' (Grotius), Revelation 18:3; κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ ὑπὲρ [others, παρὰ] δύναμιν, according to their means, yea, beyond their means, 2 Corinthians 8:3; (in this sense, for חַיִל, Sept. Deuteronomy 8:17; Ruth 4:11; not infrequent in Greek writings, as Xenophon, Cyril 8, 4, 34; an. 7, 7, 21 (36)).TGL δύναμις.6

    e. power and resources arising from numbers: Revelation 3:8.TGL δύναμις.7

    f. power consisting in or resting upon armies, forces, hosts, (so, both in singular and in plural, often in Greek writings from Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, on; in the Sept. and in Apocrypha); hence, δυνάμεις τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, the hosts of heaven, Hebraistically the stars: Matthew 24:29; Luke 21:26; and δ. ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, Mark 13:25; equivalent to הַשָּׁמַיִם צְבָא, 2 Kings 17:16; 2 Kings 23:4; Isaiah 34:4; Jeremiah 8:2; Daniel 8:10, etc. [cf. σαβαώθ ].TGL δύναμις.8

    g. Like the Latin vis and potestas , equivalent to the (force i. e.) meaning of a word or expression: 1 Corinthians 14:11; (Plato, Crat., p. 394 h.; Polybius 20, 9, 11; Dionysius Halicarnassus 1, 68; Dio Cuss. 55, 3; others).TGL δύναμις.9

    [Synonyms: Βία δύναμις, ἐνέργεια, ἐξουσία, ἰσχύς, κράτος Βια force, effective, often opressive power, exhibiting itself in single deeds of violence; δύν. power, natural ability, general and inherent; ἐνέργ. working, power in exercise, operative power; ἐξουσ. primarily liberty of action; then, authority—either as delegated power, or as unrestrained, arbitrary power; ἰσχ. strength, power (especially, physical) as an endowment; κράτος, might, relative and manifested power—in the N. T. chiefly of God; τὸ κράτος τῆς ἰσχ. Ephesians 6:10, ἐνέργ. τῆς δυν. Ephesians 3:7, ἐνέργ. τοῦ κρ. τῆς ἰσχ. Ephesians 1:19. Cf. Schmidt ch. 148; Bp. Lightfoot on Colossians 1:16; Meyer on Ephesians 1:19.]TGL δύναμις.10


    (1412) δυναμόω, -ῶ: [present passive δυναμοῦμαι]; to make strong, confirm, strengthen: Colossians 1:11; [Ephesians 6:10 WH marginal reading]; 1 aorist ἐδυναμώθησαν, Hebrews 11:34 (R G ἐνεδ.). (Psalm 67:29 (Psalms 68:29); Ecclesiastes 10:10; Daniel 9:27 [Theodotion; Psalms 64:4 (Psalms 65:4) Aq. ; Job 36:9 Aq. ] and occasionally in ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings; cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 605; [Winer's Grammar, 26 (25)].) [Compare: ἐνδυναμόω.]TGL δυναμόω.2


    (1413) δυνάστης, -ου, , (δύναμαι); from [Sophocles and] Herodotus on; powerful;TGL δυνάστης.2

    1. a prince, potentate: Luke 1:52; used of God (Sir. 46:5; 2 Macc. 15:3, 23, etc.; of Zeus, Sophocles Ant. 608), 1 Timothy 6:15.TGL δυνάστης.3

    2. a courtier, high officer, royal minister: Acts 8:27 [A. V. (a eunuch) of great authority; but see Meyer at the passage], (δυνάσται Φαραώ, Genesis 50:4).TGL δυνάστης.4


    (1414) δυνατέω, -ῶ; (δυνατός); to be powerful or mighty; show oneself powerful: 2 Corinthians 13:3 (opposed to ἀσθενῶ); to be able, have power: followed by an infinitive, Romans 14:4 L T Tr WH ; 2 Corinthians 9:8 L T Tr WH . Not found in secular writings nor in the Sept.TGL δυνατέω.2


    (1415) δυνατός, , όν, (δύναμαι); [from Pindar down], Sept. for גִּבּור; able, powerful, mighty, strong;TGL δυνατός.2

    1. absolutely;TGL δυνατός.3

    a. mighty in wealth and influence: 1 Corinthians 1:26; (Revelation 6:15 Rec. ); οἱ δυνατοί, the chief men, Acts 25:5, (Josephus, b. j. 1, 12, 4 ἧκον Ἰουδαίων οἱ δυνατοί; Xenophon, Cyril 5, 4, 1; Thucydides 1, 89; Polybius 9, 23, 4). δυνατός, the preeminently mighty one, almighty God, Luke 1:49.TGL δυνατός.4

    b. strong in soul: to bear calamities and trials with fortitude and patience, 2 Corinthians 12:10; strong in Christian virtue, 2 Corinthians 13:9; firm in conviction and faith, Romans 15:1.TGL δυνατός.5

    2. in construction;TGL δυνατός.6

    a. δυνατός εἰμι with an infinitive, to be able (to do something; [Buttmann, 260 (224); Winer's Grammar, 319 (299)]): Luke 14:31; Acts 11:17; Romans 4:21; Romans 11:23; Romans 14:4 R G; 2 Corinthians 9:8 R G; 2 Timothy 1:12; Titus 1:9; Hebrews 11:19 (Lachmann δύναται); James 3:2.TGL δυνατός.7

    b. δυνατὸς ἔν τινι, mighty, i. e. excelling in something: ἐν ἔργῳ κ. λόγῳ, Luke 24:19; ἐν λόγοις καὶ ἔργοις, Acts 7:22; ἐν γραφαῖς:, excelling in knowledge of the Scriptures, Acts 18:24.TGL δυνατός.8

    c. πρός τι, mighty, i. e. having power for something: 2 Corinthians 10:4.TGL δυνατός.9

    d. neuter δυνατόν [in passive sense, cf. Buttmann, 190 (165)] possible: εἰ δυνατόν (ἐστι), Matthew 24:24; Matthew 26:39; Mark 13:22; Mark 14:35; Romans 12:18; Galatians 4:15; οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν followed by infinitive Acts 2:24; δυνατόν τί ἐστί τινι [Buttmann, 190 (165)], Mark 9:23; Mark 14:36; Acts 20:16; παρὰ θεῷ πάντα δυνατά ἐστι, Matthew 19:26; Mark 10:27; Luke 18:27. τὸ δυνατὸν αὐτοῦ, what his power could do, equivalent to τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ, Romans 9:22, cf. Winer's Grammar, § 34, 2.TGL δυνατός.10


    (1416) δύνω, δύω; 2 aorist ἔδυν; 1 aorist (in Greek writings transitively) ἔδυσα (Mark 1:32 L Tr WH), cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 156f; Winers Grammar, p. 84 (81); Buttmann, 56 (49); [Veitch, see under the words]; to go into, enter; go under, be plunged into, sink in: in the N. T. twice of the setting sun (sinking as it were into the sea), Mark 1:32; Luke 4:40. So times without number in Greek writings from Homer on; Sept. , Genesis 28:11; Leviticus 22:7, etc.; Tobit 2:4; 1 Macc. 10:50.TGL δύνω.2

    [Compare: ἐκ-, ἀπεκ- (-μαι), ἐν-, ἐπεν-, παρεισ-, ἐπιδύνω.]TGL δύνω.3

    Related entry: δύω, see δύνω.TGL δύνω.4


    (1417) δύο, genitive indeclinable δύο (as in Epic, and occasionally in Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, others for δυοῖν, more common in Attic [see Rutherford, New Phryn., p. 289f]); dative δυσί, δυσίν ([-σί in Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13; Acts 21:33 (Tr -σίν), -σίν in Matthew 22:40; Mark 16:12; Luke 12:52 (R G -σί; Acts 12:6 (R G L -σί); Hebrews 10:28; Revelation 11:3 (R G -σί); cf. Tdf. Proleg., p. 98; WHs Appendix, p. 147] — a form not found in the older and better writings, met with in Hippocrates, Aristotle, Theophrastus, frequent from Polybius on, for the Attic δυοῖν); accusative δύο (cf. Lob. ad Phryn., p. 210; Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i., p. 276f; Winers Grammar, § 9, 2 b.; Passow, i., p. 729); two: absolutely, οὐκ ἔτι εἰσὶ δύο, ἀλλὰ σὰρξ μία, Matthew 19:6; Mark 10:8; δύο τρεῖς, Matthew 18:20; 1 Corinthians 14:29; τρεῖς ἐπὶ δυσὶ κ. δύο ἐπὶ τρισί, Luke 12:52; ἀνὰ and κατὰ δύο, two by two [Winers Grammar, 398 (372); 401 (374); Buttmann, 30 (26)], Luke 9:3 [WH omits; Tr brackets ἀνά]; Luke 10:1 [WH ἀνὰ δύο [δύο]; cf. Acta Philip. § 36, Tdf. edition, p. 92]; John 2:6 [apiece]; 1 Corinthians 14:27; δύο δύο, two and two, Mark 6:7 (so, after the Hebrew, in Genesis 6:19, Genesis 6:20; but the phrase is not altogether foreign even to the Greek poets, as Aesehyl. Pers. 981 μυρία μυρία for κατὰ μυριάδας, cf. Winer's Grammar, 249 (234), [cf. 39 (38)]); neuter εἰς δύο into two parts, Matthew 27:51; Mark 15:38; with the genitive δύο τῶν μαθητῶν (αὐτοῦ), Mark 11:1; Mark 14:13; Luke 19:29; [Matthew 11:2 R G]; τῶν οἰκετῶν, Acts 10:7. δύο ἐξ αὐτῶν, Luke 24:13 [cf. Buttmann 158 (138); Winer's 203 (191)]. with a noun or pronoun: δύο δαιμονιζόμενοι, Matthew 8:28. δύο μάχαιραι, Luke 22:38; ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων, Matthew 18:16; 2 Corinthians 13:1; δυσὶ κυρίοις, Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13; εἶδε δύο ἀδελφούς, Matthew 4:18; preceded by the article, οἱ δύο, the two, the twain: Matthew 19:5; Mark 10:8; 1 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 5:31; τοὺς δύο, Ephesians 2:15; αἱ [Rec. only] δύο διαθῆκαι, Galatians 4:24; οὗτοι [Lachmann brackets οὗτ.] οἱ δύο υἱοί μου, Matthew 20:21; περὶ τῶν δύο ἀδελφῶν, Matthew 20:24; ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς, Matthew 22:40; τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας, Matthew 14:19; Mark 6:41; Luke 9:16; δύο δηνάρια, Luke 10:35.TGL δύο.2


    (1418) δυς, an inseparable prefix conveying the idea of difficulty, opposition, injuriousness or the like, and corresponding to our mis-, un- [Curtius, § 278]; opposed to εὖ.TGL δυσ-.2


    (1419) δυσβάστακτος, -ον, (βαστάζω), hard [A. V. grievous] to be borne: Matthew 23:4 [T WH text omit; Tr brackets δυσβάστ.] and Luke 11:46 φορτία δυσβάστακτα, said of precepts hard to obey, and irksome. (Sept. Proverbs 27:3; Philo, omn. prob. book § 5; Plutarch, quaest. nat. c. 16, 4, p. 915f.)TGL δυσβάστακτος.2


    (1420) δυσεντερία, -ας, , (ἔντερον, intestine), dysentery, (Latin tormina intestinorum, bowel-complaint): Acts 28:8 R G; see the following word. (Hippocrates and medical writers; Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, Polybius, others.)TGL δυσεντερία.2

    Related entry: δυσεντέριον, -ου, τό, a later form for δυσεντερία, which see: Acts 28:8 L T Tr WH. Cf. Lob. ad Phyrn. p. 518.TGL δυσεντερία.3


    (1421) δυσερμήνευτος, -ον, (ἑρμηνεύω), hard to interpret, difficult of explanation: Hebrews 5:11. (Diodorus 2, 52; Philo de somn. § 32 at the end; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 3, 66.)TGL δυσερμήνευτος.2


    (1422) δύσκολος, -ον, (κόλον, food);TGL δύσκολος.2

    1. properly, hard to find agreeable food for, fastidious about food.TGL δύσκολος.3

    2. difficult to please, always finding fault; (Euripides, Aristophanes, Xenophon, Plato, others).TGL δύσκολος.4

    3. universally, difficult (Xenophon, oec. 15, 10 γεωργία δύσκολός ἐστι μαθεῖν): πῶς δύσκολόν ἐστι, followed by an accusative with an infinitive, Mark 10:24.TGL δύσκολος.5


    (1423) δυσκόλως, adverb, (δύσκολος), [from Plato down], with difficulty: Matthew 19:23; Mark 10:23; Luke 18:24.TGL δυσκόλως.2


    (1424) δυσμή, -ῆς, , [from Aeschylus and Herodotus down], much more often in plural [Winer's Grammar, § 27, 3] δυσμαί, αἱ, (δύω or δύνω, which see), namely, ἡλίου, the setting of the sun: Luke 12:54 [according to the reading of T WH Tr marginal reading ἐπὶ δ. may possibly be understood of time (cf. Winers Grammar, 375f (352)); see ἐπί , A. II.; others take the preposition locally, over, in, and give δυσμ. the meaning which follows; see ἐπί , A. I. 1 b.]; the region of sunset, the west, [anarthrous, Winer's Grammar, 121 (115)]: Revelation 21:13; ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν, from all regions or nations, Matthew 8:11; Matthew 24:27; Luke 13:29; in Hebrew הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מְבוא, Joshua 1:4. Often in secular writings from Herodotus on, both with and without ἡλίου.TGL δυσμή.2


    (1425) δυσνόητος, -ον, (νοέω), hard to be understood: 2 Peter 3:16. (χρησμός, Lucian, Alex. 54; Diogenes Laërtius 9, 13 δυσνόητόν τε καὶ δυσεξήγητον; [Aristotle, plant. 1, 1, p. 816a, 3].)TGL δυσνόητος.2


    (1426) δυσφημία, -ας, , both the condition of a δύσφημος, i. e. of one who is defamed, viz. ill-repute, and the action of one who uses opprobrious language, viz. defamation, reproach: διὰ δυσφημίας κ. εὐφημίας [A. V. by evil report and good report], 2 Corinthians 6:8. (1 Macc. 7:38; 3 Macc. 2:26. Dionysius of Halicarnassus 6, 48; Plutarch, de gen. Socrates § 18, p. 587f.)TGL δυσφημία.2


    (1427) δώδεκα, οἱ, αἱ, τά, [from Homer down], twelve: Matthew 9:20; Matthew 10:1; [L T Tr WH in Acts 19:7; Acts 24:11 for δεκαδύο]; Revelation 7:5 [R G ι Βʹ]; Revelation 21:21, etc.; οἱ δώδεκα, the twelve apostles of Jesus, so called by way of eminence: Mark 9:35; Mark 10:32; Mark 11:11; Matthew 26:14, Matthew 26:20; Luke 22:3, etc.TGL δώδεκα.2


    (1428) δωδέκατος, , -ον, twelfth: Revelation 21:20. [From Homer on.]TGL δωδέκατος.2


    (1429) δωδεκάφυλον, -ου, τό, (from δώδεκα, and φυλή tribe), the twelve tribes, used collectively of the Israelitish people, as consisting of twelve tribes: Acts 26:7. (Clement of Rome, 1 Cor. 55, 6; Protevangelium Jacobi, c. 1, 3; λαὸς δωδεκάφυλος, Sibylline Oracles Cf. δεκάφυλος, τετράφυλος, Herodotus 5, 66; [Winer's Grammar, 100 (95)].)TGL δωδεκάφυλον.2


    (1430) δῶμα, -τος, τό, (δέμω to build);TGL δῶμα.2

    1. a building, house, (Homer and following).TGL δῶμα.3

    2. a part of a building, dining-room, hall, (Homer and following).TGL δῶμα.4

    3. in the Scriptures equivalent to גָּג, house-top, roof [Winer's Grammar, 23]: Matthew 24:17; Mark 13:15; Luke 5:19; Luke 17:31. The house-tops of the Orientals were (and still are) level, and were frequented not only for walking but also for meditation and prayer: Acts 10:9; hence, ἐπὶ δωμάτων, on the house-tops, i. e. in public: Matthew 10:27; Luke 12:3; ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα... κατ’ ὀφθαλμοὺς παντὸς Ἰσραήλ, 2 Samuel 16:22.TGL δῶμα.5


    (1431) δωρεά, -ᾶς, , (δίδωμι); from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus down; a gift: John 4:10; Acts 8:20; Acts 11:17; Romans 5:15; 2 Corinthians 9:15; Hebrews 6:4; χάρις ἐδόθη κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ, according to the measure in which Christ gave it, Ephesians 4:7; with an epexegetical genitive of the thing given, viz. τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, Acts 2:38; Acts 10:45; δικαιοσύνης, Romans 5:17 [L WH Tr marginal reading brackets τ. δωρ.]; τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ, Ephesians 3:7. The accusative δωρεάν (properly, as a gift, gift-wise [cf. Winers Grammar, 230 (216); Buttmann, 153 (134)]) is used adverbially; Sept. for חִנָּם;TGL δωρεά.2

    a. freely, for naught, gratis, gratuitously: Matthew 10:8; Romans 3:24; 2 Corinthians 11:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:8; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17, (Polybius 18, 17, 7; Exodus 21:11; δωρεὰν ἄνευ ἀργυρίου, Isaiah 52:3).TGL δωρεά.3

    b. by a usage of which as yet no example has been noted from Greek writings, without just cause, unnecessarily: John 15:25 (Psalms 68:5 (Psalms 69:5); Psalms 34:19 (Psalms 35:19); Galatians 2:21 (Job 1:9 [?]; Psalms 34:7 (Psalms 35:7) [where Symm. ἀναιτίως]; so the Latin gratuitus : Livy 2, 42 gratuitus furor , Seneca, epistles 105, 3 [book 18, epistle 2 § 3] odium aut est ex offensa... aut gratuitum ).TGL δωρεά.4

    [Synonym: see δόμα , at the end.]TGL δωρεά.5


    (1432) δωρεάν, see δωρεά .TGL δωρεάν.2

    Related entry: δωρεά, -ᾶς, , (δίδωμι); from [Aeschylus and] Herodotus down; a gift: John 4:10; Acts 8:20; Acts 11:17; Romans 5:15; 2 Corinthians 9:15; Hebrews 6:4; χάρις ἐδόθη κατὰ τὸ μέτρον τῆς δωρεᾶς τοῦ Χριστοῦ, according to the measure in which Christ gave it, Ephesians 4:7; with an epexegetical genitive of the thing given, viz. τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, Acts 2:38; Acts 10:45; δικαιοσύνης, Romans 5:17 [L WH Tr marginal reading brackets τ. δωρ.]; τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ, Ephesians 3:7. The accusative δωρεάν (properly, as a gift, gift-wise [cf. Winers Grammar, 230 (216); Buttmann, 153 (134)]) is used adverbially; Sept. for חִנָּם;TGL δωρεάν.3

    a. freely, for naught, gratis, gratuitously: Matthew 10:8; Romans 3:24; 2 Corinthians 11:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:8; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17, (Polybius 18, 17, 7; Exodus 21:11; δωρεὰν ἄνευ ἀργυρίου, Isaiah 52:3).TGL δωρεάν.4

    b. by a usage of which as yet no example has been noted from Greek writings, without just cause, unnecessarily: John 15:25 (Psalms 68:5 (Psalms 69:5); Psalms 34:19 (Psalms 35:19); Galatians 2:21 (Job 1:9 [?]; Psalms 34:7 (Psalms 35:7) [where Symm. ἀναιτίως]; so the Latin gratuitus : Livy 2, 42 gratuitus furor , Seneca, epistles 105, 3 [book 18, epistle 2 § 3] odium aut est ex offensa... aut gratuitum ).TGL δωρεάν.5

    [Synonym: see δόμα , at the end.]TGL δωρεάν.6


    (1433) δωρέω, -ῶ: to present, bestow, (Hesiod, Pindar, Herodotus, others); passive Leviticus 7:5 (Hebrew text Leviticus 7:15). But much more frequently as deponent middle δωρέομαι, -οῦμαι (Homer and following): 1 aorist ἐδωρησάμην; perfect δεδώρημαι; τινί τι, Mark 15:45; 2 Peter 1:3-4.TGL δωρέομαι.2


    (1434) δώρημα, -τος, τό, (δωρέομαι); a gift, bounty benefaction; Romans 5:16; James 1:17. ([Aesehylus], Sophocles, Xenophon, others) [Cf. δόμα , at the end.]TGL δώρημα.2


    (1435) δῶρον, -ου, τό, [from Homer down], Sept. generally for קָרְבָּן, often also for מִנְחָה and שֹׁחַד; a gift, present: Ephesians 2:8; Revelation 11:10; of gifts offered as an expression of honor, Matthew 2:11; of sacrifices and other gifts offered to God, Matthew 5:23; Matthew 8:4; Matthew 15:5; Matthew 23:18; Mark 7:11; Hebrews 5:1; Hebrews 8:3; Hebrews 9:9; Hebrews 11:4; of money cast into the treasury for the purposes of the temple and for the support of the poor, Luke 21:1, [Luke 21:4]. [Synonym: see δόμα , at the end.]TGL δῶρον.2

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