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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    INSPISSATION, n. The act or operation of rendering a fluid substance thicker by evaporation, etc.

    INSTABILITY, n. [L. instabilitas, instabilis; in and stabilis, from sto, to stand.]

    1. Want of stability; want of firmness in purpose; inconstancy; fickleness; mutability of opinion or conduct. Instability is the characteristic of weak minds.NWAD INSTABILITY.2

    2. Changeableness; mutability; as the instability of laws, plans or measures.NWAD INSTABILITY.3

    INSTABLE, a. [L. instabilis.] Inconstant; prone to change or recede from a purpose; mutable; of persons.

    1. Not steady or fixed; changeable; of things.NWAD INSTABLE.2

    [Instable and unstable are synonymous, and the latter is more commonly used.]NWAD INSTABLE.3

    INSTABLENESS, n. Unstableness; mutability; instability.

    INSTALL, v.t. [Gr. to send.] To set, place or instate, in an office, rank or order; to invest with any charge, office or rank, with the customary ceremonies. To install a clergyman or minister of the gospel, is to place one who has been previously ordained, over a particular church and congregation, or to invest an ordained minister with a particular pastoral charge; in England, to induct a dean, prebendary or other ecclesiastical dignitary into possession of the church to which he belongs.

    INSTALLATION, n. The act of giving possession of an office, rank or order, with the customary ceremonies.

    On the election, the bishop gives a mandate for his installation.NWAD INSTALLATION.2

    INSTALLED, pp. Placed in a seat, office or order.

    INSTALLING, ppr. Placing in a seat, office or order.

    INSTALLMENT, n. The act of installing, or giving possession of an office with the usual ceremonies or solemnities.

    1. The seat in which one is placed. [Unusual.]NWAD INSTALLMENT.2

    2. In commerce, a part of a large sum of money paid or to be paid at a particular period. In constituting a capital stock by subscriptions of individuals, it is customary to afford facilities to subscribers by dividing the sum subscribed into installments, or portions payable at distinct periods. In large contracts also, it is not unusual to agree that the money shall be paid by installments.NWAD INSTALLMENT.3

    INSTANCE, n. [L. insto, to press; in and sto, to stand.]

    Literally, a standing on. Hence,NWAD INSTANCE.2

    1. Urgency; a pressing; solicitation; importunity; application. The request was granted at the instance of the defendant’s advocate.NWAD INSTANCE.3

    2. Example; a case occurring; a case offered. Howard furnished a remarkable instance of disinterested benevolence. The world may never witness a second instance of the success of daring enterprise and usurpation, equal to that of Buonaparte.NWAD INSTANCE.4

    Suppose the earth should be removed nearer to the sun, and revolve, for instance, in the orbit of Mercury, the whole ocean would boil with heat.NWAD INSTANCE.5

    The use of instances, is to illustrate and explain a difficulty.NWAD INSTANCE.6

    3. Time; occasion; occurrence.NWAD INSTANCE.7

    These seem as if, in the time of Edward I, they were drawn up into the form of a law, in the first instance.NWAD INSTANCE.8

    4. Motive; influence.NWAD INSTANCE.9

    5. Process of a suit.NWAD INSTANCE.10

    Instance-court, a branch of the court of admiralty, in England, distinct from the prize-court.NWAD INSTANCE.11

    INSTANCE, v.i. To give or offer an example or case.

    As to false citations--I shall instance in two or three.NWAD INSTANCE.13

    INSTANCE, v.t. To mention as an example or case. He instanced the event of Caesar’s death.

    INSTANCED, pp. or a. Given in proof or as an example.

    INSTANT, a. [L. instans, insto.]

    1. Pressing; urgent; importunate; earnest.NWAD INSTANT.2

    Rejoicing in hope; patient in tribulation; continuing instant in prayer. Romans 12:12.NWAD INSTANT.3

    2. Immediate; without intervening time; present.NWAD INSTANT.4

    Impending death is thine and instant doom.NWAD INSTANT.5

    3. Quick; making no delay.NWAD INSTANT.6

    Instant he flew with hospitable haste.NWAD INSTANT.7

    4. Present; current. On the tenth of July instant.NWAD INSTANT.8

    INSTANT, n. A point in duration; a moment; a part of duration in which we perceive no succession, or a part that occupies the time of a single thought.

    1. A particular time.NWAD INSTANT.10

    INSTANTANEITY, n. Unpremeditated production.

    INSTANTANEOUS, a. Done in an instant; occurring or acting without any perceptible succession; very speedily. The passage of electricity through any given space appears to be instantaneous.

    INSTANTANEOUSLY, adv. In an instant; in a moment; in an indivisible point of duration. The operations of the human mind are wonderful; our thoughts fly from world to world instantaneously. In the western parts of the Atlantic states of America, showers of rain sometimes begin instantaneously.

    INSTANTANEOUSNESS, n. The quality of being done in an instant.

    INSTANTER, adv. [L.] In law, immediately; at the present time; without delay.

    The party was compelled to plead instanter.NWAD INSTANTER.2

    INSTANTLY, adv. Immediately; without any intervening time; at the moment.

    Lightning often kills instantly.NWAD INSTANTLY.2

    1. With urgent importunity.NWAD INSTANTLY.3

    And when they came to Jesus, they besought him instantly, saying, that he was worthy for whom he should do this. Luke 7:4.NWAD INSTANTLY.4

    2. With diligence and earnestness. Acts 26:7.NWAD INSTANTLY.5

    INSTAR, v.t. [in and star.] To set or adorn with stars, or with brilliants.

    A golden throneNWAD INSTAR.2

    Instarr’d with gems.NWAD INSTAR.3

    INSTATE, v.t. [in and state.] To set or place; to establish, as in a rank or condition; as, to instate a person in greatness or in favor.

    1. To invest.NWAD INSTATE.2

    INSTATED, pp. Set or placed.

    INSTATING, ppr. Setting or placing.

    INSTAURATION, n. [L. instauratio, instauro, to renew.]

    Renewal; repair; re-establishment; the restoration of a thing to its former state, after decay, lapse or dilapidation.NWAD INSTAURATION.2

    INSTAURATOR, n. One who renews or restores to a former condition.

    INSTEAD, insted’. [a compound of in and stead, place; but stead retains its character of a noun, and is followed by of; instead of, in the same manner as in the stead of.]

    In the place or room of.NWAD INSTEAD.2

    Let thistles grow instead of wheat. Job 31:40.NWAD INSTEAD.3

    Absalom made Amasa captain of the hose instead of Joab. 2 Samuel 17:25.NWAD INSTEAD.4

    This consideration is instead of a thousand arguments. In this use, instead may be equivalent to equal to.NWAD INSTEAD.5

    When instead is used without of following, there is an ellipsis, or some words are understood.NWAD INSTEAD.6

    INSTEEP, v.t. [in and steep.] To steep or soak; to drench; to macerate in moisture.

    1. To keep under or in water.NWAD INSTEEP.2

    INSTEEPED, ppr. Steeped; soaked; drenched; lying under water.

    INSTEEPING, ppr. Steeping; soaking.

    INSTEP, n. [in and step.] The instep of the human foot, is the fore part of the upper side of the foot, near its junction with the leg.

    1. The instep of a horse, is that part of the hind leg, which reaches form the ham to the paster-joint.NWAD INSTEP.2

    INSTIGATE, v.t. [L. instigo; in and stigo, inusit; Gr. to prick.]

    To incite; to set on; to provoke; to urge; used chiefly or wholly in an ill sense; as, to instigate one to evil; to instigate to a crime.NWAD INSTIGATE.2

    INSTIGATED, pp. Incited or persuaded, as to evil.

    INSTIGATING, ppr. Inciting; tempting to evil.

    INSTIGATION, n. Incitement, as to evil or wickedness; the act of encouraging to commit a crime or some evil act.

    1. Temptation; impulse to evil; as the instigation of the devil.NWAD INSTIGATION.2

    INSTIGATOR, n. One who incites another to an evil act; a tempter.

    1. That which incites; that which moves persons to commit wickedness.NWAD INSTIGATOR.2

    INSTILL, v.t. [L. instillo; in and stillo, to drop.]

    1. To infuse by drops.NWAD INSTILL.2

    2. To infuse slowly, or by small quantities; as, to instill good principles into the mind.NWAD INSTILL.3

    INSTILLATION, n. [L. instillatio.] The act of infusing by drops or by small quantities.

    1. The act of infusing slowly into the mind.NWAD INSTILLATION.2

    2. That which is instilled or infused.NWAD INSTILLATION.3

    INSTILLED, pp. Infused by drops or by slow degrees.

    INSTILLER, n. He that instills.

    INSTILLING, ppr. Infusing by drops or by slow degrees.

    INSTILLMENT, n. Any thing instilled.

    INSTIMULATE, v.t. To stimulate; to excite. [Not used.]

    INSTIMULATING, ppr. Not stimulating; not exciting vital powers.

    INSTIMULATION, n. [in and stimulation.]

    The act of stimulating, inciting or urging forward.NWAD INSTIMULATION.2

    INSTINCT, a. [L. instinctus. See the Noun.]

    Moved; animated; excited; as instinct with spirit.NWAD INSTINCT.2

    Betulia--instinct with life.NWAD INSTINCT.3

    INSTINCT, n. [L. instinctus, inwardly moved; in and stinguo.]

    A certain power or disposition of mind by which, independent of all instruction or experience, without deliberation and without having any end in view, animals are unerringly directed to do spontaneously whatever is necessary for the preservation of the individual, or the continuation of the kind. Such, in the human species, is the instinct of sucking exerted immediately after birth, and that of insects in depositing their eggs in situations most favorable for hatching.NWAD INSTINCT.5

    Instinct may be defined, the operation of the principle of organized life by the exercise of certain natural powers directed to the present or future good of the individual.NWAD INSTINCT.6

    Instinct is the general property of the living principle, or the law of organized life in a state of action.NWAD INSTINCT.7

    And reason raise o’er instinct as you can,NWAD INSTINCT.8

    In this ‘tis God directs, in that ‘tis man.NWAD INSTINCT.9

    INSTINCTED, a. Impressed; as an animating power. [Little used.]

    INSTINCTION, n. Instinct. [Not in use.]

    INSTINCTIVE, a. Prompted by instinct; spontaneous; acting without reasoning, deliberation, instruction or experience; determined by natural impulse or propensity. The propensity of bees to form hexagonal cells for holding their honey and their young, must be instinctive.

    INSTINCTIVELY, adv. By force of instinct; without reasoning, instruction or experience; by natural impulse.

    INSTITUTE, v.t. [L. instituo; in and statuo, to set.]

    1. To establish; to appoint; to enact; to form and prescribe; as, to institute laws; to institute rules and regulations.NWAD INSTITUTE.2

    2. To found; to originate and establish, as to institute a new order of nobility; to institute a court.NWAD INSTITUTE.3

    3. To ground or establish in principles; to educate; to instruct; as, to institute children in the principles of a science.NWAD INSTITUTE.4

    4. To begin; to commence; to set in operation; as, to institute an inquiry; to institute a suit.NWAD INSTITUTE.5

    5. To invest with the spiritual part of a benefice or the care of souls.NWAD INSTITUTE.6

    INSTITUTE, n. [L. institutum.]

    1. Established law; settled order.NWAD INSTITUTE.8

    2. Precept; maxim; principle.NWAD INSTITUTE.9

    To make the Stoic institutes thy own.NWAD INSTITUTE.10

    3. A book of elements or principles; particularly, a work containing the principles of the Roman law.NWAD INSTITUTE.11

    INSTITUTED, pp. Established; appointed; founded; enacted; invested with the care of souls.

    INSTITUTING, ppr. Establishing; founding; enacting; investing with the care of souls.

    INSTITUTION, n. [L. institutio.]

    1. The act of establishing.NWAD INSTITUTION.2

    2. Establishment; that which is appointed, prescribed or founded by authority, and intended to be permanent. Thus we speak of the institutions of Moses or Lycurgus. We apply the word institution to laws, rites, and ceremonies, which are enjoined by authority as permanent rules of conduct or of government.NWAD INSTITUTION.3

    3. A system, plan or society established, either by law or by the authority of individuals for promoting any object, public or social. We call a college or an academy, a literary institution; a bible society, a benevolent or charitable institution; a banking company and an insurance company are commercial institutions.NWAD INSTITUTION.4

    4. A system of the elements or rules of any art or science.NWAD INSTITUTION.5

    5. Education; instruction.NWAD INSTITUTION.6

    His learning was not the effect of precept or institution.NWAD INSTITUTION.7

    6. The act or ceremony of investing a clerk with the spiritual part of a benefice, by which the care of souls is committed to his charge.NWAD INSTITUTION.8

    INSTITUTIONAL, a. Enjoined; instituted by authority.

    INSTITUTIONARY, a. Elemental; containing the first principles or doctrines.

    INSTITUTIST, n. A writer of institutes or elementary rules and instructions.

    INSTITUTIVE, a. That establishes; having power to establish.

    1. Established; depending on institution.NWAD INSTITUTIVE.2

    INSTITUTOR, n. [L.] The person who establishes; one who enacts laws, rites and ceremonies, and enjoins the observance of them.

    1. The person who founds an order, sect, society or scheme for the promotion of a public or social object.NWAD INSTITUTOR.2

    2. An instructor; one who educates; as an institutor of youth.NWAD INSTITUTOR.3

    INSTOP, v.t. [in and stop.] To stop; to close; to make fast. [Little used.]

    INSTRATIFIED, a. Stratified within something else.

    INSTRUCT, v.t. [L. instruo, instructum; in and struo, to set or to put on, to furnish. The L. struo is contracted from struco or strugo. See Destroy.]

    1. To teach; to inform the mind; to educate; to impart knowledge to one who was destitute of it. The first duty of parents is to instruct their children in the principles of religion and morality.NWAD INSTRUCT.2

    2. To direct; to enjoin; to persuade or admonish.NWAD INSTRUCT.3

    She being before instructed by her mother, said, give me here the head of John the Baptist in a charger. Matthew 14:8.NWAD INSTRUCT.4

    3. To direct or command; to furnish with orders. The president instructed his envoy to insist on the restitution of the property.NWAD INSTRUCT.5

    4. To inform; to advise or give notice to. On this question the court is not instructed.NWAD INSTRUCT.6

    5. To model; to form; to prepare. [Not used.]NWAD INSTRUCT.7

    INSTRUCTED, pp. Taught; informed; trained up; educated.

    INSTRUCTIBLE, a. Able to instruct.

    INSTRUCTING, ppr. Teaching; informing the mind; directing.

    INSTRUCTION, n. [L. instructio.]

    1. The act of teaching or informing the understanding in that of which it was before ignorant; information.NWAD INSTRUCTION.2

    2. Precepts conveying knowledge.NWAD INSTRUCTION.3

    Receive my instruction and not silver. Proverbs 8:10.NWAD INSTRUCTION.4

    3. Direction; order; command; mandate. The minister received instructions from his sovereign to demand a categorical answer.NWAD INSTRUCTION.5

    INSTRUCTIVE, a. Conveying knowledge; serving to instruct or inform. Affliction furnishes very instructive lessons.

    INSTRUCTIVELY, adv. So as to afford instruction.

    INSTRUCTOR, n. A teacher; a person who imparts knowledge to another by precept or information. 1 Corinthians 4:15.

    1. The preceptor of a school or seminary of learning; any president, professor or tutor, whose business is to teach languages, literature or the sciences; any professional man who teaches the principles of his profession.NWAD INSTRUCTOR.2

    INSTRUCTRESS, n. A female who instructs; a preceptress; a tutoress.

    INSTRUMENT, n. [L. instrumentum, from instruo, to prepare; that which is prepared.]

    1. A tool; that by which work is performed or any thing is effected; as a knife, a hammer, a saw, a plow, etc. Swords, muskets and cannon are instruments of destruction. A telescope is an astronomical instrument.NWAD INSTRUMENT.2

    2. That which is subservient to the execution of a plan or purpose, or to the production of any effect; means used or contributing to an effect; applicable to persons or things. Bad men are often instruments of ruin to others. The distribution of the Scriptures may be the instrument of a vastly extensive reformation in morals and religion.NWAD INSTRUMENT.3

    3. An artificial machine or body constructed for yielding harmonious sounds; as an organ, a harpsichord, a violin, or flute, etc., which are called musical instruments, or instruments of music.NWAD INSTRUMENT.4

    4. In law, a writing containing the terms of a contract, as a deed of conveyance, a grant, a patent, an indenture, etc.; in general, a writing by which some fact is recorded for evidence, or some right conveyed.NWAD INSTRUMENT.5

    5. A person who acts for another, or is employed by another for a special purpose, and if the purpose is dishonorable, the term implies degradation or meanness.NWAD INSTRUMENT.6

    INSTRUMENTAL, a. Conducive as an instrument or means to some end; contributing aid; serving to promote or effect an object; helpful. The press has been instrumental in enlarging the bounds of knowledge.

    1. Pertaining to instruments; made by instruments; as instrumental music, distinguished form vocal music, which is made by the human voice.NWAD INSTRUMENTAL.2

    INSTRUMENTALITY, n. Subordinate or auxiliary agency; agency of any thing as means to an end; as the instrumentality of second causes.

    INSTRUMENTALLY, adv. By way of an instrument; in the nature of an instrument; as means to an end.

    1. With instruments of music.NWAD INSTRUMENTALLY.2

    INSTRUMENTALNESS, n. Usefulness, as of means to an end; instrumentality.

    INSTYLE, v.t. [in and style.] To call; to denominate. [Not used.]

    INSUAVITY, n. [L. insuavitas.] Unpleasantness.

    INSUBJECTION, n. State of disobedience to government.

    INSUBMISSION, n. Defect of submission; disobedience.

    INSUBORDINATE, a. Not submitting to authority.

    INSUBORDINATION, n. Want of subordination; disorder; disobedience to lawful authority.

    INSUBSTANTIAL, a. Unsubstantial; not real.

    INSUCCATION, n. [L. insucco, to moisten; in and succus, juice.]

    The act of soaking or moistening; maceration; solution in the juice of herbs.NWAD INSUCCATION.2

    INSUFFERABLE, a. [in and sufferable.]

    1. Intolerable; that cannot be borne or endured; as insufferable heat, cold or pain.NWAD INSUFFERABLE.2

    2. That cannot be permitted or tolerated.NWAD INSUFFERABLE.3

    Our wrongs are insufferable.NWAD INSUFFERABLE.4

    3. Detestable; contemptible; disgusting beyond endurance.NWAD INSUFFERABLE.5

    A multitude of scribblers who daily pester the world with their insufferable stuff--NWAD INSUFFERABLE.6

    INSUFFERABLY, adv. To a degree beyond endurance; as a blaze insufferably bright; a person insufferably proud.

    INSUFFICIENCY, n. [in and sufficiency.]

    1. Inadequateness; want of sufficiency; deficiency; as an insufficiency of provisions to supply the garrison.NWAD INSUFFICIENCY.2

    2. Inadequacy of power or skill; inability; incapacity; incompetency; as the insufficiency of a man for an office.NWAD INSUFFICIENCY.3

    3. Want of the requisite strength, value or force; defect.NWAD INSUFFICIENCY.4

    The insufficiency of the light of nature is supplied by the light of Scripture.NWAD INSUFFICIENCY.5

    INSUFFICIENT, a. [in and sufficient.]

    1. Not sufficient; inadequate to any need, use or purpose. The provisions are insufficient in quantity and defective in quality.NWAD INSUFFICIENT.2

    2. Wanting in strength, power, ability, or skill; incapable; unfit; as a person insufficient to discharge the duties of an office.NWAD INSUFFICIENT.3

    INSUFFICIENTLY, adv. With want of sufficiency; with want of proper ability or skill; inadequately.

    INSUFFLATION, n. [L. in and sufflo, to blow.]

    1. The act of breathing on.NWAD INSUFFLATION.2

    2. The act of blowing a substance into a cavity of the body.NWAD INSUFFLATION.3

    INSUITABLE, a. Unsuitable. [Little used.]

    INSULAR, a. [L. insularis, from insula, an isle.]

    Belonging to an isle; surrounded by water; as an insular situation.NWAD INSULAR.2

    INSULAR, n. One who dwells in an isle.

    INSULATE, v.t. [L. insula, an isle.] To place in a detached situation, or in a state to have no communication with surrounding objects.

    1. In architecture, to set a column alone or not contiguous to a wall.NWAD INSULATE.2

    2. In electrical experiments, to place on a non-conducting substance, or in a situation to prevent communication with the earth.NWAD INSULATE.3

    3. To make an isle. [Little used.]NWAD INSULATE.4

    INSULATED, pp. or a. Standing by itself; not being contiguous to other bodies; as an insulated house or column.

    1. In electrical experiments, placed on an electric or non-conducting substance; not communicating with the earth.NWAD INSULATED.2

    INSULATING, ppr. Setting in a detached position. In electrical experiments, preventing communication by the interposition of an electric body.

    INSULATION, n. The act of insulating; the state of being detached from other objects.

    1. In electrical experiments, that state in which the communication of electrical fluid is prevented by the interposition of an electric body.NWAD INSULATION.2

    INSULATOR, n. In electrical experiments, the substance or body that insulates, or interrupts the communication of electricity to surrounding objects; a non-conductor or electric.

    INSULSE, a. insuls’. [L. insulsus.] Dull; insipid. [Not used.]

    INSULT, n. [L. insultus, from insilio, to leap on; in and salio, to leap.]

    1. The act of leaping on. [Little used.]NWAD INSULT.2

    2. Any gross abuse offered to another, either by words or actions; act or speech of insolence or contempt.NWAD INSULT.3

    The ruthless sneer that insult adds to grief.NWAD INSULT.4

    INSULT, v.t. [L. insulto. See the Noun.]

    To treat with gross abuse, insolence or contempt, by words or actions; as, to call a man a coward or a liar, or to sneer at him, is to insult him.NWAD INSULT.6

    To insult over, to triumph over with insolence and contempt.NWAD INSULT.7

    INSULT, v.i. To behave with insolent triumph.

    INSULTATION, n. The act of insulting; abusive treatment.

    INSULTED, pp. Abused or treated with insolence and contempt.

    INSULTER, n. One who insults.

    INSULTING, ppr. Treating with insolence or contempt.

    INSULTINGLY, adv. With insolent contempt; with contemptuous triumph.

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