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    πεντήκοντα — πιστόω


    (4004) πεντήκοντα, οἱ, αἱ, τά, fifty: Luke 7:41; Luke 16:6; John 8:57; John 21:11 (R G πεντηκοντατριῶν (as one word)); Acts 13:20; ἀνά πεντήκοντα by fifties (see ἀνά , 2), Mark 6:40 (here L T Tr WH κατά πεντήκοντα; see κατά , II. 3 a. γ.); Luke 9:14. (From Homer down.)TGL πεντήκοντα.2


    (4005) πεντηκοστή, πεντηκοστῆς, (namely, ἡμέρα; feminine of πεντηκοστός fiftieth) (from Plato down.), Pentecost (properly, the fiftieth day after the Passover, Tobit 2:1; 2 Macc. 12:32; (Philo de septen. § 21; de decal. § 30; cf. Winer 's Grammar, 26)), the second of the three great Jewish festivals; celebrated at Jerusalem yearly, the seventh week after the Passover, in grateful recognition of the completed harvest (Exodus 23:16; Leviticus 23:15; Deuteronomy 16:9): Acts 2:1; Acts 20:16; 1 Corinthians 16:8 (Josephus , Antiquities 3, 10, 6; (14, 13, 4; etc.)). (BB. DD. (especially Ginsburg in Alex.'s Kitto) under the word ; Hamburger , Real-Encycl. 1, under the word, Wochenfest; Edersheim, The Temple, chapter xiii.)TGL πεντηκοστή.2


    (4006) πεποίθησις, πεποιθησεως, (πείθω, 2 perfect πέποιθα), trust, confidence (R. V. ), reliance: 2 Corinthians 1:15; 2 Corinthians 3:4; 2 Corinthians 10:2; Ephesians 3:12; εἰς τινα, 2 Corinthians 8:22; ἐν τίνι,Philippians 3:4. (Philo de nobilit. § 7; Josephus , Antiquities 1, 3, 1; 3, 2, 2; 10, 1, 4; (11, 7, 1; Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 2, 3 [ET]); Zosimus (), Sextus Empiricus , others; the Sept. once for בִּטָּחון, 2 Kings 18:19.) The word is condemned by the Atticists; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 295.TGL πεποίθησις.2


    (4007) πέρ, an enclitic particle, akin to the preposition περί (Herm. de part. ἄν, p. 6; Curtius , § 359; cf. Lob. Pathol. Elementa, i. 290; others (connect it directly with πέραν, etc., and) give 'throughly' as its fundamental meaning; cf. Bäumlein , Partikeln, p. 198), showing that the idea of the word to which it is annexed must be taken in its fullest extent; it corresponds to the Latincirciter, cunque , German noch so sehr, immerhin, wenigstens, ja; (English however much, very much, altogether, indeed); cf. Hermann ad Vig., p. 791; Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2, p. 722ff; (Donaldson, New Crat. § 178 at the end). In the N. T. it is affixed to the pronoun ὅς and to sundry particles, see διόπερ , ἐάνπερ , εἴπερ , ἐπείπερ , ἐπειδήπερ , ἤπερ , καθάπερ , καίπερ , ὅσπερ , ὥσπερ . [(From Homer down.)]TGL περ.2


    (4008) πέραν Ionic and Epic πέρην, adv, from Homer down; the Sept. for עֵבֶר; beyond, on the other side;TGL πέραν.2

    a. τὸ πέραν, the region beyond, the opposite shore: Matthew 8:18, Matthew 8:28; Matthew 14:22; Matthew 16:5; Mark 4:35; Mark 5:21; Mark 6:45; Mark 8:13.TGL πέραν.3

    b. joined (like a preposition) with a genitive [Winer's Grammar, § 54, 6]: πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης, John 6:22, John 6:25; πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Matthew 4:15; Matthew 19:1; [Mark 10:1 L T Tr WH]; John 1:28; John 3:26; with verbs of going it marks direction toward a place [over, beyond] John 6:1, John 6:17; John 10:40; John 18:1; of the place whence [Matthew 4:25]; Mark 3:8. τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης, Mark 5:1; [τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Mark 10:1 R G]; τῆς λίμνης, Luke 13:22 (τοῦ ποταμοῦ, Xenophon, an. 3, 5, 2). [See Sophocles, Lexicon, under the word.]TGL πέραν.4


    (4009) πέρας, πέρατος, τό (πέρα beyond), from Aeschylus down, extremity, bound, end (see τέλος , 1 a. at the beginning);TGL πέρας.2

    a. of a portion of space ("boundary, frontier): πέρατα τῆς γῆς (the ends of the earth), equivalent to the remotest lands, Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31 (Homer , Iliad 8, 478 (πεῖραρ); Thucydides 1, 69; Xenophon , Ages. 9, 4; the Sept. for אֶרֶץ אַפְסֵי (Winer 's Grammar, 30)); also τῆς οἰκουμένης, Romans 10:18 (Psalms 71:8 (Psalms 72:8)).TGL πέρας.3

    b. of a thing extending through a period of time (termination): ἀντιλογίας, Hebrews 6:16 (τῶν κακῶν, Aeschylus Pers. 632; Josephus , b. j. 7, 5, 6, and other examples in other writings).TGL πέρας.4


    (4010) Πέργαμος (perhaps Περγαμμον, τό (the gender in the N. T. is indeterminate; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 421f; Pape , Eigennamen, see under the words)), Περγαμου, , Pergamus (or Pergamum (cf. Curtius , § 413)), a city of Mysia Major in Asia Minor, the seat of the dynasties of Attalus and Eumenes, celebrated for the temple of Aesculapius, and the invention ((?) cf. Gardthausen, Griech. Palaeogr., p. 39f; Birt, Antikes Buchwesen, chapter ii.) and manufacture of parchment. The river Selinus flowed through it and the Cetius ran past it (Strabo 13, p. 623; Pliny , 5, 30 (33); 13, 11 (21); Tacitus , ann. 3, 63). It was the birthplace of the physician Galen , and had a great royal library. Modern Berghama. There was a Christian church there: Revelation 1:11; Revelation 2:12.TGL Πέργαμος.2


    (4011) Πέργη, Πέργης, (cf. the preceding word), Perge or Perga, a town of Pamphylia, on the river Cestrus about seven miles (sixty stadia) from the sea. On a hill near the town was the temple of Diana (i. e. Artemis) (Strabo 14, p. 667; Mel. 1, 14; Livy 38, 37): Acts 13:13; Acts 14:25. (BB. DD. ; Lewin, St. Paul, i., 134f)TGL Πέργη.2


    (4012) περί (akin to πέρα, πέραν; (Curtius , § 359)), preposition, joined in the N. T. with the genitive and the accusative (in classical Greek also with the dative), and indicating that the person or thing relative to which an act or state is predicated is as it were encompassed by this act or state; Latin circum, circa ; around, about.TGL περί.2

    I. with the GENITIVE it denotes that around which an act or state revolves; about, concerning, as touching, etc. (Latin de, quod attinet ad, causa with a genitive propter ) (cf. Winer s Grammar, 372f (349)).TGL περί.3

    a. about, concerning, (Latin de ; in later Latin also circa ): after verbs of speaking, teaching, writing, etc., see under ἀναγγέλλω , ἀπαγμαι, διαγνωρίζω , διαλέγομαι , διδάσκω , διηγοῦμαι (Hebrews 11:32), διήγησις, εἶπον and προεῖπον, ἐπερωτάω and ἐρωτάω, κατηχέω, λαλέω, λέγω, λόγον αἰτέω, λόγον ἀποδίδωμι, λόγον δίδωμι, μαρτυρέω, μνεία, μνημονεύω, προκαταγγέλλω, προφητεύω, ὑπομιμνῄσκω, χρηματίζομαι, ἦχος, φήμη, etc.; after verbs of hearing, knowing, ascertaining, inquiring, see under ἀκούω , γινώσκω , ἐπίσταμαι , εἶδον, ἐξετάζω , ζητέω , ἐκζητέω , ἐπιζητέω , ζήτημα , πυνθάνομαι , etc.; after verbs of thinking, deciding, supposing, doubting, etc.; see under διαλογίζομαι , ἐνθυμέομαι , πέπεισμαι, πιστεύω , διαπορέω , ἐλέγχω , etc.TGL περί.4

    b. as respects (A. V. often (as) touching);TGL περί.5

    α. with verbs, to indicate that what is expressed by the verb (or verbal noun) holds so far forth as some person or thing is concerned; with regard to, in reference to: Acts 28:21; Hebrews 11:20; περί σου μνεία, 2 Timothy 1:3; ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν, 1 Corinthians 7:37; ἐπιταγήν ἔχειν, ibid. 25; see ἐντέλλομαι, ἐντολή , παρακαλέω , παραμυθέομαι , πρόφασις , ἔκδικος , λαγχάνω to cast lots.TGL περί.6

    β. with the neuter plural (and singular) of the article, τά περί τίνος the things concerning a person or thing, i. e. what relates to, can be said about, etc.: τά περί τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ, Acts 1:3; Acts 8:12 (Rec. ); Acts 19:8 (here L Tr WH omit τά); τά περί τῆς ὁδοῦ, Acts 24:22; with the genitive of a person one's affairs, his condition or state: Acts 28:15; Ephesians 6:22; Philippians 1:27; Philippians 2:19; Colossians 4:8; in a forensic sense, one's cause or case, Acts 24:10; τά περί Ἰησοῦ (or τοῦ κυρίου) (the (rumors) about Jesus (as a worker of miracles), Mark 5:27 T Tr marginal reading brackets WH ); the things (necessary to be known and believed) concerning Jesus, Acts 18:25; Acts 23:11; Acts 28:23 Rec. , 31; the things that befell Jesus, his death, Luke 24:19; the things in the O. T. relative to him, the prophecies concerning him, Luke 24:27; the career, death, appointed him by God, Luke 22:37 (here T Tr WH τό etc.).TGL περί.7

    γ. περί τίνος, absolutely, at the beginning of sentences, concerning, as to: 1 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Corinthians 8:1; 1 Corinthians 16:1, 1 Corinthians 16:12; but in other places it is more properly taken with the following verb, Matthew 22:31; Matthew 24:36; Mark 12:26; 1 Corinthians 7:25; 1 Corinthians 8:1, 1 Corinthians 8:4; 1 Corinthians 12:1; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:1; cf. Winer s Grammar, 373 (350).TGL περί.8

    c. on account of;TGL περί.9

    α. of the subject matter, which at the same time occasions the action expressed by the verb: so after verbs of accusing, see ἐγκαλέω , κατηγορέω , κρίνω τινα περί τίνος, etc.; after verbs expressing emotion, see θαυμάζω , ἀγανακτέω , καυχάομαι , σπλαγχνίζομαι , εὐχαριστέω , εὐχαριστία , αἰνέω , μέλειμοι μεριμνάω; also after εὔχομαι, 3 John 1:2, see πᾶς II. 2 b. θ'.TGL περί.10

    β. of the cause for (on account of) which a tiring is done, or of that which gave occasion for the action or occurrence: Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; John 10:33 (περί τῆς βλασφημίας λάβετε αὐτόν, Ev. Nic c. 4, p. 546, Thilo edition (p. 221, Tdf. edition)); Acts 15:2; Acts 19:23; Acts 25:15, Acts 25:18, Acts 25:24; Colossians 2:1 (R G ).TGL περί.11

    γ. on account of i. e. for, for the benefit or advantage of: Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24 R G ; Luke 4:38; John 16:26; John 17:9, John 17:20; Hebrews 5:3; Hebrews 11:40; περί and ὑπέρ alternate in Ephesians 6:18 (cf. Winer s Grammar, 383 (358) n. also § 50, 3; Buttmann , § 147, 21, 22; Wieseler, Meyer, Lightfoot , Ellicott on Galatians 1:4).TGL περί.12

    δ. περί is used of the design or purpose for removing something or taking it away: περί ἁμαρτίας, to destroy sin, Romans 8:3 [al. find here the same idiom as in Hebrews 10:6 below (cf. R. B. txt.)]; διδόναι ἑαυτόν περί τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν, to expiate, atone for, sins, Galatians 1:4 (where R WH text ὑπέρ (see as in γ above, and cf. ὑπέρ , I. 6)); also to offer sacrifices, and simply sacrifices, περί ἁμαρτιῶν. Hebrews 5:3 (R G ὑπέρ; see as above); Hebrews 10:18,Hebrews 10:26; περί ἁμαρτιῶν ἔπαθε (ἀπέθανεν), 1 Peter 3:18; περί ἁμαρτίας namely, θυσίαι, sacrifices for sin, expiatory sacrifices, Hebrews 10:6 (from Psalms 39:7 (Psalms 40:7); cf. Numbers 8:8; see ἁμαρτία , 3; τά περί τῆς ἁμαρτίας Leviticus 6:25; τό περί τῆς ἁμαρτίας, Leviticus 14:19); ἱλασμός περί τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν, 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10.TGL περί.13

    II. with the ACCUSATIVE (Winer s Grammar, 406 (379));TGL περί.14

    a. of place; about, around: as, about parts of the body, Matthew 3:4; (Matthew 18:6 L T Tr WH ); Mark 1:6; Mark 9:42; Luke 17:2; Revelation 15:6. about places: Luke 13:8; Acts 22:6; Jude 1:7; τά περί τόν τόπον ἐκεῖνον, the neighborhood of that place, Acts 28:7; οἱ περί with an accusative of place, those dwelling about a place or in its vicinity, Mark 3:8 (T Tr WH omit; L brackets οἱ). οἱ περί τινα, those about one, i. e. with him, his companions, associates, friends, etc., Mark 4:10; Luke 22:49; (add, Mark 16:1-20 WH (rejected) Shorter Conclusion); according to Greek idiom οἱ περί τόν Παῦλον, Paul and his companions (German die Paulusgesellschaft) (cf. Winer s Grammar, 406 (379); Buttmann , § 125, 8), Acts 13:13; according to a later Greek usage αἱ περί Μάρθαν denotes Martha herself, John 11:19 (although others (e. g. Meyer, Weiss, Keil, Godet, others) understand by it Martha and her attendants or domestics; but L Tr WH read πρός τήν (for τάς περί) Μάρθαν); cf. Matthiae , § 583, 2; Bernhardy (1829), p. 263; Kühncr ii., p. 230f; (Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann , as above). in phrases the underlying notion of which is that of revolving about sometiring: of persons engaged in any occupation, οἱ περί τά τοιαῦτα ἐργάται (A. V. the workmen of like occupation), Acts 19:25; περισπᾶσθαι, πυρβάζεσθαι περί τί, Luke 10:40, Luke 10:41 (but here L T Tr WIt text θορυβάζῃ which see (and WH marginal reading omits περί πολλά)) (περί τήν γεωργίαν γίνεσθαι, 2 Macc. 12:1).TGL περί.15

    b. as to, in reference to, concerning: so after ἀδόκιμος, 2 Timothy 3:8; ἀστόχειν, 1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 2:18; ναυάγειν, 1 Timothy 1:19; νόσειν, 1 Timothy 6:4; περί πάντα ἑαυτόν παρέχεσθαι τύπον, Titus 2:7; τά περί ἐμέ, the state of my affairs, Philippians 2:23; αἱ περί τά λοιπά ἐπιθυμίαι Mark 4:19 (αἱ περί τό σῶμα ἐπιθυμίαι, Aristotle , rhet. 2, 12, 3; τά περί ψυχήν καί σῶμα ἀγαθά, eth. Nic. 1, 8); cf. Winer s Grammar, § 30, 3 N. 5; (Buttmann , § 125, 9).TGL περί.16

    c. of Time; in a somewhat indefinite specification of time, about, near: περί τρίτην ὥραν, Matthew 20:3; add, Matthew 20:5,Matthew 20:9; Matthew 27:46; Mark 6:48; Acts 10:1-48:(Acts 10:3 L T Tr WH ),Acts 10:9; Acts 22:6.TGL περί.17

    III. in COMPOSITION περί in the N. T. signifies:TGL περί.18

    1. in a circuit, round about, all around, as περιάγω, περιβάλλω, περιαστράπτω, περίκειμαι, περιοικέω, etc., etc.TGL περί.19

    2. beyond (because that which surrounds a thing does not belong to the thing itself but is beyond it): περίεργος, περιεργάζομαι, περιλείπω, περιμένω, περιούσιος, περισσός, περισσεύω.TGL περί.20

    3. through ((?) — intensive, rather (cf. περιάπτω, 2)): περιπείρω.TGL περί.21


    (4013) περιάγω; imperfect περιηγον; from Herodotus down;TGL περιάγω.2

    1. transitive,TGL περιάγω.3

    a. to lead around (cf. περί , III. 1).TGL περιάγω.4

    b. equivalent to to lead about with oneself: τινα (Xenophon , Cyril 2, 2, 28; τρεῖς παῖδας ἀκολουθους, Demosthenes , p. 958, 16), 1 Corinthians 9:5.TGL περιάγω.5

    2. intransitive, to go about, walk about (Cebes () tab. c. 6): absolutely, Acts 13:11; with an accusative of place (depending on the preposition in compos., cf. Matthiae , § 426; (Buttmann , 144 (126); Winer 's Grammar, § 52, 2 c.; 432 (402))), Matthew 4:28 (R G ; (others read the dative with or without ἐν)); Matthew 9:35; Matthew 23:15; Mark 6:6.TGL περιάγω.6


    (4014) περιαιρέω, περιαίρω: 2 aorist infinitive περιελεῖν (participle plural περιελόντες; passive, present 3 person singular περιαιρεῖται); imperfect 3 person singular περιῃρεῖτο; from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for הֵסִיר;TGL περιαιρέω.2

    a. to take away that which surrounds or envelops a thing (cf. περί , III. 1): τό κάλυμμα, passive, 2 Corinthians 3:16 (πορφύραν, 2 Macc. 4:38; τόν δακτύλιον, Genesis 41:42; Josephus , Antiquities 19, 2, 3); ἀγκύρας, the anchors from both sides of the ship (R. V. casting off), Acts 27:40; (2 aorist participle, absolutely, in a nautical sense, to cast loose, Acts 28:13 WH (others περιελθόντες)).TGL περιαιρέω.3

    b. metaphorically, to take away altogether or entirely: τάς ἁμαρτίας (with which one is, as it were, enveloped), the guilt of sin, i. e. to expiate perfectly, Hebrews 10:11; τήν ἐλπίδα, passive, Acts 27:20.TGL περιαιρέω.4


    (4015) περιαστράπτω: 1 aorist περιηστραψα (Relz L περιεστραψα (see Buttmann , 34f (30) and Tdf. s note)), to flash around, shine about, (περί, III. 1): τινα, Acts 9:3; περί τινα, Acts 22:6. ((4 Macc. 4:10); ecclesiastical and Byzantine writings.)TGL περιαστράπτω.2


    (4016) περιβάλλω: future περιβαλῶ; 2 aorist περιέβαλον; perfect passive participle περιβεβλημένος; 2 aorist middle περιεβαλομην; 2 future middle περιβαλοῦμαι; from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for כָּסָה, to cover, cover up; also for לָבַשׁ, to clothe, and עָטָה, to veil; to throw around, to put round;TGL περιβάλλω.2

    a. χάρακα, to surround a city with a bank (palisade), Luke 19:43 ((R G Tr L text WH marginal reading); see παρεμβάλλω , 2).TGL περιβάλλω.3

    b. of garments, τινα, to clothe one: Matthew 25:36, Matthew 25:38, Matthew 25:43; τινα τί, to put a thing on one, to clothe one with a thing (Buttmann , 149 (130); Winer 's Grammar, § 32,4 a.): Luke 23:11 (here T WH omit; L Tr brackets accusative of person); John 19:2; passive, Mark 14:51; Mark 16:5; Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4 (where Rec. has the dative of the thing; (so Revelation 4:4 L WH txt, but others ἐν with the dative of thing)); Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13; middle to put on or clothe oneself: absolutely, Revelation 3:18; with the accusative of the thing (cf. Buttmann , § 135, 2), Matthew 6:31; Acts 12:8; passively — in 2 aorist, Matthew 6:29; Luke 12:27; in 2 aorist with the accusative of the thing, Revelation 3:18; Revelation 19:8; in 2 future with ἐν τίνι (Buttmann , as above; see ἐν , I. 5 b., p. 210a), Revelation 3:5.TGL περιβάλλω.4


    (4017) περιβλέπω: imperfect middle 3 person singular περιεβλέπετο; 1 aorist participle περιβλεψάμενος; to look around. In the N. T. only in the middle (to look round about oneself): absolutely, Mark 9:8; Mark 10:23; followed by an infinitive of purpose, Mark 5:32; τινα, to look round on one (i. e. to look for oneself at one near by), Mark 3:5, Mark 3:34; Luke 6:10; εἰς τίνος, Ev. Nic c. 4; πάντα, Mark 11:11. (Aristophanes , Xenophon , Plato , others; the Sept. .)TGL περιβλέπω.2


    (4018) περιβόλαιον, περιβολαίου, τό (περιβάλλω), properly, a covering thrown around, a wrapper; in the N. T.TGL περιβόλαιον.2

    1. a mantle: Hebrews 1:12 (Psalm 101:27 (Psalms 102:27); Ezekiel 16:13; Ezekiel 27:7; Isaiah 59:17; περιβόλαιον βασιλικόν and περιβόλαιον ἐκ πορφύρας, Palaeph. 52, 4).TGL περιβόλαιον.3

    2. a veil (A. V. a covering): 1 Corinthians 11:15. ((From Euripides down.))TGL περιβόλαιον.4


    (4019) περιδέω: pluperfect passive 3 person singular περιεδέδετο; (from Herodotus down); to bind around, tie over (cf. περί , III. 1]: τινα τίνι, John 11:44. (The Sept. Job 12:18; Plutarch , mor., p. 825 e. (i. e. praecepta ger. reipub. 32, 21; Aristotle , h. a. 9, 39, p. 628a, 14).)TGL περιδέω.2


    (4020) περιεργάζομαι; (see περί , III. 2); to bustle about uselessly, to busy oneself about trifling, needless, useless matters, (Sir. 3:23; Herodotus 3, 46; Plato , Apology, p. 19 b.; others): used apparently of a person officiously inquisitive about others' affairs (A. V. to be a busybody), 2 Thessalonians 3:11, as in Demosthenes , p. 150, 24 (cf. p. 805, 4 etc.).TGL περιεργάζομαι.2


    (4021) περίεργος, περιεργον (περί and ἔργον; see περί , III. 2), busy about trifles and neglectful of important matters, especially busy about other folks' affairs, a busybody: 1 Timothy 5:13 (often so in secular authors from Xenophon , mem. 1, 3, 1; περιεργων καί πολυπράγμων, Epictetus diss. 3, 1, 21); of things: τά περίεργα, impertinent and superfluous, of magic (A. V. , curious) arts, Acts 19:19 (so περίεργος practising magic, Aristaen. , epistles 2, 18, 2 (cf. Plutarch , Alex. 2, 5)); cf. Kypke , Observations, and Kuinoel, commentary at the passage.TGL περίεργος.2


    (4022) περιέρχομαι; 2 aorist περιῆλθον; from Herodotus down; to go about: of strollers, Acts 19:13; of wanderers, Hebrews 11:37; of navigators (making a circuit), Acts 28:13 (here WH περιελόντες, see περιαιρέω , a.); τάς οἰκίας, to go about from house to house, 1 Timothy 5:13.TGL περιέρχομαι.2


    (4023) περιέχω; 2 aorist περιέσχον; from Homer down; in the N. T. to surround, encompass; i. e.TGL περιέχω.2

    a. to contain: of the subject-matter, contents, of a writing ( βίβλος περιέχει τάς πράξεις, Diodorus 2, 1; (Josephus , contra Apion (1, 1); 1, 8, 2; 2, 4, 1; 2, 38, 1)), ἐπιστολήν περιέχουσαν τόν τύπον τοῦτον, a letter of which this is a sample, or a letter written after this form (cf. τύπος , 3), Acts 23:25 (L T Tr WH ἔχουσαν (cf. Grimm on 1 Macc. as below)) (τόν τρόπον τοῦτον, 1 Macc. 15:2; 2 Macc. 11:16); intransitive, (Buttmann , § 129, 17 n.; 144 (126) n.): περιέχει ἐν (τῇ) γραφή, it is contained in (holy) scripture, 1 Peter 2:6 R G T Tr WH ; absolutely, περιέχει γραφή (our runs), followed by direct discourse, ibid. Lachmann; likewise, νόμος ὑμῶν περιέχει, Ev. Nicod. c. 4; with adverbs: περιέχειν οὕτως, 2 Macc. 9:18 2Macc. 11:22; καθώς περιέχει βίβλος Ανωχ, Test. xii. Patr. , test. Leviticus 10:1-20; ὡς παράδοσις περιέχει, Eusebius , h. e. 3, 1; see Grimm on 1 Macc. 11:29.TGL περιέχω.3

    b. equivalent to to take possession of, to seize: τινα, Luke 5:9 (2 Macc. 4:16; Josephus , b. j. 4, 10, 1).TGL περιέχω.4


    (4024) περιζωννύω, or περιζώννυμι: middle, 1 future περιζώσομαι; 1 aorist imperative περίζωσαι, participle περιζωσάμενος; perfect passive participle περιεζωσμένος; to gird around (περί, III. 1); to fasten garments with a girdle: τήν ὀσφύν, to fasten one's clothing about the loins with a girdle (Jeremiah 1:17), passive, Luke 12:35. Middle to gird oneself: absolutely, Luke 12:37; Luke 17:8; Acts 12:8 Rec. ; τήν ὀσφύν ἐν ἀλήθεια, with truth as a girdle, figuratively equivalent to to equip oneself with knowledge of the truth, Ephesians 6:14; with an accusative of the thing with which one girds himself (often so in the Sept. , as σάκκον, Jeremiah 4:8; Jeremiah 6:26; Lamentations 2:10; στολήν δόξης, Sir. 45:7; and in tropical expressions, δύναμιν, εὐφροσύνην, 1 Samuel 2:4; Psalm 17:33 (Psalms 18:33); (Buttmann , § 135, 2)): πρός τοῖς μαστοῖς ζώνην, Revelation 1:13; ζώνας περί τά στήθη, Revelation 15:6. (Aristophanes , Polybius , Pausanias , Plutarch , others; the Sept. for חָגַר and אָזַר). Cf. ἀναζώννυμι .TGL περιζώννυμι.2


    (4025) περίθεσις, περιθέσεως, (περιτίθημι), the act of putting around (περί, III. 1) (Vulg. circumdatio (A. V. wearing)): περιθέσεως χρυσίων κόσμος, the adornment consisting of the golden ornaments wont to be plied around the head or the body, 1 Peter 3:3. ((Arrian 7, 22), Galen , Sextus Empiricus , others.)TGL περίθεσις.2


    (4026) περιΐστημι: 2 aorist περιεστην; perfect participle περιεστώς; present middle imperative 2 person singular περιΐστασο (on which form see Winer s Grammar, § 14, 1 e.; (Buttmann , 47 (40), who both call it passive (but see Veitch , p. 340)));TGL περιΐστημι.2

    1. in the present, imperfect, future, 1 aorist, active, to place around (one).TGL περιΐστημι.3

    2. in the perfect, pluperfect, 2 aorist active, and the tenses of the middle, to stand around: John 11:42; Acts 25:7 (in L T Tr WH with an accusative; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 52, 4, 12). Middle to turn oneself about namely, for the purpose of avoiding something, hence, to avoid, shun (Josephus , Antiquities 4, 6, 12; 10, 10, 4; b. j. 2, 8, 6; Antoninus 3,4; Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 4, 59; Athen. 15, p. 675 e.; (Diogenes Laërtius 9, 14; Jamblichus , vit. Pythagoras 31 (p. 392, Kiessl. edition); Sextus Empiricus ; joined with φεύγειν, Josephus , Antiquities 1, 1, 4; with ἐκτρέπεσθαι, Lucian , Hermot. § 86; Hesychius περιΐστασο. Ἀποφευγε, ἀνατρεπε; (cf. furher, D'Orville's Chariton, Reiske edition, p. 282); this use of the verb is censured by Lucian , soloec. 5): in the N. T. so with an accusative of the thing (cf. Winer 's Grammar, the passage cited), 2 Timothy 2:16; Titus 3:9.TGL περιΐστημι.4


    (4027) περικάθαρμα, περικαθαρματος, τό (περικαθαίρω, to cleanse on all sides (περί, III. 1)), off-scouring, refuse: plural, τά περικαθάρματα τοῦ κόσμου (A. V. , the filth of the world), metaphorically, the most abject and despicable men, 1 Corinthians 4:13. (Epictetus diss. 3, 22, 78;purgamenta urbis , Curt. 8, 5, 8; 10, 2, 7; (see Wetstein on 1 Corinthians, the passage cited); the Sept. once for כֹּפֶר, the price of expiation or redemption, Proverbs 21:18, because the Greeks used to apply the term καθαρματα to victims sacrificed to make expiation for the people, and even to criminals who were maintained at the public expense, that on the outbreak of a pestilence or other calamity they might be offered as sacrifices to make expiation for the state.)TGL περικάθαρμα.2


    (4028) περικαλύπτω; 1 aorist participle περικαλυψας; perfect passive participle περικεκαλυμμενος; from Homer down; to cover all around (περί, III. 1), to cover up, cover over: τό πρόσωπον, Mark 14:65; Luke 22:64 (A. V. blindfold); τί χρυσίῳ, Hebrews 9:4 (Exodus 28:20).TGL περικαλύπτω.2


    (4029) περίκειμαι; (περί and κεῖμαι); from Homer down;TGL περίκειμαι.2

    1. to lie around (cf. περί , III. 1): περί (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 52, 4, 12) τί (A. V. were hanged, Mark 9:42); Luke 17:2; ἔχοντες περικείμενον ἡμῖν νέφος (A. V. are composed about with a cloud etc.), Hebrews 12:1.TGL περίκειμαι.3

    2. passively (cf. Buttmann , 50 (44)), to be compassed with, have round one, (with the accusative; cf. Winer s Grammar, § 32, 5; Buttmann , § 134, 7): ἅλυσιν, Acts 28:20 (δεσμά, 4 Macc. 12:3); ἀσθένειαν, infirmity cleaves to me, Hebrews 5:2 (ὕβριν, Theocritus , 23,14; ἀμαυρωσιν, νέφος, Clement of Rome , 2 Cor. 1, 6 [ET]).TGL περίκειμαι.4


    (4030) περικεφαλαία, περικεφαλαίας, (περί and κεφαλή), a helmet: 1 Thessalonians 5:8; τοῦ σωτηρίου (from Isaiah 59:17), i. e. dropping the figure, the protection of soul which consists in (the hope of) salvation, Ephesians 6:17. (Polybius ; the Sept. for כּובַע.)TGL περικεφαλαία.2


    (4031) περικρατής, περικρατες (κράτος), τίνος, having full power over a thing: (περικρατής γενέσθαι τῆς σκάφης, to secure), Acts 27:16. (Susanna, 39; the Alex. manuscript; ecclesiastical writings.)TGL περικρατής.2


    (4032) περικρύπτω: 2 aorist περιέκρυβον (on this fore cf. Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. i., p. 400f; ii., p. 226; (WH s Appendix, p. 170; others make it (in Luke as below) a late imperfect; cf. Buttmann , 40 (35); Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word κρυβῶ; Veitch , under the word κρύπτω)); to conceal on all sides or entirely, to hide: ἑαυτόν, to keep oneself at home, Luke 1:24. (Lucian , (Diogenes Laërtius , others.)TGL περικρύβω.2


    (4033) περικυκλόω, περικύκλῳ: future περικυκλώσω; to encircle, compass about: of a city (besieged), Luke 19:43. (Aristophanes av. 346; Xenophon , an. 6,1 (3), 11; Aristotle , h. a. 4, 8 (p. 533{b}, 11); Lucian , others; the Sept. for סָבַב.)TGL περικυκλόω.2


    (4034) περιλάμπω: 1 aorist περιελαμψα; to shine around: τινα, Luke 2:9; Acts 26:13. (Diodorus , Josephus , Plutarch , others.)TGL περιλάμπω.2


    (4035) περιλείπω: present passive participle περιλειπόμενος (cf. περί , III. 2); to leave over; passive, to remain over, to survive: 1 Thessalonians 4:15, 1 Thessalonians 4:17. (Aristophanes , Plato , Euripides , Polybius , Herodian; 2 Macc. 1:31.)TGL περιλείπω.2


    (4036) περίλυπος, περίλυπον (περί and λύπη, and so properly, 'encompassed with grief' (cf. περί , III. 3)), very sad, exceedingly sorrowful: Matthew 26:38: Mark 6:26; Mark 14:34; Luke 18:23, Luke 18:24 (where T WH omit; Tr brackets the clause). (Psalms 41:6, Psalms 41:12 (Psalms 42:6,12); 1 Esdr. 8:69; Isocrates , Aristotle , others.)TGL περίλυπος.2


    (4037) περιμένω; (περί further (cf. περί , III. 2)); to wait for: τί, Acts 1:4. (Genesis 49:18; Wis. 8:12; Aristophanes , Thucydides , Xenophon , Plato , Demosthenes , Josephus , Plutarch , others.)TGL περιμένω.2


    (4038) πέριξ (on the formative or strengthening xi Ξ cf. Lob. Paralip., p. 131), adverb, from Aeschylus down, round about: αἱ πέριξ πόλεις, the cities round about, the circumjacent cities, Acts 5:16.TGL πέριξ.2


    (4039) περιοικέω, περιοίκῳ; to dwell round about: τινα (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 52, 4, 12), to be one's neighbor, Luke 1:65. (Herodotus , Aristophanes , Xenophon , Lysias , Plutarch .)TGL περιοικέω.2


    (4040) περίοικος, περιοίκου (περί and οἶκος), dwelling around, a neighbor: Luke 1:58. (Genesis 19:29; Deuteronomy 1:7; Jeremiah 30:5 (Jeremiah 49:5); Herodotus , Thucydides , Xenophon , Isocrates , others.)TGL περίοικος.2


    (4041) περιούσιος, περιούσιον (from περιων, περιουσα, participle of the verb περίειμι, to be over and above — see ἐπιούσιος ; hence, περιουσία, abundance, plenty; riches, wealth, property), that which is one's own, belongs to one's possessions: λαός περιούσιος, a people selected by God from the other nations for his own possession, Titus 2:14; Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 64 [ET]; in the Sept. for סְגֶלָּה עַם (Exodus 19:5); Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18. (Cf. Lightfoot 'Fresh Revision' etc. Appendix ii.)TGL περιούσιος.2


    (4042) περιοχή, περιοχῆς, (περιέχω, which see);TGL περιοχή.2

    1. an encompassing, compass, circuit (Theophrastus , Diodorus , Plutarch , others).TGL περιοχή.3

    2. that which is contained; specifically, the contents of any writing, Acts 8:32 (Cicero , ad Attic. 13, 25; Stobaeus , eclog. ethic., p. 164 (ii., p. 541, Gaisford edition)) (but A. V. place i. e. passage; cf. Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word).TGL περιοχή.4


    (4043) περιπατέω, περιπατῶ; imperfect 2 person singular περιεπάτεις, 3 person περιεπάτει, plural περιεπάτουν; future περιπατήσω; 1 aorist περιεπάτησα; pluperfect 3 person singular περιεπεπατήκει (Acts 14:8 Rec.elz ), and without the augment (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 12, 9; (Buttmann , 33 (29))) περιπεπατήκει (ibid. Rec.st Griesbach); the Sept. for הָלַך; to walk; (walk about A. V. 1 Peter 5:8);TGL περιπατέω.2

    a. properly, (as in Aristophanes , Xenophon , Plato , Isocrates , Josephus , Aelian , others): absolutely, Matthew 9:5; Matthew 11:5; Matthew 15:31; Mark 2:9 (Tdf. ὕπαγε; Mark 5:42; Mark 8:24; Mark 16:12; Luke 5:23; Luke 7:22; Luke 24:17; John 1:36; John 5:8, John 5:11; John 11:9; Acts 3:6, Acts 3:8, Acts 3:12; Acts 14:8, Acts 14:10; 1 Peter 5:8; Revelation 9:20; equivalent to to make one's way, make progress, in figurative discourse equivalent to to make a due use of opportunities, John 12:35. with additions: γυμνός περιπατῇ, Revelation 16:15; ἐπάνω (τίνος), Luke 11:44; διά with the genitive of the thing, Revelation 21:24 (G L T Tr WH ); ἐν with the dative of place, equivalent to to frequent, stay in, a place, Mark 11:27; John 7:1; John 10:23; Revelation 2:1; ἐν τισί, among persons, John 11:54; (περιεπάτεις ὅπου ἤθελες, of personal liberty, John 21:18); metaphorically, ἐν τῇ σκοτία, to be subject to error and sin, John 8:12; John 12:35; 1 John 1:6; 1 John 2:11; ἐν with the dative of the garment one is clothed in, Mark 12:38; Luke 20:46; Revelation 3:4 (ἐν κοκκινοις, Epictetus diss. 3, 22, 10); ἐπί τῆς θαλάσσης (Matthew 14:25 R G ; 26 L T Tr WH ; Mark 6:48, Mark 6:49), see ἐπί , A. I. 1 a. and 2 a.; ἐπί τήν θαλασσην, ἐπί τά ὕδατα (Matthew 14:25 L T Tr WH , 26 R G , 29), see ἐπί , C. I. 1 a.; (παρά τήν θάλασσαν, Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16 Rec. , see παρά , III. 1); μετά τίνος, to associate with one, to be one's companion, used of one's followers and votaries, John 6:66; Revelation 3:4.TGL περιπατέω.3

    b. Hebraistically, to live (cf. Winer s Grammar, 32; common in Paul and John, but not found in James or in Peter (cf. ἀναστρέφω 3 b., ἀναστροφή)), i. e.TGL περιπατέω.4

    α. to regulate one's life, to conduct oneself (cf. ὁδός , 2 a., πορεύω, b. γ.): ἀξίως τίνος, Ephesians 4:1; Colossians 1:10; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; εὐσχημόνως, Romans 13:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:12; ἀκριβῶς, Ephesians 5:15; ἀτάκτως, 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 2 Thessalonians 3:11; ὡς or καθώς τίς, Ephesians 4:17; Ephesians 5:8, Ephesians 5:15; οὕτω περιπατοῦντας καθώς, Philippians 3:17; (καθώς περιεπάτησεν... οὕτως περιπατεῖν, 1 John 2:6 (L Tr text WH omit οὕτω)); πῶς, καθώς, 1 Thessalonians 4:1; οὕτως, ὡς, 1 Corinthians 7:17; so that a nominative of quality must be sought from what follows, ἐχθροί τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, Philippians 3:18. with a dative of the thing to which the life is given or consecrated: κώμοις, μέθαις, etc., Romans 13:13, cf. Fritzsche on Romans, vol. iii., p. 140f; with a dative of the standard according to which one governs his life (cf. Fritzsche as above, p. 142; also Buttmann , § 133, 22 b.; Winer 's Grammar, 219 (205)): Acts 21:21; Galatians 5:16; 2 Corinthians 12:18; followed by ἐν with a dative denoting either the state in which one is flying, or the virtue or vice to which he is given (cf. ἐν , I. 5 e., p. 210b bottom): Romans 6:4; 2 Corinthians 4:2; Ephesians 2:2, Ephesians 2:10; Ephesians 4:17; Ephesians 5:2; Colossians 3:7; Colossians 4:5; 2 John 1:4, 2 John 1:6; 3 John 1:3; ἐν βρώμασι, of those who have fellowship in the sacrificial feasts, Hebrews 13:9; ἐν Χριστῷ (see ἐν , I. 6 b.), to live a life conformed to the union entered into with Christ, Colossians 2:6; κατά with an accusative of the person or thing furnishing the standard of living (Mark 7:5); 2 John 1:6; κατά ἄνθρωπον, 1 Corinthians 3:3; κατά σάρκα, Romans 8:1 Rec. , Romans 8:4; Romans 14:15; 2 Corinthians 10:2.TGL περιπατέω.5

    β. equivalent to to pass (one's) life: ἐν σαρκί, in the body, 2 Corinthians 10:3; διά πίστεως (see διά , A. I. 2), 2 Corinthians 5:7. (Compare: ἐμπεριπατέω.)TGL περιπατέω.6


    (4044) περιπείρω: 1 aorist περιεπειρα; to pierce through (see περί , III. 3): τινα ξιφεσι, δόρατι, etc., Diodorus , Josephus , Plutarch , Lucian , others; metaphorically, ἑαυτόν... ὀδύναις, to torture one's soul with sorrows, 1 Timothy 6:10 (ἀνηκέστοις κακοῖς, Philo in Flacc. § 1).TGL περιπείρω.2


    (4045) περιπίπτω: 2 aorist περιέπεσον; from Herodotus down; so to fall into as to be encompassed by (cf. περί , III. 1): λῃσταῖς, among robbers, Luke 10:30; τοῖς πειρασμοῖς, James 1:2 (αἰκίαις, Clement of Rome , 1 Cor. 51, 2 [ET]; θανάτῳ, Daniel 2:9; Diodorus 1, 77; νόσῳ, Josephus , Antiquities 15, 7, 7; συμφορά, ibid. 1, 1, 4; τοῖς δεινοῖς, Aesop 79 (110 edition Halm); ψευδέσι καί ἀσεβέσι δόγμασιν, Origen in Joann. t. ii. § 2; numerous other examples in Passow , under the word, the passage cited (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II. 3); to which add, 2 Macc. 6:13 2Macc. 10:4; Polybius 1, 37, 1 and 9); εἰς τόπον τινα, upon a certain place, Acts 27:41.TGL περιπίπτω.2


    (4046) περιποιέω, περιποιῶ: middle, present περιποιοῦμαι; 1 aorist περιεποιησάμην; (see περί , III. 2); from Herodotus down; "to make to remain over; to reserve, to leave or keep safe, lay by; middle to make to remain for oneself," i. e.:TGL περιποιέω.2

    1. to preserve for oneself (the Sept. for הֶחֱיָה): τήν ψυχήν, life, Luke 17:33 T Tr WH (τάς ψυχάς, Xenophon , Cyril 4, 4, 10).TGL περιποιέω.3

    2. to get for oneself, purchase: τί, Acts 20:28 (Isaiah 43:21; δύναμιν, Thucydides 1, 9; Xenophon , mem. 2, 7, 3); τί ἐμαυτῷ, gain for myself (Winer 's Grammar, § 38, 6), 1 Timothy 3:13 (1 Macc. 6:44; Xenophon , an. 5, 8, 17).TGL περιποιέω.4


    (4047) περιποίησις, περιποιήσεως, (περιποιέω);TGL περιποίησις.2

    1. a preserving, preservation: εἰς περιποίησιν ψυχῆς, to the preserving of the soul, namely, that it may be made partaker of eternal salvation (A. V. unto the saving of the soul), Hebrews 10:39 (Plato , deff., p. 415 c.).TGL περιποίησις.3

    2. possession, one's own property: 1 Peter 2:9 (Isaiah 43:20); Ephesians 1:14 (on this passive see ἀπολύτρωσις , 2):TGL περιποίησις.4

    3. an obtaining: with a genitive of the thing to be obtained, 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14.TGL περιποίησις.5


    (4048) περιρρήγνυμι (L T Tr WH περιρήγνυμι, with one rho ; see the preceding word): 1 aorist participle plural περιρρήξαντες; (περί and ῤήγνυμι); to break off on all sides, break off all round (cf. περί , III. 1): τό ἱμάτιον, to rend or tear off all around, Acts 16:22. So of garments also in 2 Macc. 4:38 and often in secular authors; Aeschylus sept. 329; Demosthenes , p. 403, 3; Polybius 15, 33, 4; Diodorus 17, 35.TGL περιρήγνυμι.2


    (4049) περισπάω, περίσπω: imperfect passive 3 person singular περιεσπᾶτο; from Xenophon down; to draw around (περί, III. 1), to draw away, distract; passive metaphorically, to be driven about mentally, to be distracted: περί τί, i. e. to be over-occupied, too busy, about a thing, Luke 10:40 (A. V. cumbered); in the same sense with τῇ διάνοια added, Polybius 3, 105, 1; 4, 10, 3; Diodorus 1, 74; περισπαν τόν ἀργόν δῆμον περί τάς ἔξω στρατείας, Dionysius Halicarnassus , Antiquities 9, 43; passive, to be distracted with cares, to be troubled, distressed (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 23), for עָנָה, Ecclesiastes 1:13; Ecclesiastes 3:10.TGL περισπάω.2


    (4050) περισσεία, περισσειας, (περισσεύω, which see);TGL περισσεία.2

    1. abundance: τῆς χάριτος, Romans 5:17; τῆς χαρᾶς, 2 Corinthians 8:2; εἰς περισσείαν, adverbially, superabundantly, superfluously, (A. V. out of measure), 2 Corinthians 10:15 (Boeckh, Corpus inscriptions i., p. 668, no. 1378, 6; Byzantine writings).TGL περισσεία.3

    2. superiority; preference, preeminence: יותֵר, Ecclesiastes 6:8; for יִתְרון, Ecclesiastes 2:13; Ecclesiastes 10:10.TGL περισσεία.4

    3. gain, profit: for יִתְרון, Ecclesiastes 1:3; Ecclesiastes 2:11; Ecclesiastes 3:9, etc.TGL περισσεία.5

    4. residue, remains: κακίας, the wickedness remaining over in the Christian from his state prior to conversion, James 1:21, see περίσσευμα , 2; (others adhere in this passive to the meaning which the word bears elsewhere in the N. T. viz. 'excess','superabundance,' (A. V. superfluity)).TGL περισσεία.6


    (4051) περίσσευμα, περισσεύματος, τό (περισσεύω);TGL περίσσευμα.2

    1. abundance, in which one delights; opposed to ὑστέρημα, 2 Corinthians 8:14 (13), 14; tropically, of that which fills the heart, Matthew 12:34; Luke 6:45, (Eratosthenes , Plutarch ).TGL περίσσευμα.3

    2. what is left over, residue, remains: plural Mark 8:8.TGL περίσσευμα.4


    (4052) περισσεύω; imperfect ἐπερίσσευον (Acts 16:5); future infinitive περισσεύσειν (Philippians 4:12 Rec.bez ); 1 aorist ἐπερίσσευσα; passive, present περισσεύομαι (Luke 15:17, see below); 1 future 3 person singular περισσευθήσεται; (περισσός, which see);TGL περισσεύω.2

    1. intransitive and properly, to exceed a fixed number or measure; to be over and above a certain number or measure: μύριοι εἰσιν ἀριθμόν... εἷς δέ περισσεύει, Hesiod from 14, 4 (clxix. (187), edition Göttling ); hence,TGL περισσεύω.3

    a. to be over, to remain: John 6:12; τό περισσεῦον τῶν κλασμάτων, equivalent to τά περισσευοντα κλάσματα, Matthew 14:20; Matthew 15:37; περισσεύει μοι τί, John 6:13 (Tobit 4:16); τό περισσεῦσαν τίνι, what remained over to one, Luke 9:17.TGL περισσεύω.4

    b. to exist or be at hand in abundance: τίνι, Luke 12:15; τό περισσεῦον τίνι, one's abundance, wealth ((R. V. superfluity); opposed to ὑστέρησις), Mark 12:44; opposed to ὑστέρημα, Luke 21:4: to be great (abundant), 2 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 9:12; Philippians 1:26; περισσεύει τί εἰς τινα, "a thing comes in abundance, or overflows, unto one; something falls to the lot of one in large measure": Romans 5:15; 2 Corinthians 1:5; περισσεύω εἰς τί, to redound unto, turn out abundantly for, a thing, 2 Corinthians 8:2; ἀλήθεια τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ ψεύσματι ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς τήν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, i. e. by my lie it came to pass that God's veracity became the more conspicuous, and becoming thus more thoroughly known increased his glory, Romans 3:7; to be increased, τῷ ἀριθμῷ, Acts 16:5.TGL περισσεύω.5

    c. to abound, overflow, i. e.TGL περισσεύω.6

    α. to be abundantly furnished with, to have in abundance, abound in (a thing): absolutely (A. V. to abound), to be in affluence, Philippians 4:18; opposed to ὑστερεῖσθαι; Philippians 4:12; in spiritual gifts, 1 Corinthians 14:12; with a genitive of the thing in which one abounds (Winer s Grammar, § 30, 8b.; (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 12)): ἄρτων, Luke 15:17 R G L T Tr marginal readingTGL περισσεύω.7

    β. to be pre-eminent, to excel (cf. Buttmann , § 132, 22): absolutely, 1 Corinthians 8:8; followed by ἐν with a dative of the virtues or the actions in which one excels (Buttmann , § 132, 12), 1 Corinthians 15:13; 1 Corinthians 15:58; 2 Corinthians 3:9 (here L T Tr WH omit ἐν); 2 Corinthians 8:7; Colossians 2:7; περισσεύητε μᾶλλον, to excel still more, to increase in excellence, 1 Thessalonians 4:1, 1 Thessalonians 4:10; μᾶλλον καί μᾶλλον περισσεύῃ, Philippians 1:9; περισσεύσῃ... πλεῖον, to excel more than (A. V. exceed; cf. Buttmann , § 132, 20 and 22), Matthew 5:20, (περισσεύειν ὑπέρ τινα, 1 Macc. 3:30; τί ἐπερίσσευσεν ἄνθρωπος παρά τό κτῆνος; Ecclesiastes 3:19).TGL περισσεύω.8

    2. by later Greek usage transitively (cf. Winer s Grammar, p. 23; § 38,1), to make to abound, i. e.TGL περισσεύω.9

    a. to furnish one richly so that he has abundance: passive, Matthew 13:12; Matthew 25:29; with the genitive of the thing with which one is furnished, passive, Luke 15:17 WH Tr text; τί εἰς τινα, to make a thing to abound unto one, to confer a thing abundantly upon one, 2 Corinthians 9:8; Ephesians 1:8.TGL περισσεύω.10

    b. to make abundant or excellent: τί, 2 Corinthians 4:15; to cause one to excel: τινα, with a dative of the thing, 1 Thessalonians 3:12. (τάς ὥρας, to extend the hours beyond the prescribed time, Athen. 2, p. 42 b.) (Compare: ὑπερπερισσεύω.)TGL περισσεύω.11


    (4053) περισσός, περισσή, περισσόν (from περί, which see III. 2), from Hesiod down, the Sept. for יותֵר, יֶתֶר, etc.; exceeding some number or measure or rank or need;TGL περισσός.2

    1. over and above, more than is necessary, superadded: τό περισσόν τούτων, what is added to (A. V. more than; cf. Buttmann , § 132, 21 Rem.) these, Matthew 5:37; ἐκ περισσοῦ, exceedingly, beyond measure, Mark 6:51 (WH omits; Tr brackets ἐκ περισσοῦ); Mark 14:31 Rec. ; ὑπέρ ἐκ περισσοῦ (written as one word ὑπερεκπερισσοῦ (which see)), exceeding abundantly, supremely, Ephesians 3:20 (cf. Buttmann , as above); 1 Thessalonians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:13 (R G WH text); περισσόν μοι ἐστιν, it is superfluous for me, 2 Corinthians 9:1; περισσόν ἔχειν, to have abundance, John 10:10 (οἱ μέν... περισσά ἔχουσιν, οἱ δέ οὐδέ τά ἀναγκαῖά δύνανται πορίζεσθαι, Xenophon , oec. 20, 1); neuter comparitive περισσότερον τί, something further, more, Luke 12:4 (L Tr marginal reading περισσόν); περισσότερον, the more, Luke 12:48; (περισσότερον πάντων, etc. much more than all etc. Mark 12:33 T Tr text WH ); adverbially, somewhat more (R. V. somewhat abundantly), 2 Corinthians 10:8; (Vulg. abundantius (A. V. more abundantly)) i. e. more plainly, Hebrews 6:17; μᾶλλον περισσότερον, much more, Mark 7:36; περισσότερον πάντων, more (abundantly) than all, 1 Corinthians 15:10; with an adjective it forms a periphrasis for the comparitive περισσότερον κατάδηλόν, more (abundantly) evident, Hebrews 7:15 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 35, 1).TGL περισσός.3

    2. superior, extraordinary, surpassing, uncommon: Matthew 5:47 (A. V. more than others); τό περισσόν, as a substantive, pre-eminence, superiority, advantage, Romans 3:1; comparitive περισσότερος, more eminent, more remarkable (οὐκ ἔσῃ περισσότερος, Genesis 49:3 Symm. ; περιττοτερος φρονήσει, Plutarch , mor., p. 57 f. de adulatore etc. 14): Matthew 11:9; Luke 7:26, although in each passage περισσότερον can also be taken as neuter (something) more excellent (Vulg. plus (R. V. much more than etc.)); with substantives: περισσότερον κρίμα, i. e. a severer, heavier judgment, Matthew 23:14-13Rec. ; Mark 12:40; Luke 20:47; τιμή, greater honor, more (abundant) honor, 1 Corinthians 12:23{a} (1 Corinthians 12:24; εὐσχημοσύνη, 1 Corinthians 12:23); λύπη, 2 Corinthians 2:7.TGL περισσός.4


    (4054) περισσοτέρως, adverb (from περισσῶς, which see) (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 11, 2 c.; Buttmann , 69 (61)); 1. properly, more abundantly (so in Diodorus 13, 108; Athen. 5, p. 192 f.); in the N. T. more, in a greater degree; more earnestly, more exceedingly, (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 243 (228)): Mark 15:14 Rec. ; 2 Corinthians 7:15; 2 Corinthians 11:23; Galatians 1:14; Philippians 1:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:17; Hebrews 2:1; Hebrews 13:19; opposed to ἧττον, 2 Corinthians 12:15; περισσοτέρως μᾶλλον, much more (R. V. the more exceedingly), 2 Corinthians 7:13. 2. especially, above others (A. V. more abundantly): 2 Corinthians 1:12; 2 Corinthians 2:4.TGL περισσότερον.2


    (4055) *For 4055 see Strong's entry Strong's 4053.TGL περισσότερος.2


    (4056) *For 4056 see Strong's entry Strong's 4053.TGL περισσοτέρως.2


    (4057) περισσῶς (περισσός, which see), adverb, beyond measure, extraordinarily (Euripides ; equivalent to magnificently, Polybius , Athen. ); equivalent to greatly, exceedingly: ἐκπλήσσεσθαι, Mark 10:26; κράζειν, Matthew 27:23 and G L T Tr WH in Mark 15:14; ἐμμαίνεσθαι, Acts 26:11.TGL περισσῶς.2


    (4058) περιστερά, περιστεράς, , Hebrew יונָה, a dove: Matthew 3:16; Matthew 10:16; Matthew 21:12; Mark 1:10; Mark 11:15; Luke 2:24; Luke 3:22; John 1:32; John 2:14, John 2:16. (From Herodotus down.)TGL περιστερά.2


    (4059) περιτέμνω (Ionic περιτάμνω); 2 aorist περιέτεμον; passive, present περιτέμνομαι; perfect participle περιτετμημένος; 1 aorist περιετμήθην; (from Hesiod down); the Sept. chiefly for מוּל; to cut around (cf. περί , III. 1): τινα, to circumcise, cut off one's prepuce (used of that well-known rite by which not only the male children of the Israelites, on the eighth day after birth, but subsequently also 'proselytes of righteousness' were consecrated to Jehovah and introduced into the number of his people; (cf. BB. DD. under the word ; Oehler's O. T. Theol. (edited by Day) §§ 87, 88; Müller, Barnabasbrief, p. 227f)), Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21; John 7:22; Acts 7:8; Acts 15:5; Acts 16:3; Acts 21:21; of the same rite, Diodorus 1, 28; passive and middle to get oneself circumcised, present oneself to be circumcised, receive circumcision (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 38, 3): Acts 15:1, Acts 15:24 Rec. ; 1 Corinthians 7:18; Galatians 2:3; Galatians 5:2; Galatians 6:12; with τά αἰδοῖα added, Herodotus 2, 36 and 104; Josephus , Antiquities 1, 10, 5; contra Apion 1, 22. Since by the rite of circumcision a man was separated from the unclean world and dedicated to God, the verb is transferred to denote the extinguishing of lusts and the removal of sins, Colossians 2:11, cf. Jeremiah 4:4; Deuteronomy 10:16, and ecclesiastical writings (see Lightfoot on Philippians 3:3).TGL περιτέμνω.2


    (4060) περιτίθημι, 3 person plural περιτιθέασιν (Mark 15:17; see references in ἐπιτίθημι ); 1 aorist περιέθηκα; 2 aorist participle περιθείς, περιθέντες; from Homer down;TGL περιτίθημι.2

    a. properly, to place around, set about, (cf. περί , III. 1): τίνι τί, as φραγμόν τῷ ἀμπελῶνι, Matthew 21:33; Mark 12:1; to put a garment on one, Matthew 27:28; στέφανον, put on (encircle one's head with) a crown, Mark 15:17 (Sir. 6:31; Plato , Alcib. 2, p. 151 a.); τί τίνι, to put or bind one thing around another, Matthew 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29.TGL περιτίθημι.3

    b. tropically, τίνι τί, to present, bestow, confer, a thing upon one (so in classical Greek from Herodotus down, as ἐλευθερίαν, Herodotus 3, 142; δόξαν, Demosthenes , p. 1417, 3; see Passow , ii, p. 881f; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, II.); τό ὄνομα, Wis. 14:21; Thucydides 4, 87): τιμήν, 1 Corinthians 12:23; Esther 1:20.TGL περιτίθημι.4


    (4061) περιτομή, περιτομῆς, (περιτέμνω), circumcision (on which see περιτέμνω );TGL περιτομή.2

    a. properly,TGL περιτομή.3

    α. the act or rite of circumcision: John 7:22; Acts 7:8; Romans 4:11; Galatians 5:11; Philippians 3:5; οἱ ἐκ τῆς περιτομῆς (see ἐκ , II. 7), the circumcised, they of the circumcision, used of Jews, Romans 4:12; of Christians gathered from among the Jews, Acts 11:2; Galatians 2:12; Titus 1:10; οἱ ὄντες ἐκ περιτομῆς, Colossians 4:11.TGL περιτομή.4

    β. the state of circumcision, the being circumcised: Romans 2:25-28; Romans 3:1; 1 Corinthians 7:19; Galatians 5:6; Galatians 6:15; Colossians 3:11; ἐν περιτομή ὤν, circumcised, Romans 4:10.TGL περιτομή.5

    γ. by metonymy, 'the circumcision' for οἱ περιτμηθέντες the circumcised, i. e. Jews: Romans 3:30; Romans 4:9, Romans 4:12; Romans 15:8; Galatians 2:7-9; Ephesians 2:11; οἱ ἐκ περιτομῆς πιστοί, Christian converts from among the Jews, Jewish Christians, Acts 10:45.TGL περιτομή.6

    b. metaphorically,TGL περιτομή.7

    α. of Christians: (ἡμεῖς ἐσμεν) περιτομή, separated from the unclean multitude and truly consecrated to God, Philippians 3:3 ((where see Lightfoot )).TGL περιτομή.8

    β. περιτομή ἀχειροποίητος, the extinction of the passions and the removal of spiritual impurity (see περιτέμνω , at the end), Colossians 2:11; περιτομή καρδίας in Romans 2:29 denotes the same thing; περιτομή τοῦ Χριστοῦ, of which Christ is the author, Colossians 2:11. (The noun περιτομή occurs three times in the O. T., viz. Genesis 17:13; Jeremiah 11:16; for מוּלָה, Exodus 4:26; besides in Philo , whose tract περί περιτομῆς is found in Mangey's edition 2, pp. 210-212 (Richter's edition 4, pp. 282-284); Josephus , Antiquities 1, 10, 5; (13, 11 at the end; contra Apion 2, 13, 1, 6); plural, Antiquities 1, 12, 2.)TGL περιτομή.9


    (4062) περιτρέπω; to turn about (περί, III. 1), to turn; to transfer or change by turning: τί or τινα εἰς τί, a person or thing into some state; once so in the N. T. viz. σε εἰς μανίαν περιτρέπει, is turning thee mad, Acts 26:24; τούς παρόντας εἰς χαράν περιεστρεψε, Josephus , Antiquities 9, 4, 4; τό θεῖον εἰς ὀργήν περιτραπεν, 2, 14, 1. In various other uses in Greek authors (from Lysias , and Plato on).TGL περιτρέπω.2


    (4063) περιτρέχω: 2 aorist (περιέδραμον T Tr WH ), participle περιδραμόντες (R G L ); from (Homer ), Theognis , Xenophon , Plato down; to run around, run round about: with an accusative of place, Mark 6:55. (The Sept. twice for שׁוּט, Jeremiah 5:1; Amos 8:12.)TGL περιτρέχω.2


    (4064) περιφέρω; present passive περιφέρομαι; from Herodotus down; to carry round: to bear about everywhere with one, τί, 2 Corinthians 4:10; to carry hither and thither, τούς κακῶς ἔχοντας, Mark 6:55 (where the Evangelist wishes us to conceive of the sick as brought to Jesus while he is travelling about and visiting different places); passive, to be driven (A. V. carried) about: παντί ἀνέμῳ τῆς διδασκαλίας, i. e. in doubt and hesitation to be led away now to this opinion, now to that, Ephesians 4:14. In Hebrews 13:9 and Jude 1:12 for περιφερ. editors from Griesbach on have restored παραφερ.TGL περιφέρω.2


    (4065) περιφρονέω, περιφρόνω;TGL περιφρονέω.2

    1. to consider or examine on all sides (περί, III. 1), i. e. carefully, thoroughly (Aristophanes nub. 741).TGL περιφρονέω.3

    2. (from περί, beyond, III. 2), to set oneself in thought beyond (exalt oneself in thought above) a person or thing; to contemn, despise: τίνος (cf. Kühner, § 419, 1 b. vol. 2, p. 325), Titus 2:15 (4 Macc. 6:9; 7:16; 14:1; Plutarch , others; τοῦ ζῆν, Plato , Ax., p. 372; Aeschines dial. Socrates 3, 22).TGL περιφρονέω.4


    (4066) περίχωρος, περίχωρον (περί and χῶρος), lying round about, neighboring (Plutarch , Aelian , Dio Cassius ); in the Scriptures περίχωρος, namely, γῆ, the region round about (which see in B. D. ): Matthew 14:35; Mark 1:28; Mark 6:55 (R G L text); Luke 3:3; Luke 4:14, Luke 4:37; Luke 7:17; Luke 8:37; Acts 14:6 (Genesis 19:17; Deuteronomy 3:13, etc.; τῆς γῆς τῆς περιχώρου, Genesis 19:28, the Alex. manuscript); περίχωρος τοῦ Ιορδάνου, Luke 3:3 (Genesis 13:10; for הַיַּרְדֵּן כִּכַּר, the region of the Jordan (cf. B. D. as above)); by metonymy, for its inhabitants: Matthew 3:5. (τό περίχωρον and τά περίχωρα, Deuteronomy 3:4; 1 Chronicles 5:16; 2 Chronicles 4:17, etc.)TGL περίχωρος.2


    (4067) περίψημα, περιψηματος, τό (from περιψάω 'to wipe off all round'; and this from περί (which see III. 1), and ψάω 'to wipe,' 'rub'), properly, what is wiped off; dirt rubbed off'; offscouring, scrapings: 1 Corinthians 4:13, used in the same sense as περικάθαρμα, which see Suidas and other Greek lexicographers under the word relate that the Athenians, in order to avert public calamities, yearly threw a criminal into the sea as an offering to Poseidon; hence, ἀργύριον... περίψημα τοῦ παιδίου ἡμῶν γένοιτο (as if to say) let it become an expiatory offering, a ransom, for our child, i. e. in comparison with the saving of our son's life let it be to us a despicable and worthless thing, Tobit 5:18 (where see Fritzsche; (cf. also Müller on the Epistle of Barnabas 4, 9 [ET])). It is used of a man who in behalf of religion undergoes dire trials for the salvation of others, Ignatius ad Eph. 8, 1 [ET]; 18, 1 [ET]; (see Lightfoot 's note on the former passage).TGL περίψημα.2


    (4068) περπερεύομαι; (to be πέρπερος, i. e. vain-glorious, braggart, Polybius 32, 6, 5; 40, 6, 2; Epictetus diss. 3, 2, 14); to boast oneself (A. V. vaunt oneself): 1 Corinthians 13:4 (Antoninus 5, 5; the compound ἐμπερπερεύεσθαι is used of self-display, employing rhetorical embellishments in extolling one's self excessively, in Cicero , ad Attic. 1, 14. Hesychius περπερεύεται. κατεπαίρεται); Cf. Osiander (or Wetstein ) on 1 Corinthians, the passage cited (Gataker on Marc. Antoninus 5, 5, p. 143).TGL περπερεύομαι.2


    (4069) Περσίς (literally, 'a Persian woman'), , accusative Περσίδα, Persis, a Christian woman: Romans 16:12.TGL Περσίς.2


    (4070) πέρυσι (from πέρας), adverb, last year; the year just past: ἀπό πέρυσι, for a year past, a year ago (Winer 's Grammar, 422 (393)), 2 Corinthians 8:10; 2 Corinthians 9:2. ((Simonides ), Aristophanes , Plato , Plutarch , Lucian ).TGL πέρυσι.2


    (4071) πετεινός, πετεινη, πετεινόν (Attic for πετηνος, from πέτομαι),.flying, winged; in the N. T. found only in neuter plural πετεινά and τά πετεινά, as a substantive, flying or winged animals, birds: Matthew 13:4; Mark 4:4 (G L T Tr WH ); Luke 12:24; Romans 1:23; James 3:7; τά πετεινά τοῦ οὐρανοῦ (the Sept. for הַשָׁמַיִם עוף; see οὐρανός , 1 b.), the birds of heaven, i. e. flying in the heavens (air), Matthew 6:26; Matthew 8:20; Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:4 (Rec), Mark 4:32; Luke 8:5; Luke 9:58; Luke 13:19; Acts 10:12 (here L T Tr WH omit τά); Acts 11:6. ((Theognis , Herodotus , others.))TGL πετεινόν.2


    (4072) πετάομαι, πετωμαι; a doubtful later Greek form for the earlier πέτομαι (see Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 581; Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii, p. 271f; cf. Winer s Grammar, 88 (84); (Buttmann , 65 (58); Veitch , under the word)); to fly: in the N. T. found only in present participle, πετωμενος, Rec. in Revelation 4:7; Revelation 8:13; Revelation 14:6; Revelation 19:17, where since Griesbach πετόμενος has been restored.TGL πέτομαι.2


    (4073) πέτρα, πέτρας, , from Homer down; the Sept. for סֶלַע and צוּר; a rock, ledge, cliff;TGL πέτρα.2

    a. properly: Matthew 7:24; Matthew 27:51, Matthew 27:60; Mark 15:46; Luke 6:48; 1 Corinthians 10:4 (on which see πνευματικός , 3 a.); a projecting rock, crag, Revelation 6:15, rocky ground, Luke 8:6, Luke 8:13.TGL πέτρα.3

    b. a rock, large stone: Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:8 (7).TGL πέτρα.4

    c. metaphorically, a man like a rock, by reason of his firmness and strength of soul: Matthew 16:18 (some interpretations regard the distinction (generally observed in classic Greek; see the commentaries and cf. Schmidt , Syn., chapter 51, §§ 4-6) between πέτρα, the massive living rock, and πέτρος, a detached but large fragment, as important for the correct understanding of this passage; others explain the different genders here as due first to the personal then to the material reference. Cf. Meyer, Keil, others; Green , Critical Note on John 1:43).TGL πέτρα.5


    (4074) Πέτρος, Πέτρου, (an appellative proper name, signifying 'a stone,' 'a rock,' 'a ledge' or 'cliff'; used metaphorically of a soul hard and unyielding, and so resembling a rock, Sophocles O. R. 334; Euripides , Med. 28; Herc. fur. 1397; answering to the Chaldean Κηφᾶς, which see, John 1:42 (43)), Peter, the surname of the apostle Simon. He was a native of Bethsaida, a town of Galilee, the son of a fisherman (see Ἰωάννης , 3, and Ἰωνᾶς, 2), and dwelt with his wife at Capernaum, Matthew 8:14; Mark 1:30; Luke 4:38, cf. 1 Corinthians 9:5. He had a brother Andrew, with whom he followed the occupation of a fisherman, Matthew 4:18; Mark 1:16; Luke 5:3. Both were received by Jesus as his companions, Matthew 4:19; Mark 1:17; Luke 5:10; John 1:40-42 (41-43); and Simon, whose pre-eminent courage and firmness he discerned and especially relied on for the future establishment of the kingdom of God, he honored with the name of Peter, John 1:42 (43); Matthew 16:18; Mark 3:16. Excelling in vigor of mind, eagerness to learn, and love for Jesus, he enjoyed, together with James and John the sons of Zebedee, the special favor and intimacy of his divine Master. After having for some time presided, in connection with John and James the brother of our Lord (see Ἰάκωβος , 3), over the affairs of the Christians at Jerusalem, he seems to have gone abroad to preach the gospel especially to Jews (Galatians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Peter 5:13; Papias in Eusebius 3, 39, 15; for Papias states that Peter employed Mark as 'interpreter' (ἑρμηνευτής), an aid of which he had no need except beyond the borders of Palestine, especially among those who spoke Latin (but on the disputed meaning: of the word 'interpreter' here, see Morison, Commentary on Mark, edition 2, Introduction, p. xxix)). But just as, on the night of the betrayal, Peter proved so far faithless to himself as thrice to deny that he was a follower of Jesus, so also some time afterward at Antioch he made greater concessions to the rigorous Jewish Christians than Christian liberty permitted; accordingly he was rebuked by Paul for his weakness and 'dissimulation' (ὑπόκρισις), Galatians 2:11. Nevertheless, in the patristic age Jewish Christians did not hesitate to claim the authority of Peter and of James the brother of the Lord in defense of their narrow views and practices. This is not the place to relate and refute the ecclesiastical traditions concerning Peter's being the founder of the church at Rome and bishop of it for twenty-five years and more; the discussion of them may be found in Hase, Protestant. Polemik gegen die röm.-kathol. Kirche, edition 4, p. 123ff; (cf. Schaff, Church History, 1882, vol. i. §§ 25, 26; Sieffert in Herzog edition 2, vol. xi., p. 524ff, and (for references), p. 537f; Lipsius, Apokr. Apostelgesch. ii.1 (1887) p. 1 sqq.). This one thing seems to be evident from John 21:18, that Peter suffered death by crucifixion (cf. Keil ad loc.; others doubt whether Christ's words contain anything more than a general prediction of martyrdom). If he was crucified at Rome, it must have been several years after the death of Paul. (Cf. BB. DD. and references as above) He is called in the N. T., at one time, simply Σίμων (once Συμεών, Acts 15:14), and (and that, too, most frequently (see B. D. under the word, under the end (p. 2459 American edition))), Πέτρος and Κηφᾶς (which see), then again Σίμων Πέτρος, Matthew 16:16; Luke 5:8; John (John 1:42 (John 1:43)); 6:(John 6:8),John 6:68; John 13:6,John 13:9,John 13:24,(John 13:36); John 18:10,John 18:15,John 18:25; John 20:2,John 20:6; John 21:2,John 21:7,John 21:11,John 21:15; once Συμεών Πέτρος (2 Peter 1:1 where L WH text Σίμων); Σίμων λεγόμενος Πέτρος, Matthew 4:18; Matthew 10:2; Σίμων ἐπικαλούμενος Πέτρος, Acts 10:18; Acts 11:13; Σίμων ὅς ἐπικαλεῖται Πέτρος, Acts 10:5, Acts 10:32.TGL Πέτρος.2


    (4075) πετρώδης, πετρῶδες (from πέτρα and εἶδος; hence, properly, 'rocklike,' 'having the appearance of rock'), rocky, stony: τό πετρῶδες and τά πετρώδη, of ground full of rocks, Matthew 13:5, Matthew 13:20; Mark 4:5, Mark 4:16. (Sophocles , Plato , Aristotle , Diodorus 3, 45 (44), Plutarch , others.)TGL πετρώδης.2


    (4076) πήγανον, πηγανου, τό (thought to be from πήγνυμι to make solid, on account of its thick, fleshy leaves; cf. Vanicek , p. 457), rue: Luke 11:42. (Theophrastus , hist. plant. 1, 3, 4; Dioscorid. 3, 45 (52); Plutarch , others) (B. D. , under the word; Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc., p. 478; Carruthers in the Bible Educator , iii. 216f.)TGL πήγανον.2


    (4077) πηγή, πηγῆς, , from Homer down, the Sept. chiefly for מַעְיָן, עַיִן, מָקור; a fountain, spring: James 3:11, and Rec. in 12; 2 Peter 2:17; ὕδατος ἁλλομένου, John 4:14; τῶν ὑδάτων, Revelation 8:10; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:4; of a well fed by a spring, John 4:6. ζωῆς πηγαί ὑδάτων, Revelation 7:17; πηγή τοῦ ὕδατος τῆς ζωῆς, Revelation 21:6 (on both passive see in ζωή , p. 274{a}); πηγή τοῦ αἵματος, a flow of blood, Mark 5:29.TGL πηγή.2


    (4078) πήγνυμι: 1 aorist ἔπηξα; from Homer down; to make fast, to fix; to fasten together, to build by fastening together: σκηνήν, Hebrews 8:2 (A. V. pitched. Compare: προσπήγνυμι.)TGL πήγνυμι.2


    (4079) πηδάλιον, πηδαλίου, τό (from πηδον the blade of an oar, an oar), from Homer down, a ship's rudder :. Acts 27:40 (on the plural see Smith, Voy. and Shipwreck of St. Paul, 4th edition, p. 183ff; B. D. , under the word, Ship (2); cf. Graser, Das Seewesen des Alterthums, in the Philologus for 1865, p. 266f); James 3:4.TGL πηδάλιον.2


    (4080) πηλίκος, πηλικη, πηλίκον (from ἧλιξ (?)), interrogative, how great, how large: in a material reference (denoting geometrical magnitude as disting. from arithmetical, πόσος) (Plato , Men., p. 82 d.; p. 83 e.; Ptolemy , 1, 3, 3; Zechariah 2:2,(6)), Galatians 6:11, where cf. Winer , Rückert, Hilgenfeld (Hackett in B. D. American edition under the word ; but see Lightfoot or Meyer). in an ethical reference, equivalent to how distinguished, Hebrews 7:4.TGL πηλίκος.2


    (4081) πηλός, πηλοῦ, , from Aeschylus and Herodotus down;TGL πηλός.2

    a. clay, which the potter uses (Isaiah 29:16; Isaiah 41:25; Nahum 3:14): Romans 9:21.TGL πηλός.3

    b. equivalent to mud (wet 'clay'): John 9:6, John 9:11, John 9:14.TGL πηλός.4


    (4082) πήρα, πήρας, , a wallet (a leather sack, in which travellers and shepherds carried their provisions) (A. V. scrip (which see in B. D. )): Matthew 10:10; Mark 6:8; Luke 9:3; Luke 10:4; Luke 22:35. (Homer , Aristophanes , Josephus , Plutarch , Herodian , Lucian , others; with τῶν βρωμάτων added, Judith 13:10.)TGL πήρα.2


    (4083) πῆχυς, genitive πηχεως (not found in the N. T.), genitive plural πηχῶν contracted from Ionic πήχεων (John 21:8; Revelation 21:17; 1 Kings 7:3 (15), 39 (2); Esther 7:9; Ezekiel 40:5) according to later usage, for the earlier and Attic πήχεων, which is common in the Sept. (cf. Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 245f; (WH s Appendix, p. 157); Winer 's Grammar, § 9, 2 e.), , the forearm i. e. that part of the arm between the hand and the elbow-joint (Homer , Odyssey 17, 38; Iliad 21, 166, etc.); hence, a cubit (ell, Latinulna ), a measure of length equal to the distance from the joint of the elbow to the tip of the middle finger (i. e. about one foot and a half, but its precise length varied and is disputed; see B. D. , under the phrase, Weights and Measures, II. 1): Matthew 6:27; Luke 12:25 (on these passages, cf. ἡλικία , 1 a.); John 21:8; Revelation 21:17. (The Sept. very often for אַמָּה.)TGL πῆχυς.2


    (4084) πιάζω (Doric for πιέζω, cf. Buttmann , 66 (58)): 1 aorist ἐπίασα; 1 aorist passive ἐπιασθην;TGL πιάζω.2

    1. to lay hold of: τινα τῆς χειρός, Acts 3:7 (Theocritus , 4, 35).TGL πιάζω.3

    2. to take, capture: fishes, John 21:3, John 21:10; θηρίον, passive, Revelation 19:20 (Song of Solomon 2:15). to take i. e. apprehend: a man, in order to imprison him, John 7:30, John 7:32, John 7:44; John 8:20; John 10:39; John 11:57; Acts 12:4; 2 Corinthians 11:32. (Compare: ὑποπιάζω.)TGL πιάζω.4


    (4085) πιέζω: perfect passive participle πεπιεσμενος; from Homer down; to press, press together: Luke 6:38. The Sept. once for דָּרַך, Micah 6:15.TGL πιέζω.2


    (4086) πιθανολογίᾳ, πιθανολογιας, (from πιθανολόγος; and this from πιθανός, on which see πειθός , and λόγος ), speech adapted to persuade, discourse in which probable arguments are adduced; once so in classical Greek, viz. Plato , Theact., p. 162 e.; in a bad sense, persuasiveness of speech, specious discourse leading others into error: Colossians 2:4, and several times in ecclesiastical writers.TGL πιθανολογία.2


    (4087) πικραίνω: future πικράνω; passive, present πικραίνομαι; 1 aorist ἐπικρανθην; (πικρός, which see);TGL πικραίνω.2

    1. properly, to make bitter: τά ὕδατα, passive, Revelation 8:11; τήν κοιλίαν, to produce a bitter taste in the stomach (Vulg. amarico ), Revelation 10:9.TGL πικραίνω.3

    2. tropically, to embitter, exasperate, i. e. render angry, indignant; passive, to be embittered, irritated (Plato , Demosthenes , others): πρός τινα, Colossians 3:19 (Athen. 6, p. 242 c.; ἐπί τινα, Exodus 16:20; Jeremiah 44:15 (Jeremiah 37:15); 1 Esdr. 4:31; (ἐν τίνι, Ruth 1:20)); contextually equivalent to to visit with bitterness, to grieve (deal bitterly with), Job 27:2; Macc. 3:7. (Compare: παραπικραίνω.)TGL πικραίνω.4


    (4088) πικρία, πικρίας, (πικρός), bitterness: χολή πικρίας, equivalent to χολή πικρά (Winer s Grammar, 34, 3 b.; Buttmann , § 132, 10), bitter gall, equivalent to extreme wickedness, Acts 8:23; ῤίζα πικρίας (references as above), a bitter root, and so producing bitter fruit, Hebrews 12:15 (from Deuteronomy 29:18, the Alex. manuscript), cf. Bleek at the passage; metaphorically, bitterness, i. e. bitter hatred, Ephesians 4:31; of speech, Romans 3:14 after Psalm 9:28 (Psalms 10:7). (In various uses in the Sept. (Demosthenes , Aristotle ), Theophrastus , Polybius , Plutarch , others.)TGL πικρία.2


    (4089) πικρός, πικρά, πικρόν (from the root meaning 'to cut,' 'prick'; Vanicek , 534; Curtius , § 100; Fick 1:145), from Homer down, the Sept. for מַר; bitter: properly, James 3:11 (opposed to τό γλυκύ); metaphorically, harsh, virulent, James 3:14.TGL πικρός.2


    (4090) πικρῶς, adverb (from Aeschylus down), bitterly: metaphorically, ἔκλαυσε, i. e. with poignant grief, Matthew 26:75; Luke 22:62 (here WH brackets the clause); cf. πικρόν δάκρυον, Homer , Odyssey 4, 153.TGL πικρῶς.2


    (4091) Πιλᾶτος (L ) Tr better Πιλᾶτος ((on the accent in manuscripts see Tdf. Proleg., p. 103; cf. Chandler § 326; Buttmann , p. 6 n.); Winer s Grammar, § 6, 1 m.), T WH incorrectly Πειλᾶτος (but see Tdf. Proleg., p. 84f; WH s Appendix, p. 155; and cf. εἰ , ) (a Latin name, equivalent to 'armed with a pilum or javelin,' like Torquatus equivalent to 'adorned with the collar or neck-chain'; (so generally; but some would contract it from pileatus i. e. 'wearing the felt cap' (pileus), the badge of a manumitted slave; cf. Leyrer in Herzog as below; Plumptre in B. D. under the word (note))), Πιλάτου, (on the use of the article with the name cf. Winer s Grammar, 113 (107) n.), Pontius Pilate, the fifth procurator of the Roman emperor in Judaea and Samaria (having had as predecessors Coponius, Marcus Ambivius, Annius Rufus, and Valerius Gratus). (Some writers (e. g. BB. DD. , under the word) call Pilate the sixth procurator, reckoning Subinus as the first, he having had charge for a time, during the absence of Archelaus at Rome, shortly after the death of Herod; cf. Josephus , Antiquities 17, 9, 3.) He was sent into Judaea in the year, and remained in office ten years; (cf. Keim , Jesus von Naz. iii., p. 485f. (English translation, vi. 226f)). Although he saw that Jesus was innocent, yet, fearing that the Jews would bring an accusation against him before Caesar for the wrongs he had done them, and dreading the emperor's displeasure, he delivered up Jesus to their bloodthirsty demands and ordered him to be crucified. At length, in consequence of his having ordered the slaughter of the Samaritans assembled at Matt. Gerizim, Vitellius, the governor of Syria and father of the Vitellius who was afterward emperor, removed him from office and ordered him to go to Rome and answer their accusations; but before his arrival Tiberius died. Cf. Josephus , Antiquities 18, 2-4 and chapter 6, 5; b. j. 2, 9, 2 and 4; Philo , leg. ad Gaium § 38; Tacitus , ann. 15, 44. Eusebius (h. e. 2, 7, and Chron. ad ann. I. Gaii) reports that he died by his own hand. Various stories about his death are related in the Evangelia apocr. edition Tischendorf, p. 426ff (English translation, p. 231ff). He is mentioned in the N. T. in Matthew 27:2; Mark 15:1; Luke 3:1; Luke 13:1; Luke 23:1; John 18:29; John 19:1; Acts 3:13; Acts 4:27; Acts 13:28; 1 Timothy 6:18. A full account of him is given in Winer s RWB, under the word Pilatus; (BB. DD. ibid.); Ewald, Geschichte Christus' u. seiner Zeit, edition 3, p. 82ff; Leyrer in Herzog xi., p. 663ff (2nd edition, p. 685ff); Renan, Vie de Jesus, 14me edition, p. 413ff (English translation, (N. Y. 1865), p. 333ff); Klöpper in Schenkel iv., p. 581f; Schürer , Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 17 c., p. 252ff; (Warneck, Pont. Pilatus as above with (pp. 210. Gotha, 1867)).TGL Πιλᾶτος.2


    (4092) πιμπράω (for the more common πίμπρημι (cf. Curtius , § 378, Vanicek , p. 510f)): (present infinitive passive πίμπρασθαι; but R G L Tr WH πίμπρασθαι from the form πίμπρημι (Tdf. ἐμπίπρασθαι, which see)); in Greek writings from Homer ((yet only the aorist from πρήθω)) down; to blow, to burn (on the connection between these meanings cf. Ebeling, Lex. Homer , under the word πρήθω); in the Scriptures four times to cause to swell, to render tumid (cf. Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word): γαστέρα, Numbers 5:22; passive, to swell, become swollen, of parts of the body, Numbers 5:21, Numbers 5:27: Acts 28:6 (see above and in ἐμπιπράω ). (Compare: ἐμπιπράω.)TGL πίμπρημι.2


    (4093) πινακίδιον, πινακιδιου, τό (diminutive of πινακίς, πινακιδος) (Aristotle , others);TGL πινακίδιον.2

    a. a small tablet.TGL πινακίδιον.3

    b. specifically, a writing-tablet: Luke 1:63 (Tr marginal reading πινακιδα; see the following word); Epictetus diss. 3, 22, 74.TGL πινακίδιον.4


    (4094) πίναξ, πίνακος, (common thought to be from ΠΙΝΟΣ a pine, and so properly, 'a pine-board'; according to the conjecture of Buttmann , Ausf. Spr. i. 74 n., from πναξ for πλάξ (i. e. anything broad and flat (cf. English plank)) with inserted, as in πινυτός for πνυτος (according to Fick i. 146 from Sanskritpinaka , a stick, staff)), from Homer down;TGL πίναξ.2

    1. a board, a tablet.TGL πίναξ.3

    2. a dish, plate, platter: Matthew 14:8, Matthew 14:11; Mark 6:25,(27 Lachmann brackets),28; Luke 11:39; Homer , Odyssey 1, 141; 16, 49; others.TGL πίναξ.4


    (4095) πίνω; imperfect ἔπινον; future πίομαι (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 90f (86)), 2 person singular πίεσαι (Luke 17:8 ((see references in κατακαυχάομαι ))); perfect 3 person singular (Revelation 18:3) πέπωκε R G , but L T WH marginal reading plural πέπωκαν, for which Lachmann's stereotyped edition; Tr text WH text read πεπτωκαν (see γίνομαι ); 2 aorist ἔπιον, imperative πίε (Luke 12:19), infinitive πιεῖν ((Matthew 20:22; Matthew 27:34 (not Tdf. ); Mark 10:38); Acts 23:12 (not WH ), 21; Romans 14:21 (not WH ), etc.), and in colloquial form πῖν (Lachmann in John 4:9; Revelation 16:6), and πεῖν (T Tr WH in John 4:7, John 4:9; T WH in 1 Corinthians 9:4; 1 Corinthians 10:7; Revelation 16:6; T in Matthew 27:34 (twice); WH in Acts 23:12, Acts 23:21; Romans 14:21, and often among the variants of the manuscripts) — on these forms see (especially WH s Appendix, p. 170); Fritzsche, De conformatione N. T. critica etc., p. 27f; Buttmann , 66f (58f); (Curtius , Das Verbum, ii. 103); the Sept. for שָׁתָה; (from Homer down); to drink: absolutely, Luke 12:19; John 4:7, John 4:10; 1 Corinthians 11:25; figuratively, to receive into the soul what serves to refresh, strengthen, nourish it unto life eternal, John 7:37; on the various uses of the phrase ἐσθίειν καί πίνειν see in ἐσθίω , a.; τρώγειν καί πίνειν, of those living in fancied security, Matthew 24:38; πίνω with an accusative of the thing, to drink a thing (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 198 (187) n.), Matthew 6:25 (G T omit; WH brackets the clause), Matthew 6:31; Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; Mark 16:18; Revelation 16:6; to use a thing for drink, Luke 1:15; Luke 12:29; Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 10:4 (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 40, 3 b.); τό αἷμα of Christ, see αἷμα , at the end; τό ποτήριον i. e. what is in the cup, 1 Corinthians 10:21; 1 Corinthians 11:27, etc. (see ποτήριον , a.). γῆ is said πίνειν τόν ὑετόν, to suck in, absorb, imbibe, Hebrews 6:7 (Deuteronomy 11:11; Herodotus 3, 117; 4, 198; Vergil Ecclesiastes 3:1-22, 111sat prata biberunt ). πίνω ἐκ with a genitive of the vessel out of which one drinks, ἐκ τοῦ ποτηρίου, Matthew 26:27; Mark 14:23; 1 Corinthians 10:4 (cf. above); 1 Corinthians 11:28 (Aristophanes eqq. 1289); ἐκ with a genitive denoting the drink of which as a supply one drinks, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25; ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος, John 4:13; ἐκ τοῦ οἴνου (or θυμοῦ), Revelation 14:10; Revelation 18:3 (L omits; Tr WH brackets τοῦ οἴνου); ἀπό with a genitive of the drink, Luke 22:18. (Cf. Buttmann , § 132, 7; Winer 's Grammar, 199 (187). Compare: κατασυμπίνω.)TGL πίνω.2


    (4096) πιότης, πιητος, (πίων fat), fatness: Romans 11:17. (Aristotle , Theophrastus , others; the Sept. for דֶּשֶׁן.)TGL πιότης.2


    (4097) πιπράσκω: imperfect ἐπίπρασκον; perfect πέπρακα; passive, present participle πιπρασκόμενος; perfect participle πεπραμένος; 1 aorist ἐπράθην; (from περάω to cross, to transport to a distant land); from Aeschylus and Herodotus down; the Sept. for מָכַר; to sell: Matthew 13:46 (on the use of the perfect, cf. Sophocles ' Glossary, etc., Introduction, § 82, 4) Acts 2:45; Acts 4:34; Acts 5:4; with the genitive of price, Matthew 26:9; Mark 14:5; John 12:5 (Deuteronomy 21:14); τινα, one into slavery, Matthew 18:25; hence, metaphorically, πεπραμένος ὑπό τήν ἁμαρτίαν (A. V. sold under sin) i. e. entirely under the control of the love of sinning, Romans 7:14 (ἐπράθησαν τοῦ ποιῆσαι τό πονηρόν, 2 Kings 17:17; 2 Kings 1:1-18 Macc. 1:15, cf. 1 Kings 20:25 (1 Kings 21:25); with a dative of the master to whom one is sold as a slave, Leviticus 25:39; Deuteronomy 15:12; Deuteronomy 28:68; Baruch 4:6; Sophocles Trach. 252; ἑαυτόν τίνι, of one bribed to give himself up wholly to another's will, τῷ Φιλίππῳ, Demosthenes , p. 148, 8).TGL πιπράσκω.2


    (4098) πίπτω; (imperfect ἔπιπτον (Mark 14:35 T Tr marginal reading WH )); future πεσοῦμαι; 2 aorist ἔπεσον and according to the Alex. form (received everywhere by Lachmann (except Luke 23:30), Tdf. (except Revelation 6:16), Tr (except ibid.), WH ; and also used by R G in Revelation 1:17; Revelation 5:14; Revelation 6:13; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 17:10) ἔπεσα (cf. (WH s Appendix, p. 164; Tdf. Proleg., p. 123); Lob. ad Phryn. , p. 724f; Alexander Buttmann (1873) Ausf. Spr. ii., p. 277f, and see ἀπέρχομαι at the beginning); perfect πέπτωκα, 2 person singular πεπτωκες (Revelation 2:5 T WH ; see κοπιάω ), 3 person plural πεπτωκαν (Revelation 18:3, Lachmann's stereotyped edition; Tr text WH text; see γίνομαι ); (from ΠΑΤΩ, as τίκτω from ΤΑΚΩ (cf. Curtius , Etymol. § 214; Verbum, ii., p. 398)); from Homer down; the Sept. chiefly for נָפַל; to fall; used:TGL πίπτω.2

    1. of descent from a higher place to a lower;TGL πίπτω.3

    a. properly, to fall (either from or upon, equivalent to Latin incido, decido ): ἐπί with the accusative of place, Matthew 10:29; Matthew 13:5,(Matthew 13:7),Matthew 13:8; Matthew 21:44 (T omits; L WH Tr marginal reading brackets the verse); Mark 4:5; Luke 8:6 (here T Tr WH κατέπεσεν), 8 Rec. ; Revelation 8:10; εἰς τί (of the thing that is entered; into), Matthew 15:14; Matthew 17:15; Mark 4:7 (L marginal reading ἐπί); Luke 6:39, R G L marginal reading (but L text T Tr WH ἐμπεσοῦνται); Luke 8:8 G L T Tr WH (Luke 8:14; Luke 14:5 L T Tr WH ); John 12:24; εἰς (upon) τήν γῆν, Revelation 6:13; Revelation 9:1; ἐν μέσῳ, with the genitive of the thing, Luke 8:7; παρά τήν ὁδόν, Matthew 13:4; Mark 4:4; Luke 8:5; to fall from or down: followed by ἀπό with the genitive of place, Matthew 15:27; Matthew 24:29 (here Tdf. ἐκ; Luke 16:21); Acts 20:9; followed by ἐκ with the genitive of place (Mark 13:25 L T Tr WH ); Revelation 8:10; Revelation 9:1; equivalent to to be thrust down, Luke 10:18.TGL πίπτω.4

    b. metaphorically: οὐ πίπτει ἐπί τινα ἥλιος, i. e. the heat of the sun does not strike upon them or incommode them, Revelation 7:16; (ἀχλύς καί σκότος, Acts 13:11 L T Tr WH ); κλῆρος πίπτει ἐπί τινα, the lot falls upon one, Acts 1:20; φόβος πίπτει ἐπί τινα, falls upon or seizes one (Acts 19:17 L Tr ); Revelation 11:11 Rec. ; (τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Acts 10:44 Lachmann); πίπτω ὑπό κρίσιν, to fall under judgment, come under condemnation, James 5:12 (where Rec.st εἰς ὑπόκρισιν).TGL πίπτω.5

    2. of descent from an erect to a prostrate position (Latin labor, ruo; prolabor, procido; collabor , etc.);TGL πίπτω.6

    a. properly;TGL πίπτω.7

    α. to fall down: ἐπί λίθον, Luke 20:18; λίθος πίπτει ἐπί τινα, Matthew 21:44 (T omits; L WH Tr marginal reading brackets the verse); Luke 20:18; τό ὄρος ἐπί τινα, Luke 23:30; Revelation 6:16.TGL πίπτω.8

    β. to be prostrated, fall prostrate; of those overcome by terror or astonishment or grief: χαμαί, John 18:6; εἰς τό ἔδαφος, Acts 22:7; ἐπί τήν γῆν, Acts 9:4; (ἐπί πρόσωπον, Matthew 17:6); or under the attack of an evil spirit: ἐπί τῆς γῆς, Mark 9:20; or falling dead suddenly: πρός τούς πόδας τίνος ὡς νεκρός, Revelation 1:17; πεσών ἐξέψυξε, Acts 5:5; ἔπεσεν παρά (L T Tr WH πρός) τούς πόδας τίνος, Acts 5:10; absolutely, 1 Corinthians 10:8; στόματι μαχαριας, Luke 21:24; absolutely of the dismemberment of corpses by decay, Hebrews 3:17 (Numbers 14:29, Numbers 14:32).TGL πίπτω.9

    γ. to prostrate oneself; used now of suppliants, now of persons rendering homage or worship to one: ἐπί τῆς γῆς, Mark 14:35; participle with προσκυνεῖν, as finite verb, Matthew 2:11; Matthew 4:9; Matthew 18:26; πίπτειν καί προσκυνεῖν, Revelation 5:14; Revelation 19:4; ἔπεσα προσκυνῆσαι, Revelation 22:8; πεσών εἰς τούς πόδας (αὐτοῦ), Matthew 18:29 Rec. ; εἰς (T Tr WH πρός) τούς πόδας τίνος, John 11:32; πρός τούς πόδας τίνος, Mark 5:22; (παρά τούς πόδας τίνος, Luke 8:41); ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ποδῶν τίνος, Revelation 19:10; ἐνώπιον τίνος, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8; ἐπί πρόσωπον, Matthew 26:39; Luke 5:12; ἐπί πρόσωπον παρά τούς πόδας τίνος, Luke 17:16; πεσών ἐπί τούς πόδας προσεκύνησε, Acts 10:25; πεσών ἐπί πρόσωπον προσκυνήσει, 1 Corinthians 14:25; ἐπί τά πρόσωπα καί προσκυνεῖν, Revelation 7:11 (ἐπί πρόσωπον Rec. ); Revelation 11:16.TGL πίπτω.10

    δ. to fall out, fall from: θρίξ ἐκ τῆς κεφαλῆς πεσεῖται, equivalent to shall perish, be lost, Acts 27:34 Rec.TGL πίπτω.11

    ε. to fall down, fall in ruin: of buildings, walls, etc., Matthew 7:25,(27); Luke 6:49 (where T Tr WH συνεπεσε); Hebrews 11:30; οἶκος ἐπ' οἶκον πίπτει, Luke 11:17 (see ἐπί , C. I. 2 c.); πύργος ἐπί τινα, Luke 13:4; σκηνή πεπτωκυῖα, the tabernacle that has fallen down, a figurative description of the family of David and the theocracy as reduced to extreme decay (cf. σκηνή , at the end), Acts 15:16. of a city: ἔπεσε, i. e. has been overthrown, destroyed, Revelation 11:13; Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 18:2 (Jeremiah 28:8 (Jeremiah 51:8).TGL πίπτω.12

    b. metaphorically,TGL πίπτω.13

    α. to be cast down from a state of prosperity: πόθεν πέπωκας, from what a height of Christian knowledge and attainment thou hast declined, Revelation 2:5 G L T Tr WH (see above at the beginning).TGL πίπτω.14

    β. to fall from a state of uprightness, i. e. to sin: opposed to ἑστάναι, 1 Corinthians 10:12; opposed to στήκειν, with a dative of the person whose interests suffer by the sinning (cf. Winer 's Grammar, § 31, 1 k.), Romans 14:4; to fall into a state of wickedness, Revelation 18:3; Lachmann's stereotyped edition; Tr WH text (see πίνω ).TGL πίπτω.15

    γ. to perish, i. e. to come to an end, disappear, cease: of virtues, 1 Corinthians 13:8 L T Tr WH (R. V. fail); to lose authority, no longer have force, of sayings, precepts, etc., Luke 16:17 (ὥστε οὐ χαμαί πεσεῖται τί ἄν εἴπῃς, Plato , Euchyphr. § 17; irrita cadunt promissa, Livy 2, 31). equivalent to to be removed from power by death, Revelation 17:10; to fail of participating in, miss a share in, the Messianic salvation, Romans 11:11,(22); Hebrews 4:11 ((yet see ἐν , I. 5 f.). Compare: ἀναπίπτω, ἀντιπίπτω, ἀποπίπτω, ἐκπίπτω ἐνπίπτω, ἐπιπίπτω, καταπίπτω, παραπίπτω, περιπίπτω, προσπίπτω, συμπίπτω.)TGL πίπτω.16


    (4099) Πισιδία, Πισιδίας, , Pisidia, a region of Asia Minor, bounded by Pamphylia and the Pamphylian Sea, Phrygia, and Lycaonia: Acts 13:14 R G ; Acts 14:24. (B. D. , under the word .)TGL Πισιδία.2


    (4100) πιστεύω; imperfect ἐπίστευον; future πιστεύσω; 1 aorist ἐπίστευσα; perfect πεπίστευκα; pluperfect (without augment, cf. Winer s Grammar, § 12, 9; (Buttmann , 33 (29))) πεπιστεύκειν (Acts 14:23); passive perfect πεπίστευμαι; 1 aorist ἐπιστεύθην; (πιστός); the Sept. for הֶאֱמִין; in classical Greek from Aeschyl, Sophocles , Euripides , Thucydides down; to believe, i. e.TGL πιστεύω.2

    1. intransitive, to think to be true; to be persuaded of; to credit, place confidence in;TGL πιστεύω.3

    a. universally: the thing believed being evident from the preceding context, Matthew 24:23,(26); Mark 13:21; 1 Corinthians 11:18; with an accusative of the thing, Acts 13:41 (L T Tr WH for Rec. ), to credit, have confidence, followed by ὅτι, Acts 9:26; τίνι, to believe one's words, Mark 16:13; 1 John 4:1; τίνι ὅτι, John 4:21; τῷ ψεύδει, 2 Thessalonians 2:11; περί τίνος, ὅτι, John 9:18.TGL πιστεύω.4

    b. specifically, in a moral and religious reference, πιστεύειν is used in the N. T. of "the conviction and trust to which a man is impelled by a certain inner and higher prerogative and law of his soul"; thus it standsTGL πιστεύω.5

    α. absolutely to trust in Jesus or in God as able to aid either in obtaining or in doing something: Matthew 8:13; Matthew 21:22; Mark 5:36; Mark 9:23; Luke 8:50; John 11:40; followed by ὅτι, Matthew 9:28; Mark 11:23; (Hebrews 11:6); τῷ λόγῳ, (ὅν) εἶπεν Ἰησοῦς, John 4:50.TGL πιστεύω.6

    β. of the credence given to God's messengers and their words, with a dative of the person or thing: Μωϋσεῖ John 5:46. to the prophets, John 12:38; Acts 24:14; Acts 26:27; Romans 10:16; ἐπί πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται, to place reliance on etc. Luke 24:25. to an angel, Luke 1:20; followed by ὅτι, Luke 1:45. to John the Baptist, Matthew 21:25 (26),32; Mark 11:31; Luke 20:5. to Christ's words, John 3:12; John 5:38, John 5:46; John 6:30; John 8:45; John 10:1-42:(37),38{a}; τοῖς ἔργοις of Christ, John 10:38{b}. to the teachings of evangelists and apostles, Acts 8:12; τῇ ἀλήθεια, 2 Thessalonians 2:12; ἐπιστεύθη τό μαρτύριον, the testimony was believed, 2 Thessalonians 1:10 (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 39,1 a.; Buttmann , 175 (152)); τῇ γραφή, John 2:22. ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ, to put faith in the gospel, Mark 1:15 (Buttmann , 174 (151f); cf. Winer s Grammar, 213 (200f)) (Ignatius ad Philad. 8, 2 [ET] ((but see Zahn's note); cf. John 3:15 in γ. below)).TGL πιστεύω.7

    γ. used especially of the faith by which a man embraces Jesus, i. e. a conviction, full of joyful trust, that Jesus is the Messiah — the divinely appointed author of eternal salvation in the kingdom of God, conjoined with obedience to Christ: πιστεύω τόν υἱόν τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶναι Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, Acts 8:37 Rec. ; ἐπιστεύθη (was believed on (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 39, 1 a.; Buttmann , 175 (152))) ἐν κόσμῳ, 1 Timothy 3:16. the phrase πιστεύειν εἰς τόν Ἰησοῦν, εἰς τόν υἱόν τοῦ Θεοῦ, etc., is very common; properly, to have a faith directed unto, believing or in faith to give oneself up to, Jesus, etc. (cf. Winer s Grammar, 213 (200f); (Buttmann , 174 (151))): Matthew 18:6; Mark 9:42 (R G L Tr text); John 2:11; John 3:15 R G ,John 3:16,John 3:18,John 3:36; John 6:29,John 6:35,John 6:40,John 6:47 (R G L ); John 7:5,(John 7:38),John 7:39,John 7:48; John 8:30; John 9:35; John 10:42; John 11:25,John 11:45,John 11:48; John 12:11,John 12:37,John 12:42,John 12:44,(John 12:46); John 14:1,John 14:12; John 16:9; John 17:20; Acts 10:43; Acts 19:4; Romans 10:14; Galatians 2:16; Philippians 1:29; 1 John 5:10; 1 Peter 1:8; εἰς τό φῶς, John 12:36; εἰς τό ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, John 1:12; John 2:23; John 3:18; 1 John 5:13; τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ, to commit oneself trustfully to the name (see ὄνομα , 2, p. 448a), 1 John 3:23; ἐπ' αὐτόν, ἐπί τόν κύριον, to have a faith directed toward, etc. (see ἐπί , C. I. 2 g. α., p. 235b (cf. Winer s Grammar, and Buttmann , as above, also Buttmann , § 147, 25)): Matthew 27:42 T Tr text WH ; John 3:15 L text; Acts 9:42; Acts 11:17; Acts 16:31; Acts 22:19 ((cf. Wis. 12:2)); ἐπ' αὐτῷ, to build one's faith on, to place one's faith upon (see ἐπί , B. 2 a.γ., p. 233a; Buttmann , as above): Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Timothy 1:16; 1 Peter 2:6; ἐν αὐτῷ, to put faith in him, John 3:15 (L marginal reading; cf. T Tr WH also (who probably connect ἐν αὐτῷ with the following ἔχῃ; cf. Westcott's Commentary at the passage, Meyer, others)) (cf. Jeremiah 12:6; Psalm 77:22 (Psalms 78:22), where πιστεύειν ἐν τίνι means to put confidence in one, to trust one; (cf. Mark 1:15 above, β. at the end)); ἐν τούτῳ πιστεύομεν, on this rests our faith (A. V. by this we believe), John 16:30; with the simple dative, τῷ κυρίῳ, to (yield faith to) believe (cf. B. 173 (151)): Matthew 27:42 R G L Tr marginal reading; Acts 5:14; Acts 18:8; supply τούτῳ before οὗ in Romans 10:14; to trust in Christ (God), 2 Timothy 1:12; διά τίνος, through one's agency to be brought to faith, John 1:7; 1 Corinthians 3:5; διά Ἰησοῦ εἰς Θεόν, 1 Peter 1:21 R G Tr marginal reading; διά τῆς χάριτος, Acts 18:27; διά τοῦ λόγου αὐτῶν εἰς ἐμέ, John 17:20; διά τί, John 4:39 (John 4:41), John 4:42; John 14:11. πιστεύω followed by ὅτι with a sentence in which either the nature and dignity of Christ or his blessings are set forth: John 6:69; John 8:24; John 10:38 R G ; John 11:27,(John 11:42); John 13:19; (John 14:10); John 16:27,John 16:30; John 17:8,John 17:21; 1 John 5:1, 1 John 5:5; Romans 6:8; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; μοι ὅτι, John 14:11; τί, John 11:26; πιστεύω σωθῆναι, Acts 15:11; the simple πιστεύειν is used emphatically, of those who acknowledge Jesus as the saviour and devote themselves to him: Mark 15:32 (here L adds αὐτῷ); Luke 8:12; Luke 22:67; John 1:50(John 1:51); John 3:18; John 4:42,John 4:48,John 4:53; John 5:44; John 6:36,John 6:64; John 9:38; John 10:25; John 12:39,John 12:47 Rec. ; John 16:30; John 20:31; Acts 5:14; (Acts 13:39); Acts 15:5; Acts 18:8; (Acts 21:25); Romans 1:16; Romans 3:22; Romans 4:11; Romans 10:4; Romans 15:13; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Ephesians 1:13,(Ephesians 1:19); 2 Thessalonians 1:10; Hebrews 4:3; with ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας added, Acts 8:37 Rec. ; with a dative of instrumentality καρδία, Romans 10:10; participle present οἱ πιστεύοντες, as a substantive: Acts 2:44; Romans 3:22; 1 Corinthians 1:21; Galatians 3:22; (Ephesians 1:19); 1 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:10, 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:10 Rec. ; 1 Peter 2:7; equivalent to who are on the point of believing, 1 Corinthians 14:22, cf. 1 Corinthians 14:24; aorist ἐπίστευσα (marking entrance into a state; see βασιλεύω , at the end), I became a believer, a Christian (A. V. believed): Acts 4:4; Acts 8:13; Acts 13:12, Acts 13:48; Acts 14:1; Acts 15:7; Acts 17:12, Acts 17:34; Romans 13:11; 1 Corinthians 3:5; 1 Corinthians 15:2, 1 Corinthians 15:11; with the addition of ἐπί τόν κύριον (see above), Acts 9:42; participle πιστεύσας, Acts 11:21; Acts 19:2; πιστεύσας, Mark 16:16; plural, Mark 16:17; Acts 4:32; οἱ πεπιστευκότες, they that have believed (have become believers): Acts 19:18; Acts 21:20; (on (John's use of) the tenses of πιστεύω see Westcott on 1 John 3:23). It must be borne in mind, that in Paul's conception of τό πιστεύειν εἰς Χριστόν, the prominent element is the grace of God toward sinners as manifested and pledged (and to be laid hold of by faith) in Jesus, particularly in his death and resurrection, as appears especially in Romans 3:25; Romans 4:24; Romans 10:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:14; but in John's conception, it is the metaphysical relationship of Christ with God and close ethical intimacy with him, as well as the true 'life' to be derived from Christ as its source; cf. Rückert, Das Abendmahl, p. 251. Moreover, πιστεύειν is used by John of various degrees of faith, from its first beginnings, its incipient stirring within the soul, up to the fullest assurance, John 2:23 (cf. John 2:24); John 8:31; of a faith which does not yet recognize Jesus as the Messiah, but as a prophet very like the Messiah, John 7:31; and to signify that one's faith is preserved, strengthened, increased, raised to the level which it ought to reach, John 11:15; John 13:19; John 14:29; John 19:35; John 20:31; 1 John 5:13 Rec. ; (cf. references under the word πίστις, at the end). is applied also to the faith by which one is persuaded that Jesus was raised from the dead, inasmuch as by that fact God declared him to be his Son and the Messiah: John 20:8, John 20:25, John 20:29; πιστεύσῃς ἐν τῇ καρδία σου ὅτι Θεός αὐτόν ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν σωθήσῃ, Romans 10:9 (cf. Buttmann , § 133, 19). Since according to the conception of Christian faith Christ alone is the author of salvation, πιστεύων repudiates all the various things which aside from Christ are commended as means of salvation (such e. g. as abstinence from flesh and wine), and understands that all things are lawful to him which do not lead him away from Christ; hence, πιστεύει (τίς) φαγεῖν πάντα, hath faith to eat all things or so that he eats all things, Romans 14:2; cf. Rückert at the passage; (Winer s Grammar, § 44,3 b.; per contra Buttmann , 273f (235)).TGL πιστεύω.8

    δ. πιστεύειν used in reference to God has various senses:TGL πιστεύω.9

    αα. it denotes the mere acknowledgment of his existence: ὅτι Θεός εἷς ἐστιν, James 2:19; acknowledgment joined to appropriate trust, absolutely, Jude 1:5; εἰς Θεόν, John 12:44; John 14:1; equivalent to to believe and embrace what God has made known either through Christ or concerning Christ: τῷ Θεῷ, John 5:24; Acts 16:34; Titus 3:8; 1 John 5:10; ἐπί τόν Θεόν, Romans 4:5; τήν ἀγάπην, ἥν ἔχει Θεός, 1 John 4:16; εἰς τήν μαρτυρίαν, ἥν κτλ., 1 John 5:10.TGL πιστεύω.10

    ββ. to trust: τῷ Θεῷ, God promising a thing, Romans 4:3, Romans 4:17 (on which see κατέναντι ); Galatians 3:6; (James 2:23); absolutely, Romans 4:18; followed by ὅτι, Acts 27:25.TGL πιστεύω.11

    ε. πιστεύειν is used in an ethical sense, of confidence in the goodness of men: ἀγάπη πιστεύει πάντα, 1 Corinthians 13:7. τό πιστεύειν is opposed to ἰδεῖν, John 20:29; to ὁρᾶν, ibid. and 1 Peter 1:8 (Theophilus ad Autol. 1, 7 at the end), cf. 2 Corinthians 5:7; to διακρίνεσθαι, Romans 4:19; Romans 14:1, Romans 14:23, cf. James 1:6; to ὁμολογεῖν, Romans 10:9.TGL πιστεύω.12

    2. transitively, τίνι τί, to intrust a thing to one, i. e. to his fidelity : Luke 16:11; ἑαυτόν τίνι, John 2:24; passive, πιστεύομαι τί, to be intrusted with a thing: Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Timothy 1:11; Titus 1:8 (Ignatius ad Philad. 9 [ET]; examples from secular authors are given in Winer s Grammar, § 39, 1 a.). On the grammatical construction of the word cf. Buttmann , § 133, 4 (and the summaries in Ellicott on 1 Timothy 1:16; Vaughan on Romans 4:5; Cremer , under the word). It does not occur in Revlation, nor in Philemon, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John (Cf. the references under the word πίστις, at the end.)TGL πιστεύω.13


    (4101) πιστικός, πιστικη, πιστικον (πιστός), pertaining to belief;TGL πιστικός.2

    a. having the power of persuading, skillful in producing belief: Plato , Gorgias, p. 455 a.TGL πιστικός.3

    b. trusty, faithful, that can be relied on: γυνή πιστικη καί οἰκουρός καί πειθομενη τῷ ἀνδρί, Artemidorus Daldianus, oneir. 2, 32; often so in Cedrenus (also (of persons) in Epiphanius , John Moschus , Sophronius of Damascus; cf. Sophocles ' Lexicon, under the word); of commodities equivalent to δόκιμος, genuine, pure, unadulterated: so νάρδος πιστικη (but A. V. spike- (i. e. spiked) nard, after the nardi spicati of the Vulg. [but see Rev. Wm. Houghton in Proc. of Soc. of Bibl. Arcaeol. Jan. 10, 1888]. (in Mark)), Mark 14:3; John 12:3 (for nard was often adulterated; see Pliny , h. n. 12,26; Dioscorides (?) de mater. med. 1, 6 and 7); hence, metaphorically, τό πιστικον τῆς καινῆς διαθήκης κρᾶμα, Eusebius , dem. evang. 9, 8 (p. 439 d.). Cf. the full discussion of this word in Fritzsche on Mark, p. 596ff; Lücke on John 12:3, p. 494ff; Winer 's Grammar, 97f (92f); (especially Dr. James Morison on Mark, the passage cited).TGL πιστικός.4


    (4102) πίστις, πίστεως, (πείθω (which see)), from (Hesiod , Theognis , Pindar ), Aeschylus , Herodotus down; the Sept. for אֱמוּנָה, several times for אֱמֶת and אֲמָנָה; faith; i. e.:TGL πίστις.2

    1. conviction of the truth of anything, belief (Plato , Polybius , Josephus , Plutarch ; θαυμάσια καί μείζω πίστεως, Diodorus 1, 86); in the N. T. of a conviction or belief respecting man's relationship to God and divine things, generally with the included idea of trust and holy fervor born of faith and conjoined with it: Hebrews 11:1 (where πίστις is called ἐλπιζομένων ὑπόστασις, πραγμάτων ἔλεγχος οὐ βλεπομένων); opposed to εἶδος, 2 Corinthians 5:7; joined with ἀγάπη and ἐλπίς, 1 Corinthians 13:13.TGL πίστις.3

    a. when it relates to God, πίστις is "the conviction that God exists and is the creator and ruler of all things, the provider and bestower of eternal salvation through Christ": Hebrews 11:6; Hebrews 12:2; Hebrews 13:7; πίστις ἐπί Θεόν, Hebrews 6:1; πίστις ὑμῶν πρός τόν Θεόν, by which ye turned to God, 1 Thessalonians 1:8; τήν πίστιν ὑμῶν καί ἐλπίδα εἰς Θεόν, directed unto God, 1 Peter 1:21; with a genitive of the object (faith in) (τῶν θεῶν, Euripides , Med. 414; τοῦ Θεοῦ, Josephus , contra Apion 2, 16, 5; cf. Grimm, Exgt. Hdbch. on Sap. vi., 17f, p. 132; (cf. Meyer on Romans 3:22; also Meyer, Ellicott, Lightfoot on Col. as below; Winer 's Grammar, 186 (175))): πίστις τῆς ἐνεργείας τοῦ Θεοῦ τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτόν (Christ) ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, Colossians 2:12; διά πίστεως, by the help of faith, Hebrews 11:33, Hebrews 11:39; κατά πίστιν, equivalent to πιστεύοντες, Hebrews 11:13; πίστει, dative of means or of mode by faith or by believing, prompted, actuated, by faith, Hebrews 11:3, Hebrews 11:7-9, Hebrews 11:17, Hebrews 11:20-24, Hebrews 11:27-29, Hebrews 11:31; dative of cause, because of faith, Hebrews 11:5, Hebrews 11:11, Hebrews 11:30.TGL πίστις.4

    b. in reference to Christ, it denotes "a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God" (on this see more at length in πιστεύω, 1 b. γ.);TGL πίστις.5

    α. universally: with the genitive of the object (see above, in a.), Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Romans 3:22; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:22; Ephesians 3:12; Ἰησοῦ, Revelation 14:12; Χρσιτου, Philippians 3:9; τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ Θεοῦ, Galatians 2:20; τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, James 2:1; μου (i. e. in Christ), Revelation 2:13 (certainly we must reject the interpretation, faith in God of which Jesus Christ is the author, advocated by Van Hengel, Ep. ad Romans 1:1-32, p. 314ff, and H. P. Berlage, Disquisitio de formulae Paulinae ψιτις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ signifieatione. Lugd. Bat. 1856); τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, Philippians 1:27; ἀληθείας, 2 Thessalonians 2:13, with prepositions: εἰς (toward (cf. εἰς , B. II. 2 a.)) τόν κύριον ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν, Acts 20:21; εἰς Χριστόν, Acts 24:24; Acts 26:18; εἰς Χριστόν πίστις ὑμῶν, Colossians 2:5; (πίστιν ἔχειν εἰς ἐμέ, Mark 9:42 Tr marginal reading); πρός τόν κύριον, Philemon 1:5 (L Tr WH εἰς) ((see πρός , L 1 c.; cf. Lightfoot at the passage); unless here we prefer to render πίστιν fidelity (see 2, below); cf. Meyer at the passage and Winer 's Grammar, § 50, 2); ἐν πίστει τῇ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, reposed in Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 3:15; τήν πίστιν ὑμῶν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, Colossians 1:4; κατά τινα (see κατά , II. 1 e.) πίστις ἐν τῷ κυρίῳ, Ephesians 1:15; ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ, Romans 3:25 (yet cf. Meyer). πίστις (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 120 (114)) and πίστις simply: Luke 18:8; Acts 13:8; Acts 14:22, Acts 14:27; Acts 15:9; Acts 17:31; Rom. (Romans 3:27 (on which see νόμος , 3)), Romans 3:31; Romans 4:14; Romans 5:2 (L Tr WH brackets τῇ πίστει); Romans 9:32; Romans 10:8,Romans 10:17; Romans 12:3,Romans 12:6; 1 Cor. (1 Corinthians 12:9 (here of a charism)); 1 Corinthians 16:13; 2 Corinthians 4:13; (2 Corinthians 8:7); 2 Corinthians 10:15; Galatians 3:14, Galatians 3:23, Galatians 3:25; Galatians 5:5; Galatians 6:10; Ephesians 2:8; Ephesians 3:17; Ephesians 4:5; Ephesians 6:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:4; 1 Timothy 1:2, 1 Timothy 1:4 (on the latter passive, see οἰκονομία ), 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 2:7 (on which see ἀλήθεια , I. 2 c.); 1 Timothy 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:1,1 Timothy 4:6; 1 Timothy 5:8; 1 Timothy 6:10,1 Timothy 6:12,1 Timothy 6:21; 2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8, 2 Timothy 3:10; 2 Timothy 4:7; Titus 1:1, Titus 1:4, Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2; Titus 3:15; James 2:5; 1 Peter 1:5; 2 Peter 1:1, 2 Peter 1:5. with a genitive of the subject: Luke 22:32; Romans 1:8, Romans 1:12; 1 Corinthians 2:5; 1 Corinthians 15:14, 1 Corinthians 15:17; 2 Corinthians 1:24; Philippians 1:25; Philippians 2:17; 1 Thessalonians 3:2, 1 Thessalonians 3:5-7, 1 Thessalonians 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; Philemon 1:6; James 1:3; 1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:9 (here WH omits the genitive); 1 John 5:4; Revelation 13:10; πλήρης πιστέω καί πνεύματος, Acts 6:5; πνεύματος καί πίστεως, Acts 11:24; πίστεως καί δυνάμεως, Acts 6:8 Rec. ; τῇ πίστει ἑστηκεναι, Romans 11:20; 2 Corinthians 1:24; ἐν τῇ πίστει στήκειν, 1 Corinthians 16:13; εἶναι, 2 Corinthians 13:5; μένειν, 1 Timothy 2:15; ἐμμένειν τῇ πίστει, Acts 14:22; ἐπιμένειν, Colossians 1:23; στερεοί τῇ πίστει, 1 Peter 5:9; ἐστερεοῦντο τῇ πίστει, Acts 16:5; βεβαιοῦμαι ἐν (L T Tr WH omit ἐν) τῇ πίστει, Colossians 2:7. Since faith is a power that seizes upon the soul, one who yields himself to it is said ὑπακούειν τῇ πίστει, Acts 6:7; hence, ὑπακοή τῆς πίστεως, obedience rendered to faith (Winer 's Grammar, 186 (175)), Romans 1:5; Romans 16:26; ἐκ πίστεως namely, ὤν, depending on faith, equivalent to πιστεύων (see ἐκ , II. 7), Romans 3:26; plural, Galatians 3:7, Galatians 3:9; ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ, he who has the same faith as Abraham, Romans 4:16; ἐκ πίστεως εἶναι, to be related, akin to, faith (cf. ἐκ , as above), Galatians 3:12. δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως, Romans 1:17; Galatians 3:11; δικαιοσύνην δέ τήν ἐκ πίστεως, Romans 9:30; ... ἐκ πιστηως δικαιοσύνη, Romans 10:6; δικαιοσύνη... ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν, springing from faith (and availing) to (arouse) faith (in those who as yet have it not), Romans 1:17; δικαιοσύνη διά πίστεως Χριστοῦ,... ἐκ Θεοῦ δικαιοσύνη ἐπί τῇ πίστει, Philippians 3:9; passive, δικαιοῦσθαι πίστει, Romans 3:28; δικαιοῦν τινα διά πίστεως Χριστοῦ, Galatians 2:16; διά τῆς πίστεως, Romans 3:30; δικαιοῦσθαι τινα ἐκ πίστεως, ibid.; Galatians 3:8; passive, Romans 5:1; Galatians 3:24; εὐαγγελίζομαι τήν πίστιν, to proclaim the glad tidings of faith in Christ, Galatians 1:23; ἀκοή πίστεως, instruction concerning the necessity of faith (see ἀκοή , 3 a.), Galatians 3:2, Galatians 3:5; πίστις is joined with ἀγάπη: 1 Thessalonians 3:6; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22; with a subjunctive genitive Revelation 2:19; πίστις δἰ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη, Galatians 5:6; ἀγάπη μετά πίστεως, Ephesians 6:23; ἀγάπη ἐκ πίστεως ἀνυποκρίτου, 1 Timothy 1:5; πίστις καί ἀγάπη ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, 2 Timothy 1:13; φιλεῖν τινα πίστει, Titus 3:15 (where see DeWette); ἔργον πίστεως (cf. ἔργον , 3, p. 248{b} near the bottom), 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 2 Thessalonians 1:11.TGL πίστις.6

    β. in an ethical sense, persuasion or conviction (which springs from faith in Christ as the sole author of salvation; cf. πιστεύω , 1 b. γ. at the end) concerning things lawful for a Christian: Romans 14:1, Romans 14:23; πίστιν ἔχειν, Romans 14:22.TGL πίστις.7

    c. universally, the religious belief of Christians;TGL πίστις.8

    α. subjectively: Ephesians 4:13, where cf. Meyer; in the sense of a mere acknowledgment of divine things and of the claims of Christianity, James 2:14, James 2:17, James 2:20, James 2:22, James 2:24, James 2:26.TGL πίστις.9

    β. objectively, the substance of Christian faith or what is believed by Christians: τῇ ἅπαξ παραδοθείσῃ... πίστει Jude 1:3; ἁγιωτάτῃ ὑμῶν πίστις, Jude 1:20. There are some who think this meaning of the word is to be recognized also in 1 Timothy 1:4, 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 2:7; 1 Timothy 3:9; 1 Timothy 4:1, 1 Timothy 4:6; 1 Timothy 5:8; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21 (cf. Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 468 (English translation, ii., p. 200)); but Weiss (Biblical Theol. d. N. T. § 107 a. note) correctly objects, "πίστις is rather the form in which the truth (as the substance of right doctrine) is subjectively appropriated"; (cf. Meyer on Romans 1:5 (and Prof. Dwight's additional note); Ellicott on Galatians 1:23; Lightfoot on Galatians, p. 157).TGL πίστις.10

    d. with the predominant idea of trust (or confidence) whether in God or in Christ, springing from faith in the same: Matthew 8:10; Matthew 15:28; Luke 7:9, Luke 7:50; Luke 17:5; Hebrews 9:28; Lachmann's stereotyped edition; Hebrews 10:22; James 1:6; with a genitive of the subject: Matthew 9:2, Matthew 9:22, Matthew 9:29; Matthew 15:28; Mark 2:5; Mark 5:34; Mark 10:52; (Luke 5:20); Luke 8:25,Luke 8:48; Luke 17:19; Luke 18:42; with a genitive of the object in which trust is placed: τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ, Acts 3:16; πίστιν ἔχειν (Matthew 17:20); Matthew 21:21; Mark 4:40; Luke 17:6; πᾶσαν τήν πίστιν (`all the faith' that can be thought of), 1 Corinthians 13:2; ἔχειν πίστιν Θεοῦ, to trust in God, Mark 11:22; ἔχειν πίστιν τοῦ σωθῆναι, to be healed (see Fritzsche on Matthew, p. 843f; (cf. Winer s Grammar, § 44,4{a}; Buttmann , 268 (230))), Acts 14:9; πίστις δἰ αὐτοῦ, awakened through him, Acts 3:16; εὐχή τῆς πίστεως, that proceeds from faith, James 5:15; of trust in the promises of God, Romans 4:9, Romans 4:16, Romans 4:19; Hebrews 4:2; Hebrews 6:12; Hebrews 10:38; with a genitive of the subject, Romans 4:5, Romans 4:12; πίστις ἐπί Θεόν, faith which relies on God who grants the forgiveness of sins to the penitent (see ἐπί , C. I. 2 g. α.), Hebrews 6:1; δικαιοσύνη τῆς πίστεως (cf. Winer 's Grammar, 186 (175)), Romans 4:11, Romans 4:13; κατά πίστιν δικαιοσύνη, Hebrews 11:7.TGL πίστις.11

    2. fidelity, faithfulness, i. e. the character of one who can be relied on: Matthew 23:23; Galatians 5:22; Philemon 1:5 (? see above in b. α.); Titus 2:10. of one who keeps his promises: πίστις τοῦ Θεοῦ, subjunctive genitive, Romans 3:3. objectively, plighted faith (often so in Attic writings from Aeschylus down): ἀθετεῖν (see ἀθετέω , a.) τήν πίστιν, 1 Timothy 5:12. Cf. especially Koolhaas, Diss. philol. I. et II. de ratio usu et constructione vocum πίστις, πιστός et πιστεύειν in N. T. (Traj. ad Rhen. 1733, 4to.); Dav. Schulz, Was heisst Glauben, etc. (Leipz. 1830), p. 62ff; Rückert, Com. üb. d. Röm., 2nd edition, i., p. 51ff; Lutz, Biblical Dogmatik, p. 312ff; Huther, Ueber ζωή u. πιστεύειν im N. T., in the Jahrbb. f. deutsch. Theol. for 1872, pp. 1-33; (Lightfoot 's Commentary on Galatians, p. 154ff). On Paul's conception of πίστις, cf. Lipsius , Paulin. Rechtfertigungslehre, p. 94ff; Weiss, Biblical Theol. d. N. T., § 82 c. d. (cf. the index under the word Glaube); Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, p. 162ff (English translation, i., p. 161ff; Schnedermann, De fidel notione ethica Paulina. (Lipsius 1880)). On the idea of faith in the Epistle to the Hebrews see Riehm , Lehrbegr. des Hebrew-Br., p. 700ff; Weiss, as above § 125 b. c. On John's conception, see Reuss, die Johann. Theol. § 10 in the Beiträge zu d. theol. Wissensch. i., p. 56ff (cf. his Histoire de la Theol. Chretienne, etc., 3me edition, ii., p. 508ff (English translation, ii. 455ff)); Weiss, as above § 149, and the same author's Johann. Lehrbegriff, p. 18ff. A. Schlatter, Der Glaube im Neuen Testament (Leiden, 1885).TGL πίστις.12


    (4103) πιστός, πιστή, πιστόν (πείθω (which see)) (from Homer down), the Sept. mostly for נֶאֱמָן;TGL πιστός.2

    1. trusty, faithful; of persons who show themselves faithful in the transaction of business, the execution of commands, or the discharge of official duties: δοῦλος, Matthew 24:45; Matthew 25:21, Matthew 25:23; οἰκονόμος, Luke 12:42; 1 Corinthians 4:2; διάκονος, Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 1:7; Colossians 4:7; ἀρχιερεύς, Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 3:2; of God, abiding by his promises, 1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 10:13; 2 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:24; 2 Thessalonians 3:3; Hebrews 10:23; Hebrews 11:11; 2 Timothy 2:13; 1 John 1:9; 1 Peter 4:19; add, 1 Corinthians 4:17; Colossians 4:9; 1 Timothy 1:12; Hebrews 3:5; 1 Peter 5:12; πιστός ἐν τίνι, in a thing, Luke 16:10-12; Luke 19:17; 1 Timothy 3:11; ἐπί τί, Matthew 25:23; ἄχρι θανάτου, Revelation 2:10. one who kept his plighted faith, Revelation 2:13; worthy of trust; that can, be relied on: 1 Corinthians 7:25; 2 Timothy 2:2: Christ is called μάρτυς πιστός, Revelation 1:5; with καί ἀληθινός, added, Revelation 3:14; (cf. Revelation 19:11). of things, that can be relied on: λόγος, 1 Timothy 3:1; 2 Timothy 2:11; Titus 1:9; (Titus 3:8; οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι, Revelation 21:5; Revelation 22:6); with πάσης ἀποδοχῆς ἄξιος added, 1 Timothy 1:15; 1 Timothy 4:9; τά ὅσια Δαυις τά πιστά (see ὅσιος , at the end), Acts 13:34.TGL πιστός.3

    2. easily persuaded; believing, confiding, trusting (Theognis , Aeschylus , Sophocles , Plato , others); in the N. T. one who trusts in God's promises, Galatians 3:9; is convinced that Jesus has been raised from the dead, opposed to ἄπιστος, John 20:27; one who has become convinced that Jesus is the Messiah and the author of salvation (opposed to ἄπιστος, see πιστεύω , 1 b. γ. and πίστις, 1 b.) (a believer): Acts 16:1; 2 Corinthians 6:15; 1 Timothy 5:16; with the addition of τῷ κυρίῳ, dative of the person in whom faith or trust is reposed, Acts 16:15; plural in Colossians 1:2 (where cf. Lightfoot ); 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:2; Titus 1:6; Revelation 17:14; οἱ πιστοί, substantively (see Lightfoot on Galatians, p. 157), Acts 10:45; 1 Timothy 4:3, 1 Timothy 4:12; with ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ added (cf. Buttmann , 174 (152)), Ephesians 1:1; εἰς Θεόν κτλ. 1 Peter 1:21 L T Tr text WH ; πιστόν ποιεῖν τί, to do something harmonizing with (Christian) faith (R. V. a faithful work), 3 John 1:5.TGL πιστός.4


    (4104) πιστόω, πιστῷ: 1 aorist passive ἐπιστωθην; (πιστός);TGL πιστόω.2

    1. to make faithful, render trustworthy: τό ῤῆμα, 1 Kings 1:36; τινα ὅρκοις, Thucydides 4, 88; universally, to make firm, establish, 1 Chronicles 17:14.TGL πιστόω.3

    2. Passive (the Sept. in various senses for נֶאֱמָן) and middle to be firmly persuaded of; to be assured of: τί (Opp . cyn. 3, 355. 417; Lucian , philops. 5), 2 Timothy 3:14; Hesychius ἐπιστώθη. ἐπείσθη, ἐπληροφορήθη. (In various other senses in secular authors from Homer down.)TGL πιστόω.4

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