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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    SUFFICIENTLY, adv. To a sufficient degree; enough; to a degree that answers the purpose, or gives content; as, we are sufficiently supplied with food and clothing; a man sufficiently qualified for the discharge of his official duties.

    SUFFICING, ppr. suffi’zing. Supplying what is needed; satisfying.

    SUFFISANCE, n. Sufficiency; plenty. [Not in use.]

    SUFFIX, n. [L. suffixus, suffigo; sub and figo, to fix.]

    A letter or syllable added or annexed to the end of a word.NWAD SUFFIX.2

    SUFFIX, v.t. To add or annex a letter or syllable to a word.

    SUFFIXED, pp. Added to the end of a word.

    SUFFIXING, ppr. Adding to the end of a word.

    SUFFLAMINATE, v.t. [L. sufflamen, a stop.] To stop; to impede. [Not in use.]

    SUFFLATE, v.t. [L. sufflo; sub and flo, to blow.]

    To blow up; to inflate. [Little used.]NWAD SUFFLATE.2

    SUFFLATION, n. [L. sufflatio.] The act of blowing up or inflating.

    SUFFOCATE, v.t. [L. suffoco; sub and focus, or its root.]

    1. To choke or kill by stopping respiration. Respiration may be stopped by the interception of air, as in hanging and strangling, or by the introduction of smoke, dust or mephitic air into the lungs. Men may be suffocated by the halter; or men may be suffocated in smoke or in carbonic acid gas, as in mines and wells.NWAD SUFFOCATE.2

    And let not hemp his windpipe suffocate.NWAD SUFFOCATE.3

    2. To stifle; to destroy; to extinguish; as, to suffocate fire or live coals.NWAD SUFFOCATE.4

    A swelling discontent is apt to suffocate and strangle without passage.NWAD SUFFOCATE.5

    SUFFOCATE, a. Suffocated.

    SUFFOCATED, pp. Choked; stifled.

    SUFFOCATING, ppr. Choking; stifling.

    SUFFOCATINGLY, adv. So as to suffocate; as suffocatingly hot.

    SUFFOCATION, n. The act of choking or stifling; a stopping of respiration, either by intercepting the passage of air to and from the lungs, or by inhaling smoke, dust or air that is not respirable.

    1. The act of stifling, destroying or extinguishing.NWAD SUFFOCATION.2

    SUFFOCATIVE, a. Tending or able to choke or stifle; as suffocative catarrhs.

    SUFFOSSION, n. [L. suffossio; sub and fodio, to dig.]

    A digging under; an undermining.NWAD SUFFOSSION.2

    SUFFRAGAN, a. [L. suffragans, assisting; suffragor, to vote for, to favor.] Assisting; as a suffragan bishop.

    SUFFRAGAN, n. A bishop, considered as an assistant to his metropolitan; or rather, an assistant bishop. By 26 Hen. VIII. suffragans are to be denominated from some principal place in the diocese of the prelate whom they are to assist.

    SUFFRAGANT, n. An assistant; a favorer; one who concurs with.

    SUFFRAGATE, v.t. [L. suffragor.] To vote with. [Not in use.]

    SUFFRAGATOR, n. [L.] One who assists or favors by his vote.

    SUFFRAGE, n. [L. suffragium.]

    1. A vote; a voice given in deciding a controverted question, or in the choice of a man for an office or trust. Nothing can be more grateful to a good man than to be elevated to office by the unbiased suffrages of free enlightened citizens.NWAD SUFFRAGE.2

    Lactantius and St. Austin confirm by their suffrages the observation made by heathen writers.NWAD SUFFRAGE.3

    2. United voice of persons in public prayer.NWAD SUFFRAGE.4

    3. Aid; assistance; A Latinism. [Not in use.]NWAD SUFFRAGE.5

    SUFFRAGINOUS, a. [L. suffrago, the pastern or hough.]

    Pertaining to the knee joint of a beast.NWAD SUFFRAGINOUS.2

    SUFFRUTICOUS, a. [L. sub and fruticosus; frutex, a shrub.]

    In botany, under-shrubby, or part shrubby; permanent or woody at the base, but the yearly branches decaying; as sage, thyme, hyssop, etc.NWAD SUFFRUTICOUS.2

    SUFFUMIGATE, v.t. [L. suffumigo.] To apply fumes or smoke to the internal parts of the body, as in medicine.

    SUFFUMIGATION, n. Fumigation; the operation of smoking any thing, or rather of applying fumes to the internal parts of the body.

    1. A term applied to all medicines that are received into the body in the form of fumes.NWAD SUFFUMIGATION.2

    SUFFUMIGE, n. A medical fume.

    SUFFUSE, v.t. suffi’ze. [L. suffusus, suffundo; sub and fundo, to pour.] To overspread, as with a fluid or tincture; as eyes suffused with tears; cheeks suffused with blushes.

    When purple light shall next suffuse the skies.NWAD SUFFUSE.2

    SUFFUSED, pp. Overspread, as with a fluid or with color.

    SUFFUSION, n. [L. suffusio.]

    1. The act or operation of overspreading, as with a fluid or with a color.NWAD SUFFUSION.2

    2. The state of being suffused or spread over.NWAD SUFFUSION.3

    To those that have the jaundice or like suffusion of eyes, objects appear of that color.NWAD SUFFUSION.4

    3. That which is suffused or spread over.NWAD SUFFUSION.5

    SUG, n. [L. sugo, to suck.] A kind or worm.

    SUGAR, n. SHUGAR. [L. saccharum.]

    1. A well known substance manufactured chiefly from the sugar cane, arundo saccharifera; but in the United States, great quantities of this article are made from the sugar maple; and in France, a few years since, it was extensively manufactured from the beet. The saccharine liquor is concentrated by boiling, which expels the water; lime is added to neutralize the acid that is usually present; the gresser impurities rise to the surface, and are separated in the form of scum; and finally as the liquor cools, the sugar separates from the melasses in grains. The sirup or melasses is drained off, leaving the sugar in the state known in commerce by the name of raw or muscovado sugar. This is farther purified by means of clay, or more extensively by bullocks’ blood, which forming a coagulum, envelops the impurities. Thus clarified, it takes the names of lump, loaf, refined, etc. according to the different degrees of purification. Sugar is a proximate element of the vegetable kingdom, and is found in most ripe fruits and many farinaceous roots. By fermentation, sugar is converted into alcohol, and hence forms the basis of those substances which are used for making intoxicating liquors, as melasses, grapes, apples, malt, etc.NWAD SUGAR.2

    The ultimate elements of sugar are oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. Of all vegetable principles, it is considered by Dr. Rush as the most wholesome and nutritious.NWAD SUGAR.3

    2. A chimical term; as the sugar of lead.NWAD SUGAR.4

    SUGAR, v.t. SHUGAR. To impregnate, season, cover, sprinkle or mix with sugar.

    1. To sweeten.NWAD SUGAR.6

    But flattery still in sugar’d words betrays.NWAD SUGAR.7

    Sugar of lead, acetate of lead.NWAD SUGAR.8

    SUGAR-CANDY, n. [sugar and candy.] Sugar clarified and concreted or crystallized, in which state it becomes transparent.

    SUGAR-CANE, n. [sugar and cane.] The cane or plant from whose juice sugar is obtained.

    SUGAR-HOUSE, n. A building in which sugar is refined.

    SUGAR-LOAF, n. A conical mass of refined sugar.

    SUGAR-MILL, n. A machine for pressing out the juice of the sugar cane.

    SUGAR-MITE, n. [sugar and mite.] A winged insect; lepisma.

    The lepisma saccharina, is an apterous or wingless insect, covered with silvery scales.NWAD SUGAR-MITE.2

    SUGAR-PLUM, n. [sugar and plum.] A species of sweetmeat in small balls.

    SUGARY, a. Tinctured or sweetened with sugar; sweet; tasting like sugar.

    1. Fond of sugar, or of sweet things.NWAD SUGARY.2

    2. Containing sugar.NWAD SUGARY.3

    3. Like sugar.NWAD SUGARY.4

    SUGESCENT, a. [L. sugens, sucking.] Relating to sucking.

    SUGGEST, v.t. [L. suggero, suggestus; sub and gero.]

    1. To hint; to intimate or mention in the first instance; as, to suggest a new mode of cultivation; to suggest a different scheme or measure; to suggest a new idea.NWAD SUGGEST.2

    2. To offer to the mind or thoughts.NWAD SUGGEST.3

    Some ideas are suggested to the mind by all the ways of sensation and reflection.NWAD SUGGEST.4

    3. To seduce; to draw to ill by insinuation.NWAD SUGGEST.5

    Knowing that tender youth is soon suggested. [Not in use.]NWAD SUGGEST.6

    4. To inform secretly.NWAD SUGGEST.7

    We must suggest the people. [Not in use.]NWAD SUGGEST.8

    SUGGESTED, pp. Hinted; intimated.

    SUGGESTER, n. One that suggests.

    SUGGESTION, n. A hint; a first intimation, proposal or mention. The measure was adopted at the suggestion of an eminent philosopher.

    1. Presentation of an idea to the mind; as the suggestions of fancy or imagination; the suggestions of conscience.NWAD SUGGESTION.2

    2. Insinuation; secret notification or incitement.NWAD SUGGESTION.3

    3. In law, information without oath.NWAD SUGGESTION.4

    SUGGESTIVE, a. Containing a hint or intimation.

    SUGGIL, v.t. [L. suggillo.] To defame. [Not in use.]

    SUGGILATE, v.t. [L. suggillo.] To beat black and blue. [Not in use.]

    SUGGILATION, n. A black and blue mark; a blow; a bruise. [Not in use.]

    SUICIDAL, a. Partaking of the crime of suicide.

    SUICIDE, n. [L. suicidium; se and coedo, to slay.]

    1. Self-murder; the act of designedly destroying one’s own life. To constitute suicide, the person must be of years of discretion and of sound mind.NWAD SUICIDE.2

    2. One guilty of self-murder; a felo de se.NWAD SUICIDE.3

    SUICISM, for suicide, is not in use.

    SUILLAGE, n. Drain of filth.

    SUING, ppr. of sue. Prosecuting.

    SUING, n. [L. sudo.] The process of soaking through any thing. [Not in use.]

    SUIT, n. [L. sequor. See Seek. In Law Latin, secta is from the same source.] Literally, a following; and so used in the old English statutes.

    1. Consecution; succession; series; regular order; as the same kind and suit of weather. [Not now so applied.]NWAD SUIT.2

    2. A set; a number of things used together, and in a degree necessary to be united, in order to answer the purpose; as a suit of curtains; a suit of armor; sometimes with less dependence of the particular parts on each other, but still united in use; as a suit of clothes; a suit of apartments.NWAD SUIT.3

    3. A set of the same kind or stamp, as a suit of cards.NWAD SUIT.4

    4. Retinue; a company or number of attendants or followers; attendance; train; as a nobleman and his suit. [This is sometimes pronounced as a French word, sweet; but in all its senses, this is the same word, and the affectation of making it French in one use and English in another, is improper, not to say ridiculous.]NWAD SUIT.5

    5. A petition; a seeking for something by petition or application.NWAD SUIT.6

    Many shall make suit to thee. Job 11:19.NWAD SUIT.7

    6. Solicitation of a woman in marriage; courtship.NWAD SUIT.8

    7. In law, an action or process for the recovery of a right or claim; legal application to a court for justice; prosecution of right before any tribunal; as a civil suit; a criminal suit; a suit in chancery.NWAD SUIT.9

    In England, the several suits or remedial instruments of justice, are distinguished into three kinds, actions personal, real, and mixed.NWAD SUIT.10

    8. Pursuit; prosecution; chase.NWAD SUIT.11

    Suit and service, in feudal law, the duty of feudatories to attend the courts of their lords or superiors in time of peace, and in war, to follow them and perform military service.NWAD SUIT.12

    To bring suit, a phrase in law, denoting literally to bring secta, followers or witnesses to prove the plaintif’s demand. The phrase is antiquated, or rather it has changed its signification; for to bring a suit, now is to institute an action.NWAD SUIT.13

    Out of suits, having no correspondence.NWAD SUIT.14

    Suit-covenant, in law, is a covenant to sue at a certain court.NWAD SUIT.15

    Suit-court, in law, the court in which tenants owe attendance to their lord.NWAD SUIT.16

    SUIT, v.t. To fit; to adapt; to make proper. Suit the action to the word. Suit the gestures to the passion to be expressed. Suit the style to the subject.

    1. To become; to be fitted to.NWAD SUIT.18

    Ill suits his cloth the praise of railing well.NWAD SUIT.19

    Raise her notes to that sublime degree,NWAD SUIT.20

    Which suits a song of piety and thee.NWAD SUIT.21

    2. To dress; to clothe.NWAD SUIT.22

    Such a Sebastian was by brother too,NWAD SUIT.23

    So went he suited to his watery tomb.NWAD SUIT.24

    3. To please; to make content. He is well suited with his place.NWAD SUIT.25

    SUIT, v.i. To agree; to accord; as, to suit with; to suit to. Pity suits with a noble nature.

    Give me not an officeNWAD SUIT.27

    That suits with me so ill--NWAD SUIT.28

    The place itself was suiting to his care.NWAD SUIT.29

    [The use of with, after suit, is now most frequent.]NWAD SUIT.30

    SUITABLE, a. Fitting; according with; agreeable to; proper; becoming; as ornaments suitable to one’s character and station; language suitable to the subject.

    1. Adequate. We cannot make suitable returns for divine mercies.NWAD SUITABLE.2

    SUITABLENESS, n. Fitness; propriety; agreeableness; a state of being adapted or accommodated. Consider the laws, and their suitableness to our moral state.

    SUITABLY, adv. Fitly; agreeably; with propriety. Let words be suitably applied.

    SUITED, pp. Fitted; adapted; pleased.

    SUITING, ppr. Fitting; according with; becoming; pleasing.

    SUITOR, n. One that sues or prosecutes a demand of right in law, as a plaintiff, petitioner or appellant.

    1. One who attends a court, whether plaintiff, defendant, petitioner, appellant, witness, juror and the like. These, in legal phraseology, are all included in the word suitors.NWAD SUITOR.2

    2. A petitioner; an applicant.NWAD SUITOR.3

    She hath been a suitor to me for her brother.NWAD SUITOR.4

    3. One who solicits a woman in marriage; a wooer; a lover.NWAD SUITOR.5

    SUITRESS, n. A female supplicant.

    SULCATE, SULCATED, a. [L. sulcus, a furrow.] In botany, furrowed; grooved; scored with deep broad channels longitudinally; as a sulcated stem.

    SULKINESS, n. [from sulky.] Sullenness; sourness; moroseness.

    SULKY, a. Sullen; sour; heavy; obstinate; morose.

    While these animals remain in their inclosures, they are sulky.NWAD SULKY.2

    SULKY, n. A carriage for a single person.

    SULLAGE, n. [See Sulliage.] A drain of filth, or filth collected from the street or highway.

    SULLEN, a. [perhaps set, fixed, and allied to silent, sill, etc.]

    1. Gloomily angry and silent; cross; sour; affected with ill humor.NWAD SULLEN.2

    And sullen I forsook th’ imperfect feast.NWAD SULLEN.3

    2. Mischievous; malignant.NWAD SULLEN.4

    Such sullen planets at my birth did shine.NWAD SULLEN.5

    3. Obstinate; intractable.NWAD SULLEN.6

    Things are as sullen as we are.NWAD SULLEN.7

    4. Gloomy; dark; dismal.NWAD SULLEN.8

    Why are thine eyes fix’d to the sullen earth?NWAD SULLEN.9

    Night with her sullen wings.NWAD SULLEN.10

    No cheerful breeze this sullen region knows.NWAD SULLEN.11

    5. Heavy; dull; sorrowful.NWAD SULLEN.12

    Be thou the trumpet of our wrath,NWAD SULLEN.13

    And sullen presage of your own decay.NWAD SULLEN.14

    SULLENLY, adv. Gloomily; malignantly; intractably; with moroseness.

    SULLENNESS, n. Ill nature with silence; silent moroseness; gloominess; malignity; intractableness.

    SULLENS, n. plu. A morose temper; gloominess. [Not in use.]

    SULLIAGE, n. Foulness; filth. [Not in use.]

    SULLIED, pp. Soiled; tarnished; stained.

    SULLY, v.t.

    1. To soil; to dirt; to spot; to tarnish.NWAD SULLY.2

    And statues sullied yet with sacrilegious smoke.NWAD SULLY.3

    2. To tarnish; to darken.NWAD SULLY.4

    Let there be no spots to sully the brightness of this solemnity.NWAD SULLY.5

    3. To stain; to tarnish; as the purity of reputation; as virtues sullied by slanders; character sullied by infamous vices.NWAD SULLY.6

    SULLY, v.i. To be soiled or tarnished.

    Silvering will sully and canker more than gilding.NWAD SULLY.8

    SULLY, n. Soil, tarnish; spot.

    A noble and triumphant merit breaks through little spots and sullies on his reputation.NWAD SULLY.10

    SULLYING, ppr. Soiling; tarnishing; staining.

    SULPHATE, n. [from sulphur.] A neutral salt formed by sulphuric acid in combination with any base; as sulphate of lime.

    SULPHATIC, a. Pertaining to sulphate.

    SULPHITE, n. [from sulphur.] A salt or definite compound formed by a combination of sulphurous acid with a base.

    SULPHUR, n. [L.] A simple combustible mineral substance, of a yellow color, brittle, insoluble in water, but fusible by heat. It is called also brimstone, that is, burn-stone, from its great combustibility. It burns with a blue flame and a peculiar suffocating odor. Sulphur native or prismatic is of two kinds, common and volcanic.

    SULPHURATE, a. [L. sulphuratus.] Belonging to sulphur; of the color of sulphur. [Little used.]

    SULPHURATE, v.t. To combine with sulphur.

    SULPHURATED, pp. Combined or impregnated with sulphur; as sulphurated hydrogen gas.

    SULPHURATION, n. Act of addressing or anointing with sulphur.

    SULPHORE, SULPHURET, n. A combination of sulphur with a metallic, earthy or alkaline base; as a sulphuret of potash.

    SULPHUREOUS, a. Consisting of sulphur; having the qualities of sulphur or brimstone; impregnated with sulphur.

    Her snakes untied, sulphureous waters drink.NWAD SULPHUREOUS.2

    SULPHUREOUSLY, adv. In a sulphureous manner.

    SULPHUREOUSNESS, n. The state of being sulphureous.

    SULPHURETED, a. Applied to gaseous bodies holding sulphur in solution; as sulphureted hydrogen.

    SULPHURIC, a. Pertaining to sulphur; more strictly, designating an acid formed by sulphur saturated with oxygen; as sulphuric acid, formerly called vitriolic acid, or oil of vitrol.

    SULPHUROUS, a. Like sulphur; containing sulphur; also, designating an acid formed by sulphur subsaturated with oxygen. This is called sulphurous acid.

    SULPHUR-WORT, n. A plant, hog’s fennel, of the genus Peucedanum.

    SULPHURY, a. Partaking of sulphur; having the qualities of sulphur.

    SULTAN, n. [Heb. to rule.] An appellation given to the emperor of the Turks, denoting ruler or commander.

    SULTANA, SULTANESS, n. The queen of a sultan; the empress of the Turks.

    SULTAN-FLOWER, n. A plant, a species of Centaurea.

    SULTANRY, n. An eastern empire; the dominions of a sultan.

    SULTRINESS, n. [from sultry.] The state of being sultry; heat with a moist or close air.

    SULTRY, a.

    1. Very hot, burning and oppressive; as Libya’s sultry deserts.NWAD SULTRY.2

    2. Very hot and moist, or hot, close, stagnant and unelastic; as air or the atmosphere. A sultry air is usually enfeebling and oppressive to the human body.NWAD SULTRY.3

    Such as born beneath the burning skyNWAD SULTRY.4

    And sultry sun, betwixt the tropics lie.NWAD SULTRY.5

    SUM, n. [L. summa, a sum; L. simul, together; Heb. to set or place.]

    1. The aggregate of two or more numbers, magnitudes, quantities or particulars; the amount or whole of any number of individuals or particulars added. The sum of 5 and 7 is 12.NWAD SUM.2

    How precious are thy thoughts to me, O God! how great is the sum of them! Psalm 139:17.NWAD SUM.3

    Take the sum of all the congregation. Numbers 1:2.NWAD SUM.4

    [Sum is now applied more generally to numbers, and number to persons.]NWAD SUM.5

    2. A quantity of money or currency; any amount indefinitely. I sent him a sum of money, a small sum, or a large sum. I received a large sum in bank notes.NWAD SUM.6

    3. Compendium; abridgment; the amount; the substance. This is the sum of all the evidence in the case. This is the sum and substance of all his objections. The sum of all I have said is this.NWAD SUM.7

    The phrase, in sum, is obsolete or nearly so.NWAD SUM.8

    In sum, the gospel considered as a law, prescribes every virtue to our conduct, and forbids every sin.NWAD SUM.9

    4. Highth; completion.NWAD SUM.10

    Thus have I told thee all my state, and broughtNWAD SUM.11

    My story to the sum of earthly bliss.NWAD SUM.12

    SUM, v.t. To add particulars into one whole; to collect two or more particular numbers into one number; to cast up; usually followed by up, but it is superfluous. Custom enables a man to sum up a long column of figures with surprising facility and correctness.

    The hour doth rather sum up the moments, than divide the day.NWAD SUM.14

    1. To bring or collect into a small compass; to comprise in a few words; to condense. He summed up his arguments at the close of his speech, with great force and effect.NWAD SUM.15

    “Go to the ant, thou sluggard,” in few words, sums up the moral of this fable.NWAD SUM.16

    2. In falconry, to have feathers full grown.NWAD SUM.17

    With prosperous wing full summ’d. [Unusual.]NWAD SUM.18

    SUMAC, SUMACH, n. shu’mak. A plant or shrub of the genus Rhus, of many species, some of which are used in tanning and dyeing, and in medicine.

    SUMLESS, a. Not to be computed; of which the amount cannot be ascertained.

    The sumless treasure of exhausted mines.NWAD SUMLESS.2

    SUMMARILY, adv. [from summary.] In a summary manner; briefly; concisely; in a narrow compass or in few words. The Lord’s prayer teaches us summarily the things we are to ask for.

    1. In a short way or method.NWAD SUMMARILY.2

    When the parties proceed summarily, and they choose the ordinary way of proceeding, the cause is made plenary.NWAD SUMMARILY.3

    SUMMARY, a. [L. summa.] Reduced into a narrow compass, or into few words; short; brief; concise; compendious; as a summary statement of arguments or objections; a summary proceeding or process.

    SUMMARY, n. An abridged account; an abstract, abridgment or compendium, containing the sum or substance of a fuller account; as the comprehensive summary of our duty to God in the first table of the law.

    SUMMED, pp. [from sum.] Collected into a total amount; fully grown, as feathers.

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