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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    CONGLACIATE, v.i. [L., to freeze; ice.] To turn to ice; to freeze.

    CONGLACIATION, n. The act of changing into ice, or the state of being converted to ice; a freezing; congelation.

    CONGLOBATE, a. [L., to collect or to make round; a ball. See Globe.] Formed or gathered into a ball. A conglobate gland is a single or lymphatic gland, a small smooth body, covered in a fine skin, admitting only an artery and a lymphatic vessel to pass in, and a vein and a lymphatic vessel to pass out.

    CONGLOBATE, v.t. To collect or form into a ball or hard, round substance.

    CONGLOBATED, pp. Collected or formed into a ball.

    CONGLOBATELY, adv. In a round or roundish form.

    CONGLOBATION, n. The act of forming into a ball; a round body.

    CONGLOBE, v.t. [L., a round body.] To gather into a ball; to collect into a round mass.

    CONGLOBE, v.i. To collect, unite or coalesce in a round mass.

    CONGLOBED, pp. Collected into a ball.

    CONGLOBING, ppr. Gathering into a round mass or ball.

    CONGLOBULATE, v.i. To gather into a little round mass, or globule.

    CONGLOMERATE, a. [L., to wind into a ball, a ball, a clew. See Glomerate.]

    1. Gathered into a ball or round body. A conglomerate gland is composed of many smaller glands, whose excretory ducts unite in a common one, as the live, kidneys, pancreas, parotids, etc. Each little granulated portion furnishes a small tube, which unites with other similar ducts, to form the common excretory duct of the gland.NWAD CONGLOMERATE.2

    2. In botany, conglomerate flowers grow on a branching peduncle or foot stalk, on short pedicles, closely compacted together without order; opposed to diffused.NWAD CONGLOMERATE.3

    3. Conglomerate rocks. [See Puddingstone.]NWAD CONGLOMERATE.4

    CONGLOMERATE, v.t. To gather into a ball or round body; to collect into a round mass.

    CONGLOMERATE, n. In mineralogy, a sort of pudding-stone, or coarse sandstone, composed of pebbles of quartz, flint, siliceous slate, etc.

    CONGLOMERATED, pp. Gathered into a ball or round mass.

    CONGLOMERATING, ppr. Collecting into a ball.

    CONGLOMERATION, n. The act of gathering into a ball; the state of being thus collected; collection; accumulation.

    CONGLUTINANT, a. [See Conglutinate.] Gluing; uniting; healing.

    CONGLUTINANT, n. A medicine that heals wounds.

    CONGLUTINATE, v.t. [L., glue. See Glue.]

    1. To glue together; to unite by some glutinous or tenacious substance.NWAD CONGLUTINATE.2

    2. To heal; to unite the separated parts of a wound by tenacious substance.NWAD CONGLUTINATE.3

    CONGLUTINATE, v.i. To coalesce; to unite by the intervention of a callus.

    CONGLUTINATED, pp. Glued together; united by a tenacious substance.

    CONGLUTINATING, ppr. Gluing together; uniting or closing by a tenacious substance.

    CONGLUTINATION, n. The act of gluing together; a joining by means of some tenacious substance; a healing by uniting the parts of a wound; union.

    CONGLUTINATIVE, a. Having the power of uniting by glue or other substance of like nature.

    CONGLUTINATORE, n. That which has the power of uniting wounds.

    CONGO, n. A species of tea in China.

    CONGRATULANT, a. Rejoicing in participation.

    CONGRATULATE, v.t. [L., grateful, pleasing. See Grace.] To profess ones pleasure or joy to another on account of an event deemed happy or fortunate, as on the birth of a child, success in an enterprise, victory, escape from danger, etc.; to wish joy to another. We congratulate the nation on the restoration of peace.

    Formerly this verb was followed by to. The subjects of England may congratulate to themselves. But this use of to is entirely obsolete. The use of with after this verb, I congratulate with my country, is perhaps less objectionable, but is rarely used. The intransitive sense of the verb may therefore be considered as antiquated, and no longer legitimate.NWAD CONGRATULATE.2

    CONGRATULATED, pp. Complimented with expressions of joy at a happy event.

    CONGRATULATING, ppr. Professing ones joy or satisfaction on account of some happy event, prosperity or success.

    CONGRATULATION, n. The act of professing ones joy or satisfaction on account of some happy event, prosperity or success.

    CONGRATULATION, n. The act of professing ones joy or good wishes at the success or happiness of another, or on account of an event deemed fortunate to both parties or to the community.

    CONGRATULATOR, n. One who offers congratulation.

    CONGRATULATORY, a. Expressing joy for the good fortune of another, or for an event fortunate for both parties or for the community.

    CONGREE, v.i. To agree. [Not in use.]

    CONGREET, v.t. To salute mutually. [Not in use.]

    CONGREGATE, v.t. [L., a herd. See Gregarious.] To collect separate persons or things into an assemblage; to assemble; to bring into one place, or into a crowd or united body; as, to congregate men or animals; to congregate waters or sands.

    CONGREGATE, v.i. To come together; to assemble; to meet.

    Equals with equals often congregate.NWAD CONGREGATE.3

    CONGREGATE, a. Collected; compact; close. [Little used.]

    CONGREGATED, pp. Collected; assembled in one place.

    CONGREGATING, ppr. Collecting; assembling; coming together.


    1. The act of bringing together, or assembling.NWAD CONGREGATION.2

    2. A collection or assemblage of separate things; as a congregation of vapors.NWAD CONGREGATION.3

    3. More generally, an assembly or persons; and appropriately, an assembly of persons met for the worship of God, and for religious instruction.NWAD CONGREGATION.4

    4. An assembly of rulers. Numbers 35:12.NWAD CONGREGATION.5

    5. An assembly of ecclesiastics or cardinals appointed by the pope; as the congregation of the holy office, etc. Also, a company or society of religious cantoned out of an order.NWAD CONGREGATION.6

    6. An academical assembly for transacting business of the university.NWAD CONGREGATION.7

    CONGREGATIONAL, a. Pertaining to a congregation; appropriately used of such Christians as hold to church government by consent and election, maintaining that each congregation is independent of others, and has the right to choose its own pastor and govern itself; as a congregational church, or mode of worship.

    CONGREGATIONALISM, n. Ecclesiastical government in the hands of each church, as an independent body.

    CONGREGATIONALIST, n. One who belongs to a congregational church or society; one who holds to the independence of each congregation or church of Christians, in the right of electing a pastor, and in governing the church.

    CONGRESS, n. [L., to come together; to go or step; a step. See Grade and Degree.]

    1. A meeting of individuals; an assembly of envoys, commissioners, deputies, etc., particularly a meeting of the representatives of several courts, to concert measures for their common good, or to adjust their mutual concerns.NWAD CONGRESS.2

    2. The assembly of delegates of the several British Colonies in America, which united to resist the claims of Great Britain in 1774, and which declared the colonies independent.NWAD CONGRESS.3

    3. The assembly of the delegates of the several United States, after the declaration of Independence, and until the adoption of the present constitution, and the organization of the government in 1789. During these periods, the congress consisted of one house only.NWAD CONGRESS.4

    4. The assembly of senators and representatives of the several states of North America, according to the present constitution, or political compact, by which they are united in a federal republic; the legislature of the United States, consisting of two houses, a senate and a house of representatives. Members of the senate are elected for six years, but the members of the house of representatives are chosen for two years only. Hence the united body of senators and representatives for the two years, during which the representatives hold their seats is called one congress. Thus we say the first or second session of the sixteenth congress.NWAD CONGRESS.5

    5. A meeting of two or more persons in a contest; an encounter; a conflict.NWAD CONGRESS.6

    6. The meeting of the sexes in sexual commerce.NWAD CONGRESS.7

    CONGRESSION, n. A company. [Not in use.]

    CONGRESSIONAL, a. Pertaining to a congress, or to the congress of the United States; as congressional debates.

    The congressional institution of Amphictyons in Greece.NWAD CONGRESSIONAL.2


    1. Meeting, as the sexes.NWAD CONGRESSIVE.2

    2. Encountering.NWAD CONGRESSIVE.3

    CONGRUE, v.i. To agree. [Not used.]

    CONGRUENCE, CONGRUENCY, n. [L., to agree, or suit.] Suitableness of one thing to another; agreement; consistency.

    CONGRUENT, a. Suitable; agreeing; correspondent.


    1. Suitableness; the relation of agreement between things.NWAD CONGRUITY.2

    There is no congruity between a mean subject and a lofty style; but an obvious congruity between an elevated station and dignified deportment.NWAD CONGRUITY.3

    2. Fitness, pertinence.NWAD CONGRUITY.4

    A whole sentence may fail of its congruity by wanting a particle.NWAD CONGRUITY.5

    3. Reason; consistency; propriety.NWAD CONGRUITY.6

    4. In school divinity, the good actions which are supposed to render it meet and equitable that God should confer grace on those who perform them. The merit of congruity is a sort of imperfect qualification for the gift and reception of Gods grace.NWAD CONGRUITY.7

    5. In geometry, figures or lines, which when laid over one another, exactly correspond, are in congruity.NWAD CONGRUITY.8

    CONGRUOUS, a. [L.]

    1. Suitable; consistent; agreeable to. Light airy music and a solemn or mournful occasion are not congruous. Obedience to God is congruous to the light of reason.NWAD CONGRUOUS.2

    2. Rational; fit.NWAD CONGRUOUS.3

    It is not congruous that God should be always frightening men into an acknowledgment of the truth.NWAD CONGRUOUS.4

    CONGRUOUSLY, adv. Suitably; pertinently; agreeably; consistently.

    CONIC, CONICAL, a. [L., Gr., See Cone.]

    1. Having the form of a cone; round and decreasing to a point; as a conic figure; a conical vesselNWAD CONIC.2

    2. Pertaining to a cone; as conic sections.NWAD CONIC.3

    Conic Section, a curve line formed by the intersection of a cone and plane. The conic sections are the parabola, hyperbola, and ellipsis.NWAD CONIC.4

    CONICALLY, adv. In the form of a cone.

    CONICALNESS, n. The state or quality of being conical.

    CONICS, n. That part of geometry which treats of the cone and the curves which arise form its sections.

    CONIFEROUS, a. [L., to bear.] Bearing cones; producing hard, dry, scaly seed-vessels of a conical figure, as the pine, fir, cypress and beech.

    CONIFORM, a. [cone and form.] In form of a cone; conical; as a coniform mountain of Potosi.

    CONITE, n. [Gr., dust.] A mineral of an ash or greenish gray color, which becomes brown by exposure to the air, occurring massive or stalactitic; found in Saxony and in Iceland.

    CONJECT, v.t. To throw together, or to throw. [Not used.]

    CONJECT, v.i. To guess. [Not used.]

    CONJECTOR, n. [L., to cast together; to throw.] One who guesses or conjectures. [See Conjecture.]

    CONJECTURABLE, a. That may be guessed or conjectured.

    CONJECTURAL, a. Depending on conjecture; done or said by guess; as a conjectural opinion.

    CONJECTURALLY, adv. Without proof, or evidence; by conjecture; by guess; as, this opinion was given conjecturally.

    CONJECTURE, n. [L., See Conjector.]

    1. Literally, a casting or throwing together of possible or probable events; or a casting of the mind to something future, or something past but unknown; a guess, formed on a supposed possibility or probability of a fact, or on slight evidence; preponderance of opinion without proof; surmise. We speak of future or unknown things by conjecture, and of probable or unfounded conjectures.NWAD CONJECTURE.2

    2. Idea; notion.NWAD CONJECTURE.3

    CONJECTURE, v.t. To guess; to judge by guess, or by the probability or the possibility of a fact, or by very slight evidence; to form an opinion at random. What will be the issue of a war, we may conjecture, but cannot know. He conjectured that some misfortune had happened.

    CONJECTURED, pp. Guessed; surmised.

    CONJECTURER, n. One who guesses; a guesser; one who forms or utters an opinion without proof.

    CONJECTURING, ppr. Guessing; surmising.

    CONJOIN, v.t. [L., to join. See Join.]

    1. To join together, without any thing intermediate; to unite two or more persons or things in close connection; as, to conjoin friends; to conjoin man and woman in marriage.NWAD CONJOIN.2

    2. To associate, or connect.NWAD CONJOIN.3

    Let that which he learns next be nearly conjoined with what he knows already.NWAD CONJOIN.4

    CONJOIN, v.i. To unite; to join; to league.

    CONJOINED, pp. Joined to or with; united; associated.

    CONJOINING, ppr. Joining together; uniting; connecting.

    CONJOINT, a. United; connected; associate.

    Conjoint degrees, in music, two notes which follow each other immediately in the order of the scale; as ut and re.NWAD CONJOINT.2

    Conjoint tetrachords, two tetrachords or fourths, where the same chord is the highest of one and the lowest of the other.NWAD CONJOINT.3

    CONJOINTLY, adv. Jointly; unitedly; in union; together.

    CONJUGAL, a. [L., marriage; to yoke or couple. See Join and Yoke.]

    1. Belonging to marriage; matrimonial; connubial; as conjugal relation; conjugal ties.NWAD CONJUGAL.2

    2. Suitable to the married state; becoming a husband in relation to his consort, or a consort in relation to her husband; as conjugal affection.NWAD CONJUGAL.3

    CONJUGALLY, adv. Matrimonially; connubially.

    CONJUGATE, v.t. [L., to couple; to yoke, to marry. See Join and Yoke.]

    1. To join; to unite in marriage. [Not now used.]NWAD CONJUGATE.2

    2. In grammar, to distribute the parts or inflections of a verb, into the several voices, modes, tenses, numbers and persons, so as to show their connections, distinctions, and modes of formation. Literally, to connect all the inflectious of a verb, according to their derivation, or all the variations of one verb. In English, as the verb undergoes few variations, conjugation consists chiefly in combining the words which unitedly form the several tenses in the several persons.NWAD CONJUGATE.3

    CONJUGATE, n. A word agreeing in derivation with another word, and therefore generally resembling it in signification.

    We have learned in logic, that conjugates are sometimes in name only, and not in deed.NWAD CONJUGATE.5

    CONJUGATE, a. In botany, a conjugate leaf is a pinnate leaf which has only one pair of leaflets; a conjugate raceme has two racemes only, united by a common peduncle.

    Conjugate diameter or axis, in geometry, a right line bisecting the transverse diameter; the shortest of the two diameters of an ellipses.NWAD CONJUGATE.7

    CONJUGATION, n. [L.]

    1. A couple or pair; as a conjugation of nerves. [Little used.]NWAD CONJUGATION.2

    2. The act of uniting or compiling; union; assemblage.NWAD CONJUGATION.3

    3. In grammar, the distribution of the several inflections or variations of a verb, in their different voices, modes, tenses, numbers and persons; a connected scheme of all the derivative forms of a verb.NWAD CONJUGATION.4

    CONJUNCT, a. [L. See Conjoin.] Conjoined; united; concurrent.

    CONJUNCTION, n. [L. See Conjoin.]

    1. Union; connection; association by treaty or otherwise.NWAD CONJUNCTION.2

    2. In astronomy, the meeting of two or more stars or planets in the same degree of the zodiac; as the conjunction of the moon with the sun, or of Jupiter with Saturn.NWAD CONJUNCTION.3

    3. In grammar, a connective or connecting word; an indeclinable word which serves to unite sentences or the clauses of a sentence and words, joining two or more simple sentences into one compound one, and continuing it at the pleasure of the writer or speaker.NWAD CONJUNCTION.4

    This book cost one dollar and ten cents.NWAD CONJUNCTION.5

    God called the light day and the darkness he called night.NWAD CONJUNCTION.6

    Virtue and vice are not compatible.NWAD CONJUNCTION.7

    The hope of the righteous shall be gladness, but the expectation of the wicked shall perish. Proverbs 10:28.NWAD CONJUNCTION.8

    4. The copulation of the sexes.NWAD CONJUNCTION.9


    1. Closely united.NWAD CONJUNCTIVE.2

    2. Uniting; serving to unite.NWAD CONJUNCTIVE.3

    3. In grammar, the conjunctive mode is that which follows a conjunction, or expresses some condition, or contingency. It is more generally called subjunctive.NWAD CONJUNCTIVE.4

    CONJUNCTIVELY, adv. In conjunction, or union; together.

    CONJUNCTIVENESS, n. The quality of conjoining or uniting.

    CONJUNCTLY, adv. In union; jointly; together.

    CONJUNCTURE, n. [See Conjoin.]

    1. A joining; a combination or union, as of causes, events or circumstances; as an unhappy conjuncture of affairs.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.2

    2. An occasion; a critical time, proceeding from a union of circumstances. Juncture is used in a like sense.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.3

    At that conjuncture, peace was very desirable.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.4

    3. Union; connection; mode of union; as the conjunctures of letters in words.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.5

    4. Connection; union; consistency.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.6

    I was willing to grant to presbytery what with reason it can pretend to in a conjuncture with episcopacy.NWAD CONJUNCTURE.7

    CONJURATION, n. [See Conjure.] The act of using certain words or ceremonies to obtain the aid of a superior being; the act of summoning in a sacred name; the practice of arts to expel evil spirits, allay storms, or perform supernatural or extraordinary acts.

    CONJURE, v.t. [L., to swear together, to conspire.]

    1. To call on or summon by a sacred name, or in a solemn manner; to implore with solemnity. It seems originally to have signified, to bind by an oath.NWAD CONJURE.2

    I conjure you! Let him know, whateer was done against him, Cato did it.NWAD CONJURE.3

    2. To bind two or more by an oath; to unite in a common design. Hence intransitively, to conspire. [Not usual.]NWAD CONJURE.4

    CONJURE, v.t. To expel, to drive or to affect, in some manner, by magic arts, as by invoking the Supreme Being, or by the use of certain words, characters or ceremonies to engage supernatural influence; as, to conjure up evil spirits, or to conjure down a tempest; to conjure the stars.

    Note. It is not easy to define this word, nor any word of like import; as the practices of conjurors are little known, or various and indefinite. The use of this word indicates that an oath or solemn invocation originally formed a part of the ceremonies.NWAD CONJURE.6

    CONJURE, v.i.

    1. To practice the arts of a conjurer; to use arts to engage the aid of spirits in performing some extraordinary act.NWAD CONJURE.8

    2. In a vulgar sense, to behave very strangely; to act like a witch; to play tricks.NWAD CONJURE.9

    CONJURED, pp. Bound by an oath.

    CONJUREMENT, n. Serious injunction; solemn demand.

    CONJURER, n. One who practices conjuration; one who pretends to the secret art of performing things supernatural or extraordinary, by the aid of superior powers; an impostor who pretends, by unknown means, to discover stolen goods, etc. Hence ironically, a man of shrewd conjecture; a man of sagacity.

    CONJURING, ppr. Enjoining or imploring solemnly.

    CONNASCENCE, n. [L., to be born.]

    1. The common birth of two or more at the same time; production of two or more together.NWAD CONNASCENCE.2

    2. A being born or produced with another.NWAD CONNASCENCE.3

    3. The act of growing together, or at the same time.NWAD CONNASCENCE.4

    CONNATE, a. [L., born.]

    1. Born with another; being of the same birth; as connate notions.NWAD CONNATE.2

    2. In botany, united in origin; growing from one base, or united at their bases; united into one body; as connate leaves or anthers.NWAD CONNATE.3

    CONNATURAL, a. [con and natural.]

    1. Connected by nature; united in nature; born with another.NWAD CONNATURAL.2

    These affections are connatural to us, and as we grow up, so do they.NWAD CONNATURAL.3

    2. Participating of the same nature.NWAD CONNATURAL.4

    And mix with our connatural dust.NWAD CONNATURAL.5

    CONNATURALITY, n. Participation of the same nature; natural union.

    CONNATURALLY, adv. By the act of nature; originally.

    CONNATURALNESS, n. Participation of the same nature; natural union.

    CONNECT, v.t. [L.]

    1. To knit or link together; to tie or fasten together, as by something intervening, or by weaving, winding or twining. Hence,NWAD CONNECT.2

    2. To join or unite; to conjoin, in almost any manner, either by junction, by any intervening means, or by order and relation. We connect letters and words in a sentence; we connect ideas in the mind; we connect arguments in a discourse. The strait of Gibraltar connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic. A treaty connects two nations. The interests of agriculture are connected with those of commerce. Families are connected by marriage or by friendship.NWAD CONNECT.3

    CONNECT, v.i. To join, unite or cohere; to have a close relation. This argument connects with another. [This use is rare and not well authorized.]

    CONNECTION, n. [L. See Connect.] The act of joining or state of being joined; a state of being knit or fastened together; union by junction, by an intervening substance or medium, by dependence or relation, or by order in a series; a word of very general import. There is a connection of links in a chain; a connection between all parts of the human body; a connection between virtue and happiness, and between this life and the future; a connection between parent and child, master and servant, husband and wife; between motives and actions, and between actions and their consequences. In short, the word is applicable to almost every thing that has a dependence on or relation to another thing.

    CONNECTIVE, a. Having the power of connecting.

    CONNECTIVE, n. In grammar, a word that connects other words and sentences; a conjunction. Harris uses the word for conjunctions and prepositions.

    CONNECTIVELY, adv. In union or conjunction; jointly.

    CONNEX, v.t. [L.] To link together; to join. [Not in use.]

    CONNEXION, n. Connection. But for the sake of regular analogy, I have inserted connection, as the derivative of the English connect, and would discard connexion.

    CONNEXIVE, a. Connective; having the power to connect; uniting; conjunctive; as connexive particles. [Little used.]

    CONNIVANCE, n. [See Connive.] Properly, the act of winking. Hence figuratively, voluntary blindness to an act; intentional forbearance to see a fault or other act, generally implying consent to it.

    Every vice interprets a connivance to be approbation.NWAD CONNIVANCE.2

    CONNIVE, v.i. [L., to wink.]

    1. To wink; to close and open the eyelids rapidly.NWAD CONNIVE.2

    2. In a figurative sense, to close the eyes upon a fault or other act; to pretend ignorance or blindness; to forbear to see; to overlook a fault or other act, and suffer it to pass unnoticed, uncensured or unpunished; as, the father connives at the vices of his son.NWAD CONNIVE.3

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