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    R is the eighteenth letter of the English Alphabet, and an articulation sui generis, having little or no resemblance in pronunciation to any other letter. But from the position of the tongue in uttering it, it is commutable with l, into which letter it is changed in many words by the Spaniards and Portuguese, and some other nations; as l is also changed into r. It is numbered among the liquids and semi-vowels, and is sometimes called the canine letter. It is uttered with a guttural extrusion of the breath, and in some words, particularly at the end or after a labial and a dental letter, with a sort of quivering motion or slight jar of the tongue. Its English uses, which are uniform, may be understood by the customary pronunciation of rod, room, rose, bar, bare, barren, disturb, catarrh, free, brad, pride, drip, drag, drown.

    In words which we have received from the Greek language, we follow the Latins, who wrote h after r, as the representative of the aspirated sound with which this letter was pronounced by the Greeks. It is the same in the Welsh language. But as the letter is not aspirated in English, h is entirely superfluous; rhapsody, rheum, rhetoric, being pronounced rapsody, reum, retoric.NWAD R.2

    As an abbreviation, R. in English, stands for rex, king, as George R.NWAD R.3

    As a numeral, R, in Roman authors, stands for 80, and with a dash over it, for 80,000. But in Greek, with a small mark over it, signifies 100, and with the same mark under it, it denoted 1000x100, or 100,000. In Hebrew, denoted 200, and with two horizontal points over it, 1000x200, or 200,000.NWAD R.4

    Among physicians, R. stands for recipe, take.NWAD R.5

    RA, as an inseparable prefix or preposition, is the Latin re, coming to us through the Italian and French, and primarily signifying again, repetition. [See Re.]

    RABATE, v.t. [See Beat and Abate.]

    In falconry, to recover a hawk to the fist.NWAD RABATE.2

    RABATO, n. A neckband or ruff. [Not in use.]

    RABBET, v.t.

    1. To pare down the edge of a board or other piece of timber, for the purpose of receiving the edge of another piece by lapping and thus uniting the two.NWAD RABBET.2

    2. To lap and unite the edges of boards, etc. In ship carpentry, to let the edge of a plank into the keel.NWAD RABBET.3

    RABBET, n. A cut on the side of a board, etc. to fit it to another by lapping; a joint made by lapping boards, etc.

    RABBETED, pp. Pared down the edge of a board; united by a rabbet joint.

    RABBETING, ppr. Paring down the edge of a board; uniting by a rabbet joint.

    RABBET-PLANE, n. A joiner’s plane for paring or cutting square down the edge of a board, etc.


    A title assumed by the Jewish doctors, signifying master or lord. This title is not conferred by authority, but assumed or allowed by courtesy to learned men.NWAD RABBI.2

    RABBINIC, RABBINICAL, a. Pertaining to the Rabbins, or to their opinions, learning and language.

    RABBINIC, n. The language or dialect of the Rabbins; the later Hebrew.

    RABBINISM, n. A Rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the language of the Rabbins.

    RABBINIST, n. Among the Jews, one who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the Rabbins, in opposition to the Caraites, who rejected the traditions.

    RABBINITE, n. The same as rabbinist.

    RABBIT, n.

    A small quadruped of the genus Lepus, which feeds on grass or other herbage, and burrows in the earth. The rabbit is said to be less sagacious than the hare. It is a very prolific animal, and is kept in warrens for the sake of its flesh.NWAD RABBIT.2

    RABBLE, n. [L. rabula, a brawler, from rabo, to rave.]

    1. A tumultuous crowd of vulgar, noisy people; the mob; a confused disorderly crowd.NWAD RABBLE.2

    2. The lower class of people, without reference to an assembly; the dregs of the people.NWAD RABBLE.3

    RABBLE-CHARMING, a. Charming or delighting the rabble.

    RABBLEMENT, n. A tumultuous crowd of low people. [Not in use.]

    RABDOLOGY, n. [Gr. a rod, and discourse.]

    A method of performing mathematical operations by little square rods.NWAD RABDOLOGY.2

    RABID, a. [L. rabidus, from rabio, rabo, to rage.]

    Furious; raging; mad; as a rabid dog or wolf. It is particularly applied to animals of the canine genus, affected with the distemper called rabies, and whose bite communicates hydrophobia.NWAD RABID.2

    RABIDNESS, n. Furiousness; madness.

    RABINET, n. A kind of smaller ordnance.

    RACA, n. A Syriac word signifying empty, beggarly, foolish; a term of extreme contempt. Matthew 5:22.

    RACE, n. [L. radix and radius having the same original. This word coincides in origin with rod, ray, radiate, etc.]

    1. The lineage of a family, or continued series of descendants from a parent who is called the stock. A race is the series of descendants indefinitely. Thus all mankind are called the race of Adam; the Israelites are of the race of Abraham and Jacob. Thus we speak of a race of kings, the race of Clovis or Charlemagne; a race of nobles, etc.NWAD RACE.2

    Hence the long race of Alban fathers come.NWAD RACE.3

    2. A generation; a family of descendants. A race of youthful and unhandled colts.NWAD RACE.4

    3. A particular breed; as a race of mules; a race of horses; a race of sheep.NWAD RACE.5

    Of such a race no matter who is king.NWAD RACE.6

    4. A root; as race-ginger, ginger in the root or not pulverized.NWAD RACE.7

    5. A particular strength or taste of wine; a kind of tartness.NWAD RACE.8

    RACE, n. [L. gradior, gressus, with the prefix g. Eng. ride.]

    1. A running; a rapid course or motion, either on the feet, on horseback or in a carriage, etc.; particularly, a contest in running; a running in competition for a prize.NWAD RACE.10

    The race was one of the exercises of the Grecian games.NWAD RACE.11

    I wield the gauntlet and I run the race.NWAD RACE.12

    2. Any sunning with speed.NWAD RACE.13

    The flight of many birds is swifter than the race of any beast.NWAD RACE.14

    3. A progress; a course; a movement or progression of any kind.NWAD RACE.15

    My race of glory run.NWAD RACE.16

    Let us run with patience the race that is set before us. Hebrews 12:1.NWAD RACE.17

    4. Course; train; process; as the prosecution and race of the war. [Not now used.]NWAD RACE.18

    5. A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; as a mill-race.NWAD RACE.19

    6. By way of distinction, a contest in the running of horses; generally in the plural. The races commence in October.NWAD RACE.20

    RACE, v.i. To run swiftly; to run or contend in running. The animals raced over the ground.

    RACE-GINGER, n. Ginger in the root or not pulverized.

    RACE-HORSE, n. A horse bred or kept for running in contest; a horse that runs in competition.

    RACEMATION, n. [L. racemus, a cluster.]

    1. A cluster, as of grapes.NWAD RACEMATION.2

    2. The cultivation of cluster of grapes.NWAD RACEMATION.3

    RACEME, n. [L. racemus, a bunch of berries.]

    In botany a species of inflorescence, consisting of a peduncle with short lateral branches. It is simple or compound, naked or leafy, etc.NWAD RACEME.2

    RACEMIFEROUS, a. [L. racemus, a cluster, and fero, to bear.]

    Bearing racemes or clusters; as the racemiferous fig-tree.NWAD RACEMIFEROUS.2

    RACEMOUS, a. Growing in racemes or clusters.

    RACER, n. [from race.] a runner; one that contends in a race.

    And bade the nimblest racer seize the prize.NWAD RACER.2

    RACH, n. A setting dog.

    RACINESS, n. The quality of being racy.

    RACK, n. [Eng. to reach. See Reach and Break.]

    1. An engine of torture, used for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons. The rack is entirely unknown in free countries.NWAD RACK.2

    2. Torture; extreme pain; anguish.NWAD RACK.3

    A fit of the stone puts a king to the rack and makes him as miserable as it does the meanest subject.NWAD RACK.4

    3. Any instrument for stretching or extending any thing; as a rack for bending a bow.NWAD RACK.5

    4. A grate on which bacon is laid.NWAD RACK.6

    5. A wooden frame of open work in which hay is laid for horses and cattle for feeding.NWAD RACK.7

    6. The frame of bones of an animal; a skeleton. We say, a rack of bones.NWAD RACK.8

    7. A frame of timber on a ship’s bowsprit.NWAD RACK.9

    RACK, n. [Eng. crag.]

    The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton.NWAD RACK.11

    [The two foregoing words are doubtless from one original.]NWAD RACK.12

    RACK, n. [See Reek.]

    Properly, vapor; hence, thin flying broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky.NWAD RACK.14

    The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the rack -NWAD RACK.15

    The great globe itself, yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, and, like this unsubstantial pageant, faded, leave not a rack behind.NWAD RACK.16

    It is disputed however, whether rack in this passage should not be wreck.NWAD RACK.17

    RACK, n. [for arrack. See Arrack.] Among the Tartars, a spirituous liquor made of mare’s milk which has become sour and is then distilled.

    RACK, v.i. [See the noun.]

    1. Properly, to steam; to rise, as vapor.NWAD RACK.20

    [See Reek, which is the word used.]NWAD RACK.21

    2. To fly, as vapor or broken clouds.NWAD RACK.22

    RACK, v.t. [from the noun.]

    1. To torture; to stretch or strain on the rack or wheel; as, to rack a criminal or suspected person, to extort a confession of his guilt, or compel him to betray his accomplices.NWAD RACK.24

    2. To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish; as racked with deep despair.NWAD RACK.25

    3. To harass by exaction.NWAD RACK.26

    The landlords there shamefully rack their tenants.NWAD RACK.27

    4. To stretch; to strain vehemently; to wrest; as, to rack and stretch Scripture; to rack invention.NWAD RACK.28

    The wisest among the heathens racked their wits -NWAD RACK.29

    5. To stretch; to extend.NWAD RACK.30

    RACK, v.t.

    To draw off from the lees; to draw off, as pure liquor from its sediment; as, to rack cider or wine; to rack off liquor.NWAD RACK.32

    RACKED, pp.

    1. Tortured; tormented; strained to the utmost.NWAD RACKED.2

    2. Drawn off, as liquor.NWAD RACKED.3

    RACKER, n. One that tortures or torments; one that racks.

    RACKET, n. [This word belong to the root of crack. See Rocket.]

    1. A confused, clattering noise, less loud than uproar; applied to the confused sounds of animal voices, or such voices mixed with other sound. We say, the children make a racket; the racket of a flock of fowls.NWAD RACKET.2

    2. Clamor; noisy talk.NWAD RACKET.3

    RACKET, v.i. To make a confused noise or clamor; to frolic.

    RACKET, n.

    The instrument with which players at tennis strike the ball.NWAD RACKET.6

    RACKET, v.t. To strike as with a racket.

    RACKETY, a. Making a tumultuous noise.

    RACKING, ppr.

    1. Torturing; tormenting; straining; drawing off.NWAD RACKING.2

    2. a. Tormenting; excruciating; as a racking pain.NWAD RACKING.3

    RACKING, n.

    1. Torture; a stretching on the rack.NWAD RACKING.5

    2. Torment of the mind; anguish; as the rackings of conscience.NWAD RACKING.6

    3. The act of stretching cloth on a frame for drying.NWAD RACKING.7

    4. The act of drawing from the sediment, as liquors.NWAD RACKING.8

    RACKING-PACE, n. The racking-pace of a horse is an amble, but with a quicker and shorter tread.

    RACK-RENT, n. An annual rent of the full value of the tenement or near it.

    RACK-RENTED, a. Subjected to the payment of rack-rent.

    RACK-RENTER, n. One that is subjected to pay rack-rent.

    RACOON, n. An American quadruped of the genus Ursus. It is somewhat larger than a fox, and its fur is deemed valuable, next to that of the beaver. This animal lodges in a hollow tree, feeds on vegetables, and its flesh is palatable food. It inhabits North America from Canada to the tropics.

    RACY, a. [L. radix.]

    Strong; flavorous; tasting of the soil; as racy cider; racy wine.NWAD RACY.2

    Rich racy verses, in which we the soil from which they come, taste, smell and see.NWAD RACY.3

    RAD, the old pret. of read.

    RAD, RED, ROD, an initial or terminating syllable in names.

    RADDLE, v.t.

    To twist; to wind together. [Not in use.]NWAD RADDLE.2

    RADDLE, n. [supra.] A long stick used in hedging; also, a hedge formed by interweaving the shoots and branches of trees or shrubs.

    [I believe the two foregoing words are not used in the United States, and probably they are local.]NWAD RADDLE.4

    RADDOCK, RUDDOCK, n. [from red, ruddy, which see.] A bird, the red-breast.

    RADIAL, a. [from L. radius, a ray, a rod, a spoke. See Radius and Ray.]

    Pertaining to the radius or to the fore arm of the human body; as the radial artery or nerve.NWAD RADIAL.2

    The radial muscles are two muscles of the fore arm, one of which bends the wrist, the other extends it.NWAD RADIAL.3

    Radial curves, in geometry, curves of the spiral kind, whose ordinates all terminate in the center of the including circle, and appear like so many semidiameters.NWAD RADIAL.4

    RADIANCE, RADIANCY, n. [L. radians, radio, to beam or shoot rays. See Radius and Ray.]

    Properly, brightness shooting in rays or beams; hence in general, brilliant or sparkling luster; vivid brightness; as the radiance of the sun.NWAD RADIANCE.2

    The Son girt with omnipotence, with radiance crown’d of majesty divine.NWAD RADIANCE.3

    RADIANT, a. Shooting or darting rays of light; beaming with brightness; emitting a vivid light or splendor; as the radiant sun.

    Mark what radiant state she spreads.NWAD RADIANT.2

    Radiant in glittering arms and beamy pride.NWAD RADIANT.3

    RADIANT, n. In optics, the luminous point or object from which light emanates, that falls on a mirror or lens.

    RADIANTLY, adv. With beaming brightness; with glittering splendor.

    RADIATE, v.i. [L. radio. See Ray.]

    1. To issue in rays, as light; to dart, as beams of brightness; to shine.NWAD RADIATE.2

    Light radiates from luminous bodies directly to our eyes.NWAD RADIATE.3

    2. To issue and proceed in direct lines from a point.NWAD RADIATE.4

    RADIATE, v.t. To enlighten; to illuminate; to shed light or brightness on. [Usually irradiate.]

    RADIATE, a. In botany, a rayed or radiate corol or flower, is a compound flower consisting of a disk, in which the corollets or florets are tubular and regular, and of a ray, in which the florets are irregular.

    Or a flower with several semiflosculous florets set round a disk in form of a radiant star.NWAD RADIATE.7

    RADIATED, pp.

    1. Adorned with rays of light.NWAD RADIATED.2

    2. Having crystals diverging from a center.NWAD RADIATED.3

    RADIATING, ppr. Darting rays of light; enlightening; as the radiating point in optics.

    RADIATION, n. [L. radiatio.]

    1. The emission and diffusion of rays of light; beamy brightness.NWAD RADIATION.2

    2. The shooting of any thing from a center, like the diverging rays of light.NWAD RADIATION.3

    RADICAL, a. [L. radicalis, from radix, root. See Race and Ray.]

    1. Pertaining to the root or origin; original; fundamental; as a radical truth or error; a radical evil; a radical difference of opinions or systems.NWAD RADICAL.2

    2. Implanted by nature; native; constitutional; as the radical moisture of a body.NWAD RADICAL.3

    3. Primitive; original; underived; uncompounded; as a radical word.NWAD RADICAL.4

    4. Serving to origination.NWAD RADICAL.5

    5. In botany, proceeding immediately from the root; as a radical leaf or peduncle.NWAD RADICAL.6

    RADICAL, n.

    1. In philology, a primitive word; a radix, root, or simple underived uncompounded word.NWAD RADICAL.8

    2. A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.NWAD RADICAL.9

    3. in chimistry, an element, or a simple constituent part of a substance, which is incapable of decomposition.NWAD RADICAL.10

    That which constitutes the distinguishing part of an acid, by its union with oxygen.NWAD RADICAL.11

    Compound radical is the base of an acid composed of two or more substances. Thus a vegetable acid having a radical composed of hydrogen and carbon, is said to be an acid with a compound radical.NWAD RADICAL.12

    Radical quantities, in algebra, quantities whose roots may be accurately expressed in numbers. The term is sometimes extended to all quantities under the radical sign.NWAD RADICAL.13


    1. Origination.NWAD RADICALITY.2

    2. A being radical; a quantity which has relation to a root.NWAD RADICALITY.3

    RADICALLY, adv.

    1. Originally; at the origin or root; fundamentally; as a scheme or system radically wrong or defective.NWAD RADICALLY.2

    2. Primitively; essentially; originally; without derivation.NWAD RADICALLY.3

    These great orbs thus radically bright.NWAD RADICALLY.4

    RADICALNESS, n. The state of being radical or fundamental.

    RADICANT, a. [L. radicans.] In botany, rooting; as a radicant stem or leaf.

    RADICATE, v.t. [L. radicatus, radicor, from radix, root.]

    To root; to plant deply and firmly; as radicated opinions; radicated knowledge.NWAD RADICATE.2

    Meditation will radicate these seeds.NWAD RADICATE.3

    RADICATE, RAD’ICATED, pp. or a. Deeply planted.

    Prejudices of a whole race of people radicated by a succession of ages.NWAD RADICATE.5

    RADICATION, n. [from radicate.]

    1. The process of taking root deeply; as the radication of habits.NWAD RADICATION.2

    2. In botany, the disposition of the root of a plant with respect to the ascending and descending caudex and the radicles.NWAD RADICATION.3

    RADICLE, n. [L. radicula, from radix.]

    1. That part of the seed of a plant which upon vegetating becomes the root.NWAD RADICLE.2

    2. The fibrous part of a root, by which the stock or main body of it is terminated.NWAD RADICLE.3

    RADIOMETER, n. [L. radius, rod, and Gr. measure.]

    The forestaff, an instrument for taking the altitudes of celestial bodies.NWAD RADIOMETER.2

    RADISH, n. [See Ruddy.]

    A plant of the genus Raphanus, the root of which is eaten raw. Horse-radish is of the genus Cochlearia. Water-radish is of the genus Sisymbrium.NWAD RADISH.2

    RADIUS, n. [L. id, a ray, a rod, a beam, a spoke, that is, a shoot; radio, to shine, that is, to dart beams. See Ray.]

    1. In geometry, a right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery, and hence the semidiameter of the circle. In trigonometry, the radius is the whole sine, or sine of 90 degrees.NWAD RADIUS.2

    2. In anatomy, the exterior bone of the fore arm, descending along with the ulna from the elbow to the wrist.NWAD RADIUS.3

    3. In botany, a ray; the outer part or circumference of a compound radiate flower, or radiated discous flower.NWAD RADIUS.4

    RADIX, n. [L. a root.]

    1. In etymology, a primitive word from which spring other words.NWAD RADIX.2

    2. In logarithms, the base of any system of logarithms, or that number whose logarithm is unity. Thus in Briggs’, or the common system of logarithms, the radix is 10; in Napier’s, it is 2.7182818284. All other numbers are considered as some powers or roots of the radix, the exponents of which powers or roots, constitute the logarithms of those numbers respectively.NWAD RADIX.3

    3. In algebra, radix sometimes denotes the root of a finite expression, from which a series is derived.NWAD RADIX.4

    RAFF, v.t. [Heb.]

    To sweep; to snatch, draw or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep. Obs.NWAD RAFF.2

    Their causes and effects I thus raff up together.NWAD RAFF.3

    RAFF, n.

    1. The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob. This is used chiefly in the compound or duplicate, riff-raff.NWAD RAFF.5

    2. A promiscuous heap or collection; a jumble.NWAD RAFF.6

    RAFFLE, v.i. [Heb. to strive. See Raff.]

    To cast dice for a prize, for which each person concerned in the game lays down a stake, or hazards a part of the value; as, to raffle for a watch.NWAD RAFFLE.2

    RAFFLE, n. A game of chance, or lottery in which several persons deposit a part of the value of the thing, in consideration of the chance of gaining it. The successful thrower of the dice takes or sweeps the whole.

    RAFFLER, n. One who raffles.

    RAFFLING, ppr. The act of throwing dice for a prize staked by a number.

    RAFT, n. [Gr. to sew that is, to fasten together, and allied to reeve; or Gr. whence a flooring. See Rafter and Roof.]

    An assemblage of boards, planks or pieces of timber fastened together horizontally and floated down a stream; a float.NWAD RAFT.2

    RAFT, pp. [L. rapio; bereafian, to snatch away, to bereave.]

    Torn; rent; severed. Obs.NWAD RAFT.4

    RAFTER, n. [Gr. to cover; a roof.]

    A roof timber; a piece of timber that extends from the plate of a building to the ridge and serves to support the covering of the roof.NWAD RAFTER.2

    RAFTERED, a. Built or furnished with rafters.

    RAFTY, a. Damp; musty. [Local.]

    RAG, n. [Gr. a torn garment; tear; a rupture, a rock, a crag; to tear asunder.]

    1. Any piece of cloth torn from the rest; a tattered cloth, torn or worn till its texture is destroyed. Linen and cotton rags are the chief materials of paper.NWAD RAG.2

    2. Garments worn out; proverbially, mean dress.NWAD RAG.3

    Drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags. Proverbs 23:21.NWAD RAG.4

    And virtue, though in rags, will keep me warm.NWAD RAG.5

    3. A fragment of dress.NWAD RAG.6

    RAG, v.t.

    To scold; to rail. [Local.]NWAD RAG.8


    A paltry fellow; a mean wretch.NWAD RAGAMUFFIN.2

    RAG-BOLT, n. An iron pin with barbs on its shank to retain it in its place.

    RAGE, n. [Heb. to grind or gnash the teeth.]

    1. Violent anger accompanied with furious words, gestures or agitation; anger excited to fury. Passion sometimes rises to rage.NWAD RAGE.2

    Torment and loud lament and furious rage.NWAD RAGE.3

    2. Vehemence or violent exacerbation of any thing painful; as the rage of pain; the rage of a fever; the rage of hunger or thirst.NWAD RAGE.4

    3. Fury; extreme violence; as the rage of a tempest.NWAD RAGE.5

    4. Enthusiasm; rapture.NWAD RAGE.6

    Who brought green poesy to her perfect age, and made that art which was a rage.NWAD RAGE.7

    5. Extreme eagerness or passion directed to some object; as the rage for money.NWAD RAGE.8

    You purchase pain with all that joy can give, and die of nothing but a rage to live.NWAD RAGE.9

    RAGE, v.i.

    1. To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion.NWAD RAGE.11

    At this he inly rag’d.NWAD RAGE.12

    2. To be violent and tumultuous.NWAD RAGE.13

    Why do the heathen rage? Psalm 2:1.NWAD RAGE.14

    3. To be violently driven or agitated; as the raging sea or winds.NWAD RAGE.15

    4. To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with fatal effect; as, the plague rages in Cairo.NWAD RAGE.16

    5. To be driven with impetuosity; to act or move furiously.NWAD RAGE.17

    The chariots shall rage in the streets. Nahum 2:4.NWAD RAGE.18

    The madding wheels of brazen chariots rag’d.NWAD RAGE.19

    6. To toy wantonly; to sport. [Not in use.]NWAD RAGE.20

    RAGEFUL, a. Full of rage; violent; furious.

    RAGERY, n. Wantonness. [Not used.]

    RAGG, n. Rowley ragg, a species of silicious stone, of a dusky or dark gray color, with shining crystals, of a granular texture, and by exposure to the air acquiring an ochery crust.

    RAGGED, a. [from rag.]

    1. Rent or worn into tatters, or till its texture is broken; as a ragged coat; a ragged sail.NWAD RAGGED.2

    2. Broken with rough edges; uneven; as a ragged rock.NWAD RAGGED.3

    3. Having the appearance of being broken or torn; jagged; rough with sharp or irregular points.NWAD RAGGED.4

    The moon appears, when looked upon through a good glass, rude and ragged.NWAD RAGGED.5

    4. Wearing tattered clothes; as a ragged fellow.NWAD RAGGED.6

    5. Rough; rugged.NWAD RAGGED.7

    What shepherd owns those ragged sheep?NWAD RAGGED.8


    1. The state of being dressed in tattered clothes.NWAD RAGGEDNESS.2

    2. The state of being rough or broken irregularly; as the raggedness of a cliff.NWAD RAGGEDNESS.3

    RAGING, ppr. [from rage.]

    1. Acting with violence or fury.NWAD RAGING.2

    2. a. Furious; impetuous; vehemently driven or agitated; as the raging sea or tempest.NWAD RAGING.3

    RAGING, n. Fury; violence; impetuosity. Jonah 1:15.

    RAGINGLY, adv. With fury; with violent impetuosity.

    RAGMAN, n. A man who collects or deals in rags, the materials of paper.

    RAGMAN’S-ROLL, n. A roll or register of the value of benefices in Scotland, made by Ragimund, a legate of the pope, according to which the clergy were afterwards taxed by the court of Rome. [See Rigmarole.]

    RAGOO, RAGOUT, n. A sauce or seasoning for exciting a languid appetite; or a high seasoned dish, prepared with fish, flesh, greens and the like, stewed with salt, pepper, cloves, etc.

    RAGSTONE, n. A stone of the silicious kind, so named from its rough fracture. It is of a gray color, the texture obscurely laminar or rather fibrous, the lamins consisting of a congeries of grains of a quartzy appearance, coarse and rough. It effervesces with acids, and gives fire with steel. It is used for a whetstone without oil or water, for sharpening coarse cutting tools.

    RAGWORT, n. A plant of the genus Senecio.

    RAIL, n.

    1. A cross beam fixed at the ends in two upright posts.NWAD RAIL.2

    [In New England, this is never called a beam; pieces of timber of the proper size for rails are called scantling.]NWAD RAIL.3

    2. In the United States, a piece of timber cleft, hewed or sawed, rough or smooth, inserted in upright posts for fencing. The common rails among farmers, are rough, being used as they are split from the chestnut or other trees. The rails used in fences of boards or pickets round gentlemen’s houses and gardens, are usually sawed scantling and often dressed with the plane.NWAD RAIL.4

    3. A bar of wood or iron used for inclosing any place; the piece into which ballusters are inserted.NWAD RAIL.5

    4. A series of posts connected with cross beams, by which a place is inclosed.NWAD RAIL.6

    In New England we never call this series a rail, but by the general term railing. In a picket fence, the pales or pickets rise above the rails; in a ballustrade, or fence resembling it, the ballusters usually terminate in the rails.NWAD RAIL.7

    5. In a ship, a narrow plank nailed for ornament or security on a ship’s upper works; also, a curved piece of timber extending from the bows of a ship to the continuation of its stern, to support the knee of the head, etc.NWAD RAIL.8

    RAIL, n. A bird of the genus Rallus, consisting of many species. The water rail has a long slender body with short concave wings. The birds of the genus inhabit the slimy margins of rivers and ponds covered with marsh plants.

    RAIL, n.

    A woman’s upper garment; retained in the word nightrail, but not used in the United States.NWAD RAIL.11

    RAIL, v.t.

    1. To inclose with rails.NWAD RAIL.13

    2. To range in a line.NWAD RAIL.14

    RAIL, v.i. [Eng. to brawl.]

    To utter reproaches; to scoff; to use insolent and reproachful language; to reproach or censure in opprobrious terms; followed by at or against, formerly by on.NWAD RAIL.16

    And rail at arts he did not understand.NWAD RAIL.17

    Lesbia forever on e rails.NWAD RAIL.18

    RAIL-BIRD, n. A bird of the genus Cuculus.

    RAILER, n. One who scoffs, insults, censures or reproaches with opprobrious language.

    RAILING, ppr.

    1. Clamoring with insulting language; uttering reproachful words.NWAD RAILING.2

    2. a. Expressing reproach; insulting; as a railing accusation. 2 Peter 2:11.NWAD RAILING.3

    RAILING, n. Reproachful or insolent language. 1 Peter 3:9.

    RAILING, ppr. Inclosing with rails.

    RAILING, n.

    1. A series of rails; a fence.NWAD RAILING.7

    2. Rails in general; or the scantling for rails.NWAD RAILING.8

    RAILINGLY, adv. With scoffing or insulting language.

    RAILLERY, n.

    Banter; jesting language; good humored pleasantry or slight satire; satirical merriment.NWAD RAILLERY.2

    Let raillery be without malice or heat.NWAD RAILLERY.3

    - Studies employed on low objects; the very naming of them is sufficient to turn them into raillery.NWAD RAILLERY.4

    RAILLEUR, n. A banterer; a jester; a mocker. [Not English nor in use.]

    RAIMENT, n. [for arrayment. See Array and Ray.]

    1. Clothing in general; vestments; vesture; garments. Genesis 24:53; Deuteronomy 8:4.NWAD RAIMENT.2

    Living, both food and raiment she supplies.NWAD RAIMENT.3

    2. A single garment.NWAD RAIMENT.4

    [In this sense it is rarely used, and indeed is improper.]NWAD RAIMENT.5

    RAIN, v.i. [It seems that rain is contracted from regen. It is the Gr. to rain, to water, which we retain in brook, and the Latins, by dropping the prefix, in rigo, irrigo, to irrigate. The primary sense is to pour out, to drive forth. Heb.]

    1. To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; used mostly with it for a nominative; as, it rains; it will rain; it rained, or it has rained.NWAD RAIN.2

    2. To fall or drop like rain; as, tears rained at their eyes.NWAD RAIN.3

    RAIN, v.t. To pour or shower down from the upper regions, like rain from the clouds.

    Then said the Lord to Moses, behold I will rain bread from heaven for you. Exodus 16:4.NWAD RAIN.5

    God shall cast the fury of his wrath upon him, and shall rain it upon him while he is eating. Job 20:23.NWAD RAIN.6

    Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and horrible tempest. Psalm 11:6.NWAD RAIN.7

    RAIN, n. The descent of water in drops from the clouds; or the water thus falling. Rain is distinguished from mist, by the size of the drops, which are distinctly visible. When water falls in very small drops or particles, we call it mist, and fog is composed of particles so fine as to be not only indistinguishable, but to float or be suspended in the air.

    RAINBAT, a. Beaten or injured by the rain. [Not used.]

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