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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    CONVERSE, v.i. [L., to be turned. Literally, to be turned to or with; to be turned about.]

    1. To keep company; to associate; to cohabit; to hold intercourse and be intimately acquainted; followed by with.NWAD CONVERSE.2

    For him who lonely loves to seek the distant hills, and their converse with nature.NWAD CONVERSE.3

    2. To have sexual commerce.NWAD CONVERSE.4

    3. To talk familiarly; to have free intercourse in mutual communication of thoughts and opinions; to convey thoughts reciprocally; followed by with before the person addressed, and on before the subject. Converse as friend with friend. We have often conversed with each other on the merit of Miltons poetry. [This is now the most general use of the word.]NWAD CONVERSE.5

    CONVERSE, n.

    1. Conversation; familiar discourse or talk; free interchange of thoughts or opinions.NWAD CONVERSE.7

    Formed by thy converse happily to steer from grave to gay, from lively to severe.NWAD CONVERSE.8

    2. Acquaintance by frequent or customary intercourse; cohabitation; familiarity. In this sense, the word may include discourse, or not; as, to hold converse with persons of different sects; or to hold converse with terrestrial things.NWAD CONVERSE.9

    3. In mathematics, an opposite proposition; thus, after drawing a conclusion from something supposed, we invert the order, making the conclusion the supposition or premises, and draw from it what was first supposed. Thus, if two sides of a triangle are equal, the angles opposite the sides are equal: and the converse is true; if these angles are equal, the two sides are equal.NWAD CONVERSE.10

    CONVERSELY, adv. With change of order; in a contrary order; reciprocally.

    CONVERSION, n. [L. See Convert.]

    1. In a general sense, a turning or change from one state to another; with regard to substances, transmutation; as a conversion of water into ice, or of food into chyle or blood.NWAD CONVERSION.2

    2. In military affairs, a change of front, as when a body of troops is attacked in the flank, and they change their position to face the enemy.NWAD CONVERSION.3

    3. In a theological or moral sense, a change of heart, or dispositions, in which the enmity of the heart to God and his law and the obstinacy of the will are subdued, and are succeeded by supreme love to God and his moral government, and a reformation of life.NWAD CONVERSION.4

    4. Change from one side or party to another.NWAD CONVERSION.5

    That conversion will be suspected that apparently concurs with interest.NWAD CONVERSION.6

    5. A change from one religion to another; as the conversion of the Gentiles. Acts 15:3.NWAD CONVERSION.7

    6. The act of appropriating to private use; as in trover and conversion.NWAD CONVERSION.8

    Conversion of equations, in algebra, the reduction of equations by multiplication, or the manner of altering an equation, when the quantity sought or any member of it is a fraction; the reducing of a fractional equation into an integral one.NWAD CONVERSION.9

    Conversion of propositions, in logic, is a changing of the subject into the place of the predicate, and still retaining the quality of the proposition.NWAD CONVERSION.10

    Conversion of the ratios, in arithmetic, is the comparing of the antecedent with the difference of the antecedent and consequent, in two equal ratios or proportions.NWAD CONVERSION.11

    CONVERT, v.t. [L., to turn; coinciding in elements and signification with barter.]

    1. To change or turn into another substance or form; as, to convert gases into water, or water into ice.NWAD CONVERT.2

    2. To change from one state to another; as, to convert a barren waste into a fruitful field; to convert a wilderness into a garden; to convert rude savages into civilized men.NWAD CONVERT.3

    3. To change or turn from one religion to another, or from one party or sect to another; as, to convert pagans to Christianity; to convert royalists into republicans.NWAD CONVERT.4

    4. To turn from a bad life to a good one; to change the heart and moral character, from enmity to God and from vicious habits, to love of God and to a holy life.NWAD CONVERT.5

    Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out. Acts 3:19.NWAD CONVERT.6

    He that converteth a sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death. James 5:20.NWAD CONVERT.7

    5. To turn toward a point.NWAD CONVERT.8

    Crystal will callify into electricity, and convert the needle freely placed. [Unusual.]NWAD CONVERT.9

    6. To turn from one use or destination to another; as, to convert liberty into an engine of oppression.NWAD CONVERT.10

    7. To appropriate or apply to ones own use, or to personal benefit; as, to convert public property to our own use.NWAD CONVERT.11

    8. To change one proposition into another, so that what was the subject of the first becomes the predicate of the second; as, all sin is a transgression of the law; but every transgression of the law is sin.NWAD CONVERT.12

    9. To turn into another language.NWAD CONVERT.13

    CONVERT, v.i. To turn or be changed; to undergo a change.

    The love of wicked friends converts to fear; that fear, to hate.NWAD CONVERT.15

    CONVERT, n.

    1. A person who is converted from one opinion or practice to another; a person who renounces one creed, religious system or party, and embraces another; applied particularly to those who change their religious opinions, but applicable to political and philosophical sects.NWAD CONVERT.17

    2. In a more strict sense, one who is turned from sin to holiness.NWAD CONVERT.18

    Zion shall be redeemed with judgment, and her converts with righteousness. Isaiah 1:27.NWAD CONVERT.19

    3. In monasteries, a lay-friar or brother, admitted to the service of the house, without orders, and not allowed to sing in the choir.NWAD CONVERT.20

    CONVERTED, pp. Turned or changed from one substance or state to another; turned form one religion or sect to another; changed from a state of sin to a state of holiness; applied to a particular use; appropriated.

    CONVERTER, n. One who converts; one who makes converts.

    CONVERTIBILITY, n. [from convertible.]

    1. The quality of being possible to be converted or changed from one substance, form or state to another; as the convertibility of land into money.NWAD CONVERTIBILITY.2

    2. The quality of being changeable from one letter to another; as the convertibility of m with b or of d into t.NWAD CONVERTIBILITY.3


    1. That may be changed; susceptible of change; transmutable; transformable.NWAD CONVERTIBLE.2

    Minerals are not convertible into another species, though of the same genus.NWAD CONVERTIBLE.3

    2. So much alike that one may be used for another. Usury and interest are not now convertible terms, though formerly they were.NWAD CONVERTIBLE.4

    3. That may be changed, as one letter for another; as b, p and f are convertible letters.NWAD CONVERTIBLE.5

    CONVERTIBLY, adv. Reciprocally; with interchange of terms.

    CONVERTITE, n. A convert. [Not in use.]

    CONVEX, a. [L.] Rising or swelling on the exterior surface into a spherical or round form; gibbous; opposed to concave, which expresses a round form of the interior surface; as a convex mirror or lens.

    CONVEX, n. A convex body; as heavens convex.

    CONVEXED, a. Made convex; protuberant in a spherical form.

    CONVEXEDLY, adv. In a convex form.

    CONVEXITY, n. [L.] The exterior surface of a convex body; a gibbous or globular form; roundness.

    CONVEXLY, adv. In a convex form; as a body convexly conical.

    CONVEXNESS, n. Convexity, which see.

    CONVEXO-CONCAVE, a. Convex on one side and concave on the other; having the hollow on the inside corresponding to the convex surface.

    CONVEXO-CONVEX, a. Convex on both sides.

    CONVEY, v.t. [L., to carry; to weigh. See Weigh and Way.]

    1. To carry, bear or transport, either by land or water, or in air; as, to convey a letter or a package; to convey goods from England to France.NWAD CONVEY.2

    2. To pass or cause to pass; to transmit; as, to convey a right or an estate from father to son.NWAD CONVEY.3

    3. To transfer; to pass a title to any thing from one person to another, as by deed, assignment or otherwise; as, to convey lands by bargain and sale.NWAD CONVEY.4

    4. To cause to pass; to transmit; to carry, by any medium; as, air conveys sound; words convey ideas.NWAD CONVEY.5

    5. To manage; to carry on. [Not used.]NWAD CONVEY.6

    I will convey the business as I shall find means.NWAD CONVEY.7

    6. To impart; to communicate.NWAD CONVEY.8

    CONVEYABLE, a. That may be conveyed or transferred.


    1. The act of conveying; the act of bearing, carrying, or transporting, by land or water, or through any medium.NWAD CONVEYANCE.2

    2. The act of transmitting, or transferring, as titles, estates or claims from one person to another; transmission; transference; assignment.NWAD CONVEYANCE.3

    3. The instrument or means of passing a thing from place to place, or person to person; as, a vehicle is a conveyance for persons or goods; a canal or aqueduct is a conveyance for water; a deed is a conveyance of land.NWAD CONVEYANCE.4

    4. Removal; the act of removing or carrying.NWAD CONVEYANCE.5

    5. Management; artifice; secret practices. [In this sense, obsolete.]NWAD CONVEYANCE.6

    CONVEYANCER, n. One whose occupation is to draw conveyances of property, deeds, etc.

    CONVEYANCING, n. The act or practice of drawing deeds, leases or other writings for transferring the title to property from one person to another.

    CONVEYER, n.

    1. One who conveys; he or that which conveys, carries, transports, transmits or transfers from one person or place to another.NWAD CONVEYER.2

    2. A juggler.NWAD CONVEYER.3

    CONVEYING, ppr. Carrying; transporting; transferring.

    CONVICINITY, n. Neighborhood; vicinity.

    CONVICT, v.t. [L., to vanquish or subdue. See Convince.]

    1. To determine the truth of a charge against one; to prove or find guilty of a crime charged; to determine or decide to be guilty, as by the verdict of a jury, by confession, or other legal decision. The jury convicted the prisoner of felony.NWAD CONVICT.2

    2. To convince of sin; to prove or determine to be guilty, as by the conscience.NWAD CONVICT.3

    They who heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one. John 8:9.NWAD CONVICT.4

    3. To confute; to prove or show to be false.NWAD CONVICT.5

    4. To show by proof or evidence.NWAD CONVICT.6

    CONVICT, pp. For convicted. Proved or found guilty.

    CONVICT, n. A person proved or found guilty of a crime alledged against him, either by the verdict of a jury or other legal decision.

    CONVICTED, ppr. Proved or determined to be guilty, either by verdict of a jury or by the decision of conscience.

    CONVICTING, ppr. Proving or finding guilty.


    1. The act of proving, finding or determining to be guilty of an offense charged against a person before a legal tribunal; as by confession, by the verdict of a jury, or by the sentence of other tribunal, as in the summary convictions before commissioners of the revenue.NWAD CONVICTION.2

    2. The act of convincing, or compelling one to admit the truth of a charge; the act of convincing of sin or sinfulness; the sate of being convinced or convicted by conscience; the state of being sensible of guilt; as, the convictions of a sinner may be temporary, or lasting and efficacious. By conviction, a sinner is brought to repentance. Men often sin against the conviction of their own consciences.NWAD CONVICTION.3

    3. The act of convincing of error; confutation; the act of compelling one to acknowledge his error, or the truth of what is alledged; as, the conviction of a heretic may induce him to abandon his errors.NWAD CONVICTION.4

    CONVICTIVE, a. Having the power to convince or convict.

    CONVICTIVELY, adv. In a convincing manner.

    CONVINCE, v.t. [L., to vanquish.]

    1. To persuade or satisfy the mind by evidence; to subdue the opposition of the mind to truth, or to what is alledged, and compel it to yield its assent; as, to convince a man of his errors; or to convince him of the truth.NWAD CONVINCE.2

    For he mightily convinced the Jews--showing by the scriptures that Jesus was the Christ. Acts 18:28.NWAD CONVINCE.3

    2. To convict; to prove guilty; to constrain one to admit or acknowledge himself to be guilty.NWAD CONVINCE.4

    If ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of [by] the law as transgressors. James 2:9.NWAD CONVINCE.5

    To convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds. Jude 15.NWAD CONVINCE.6

    3. To envince; to prove.NWAD CONVINCE.7

    4. To overpower; to surmount; to vanquish.NWAD CONVINCE.8

    CONVINCED, pp. Persuaded in mind; satisfied with evidence; convicted.

    CONVINCEMENT, n. Conviction. [Little used.]

    CONVINCER, n. He or that which convinces; that which makes manifest.


    1. Capable of conviction.NWAD CONVINCIBLE.2

    2. Capable of being disproved or refuted. [Little used.]NWAD CONVINCIBLE.3

    CONVINCING, ppr.

    1. Persuading the mind by evidence; convicting.NWAD CONVINCING.2

    2. a. Persuading the mind by evidence; capable of subduing the opposition of the mind and compelling its assent. We have convincing proof of the truth of the scriptures, and of Gods moral government of the world.NWAD CONVINCING.3

    CONVINCINGLY, adv. In a convincing manner; in a manner to leave no room to doubt, or to compel assent.

    CONVINCINGNESS, n. The power of convincing.

    CONVITIOUS, a. [L.] Reproachful.

    CONVIVE, v.t. To entertain; to feast. [Not in use.]

    CONVIVIAL, a. [L., a guest, to live or eat and drink together. See Victuals.] Relating to a feast or entertainment; festal; social; jovial; as a convivial meeting.


    1. The good humor or mirth indulged at an entertainment.NWAD CONVIVIALITY.2

    2. A convivial spirit or disposition.NWAD CONVIVIALITY.3

    CONVOCATE, v.t. [L., to convoke; to call. See Voice.] To convoke; to call or summon to meet; to assemble by summons. [See Convoke.]

    CONVOCATION, n. [L.]

    1. The act of calling or assembling by summons.NWAD CONVOCATION.2

    2. An assembly.NWAD CONVOCATION.3

    In the first day there shall be a holy convocation. Exodus 12:16.NWAD CONVOCATION.4

    3. In England, an assembly of the clergy, by their representatives, to consult on ecclesiastical affairs. It is held during the session of parliament, and consists of an upper and lower house. In the upper house sit the archbishops and bishops; in the lower house sit the inferior clergy, represented by their proctors, consisting of all the deans and arch-deacons, of one proctor for every chapter, and two for the clergy of every diocese, in all one hundred and forty-three divines. Twenty-two deans, fifty-three arch-deacons, twenty-four prebendaries, and forty-four proctors of the diocesan clergy.NWAD CONVOCATION.5

    4. An academical assembly, in which the business of the university is transacted.NWAD CONVOCATION.6

    CONVOKE, v.t. [L. See Voice.] To call together; to summon to meet; to assemble by summons.

    It is the prerogative of the President of the United States to convoke the senate.NWAD CONVOKE.2

    CONVOKED, pp. Summoned or assembled by order.

    CONVOKING, ppr. Summoning to convene; assembling.

    CONVOLUTE, CONVOLUTED, a. Rolled together, or one part on another; as the sides or margins of nascent leaves in plants, or as the petals and stigmas in Crocus.

    CONVOLUTION, n. [L.]

    1. The act of rolling or winding together, or one thing on another; the state of being rolled together.NWAD CONVOLUTION.2

    2. A winding or twisting; a winding motion; as the convolution of certain vines; the convolution of an eddy.NWAD CONVOLUTION.3

    CONVOLVE, v.t. [L., to roll. See Wallow.] To roll or wind together; to roll one part on another.

    CONVOLVULUS, n. [L.] Bindweed, a genus of plants of many species.

    CONVOY, v.t. [L., to carry, to bear or carry, to bring along.] To accompany on the way for protection, either by sea or land; as, ships of war convoyed the Jamaica fleet; the troops convoyed the baggage wagons. When persons are to be protected, the word escort is used.

    CONVOY, n.

    1. A protecting force accompanying ships or property on their way from place to place, either by sea or land. By sea, a ship or ships of war which accompany merchantmen for protection from an enemy. By land, any body of troops which accompany provisions, ammunition or other property for protection.NWAD CONVOY.3

    2. The ship or fleet conducted and protected; that which is conducted by a protecting force; that which is convoyed. The word sometimes includes both the protecting and protected fleets.NWAD CONVOY.4

    3. The act of attending for defense.NWAD CONVOY.5

    4. Conveyance.NWAD CONVOY.6

    CONVOYED, pp. Attended on a passage by a protecting force.

    CONVOYING, ppr. Attending on a voyage or passage for defense from enemies; attending and guarding.

    CONVULSE, v.t. [L., to pull or pluck.]

    1. To draw or contract, as the muscular parts of an animal body; to affect by regular spasms; as, the whole frame may be convulsed in agony.NWAD CONVULSE.2

    2. To shake; to affect by violent irregular action.NWAD CONVULSE.3

    Convulsing heaven and earth.NWAD CONVULSE.4

    CONVULSED, pp. Contracted by spasms; shaken violently.

    CONVULSING, ppr. Affecting by spasmodic contractions; shaking with violence.

    CONVULSION, n. [L.]

    1. A preternatural, violent and involuntary contraction of the muscular parts of an animal body.NWAD CONVULSION.2

    2. Any violent and irregular motion; tumult; commotion; as political convulsions.NWAD CONVULSION.3


    1. That produces convulsion; as convulsive rage; convulsive sorrow.NWAD CONVULSIVE.2

    2. Attended with convulsion or spasms; as convulsive motions; convulsive strife.NWAD CONVULSIVE.3

    CONVULSIVELY, adv. With violent shaking or agitation.

    CONY, CONEY, n. [L. The primary sense is a shoot, or a shooting along.] A rabbit; a quadruped of the genus Lepus, which has a short tail and naked ears. In a wild state the fur is brown, but the color of the domestic rabbit is various.

    CONY-BURROW, n. A place where rabbits burrow in the earth.

    CONY-CATCH, v.i. [cony and catch.] In the cant of thieves, to cheat; to bite; to trick.

    CONY-CATCHER, n. A thief; a cheat; a sharper.

    CONY-CATCHING, n. Banter.

    COO, v.i. [probably from the sound.] To cry, or make a low sound, as pigeons or doves.

    COOING, ppr. Uttering a low sound, as a dove.

    COOING, n. Invitation, as the note of the dove.

    COOK, v.t. [L.]

    1. To prepare, as victuals for the table, by boiling, roasting, baking, broiling, etc. To dress, as meat or vegetables, for eating.NWAD COOK.2

    2. To prepare for any purpose.NWAD COOK.3

    3. To throw. [Obs. or local.]NWAD COOK.4

    COOK, v.i. To make the noise of the cuckoo.

    COOK, n. [L.] One whose occupation is to prepare victuals for the table; a man or woman who dresses meat or vegetables for eating.

    COOKED, ppr. Prepared for the table.

    COOKERY, n. The art or the practice of dressing and preparing victuals for the table.

    COOKING, ppr. Preparing victuals for the table.

    COOKMAID, n. [cook and maid.] A female servant or maid who dresses provisions.

    COOKROOM, n. [cook and room.] A room for cookery; a kitchen. On board of ships, a galley or caboose.

    COOL, a. [G., cold, to cool; chilliness; to blow strong.]

    1. Moderately cold; being of a temperature between hot and cold; as cool air; cool water.NWAD COOL.2

    2. Not ardent or zealous; not angry; not fond; not excited by passion of any kind; indifferent; as a cool friend; a cool temper; a cool lover.NWAD COOL.3

    3. Not retaining heat; light; as a cool dress.NWAD COOL.4

    COOL, n. A moderate state of cold; moderate temperature of the air between hot and cold; as the cool of the day; the cool of the morning or evening.

    COOL, v.t.

    1. To allay heat; to make cool or cold; to reduce the temperature of a substance; as, ice wools water.NWAD COOL.7

    Send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue. Luke 16:24.NWAD COOL.8

    2. To moderate excitement of temper; to allay, as passion of any kind; to calm, as anger; to abate, as love; to moderate, as desire, zeal or ardor; to render indifferent.NWAD COOL.9

    COOL, v.i.

    1. To become less hot; to lose heat. Let tea or coffee cool to the temperature of the blood, before it is drank.NWAD COOL.11

    2. To lose the heat of excitement or passion; to become less ardent, angry, zealous, or affectionate; to become more moderate. Speak not in a passion; first let your temper cool.NWAD COOL.12

    COOL-CUP, n. A beverage that is cooling.

    COOLED, pp. Made less hot, or less ardent.

    COOLER, n.

    1. That which cools; any substance which abates heat or excitement; as, acids are coolers to the body.NWAD COOLER.2

    2. A vessel in which liquors or other things are cooled.NWAD COOLER.3

    COOL-HEADED, a. Having a temper not easily excited; free from passion.

    COOLING, ppr. Abating heat or excitement; making or becoming cool.

    COOLISH, a. Somewhat cool.

    COOLLY, adv.

    1. Without heat or sharp cold.NWAD COOLLY.2

    2. In a cool or indifferent manner; not cordially; without passion or ardor. He was coolly received at court.NWAD COOLLY.3

    3. Without haste; calmly; deliberately. The design was formed coolly, and executed with firmness.NWAD COOLLY.4

    COOLNESS, n.

    1. A moderate degree of cold; a temperature between cold and heat; as the coolness of the summers evening.NWAD COOLNESS.2

    2. A moderate degree, or a want of passion; want of ardor, or zeal; indifference; want of affection; as, they parted with coolness.NWAD COOLNESS.3

    COOM, n. Soot that gathers over an ovens mouth; also, the matter that works out of the naves or boxes of carriage wheels. In Scotland, the useless dust which falls from coals.

    COOMB, COMB, n. [Gr.] A dry measure of four bushels, or half a quarter.

    COOP, n. [L, from bending, hollowness, or containing, holding. See Cup.]

    1. A box of boards, grated or barred on one side, for keeping fowls in confinement. It is usually applied to long boxes for keeping poultry for fattening or conveyance on board of ships, as cage is used for a small box to keep singing birds in houses. I do not know that it is ever used in America for a pen to confine other animals.NWAD COOP.2

    2. A pen; an inclosed place for small animals.NWAD COOP.3

    3. A barrel or cask for the preservation of liquors.NWAD COOP.4

    4. A tumbrel or close cart.NWAD COOP.5

    [The three last sense, not American.]NWAD COOP.6

    COOP, v.t. To put in a coop; to confine in a coop. Hence, to shut up or confine in a narrow compass; usually followed by up, to coop up; sometimes by in.

    The Trojans cooped within their walls.NWAD COOP.8

    They are cooped in close by the laws of the country.NWAD COOP.9

    COOPED, pp. Shut up in a coop; confined to narrow limits.

    COOPER, n. [G.] One whose occupation is to make barrels, hogsheads, butts, tubs and casks of various kinds.

    COOPERAGE, n. The price paid for coopers work; also, a place where coopers work is done.

    CO-OPERATE, v.i. [L., to work.]

    1. To act or operate jointly with another or others, to the same end; to work or labor with mutual efforts to promote the same object. It has with before the agent, and to before the end. Russia cooperated with Great Britain, Austria and Prussia, to reduce the power of Buonaparte.NWAD CO-OPERATE.2

    2. To act together; to concur in producing the same effect. Natural and moral events cooperate in illustrating the wisdom of the Creator.NWAD CO-OPERATE.3

    CO-OPERATING, ppr. Acting or operating together.

    CO-OPERATION, n. The act of working, or operating together, to one end; joint operation; concurrent effort or labor; as the cooperation of the combined powers; the cooperation of the understanding and the will.

    CO-OPERATIVE, a. Operating jointly to the same end.

    CO-OPERATOR, n. One who endeavors jointly with others to promote the same end.

    CO-OPTATE, v.t. [L.] To choose, or choose with another. [Not used.]

    CO-OPTATION, n. Adoption; assumption.

    CO-ORDINATE, a. [L., to regulate. See Order.] Being of equal order, or of the same rank or degree; not subordinate; as, two courts of co-ordinate jurisdiction.

    CO-ORDINATELY, adv. In the same order or rank; in equal degree; without subordination.

    CO-ORDINATENESS, n. The state of being coordinate; equality of rank and authority.

    CO-ORDINATION, n. The state of holding equal rank, or of standing in the same relation to something higher.

    In the high court of Parliament there is a rare coordination of power.NWAD CO-ORDINATION.2

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