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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    CLOSED, pp. Shut; made fast; ended; concluded.

    CLOSELY, adv.

    1. In a close, compact manner; with the parts united, or pressed together, so as to leave no vent; as a crucible closely luted.NWAD CLOSELY.2

    2. Nearly; with little space intervening; applied to space or time; as, to follow closely at ones heels; one event follows closely upon another.NWAD CLOSELY.3

    3. Intently; attentively; with the mind or thoughts fixed; with near inspection; as, to look or attend closely.NWAD CLOSELY.4

    4. Secretly; slyly.NWAD CLOSELY.5

    5. With near affection, attachment or interest; intimately; as, men closely connected in friendship; nations closely allied by treaty.NWAD CLOSELY.6

    6. Strictly; within close limits; without communication abroad; as a prisoner closely confined.NWAD CLOSELY.7

    7. With strict adherence to the original; as, to translate closely.NWAD CLOSELY.8


    1. The state of being shut, pressed together, or united. Hence according to the nature of the thing to which the word is applied.NWAD CLOSENESS.2

    2. Compactness; solidity; as the closeness of texture in wood or fossils.NWAD CLOSENESS.3

    3. Narrowness; straitness; as of a place.NWAD CLOSENESS.4

    4. Tightness in building, or in apartments; firmness of texture in cloth, etc.NWAD CLOSENESS.5

    5. Want of ventilation; applied to a close room, or to the air confined in it.NWAD CLOSENESS.6

    6. Confinement or retirement of a person; recluseness; solitude.NWAD CLOSENESS.7

    7. Reserve in intercourse; secrecy; privacy; caution.NWAD CLOSENESS.8

    8. Covetousness; penuriousness.NWAD CLOSENESS.9

    9. Connection; near union; intimacy, whether of friendship, or of interest; as the closeness of friendship, or of alliance.NWAD CLOSENESS.10

    10. Pressure; urgency; variously applied; as the closeness of an agreement, or of debate; the closeness of a question or inquiry.NWAD CLOSENESS.11

    11. Adherence to an original; as the closeness of a version.NWAD CLOSENESS.12

    CLOSER, n. s as z. A finisher; one who concludes.

    CLOSER, a. comp. of close. More close.

    CLOSEST, a. superl. of close. Most close. In these words, s has its proper sound.

    CLOSET, n. s as z.

    1. A small room or apartment for retirement; any room for privacy.NWAD CLOSET.2

    When thou prayest, inter into thy closet. Matthew 6:6.NWAD CLOSET.3

    2. An apartment for curiosities or valuable things.NWAD CLOSET.4

    3. A small close apartment or recess in the side of a room for repositing utensils and furniture.NWAD CLOSET.5

    CLOSET, v.t. s as z. To shut up in a closet; to conceal; to take into a private apartment for consultation.

    CLOSETED, pp. s as z. Shut up in a closet; concealed.

    CLOSETING, ppr. s as z. Shutting up in a private room; concealing.

    CLOSET-SIN, n. Sin committed in privacy.

    CLOSH, n. A disease in the feet of cattle, called also the founder.

    CLOSING, ppr. s as z. Shutting; coalescing; agreeing; ending.

    CLOSING, a. s as z. That ends or concludes; as a closing word or letter.

    CLOSING, n. s as z. End; period; conclusion.

    CLOSURE, n.

    1. The act of shutting; a closing.NWAD CLOSURE.2

    2. That which closes, or shuts; that by which separate parts are fastened or made to adhere.NWAD CLOSURE.3

    3. Inclosure; that which confines.NWAD CLOSURE.4

    4. Conclusion.NWAD CLOSURE.5

    CLOT, n. [See Clod.] A concretion, particularly of soft or fluid matter, which concretes into a mass or lump; as a clot of blood. Clod and clot appear to be radically the same word; but we usually apply clod to a hard mass of earth, and clot to a mass of softer substances, or fluids concreted.

    CLOT, v.i.

    1. To concrete; to coagulate, as soft or fluid matter into a thick, inspissated mass; as milk or blood clots.NWAD CLOT.3

    2. To form into clots or clods; to adhere; as, clotted glebe.NWAD CLOT.4

    CLOT-BIRD, n. The common Oenanthe or English Ortolan.

    CLOT-BUR, n. Burdock.

    CLOTH, n.

    1. A manufacture or stuff of wool or hair, or of cotton, flax, hemp or other vegetable filaments, formed by weaving or intertexture of threads, and used for garments or other covering and for various other purposes; as woolen cloth, linen cloth, cotton cloth, hair cloth.NWAD CLOTH.2

    2. The covering of a table; usually called a tablecloth.NWAD CLOTH.3

    3. The canvas on which pictures are drawn.NWAD CLOTH.4

    4. A texture or covering put to a particular use; as a cloth of state.NWAD CLOTH.5

    5. Dress; raiment. [See Clothes.]NWAD CLOTH.6

    6. The covering of a bed.NWAD CLOTH.7

    CLOTHE, v.t. pret. and pp. clothed, or clad. [See Cloth.]

    1. To put on garments; to invest the body with raiment; to cover with dress, for concealing nakedness and defending the body from cold or injuries.NWAD CLOTHE.2

    The Lord God made coats of skin and clothed them. Genesis 3:21.NWAD CLOTHE.3

    2. To cover with something ornamental.NWAD CLOTHE.4

    Embroidered purple clothes the golden beds.NWAD CLOTHE.5

    But clothe, without the aid of other words, seldom signifies to adorn. In this example from Pope, it signifies merely to cover.NWAD CLOTHE.6

    3. To furnish with raiment; to provide with clothes; as, a master is to feed and clothe his apprentice.NWAD CLOTHE.7

    4. To put on; to invest; to cover, as with a garment; as, to clothe thoughts with words.NWAD CLOTHE.8

    I will clothe her priests with salvation. Psalm 132:16.NWAD CLOTHE.9

    Drowsiness shall clothe a man with rags. Proverbs 23:21.NWAD CLOTHE.10

    Let them be clothed with shame. Psalm 35:26.NWAD CLOTHE.11

    5. To invest; to surround; to encompass.NWAD CLOTHE.12

    The Lord is clothed with majesty. Psalm 93:1.NWAD CLOTHE.13

    Thou art clothed with honor and majesty. Psalm 104:1.NWAD CLOTHE.14

    6. To invest; to give to by commission; as, to clothe with power or authority.NWAD CLOTHE.15

    7. To cover or spread over; as, the earth is clothed with verdure.NWAD CLOTHE.16

    CLOTHE, v.i. To wear clothes.

    Care no more to clothe and eat.NWAD CLOTHE.18

    CLOTHED, pp. Covered with garments; dressed; invested; furnished with clothing.

    CLOTHES, n. plu. Of cloth; pronounced cloze.

    1. Garments for the human body; dress; vestments; vesture; a general term for whatever covering is worn, or made to be worn, for decency or comfort.NWAD CLOTHES.2

    If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole. Mark 5:28.NWAD CLOTHES.3

    2. The covering of a bed; bed-clothes.NWAD CLOTHES.4

    CLOTHIER, n.

    1. In English authors, a man who makes cloths; a maker of cloth. In this sense, I believe it is not used in the United States; certainly not in New England.NWAD CLOTHIER.2

    2. In America, a man whose occupation is to full and dress cloth.NWAD CLOTHIER.3

    CLOTHING, ppr. Covering with or putting on vestments of any kind; providing with garments; investing; covering.

    CLOTHING, n.

    1. Garments in general; clothes; dress; raiment; covering.NWAD CLOTHING.3

    As for me--my clothing was sackcloth. Psalm 35:13.NWAD CLOTHING.4

    2. The art or practice of making cloth.NWAD CLOTHING.5

    The king took measures to instruct the refugees from Flanders in the art of clothing.NWAD CLOTHING.6

    CLOTH-SHEARER, n. One who shears cloth, and frees it from superfluous nap.

    CLOTH-WORKER, n. A maker of cloth.

    CLOTPOLL, n. A thickskull; a blockhead. [See Clod-poll.]

    CLOTTED, pp. Concreted into a mass; inspissated; adhering in a lump.

    CLOTTER, v.i. [from clot.] To concrete or gather into lumps.

    CLOTTING, ppr. Concreting; inspissating; forming into clots.

    CLOTTY, a. [from clot.] Full of clots, or small hard masses; full of concretions, or clods.

    CLOUD, n. [I have not found this word in any other language. The sense is obvious--a collection.]

    1. A collection f visible vapor, or watery particles, suspended in the atmosphere, at some altitude. A like collection of vapors near the earth is usually called fog.NWAD CLOUD.2

    I do set my bow in the cloud. Genesis 9:13.NWAD CLOUD.3

    Behold, a white cloud. Revelation 14:14.NWAD CLOUD.4

    2. A state of obscurity or darkness.NWAD CLOUD.5

    3. A collection of smoke, or a dense collection of dust, rising or floating in the air; as a cloud of dust.NWAD CLOUD.6

    A cloud of incense. Ezekiel 8:11.NWAD CLOUD.7

    4. The dark or varied colors, in veins or spots, on stones or other bodies, are called clouds.NWAD CLOUD.8

    5. A great multitude; a vast collection.NWAD CLOUD.9

    Seeing we are encompassed with so great a cloud of witnesses. Hebrews 12:1.NWAD CLOUD.10

    CLOUD, v.t. To overspread with a cloud or clouds; as, the sky is clouded; clouds intercept the rays of the sun. Hence,

    2. To obscure; to darken; as, to cloud the day, or truth, or reason.NWAD CLOUD.12

    3. To darken in veins or spots; to variegate with colors; as clouded marble.NWAD CLOUD.13

    4. To make of a gloomy aspect; to give the appearance of sullenness.NWAD CLOUD.14

    What sullen fury clouds his scornful brow.NWAD CLOUD.15

    5. To sully; to tarnish.NWAD CLOUD.16

    CLOUD, v.i. To grow cloudy; to become obscure with clouds; sometimes followed by over; as, the sky clouds over.

    CLOUD-ASCENDING, a. Ascending to the clouds.

    CLOUD-BERRY, n. A plant, called also knot-berry; Rubus chamaemorus.

    CLOUD-BORN, a. Born of a cloud.

    CLOUD-CAPT, a. [cloud and cap.] Capped with clouds; touching the clouds; lofty.

    The cloud-capt towers.NWAD CLOUD-CAPT.2

    CLOUD-COMPELLER, n. He that collects clouds; Jove.

    CLOUD-COMPELLING, a. Collecting clouds; or driving clouds; as cloud-compelling Jove.

    CLOUD-COVERED, a. Enveloped with clouds.

    CLOUD-DISPELLING, a. Having power to disperse clouds.

    CLOUD-ECLIPSED, a. Eclipsed by a cloud.

    CLOUDED, pp. Overcast; overspread with clouds; obscured; darkened; rendered gloomy or sullen; variegated with colored spots or veins.

    CLOUDILY, adv. [from cloudy.] With clouds; darkly; obscurely.


    1. The state of being overcast with clouds; as the cloudiness of the atmosphere.NWAD CLOUDINESS.2

    2. Obscurity; gloom; want of brightness.NWAD CLOUDINESS.3

    3. Darkness of appearance; variegation of colors in a fossil or other body.NWAD CLOUDINESS.4

    4. Appearance of gloom or sullenness; as cloudiness of aspect.NWAD CLOUDINESS.5

    CLOUDING, ppr. Overspreading with clouds; obscuring; giving an appearance of gloom or sullenness.

    CLOUD-KISSING, a. Touching the clouds.

    CLOUDLESS, a. Being without a cloud; unclouded; clear; bright; luminous; as cloudless skies.

    CLOUD-PIERCING, a. Penetrating or rising above the clouds.

    CLOUD-TOPT, a. Having the top covered with a cloud.

    CLOUD-TOUCHING, a. Touching the clouds.

    CLOUDY, a.

    1. Overcast with clouds; obscured with clouds; as a cloudy day; a cloudy sky; a cloudy night.NWAD CLOUDY.2

    2. Consisting of a cloud or clouds; as a cloudy pillar. Exodus 33:9.NWAD CLOUDY.3

    3. Obscure; dark; not easily understood; as cloudy and confused notions.NWAD CLOUDY.4

    4. Having the appearance of gloom; indicating gloom, anxiety, sullenness, or illnature; not open or cheerful; as cloudy looks.NWAD CLOUDY.5

    5. Indicating gloom or sullenness; as cloudy wrath.NWAD CLOUDY.6

    6. Marked with veins or spots of dark or various hues, as marble.NWAD CLOUDY.7

    7. Not bright; as a cloudy diamond.NWAD CLOUDY.8

    CLOUGH, n. cluf. A cleft in a hill. In commerce, an allowance of two pounds in every hundred weight, for the turn of the scale, that the commodity may hold out in retailing.

    CLOUT, n.

    1. A patch; a piece of cloth or leather, etc., to close a breach.NWAD CLOUT.2

    2. A piece of cloth for mean purposes.NWAD CLOUT.3

    3. A piece of white cloth, for archers to shoot at.NWAD CLOUT.4

    4. An iron plate on an axle tree, to keep it from wearing.NWAD CLOUT.5

    5. A small nailNWAD CLOUT.6

    6. In vulgar language, a blow with the hand.NWAD CLOUT.7

    CLOUT, v.t.

    1. To patch; to mend by sewing on a piece or patch; as clouted shoon, in Milton. This is the sense as understood by Johnson. Mason understands the word clouted to signify nailed, studded with small nails, from the French clouter, and the following words in Shakespeare, Whose rudeness answered my steps too loud, give some countenance to Masons interpretation. In this case, the verb clout must signify, to nail, or fasten with nails; to stud.NWAD CLOUT.9

    2. To cover with a piece of cloth.NWAD CLOUT.10

    3. To join clumsily; as clouted sentences.NWAD CLOUT.11

    4. To cover or arm with an iron plate.NWAD CLOUT.12

    5. To strike; to give a blow.NWAD CLOUT.13

    Clouted cream, in Gay, is evidently a mistake for clotted cream.NWAD CLOUT.14

    CLOUTED, pp. Patched; mended clumsily; covered with a clout.

    CLOUTERLY, a. Clumsy; awkward.

    CLUTING, ppr. Patching; covering with a clout.

    CLOVE, pret. of cleave.

    CLOVE, n. [See Cleave.] A cleft; a fissure; a gap; a ravine. This word, though properly an appellative, is not often used as such in English; bu it is appropriated to particular places, that are real clefts, or which appear as such; as the Clove of Kaaterskill, in the state of New York, and the Stony Clove. It is properly a Dutch word.

    CLOVE, n.

    1. A very pungent aromatic spice, the flower of the clove-tree, Caryophyllus, a native of the Molucca isles. The tree grows to the size of the laurel, and its bark resembles that of the olive. No verdure is seen under it. At the extremities of its branches are produced vast numbers of flowers, which are at first white, then green, and at last red and hard. These are called cloves.NWAD CLOVE.4

    2. [from cleave.] The parts into which garlic separates, when the outer skin is removed.NWAD CLOVE.5

    3. A certain weight; seven pounds of wool; eight pounds of cheese or butter.NWAD CLOVE.6

    CLOVE-GILLY-GLOWER, n. A species of Dianthus, bearing a beautiful flower, cultivated in gardens; called also Carnation pink.

    Note: Some writers suppose that gilly-flower should be written July-flower. [See Clove.]NWAD CLOVE-GILLY-GLOWER.2

    CLOVEN, pp. of cleave. Divided; parted; pronounced clovn.

    CLOVEN-FOOTED, CLOVEN-HOOFED, a. Having the foot or hoof divided into two parts, as the ox; bisulcous.

    CLOVER, CLOVER-GRASS, n. A genus of plants, called Trifolium, trefoil, or three-leafed, Fr. trefle. The species are numerous. The red clover is generally cultivated for fodder and for enriching land. The white clover is also excellent food for cattle, either green or dry, and from its flowers the bee collects no small portion of its stores of honey.

    To live in clover, is to live luxuriously, or in abundance; a phrase borrowed from the luxuriant growth of clover, and the feeding of cattle in clover.NWAD CLOVER.2

    CLOVERED, a. Covered with clover.

    CLOWN, n. A countryman; a rustic; hence, one who has the manners of a rustic; a churl; a man of coarse manners; an ill-bred man.

    CLOWNAGE, n. The manners of a clown.

    CLOWNERY, n. Ill-breeding; rustic behavior; rudeness of manners.

    CLOWNISH, a.

    1. Containing clowns; consisting of rustics; as a clownish neighborhood.NWAD CLOWNISH.2

    2. Coarse; hard; rugged; rough; as clownish hands.NWAD CLOWNISH.3

    3. Of rough manners; ill-bred; as a clownish fellow.NWAD CLOWNISH.4

    4. Clumsy; awkward; as a clownish gait.NWAD CLOWNISH.5

    CLOY, v.t.

    1. Strictly, to fill; to glut. Hence, to satisfy, as the appetite; to satiate. And as the appetite when satisfied rejects additional food, hence, to fill to lothing; to surfeit.NWAD CLOY.2

    Who can cloy the hungry edge of appetiteNWAD CLOY.3

    By bare imagination of a feast?NWAD CLOY.4

    2. To spike up a gun; to drive a spike into the vent.NWAD CLOY.5

    3. In farriery, to prick a horse in shoeing.NWAD CLOY.6

    [In the two latter senses, I believe the word is little used, and not at all in America.]NWAD CLOY.7

    CLOYED, pp. Filled; glutted; filled to satiety and lothing; spiked; pricked in shoeing.

    CLOYING, ppr. Filling; filling to satety, or disgust.

    CLOYLESS, a. That cannot cloy, or fill to satiety.

    CLOYMENT, n. Surfeit; repletion beyond the demands of appetite.

    CLUB, n.

    1. Properly, a stick or piece or wood with one end thicker and heavier than the other, and no larger than can be wielded with the hand.NWAD CLUB.2

    2. A thick heavy stick, that may be managed with the hand, and used for beating, or defense. In early ages, a club was a principal instrument of war and death; a fact remarkably perpetuated in the accounts which history relates of the achievements of Hercules with his club. Plin. Lib. 7. Ca. 56. This use of the club was the origin of the scepter, as a badge of royalty.NWAD CLUB.3

    3. The name of one of the suits of cards; so named from its figure.NWAD CLUB.4

    4. A collection or assembly of men; usually a select number of friends met for social or literary purposes. Any small private meeting of persons.NWAD CLUB.5

    5. A collection of expenses the expenses of a company, or unequal expenses of individuals, united for the purpose of finding the average or proportion of each individual. Hence the share of each individual in joint expenditure is called his club, that is, his proportion of a club, or joint charge.NWAD CLUB.6

    6. Contribution; joint charge.NWAD CLUB.7

    CLUB, v.i.

    1. To join, as a number of individuals, to the same end; to contribute separate powers to one end, purpose or effect.NWAD CLUB.9

    Till grosser atoms, tumbling in the streamNWAD CLUB.10

    Of fancy, madly met, and clubbed into a dream.NWAD CLUB.11

    2. To pay an equal proportion of a common reckoning or charge.NWAD CLUB.12

    CLUB, v.t.

    1. To unite different sums of expense, in a common sum or collection, to find the average, that each contributor may pay an equal share.NWAD CLUB.14

    2. In common parlance, to raise or turn uppermost the britch or club of a musket; as, the soldiers clubbed their muskets.NWAD CLUB.15

    CLUBBED, pp.

    1. Collected into a sum and averaged, as different expenses.NWAD CLUBBED.2

    2. United to one end or effect.NWAD CLUBBED.3

    3. Shaped like a club.NWAD CLUBBED.4

    4. Having the britch turned upwards, as a musket.NWAD CLUBBED.5

    5. Heavy like a club.NWAD CLUBBED.6

    CLUBBER, CLUBBIST, n. One who belongs to a party, club or association.

    CLUBBING, ppr. Joining in a club; uniting to a common end.

    CLUB-FIST, n. A large heavy fist.

    CLUB-FISTED, a. Having a large fist.

    CLUB-FOOTED, a. Having short or crooked feet.

    CLUB-HEADED, a. Having a thick head.

    CLUB-LAW, n. Government by clubs, or violence; the use of arms, or force, in place of law; anarchy.

    CLUB-ROOM, n. The apartment in which a club meets.

    CLUB-RUSH, n. A genus of plants, the Scirpus.

    CLUB-SHAPED, a. Shaped like a club; growing thicker towards the top; clavated.

    CLUCK, v.i. To make the noise, or utter the voice of the domestic hen, when sitting on eggs for hatching, and when conducting her chickens. This voice, with the change of the vowel, is precisely our word clack and clock, and is probably an onomatopy. [See Clack and Clock.]

    CLUCK, v.t. To call chickens by a particular sound.

    CLUCKING, ppr. Uttering the voice of a sitting hen; calling chickens.

    CLUE. [See Clew.]

    CLUMP, n.

    1. A thick, short piece of wood, or other solid substance; a shapeless mass. Hence clumper, a clot or clod.NWAD CLUMP.2

    2. A cluster of trees or shrubs; formerly written plump. In some parts of England, it is an adjective signifying lazy, unhandy.NWAD CLUMP.3

    CLUMPS, n. [from clump.] A stupid fellow; a numskull.

    CLUMSILY, adv. [from clumsy.] In a clumsy manner; awkwardly; in an unhandy manner; without readiness, dexterity or grace.

    CLUMSINESS, n. The quality of being short and thick, and moving heavily; awkwardness; unhandiness; ungainliness; want of readiness, nimbleness or dexterity.

    CLUMSY, a. s as z. [from clump, lump.]

    1. Properly, short and thick, like a clump or lump. Hence,NWAD CLUMSY.2

    2. Moving heavily, slowly or awkwardly; as clumsy fingers.NWAD CLUMSY.3

    3. Awkward; ungainly; unhandy; artless; without readiness, dexterity or grace; as a clumsy man; a clumsy fellow.NWAD CLUMSY.4

    4. Ill-made; badly constructed; as a clumsy garment; clumsy verse.NWAD CLUMSY.5

    CLUNCH, n. Among miners, indurated clay, found in coal pits next to the coal.

    CLUNG, pret. and pp. of cling, which see.

    CLUNG, v.i. To shrink. See Cling.

    CLUNIAC, n. One of a reformed order of Benedictine monks, so called from Cluni in Burgundy.

    CLUSTER, n.

    1. A bunch; a number of things of the same kind growing or joined together; a knot; as a cluster of raisins.NWAD CLUSTER.2

    2. A number of individuals or things collected or gathered into a close body; as a cluster of bees; a cluster of people.NWAD CLUSTER.3

    3. A number of things situated near each other; as a cluster of governments in Italy.NWAD CLUSTER.4

    CLUSTER, v.i.

    1. To grow in clusters; to gather or unite in a bunch, or bunches; as, clustering grapes.NWAD CLUSTER.6

    2. To form into flakes; as, clustering snow.NWAD CLUSTER.7

    3. To collect into flocks or crowds.NWAD CLUSTER.8

    CLUSTER, v.t. To collect into a bunch or close body.

    CLUSTERED, pp. Collected into a cluster, or crowd; crowded.

    CLUSTER-GRAPE, n. A small black grape.

    CLUSTERING, ppr. Growing in a cluster or in bunches; uniting in a bunch, or in a flock, crowd, or close body.

    CLUSTERY, a. Growing in clusters. Full of clusters.

    CLUTCH, v.t.

    1. To double in the fingers and pinch or compress them together; to clinch. [If n is not radical in clinch, this may be from the same root.]NWAD CLUTCH.2

    2. To seize, clasp or gripe with the hand; as, to clutch a dagger; to clutch prey.NWAD CLUTCH.3

    3. To seize, or grasp; as, to clutch the globe at a grasp.NWAD CLUTCH.4

    CLUTCH, n. A griping or pinching with the fingers; seizure; grasp.

    CLUTCHES, plu.

    1. The paws or talons of a rapacious animal, as of a cat or dog.NWAD CLUTCHES.2

    2. The hands, in the sense of rapacity or cruelty, or of power.NWAD CLUTCHES.3

    CLUTTER, n.

    1. A heap or assemblage of things lying in confusion; a word of domestic application.NWAD CLUTTER.2

    He saw what a clutter there was with huge pots, pans and spits.NWAD CLUTTER.3

    2. Noise; bustle. [This sense seems allied to clatter, but it is not the sense of the word in N. England.]NWAD CLUTTER.4

    CLUTTER, v.t. To crowd together in disorder; to fill with things in confusion; as, to clutter a room; to clutter the house.

    CLUTTER, v.i. To make a bustle, or fill with confusion.

    [The English lexicographers explain this word by noise and bustle; but probably by mistake.]NWAD CLUTTER.7

    CLUTTERED, pp. Encumbered with things in disorder.

    CLUTTERING, ppr. Encumbering with things in confusion.

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