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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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    FRESHENED — FROGBIT

    FRESHENED, pp. Deprived of saltiness; sweetened.

    FRESHES, n.

    1. The mingling of fresh water with salt water in rivers or bays, or the increased current of an ebb tide by means of a flood of fresh water, flowing towards or into the sea, and discoloring the water.NWAD FRESHES.2

    2. A flood; an overflowing; an inundation; a freshet.NWAD FRESHES.3

    FRESHET, n.

    1. A flood or overflowing of a river, by means of heavy rains or melted snow; an inundation.NWAD FRESHET.2

    2. A stream of fresh water.NWAD FRESHET.3

    FRESHLY, adv.

    1. Newly; in the former state renewed; in a new or fresh state.NWAD FRESHLY.2

    2. With a healthy look; ruddily.NWAD FRESHLY.3

    3. Briskly; strongly.NWAD FRESHLY.4

    4. Coolly.NWAD FRESHLY.5

    FRESHMAN, n.

    1. A novice; one in the rudiments of knowledge.NWAD FRESHMAN.2

    2. In colleges, one of the youngest class of students.NWAD FRESHMAN.3

    FRESHMANSHIP, n. The state of a freshman.

    FRESHNESS, n.

    1. Newness; vigor; spirit; the contrary to vapidness; as the freshness of liquors or odors.NWAD FRESHNESS.2

    2. Vigor; liveliness; the contrary to a faded state; as the freshness of plants or of green fields.NWAD FRESHNESS.3

    3. Newness of strength; renewed vigor; opposed to weariness or fatigue.NWAD FRESHNESS.4

    The Scots had the advantage both for number and freshness of men.NWAD FRESHNESS.5

    4. Coolness; invigorating quality or state.NWAD FRESHNESS.6

    And breathe the freshness of the open air.NWAD FRESHNESS.7

    5. Color of youth and health; ruddiness.NWAD FRESHNESS.8

    Her cheeks their freshness lose and wonted grace.NWAD FRESHNESS.9

    6. Freedom from saltiness; as the freshness of water or flesh.NWAD FRESHNESS.10

    7. A new or recent state or quality; rawness.NWAD FRESHNESS.11

    8. Briskness, as of wind.NWAD FRESHNESS.12

    FRESHNEW, a. Unpracticed. [Not used.]

    FRESHWATER, a.

    1. Accustomed to sail on freshwater only, or in the coasting trade; as a freshwater sailor.NWAD FRESHWATER.2

    2. Raw; unskilled.NWAD FRESHWATER.3

    FRESHWATERED, a. Newly watered; supplied with fresh water.

    FRET, v.t. [L. rodo, rosi, rado, to scrape. To fret or gnaw gives the sense of unevenness, roughness, in substances; the like appearance is given to fluids by agitation.]

    1. To rub; to wear away a substance by friction; as, to fret cloth; to fret a piece of gold or other metal.NWAD FRET.2

    2. To corrode; to gnaw; to ear away; as, a worm frets the planks of a ship.NWAD FRET.3

    3. To impair; to wear away.NWAD FRET.4

    By starts, his fretted fortunes give him hope and fear.NWAD FRET.5

    4. To form into raised work.NWAD FRET.6

    5. To variegate; to diversify.NWAD FRET.7

    Yon gray lines that fret the clouds are messengers of day.NWAD FRET.8

    6. To agitate violently.NWAD FRET.9

    7. To agitate; to disturb; to make rough; to cause to ripple; as, to fret the surface of water.NWAD FRET.10

    8. To tease; to irritate; to vex; to make angry.NWAD FRET.11

    Fret not thyself because of evil doers. Psalm 37:1.NWAD FRET.12

    9. To wear away; to chafe; to gall. Let not a saddle or harness fret the skin of your horse.NWAD FRET.13

    FRET, v.i.

    1. To be worn away; to be corroded. Any substance will in time fret away by friction.NWAD FRET.15

    2. To eat or wear in; to make way of attrition or corrosion.NWAD FRET.16

    Many wheels arose, and fretted one into another with great excoriation.NWAD FRET.17

    3. To be agitated; to be in violent commotion; as the rancor that frets in the malignant breast.NWAD FRET.18

    4. To be vexed; to be chafed or irritated; to be angry; to utter peevish expressions.NWAD FRET.19

    He frets, he fumes, he stares, he stamps the ground.NWAD FRET.20

    FRET, n.

    1. The agitation of the surface of a fluid by fermentation or other cause; a rippling on the surface of water; small undulations continually repeated.NWAD FRET.22

    2. Work raised in protuberances; or a kind of knot consisting of two lists or small fillets interlaced, used as an ornament in architecture.NWAD FRET.23

    3. Agitation of mind; commotion of temper; irritation; as, he keeps his mind in a continual fret.NWAD FRET.24

    Yet then did Dennis rave in furious fret.NWAD FRET.25

    4. A short piece of wire fixed on the fingerboard of a guitar, etc., which being pressed against the strings varies the tone.NWAD FRET.26

    5. In heraldry, a bearing composed of bars crossed and interlaced.NWAD FRET.27

    FRET, v.t. To furnish with frets, as an instrument of music.
    FRET, n. [L. fretum.] A frith, which see.

    FRETFUL, a. Disposed to fret; ill-humored; peevish; angry; in a state of vexation; as a fretful temper.

    FRETFULLY, adv. Peevishly; angrily.

    FRETFULNESS, n. Peevishness; ill-humor; disposition to fret and complain.

    FRETT, n. With miners, the worn side of the bank of a river.

    FRETTED, pp. Eaten; corroded; rubbed or worn away; agitated; vexed; made rough on the surface; variegated; ornamented with fretwork; furnished with frets.

    FRETTER, n. That which frets.

    FRETTING, ppr. Corroding; wearing away; agitating; vexing; making rough on the surface; variegating.

    FRETTING, n. Agitation; commotion.

    FRETTY, a. Adorned with fretwork.

    FRETUM, n. [L.] An arm of the sea.

    FRETWORK, n. Raised work; work adorned with frets.

    FRIABILITY, FRIABLENESS, n. [See Friable.] The quality of being easily broken, crumbled and reduced to powder.

    FRIABLE, a. [L. friabilis, from frio, to break or crumble. Heb. to break.]

    Easily crumbled or pulverized; easily reduced to powder. Pumice and calcined stones are very friable.NWAD FRIABLE.2

    FRIAR, n. [L. frater. See Brother.]

    1. An appellation common to the monks of all orders; those who enter religious orders considering themselves as a fraternity or brotherhood. Friars are generally distinguished into four principal branches, viz: 1. Minors, gray friars or Franciscans; 2. Augustines; 3. Dominicans or black friars; 4. White Friars or Carmelites.NWAD FRIAR.2

    2. In a restricted sense, a monk who is not a priest; those friars who are in orders being called fathers.NWAD FRIAR.3

    FRIARLIKE, a. Like a friar; monastic; unskilled in the world.

    FRIARLY, a. Like a friar; untaught in the affairs of life.

    FRIAR’S-COWL, n. A plant, a species of Arum, with a flower resembling a cowl.

    FRIAR’S-LANTERN, n. The ignis fatuus.

    FRIARY, n. A monastery; a convent of friars.

    FRIARY, a. Like a friar; pertaining to friars.

    FRIBBLE, a. [L. frivolus.] Frivolous; trifling; silly.

    FRIBBLE, n. A frivolous, trifling, contemptible fellow.
    FRIBBLE, v.i. To trifle; also, to totter.

    FRIBBLER, n. A trifler.

    FRIBORG, n. [free and burg.] The same as frankpledge.

    FRICACE, n. [See Fricassee.] Meat sliced and dressed with strong sauce; also, an unguent prepared by frying things together. Obs.

    FRICASSEE, n. [L. frigo.]

    A dish of food made by cutting chickens, rabbits or other small animals into pieces, and dressing them in a frying pan, or a like utensil.NWAD FRICASSEE.2

    FRICASSEE, v.t. To dress in fricassee.

    FRICATION, n. [L. fricatio, from frico, to rub.] The act of rubbing; friction. [Little used.]

    FRICTION, n. [L. frictio, frico, to rub.]

    1. The act of rubbing the surface of one body against that of another; attrition. Many bodies by friction emit light, and friction generates or evolves heat.NWAD FRICTION.2

    2. In mechanics, the effect of rubbing, or the resistance which a moving body meets with from the surface on which it moves.NWAD FRICTION.3

    3. In medicine, the rubbing of the body with the hand, or with a brush, flannel, etc.; or the rubbing of a diseased part with oil, unguent or other medicament.NWAD FRICTION.4

    FRIDAY, n.

    The sixth day of the week, formerly consecrated to Frigga.NWAD FRIDAY.2

    FRIDGE, v.t. To move hastily. [Not in use.]

    FRID-STOLE. [See Fred.]

    FRIEND, n. frend.

    1. One who is attached to another by affection; one who entertains for another sentiments of esteem, respect and affection, which lead him to desire his company, and to seek to promote his happiness and prosperity; opposed to foe or enemy.NWAD FRIEND.2

    A friend loveth at all times. Proverbs 17:17.NWAD FRIEND.3

    2. One not hostile; opposed to an enemy in war.NWAD FRIEND.4

    3. One reconciled after enmity. Let us be friends again.NWAD FRIEND.5

    4. An attendant; a companion.NWAD FRIEND.6

    5. A favorer; one who is propitious; as a friend to commerce; a friend to poetry; a friend to charitable institution.NWAD FRIEND.7

    6. A favorite. Hushai was David’s friend.NWAD FRIEND.8

    7. A term of salutation; a familiar compellation.NWAD FRIEND.9

    Friend, how camest thou in hither? Matthew 22:12.NWAD FRIEND.10

    So Christ calls Judas his friend, though a traitor. Matthew 26:50.NWAD FRIEND.11

    8. Formerly, a paramour.NWAD FRIEND.12

    9. A friend at court, one who has sufficient interest to serve another.NWAD FRIEND.13

    FRIEND, v.t. frend. To favor; to countenance; to befriend; to support or aid. [But we now use befriend.]

    FRIENDED, pp. frend’ed.

    1. Favored; befriended.NWAD FRIENDED.2

    2. a. Inclined to love; well disposed.NWAD FRIENDED.3

    FRIENDLESS, a. frend’less. Destitute of friends; wanting countenance or support; forlorn.

    FRIENDLIKE, a. frend’like. Having the dispositions of a friend.

    FRIENDLINESS, n. frend’liness.

    1. A disposition to friendship; friendly disposition.NWAD FRIENDLINESS.2

    2. Exertion of benevolence or kindness.NWAD FRIENDLINESS.3

    FRIENDLY, a. frend’ly.

    1. Having the temper and disposition of a friend; kind; favorable; disposed to promote the good of another.NWAD FRIENDLY.2

    Thou to mankind be good and friendly still, and oft return.NWAD FRIENDLY.3

    2. Disposed to peace.NWAD FRIENDLY.4

    3. Amicable. We are on friendly terms.NWAD FRIENDLY.5

    4. Not hostile; as a friendly power or state.NWAD FRIENDLY.6

    5. Favorable; propitious; salutary; promoting the good of; as a friendly breeze or gale. Excessive rains are not friendly to the ripening fruits. Temperance is friendly to longevity.NWAD FRIENDLY.7

    FRIENDLY, adv. frend’ly. In the manner of friends; amicably. [Not much used.]

    FRIENDSHIP, n. frend’ship.

    1. An attachment to a person, proceeding from intimate acquaintance, and a reciprocation of kind offices, or from a favorable opinion of the amiable and respectable qualities of his mind. Friendship differs from benevolence, which is good will to mankind in general, and from that love which springs from animal appetite. True friendship is a noble and virtuous attachment, springing from a pure source, a respect for worth or amiable qualities. False friendship may subsist between bad men, as between thieves and pirates. This is a temporary attachment springing from interest, and may change in a moment to enmity and rancor.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.2

    There can be no friendship without confidence, and no confidence without integrity.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.3

    There is little friendship in the world.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.4

    The first law of friendship is sincerity.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.5

    2. Mutual attachment; intimacy.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.6

    If not in friendship, live at least in peace.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.7

    3. Favor; personal kindness.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.8

    His friendships, still a few confined, were always of the middling kind.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.9

    4. Friendly aid; help; assistance.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.10

    5. Conformity; affinity; correspondence; aptness to unite.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.11

    We know those colors which have a friendship with each other.NWAD FRIENDSHIP.12

    [Not common and hardly legitimate.]NWAD FRIENDSHIP.13

    FRIEZE, n. freez. [Gr. to shiver or tremble with fear, whose elements are frg or frk.]

    1. Properly, the nap on woolen cloth; hence, a kind of coarse woolen cloth or stuff, with a nap on one side.NWAD FRIEZE.2

    2. In architecture, that part of the entablature of a column which is between the architrave and cornice. It is a flat member or face, usually enriched with figures of animals or other ornaments of sculpture, whence its name.NWAD FRIEZE.3

    Cornice or frieze with bossy sculptures graven.NWAD FRIEZE.4

    FRIEZED, a. Napped; shaggy with nap or frieze.

    FRIEZELIKE, a. Resembling frieze.

    FRIGATE, n. [Gr. signifies not fortified. L. aphractum, an open ship or vessel.]

    1. A ship of war, of a size larger than a sloop or brig, and less than a ship of the line; usually having two decks and carrying from thirty to forty four guns. But ships mounting a less number than thirty guns are sometimes called frigates; as are ships carrying a larger number.NWAD FRIGATE.2

    2. Any small vessel on the water. [Not used.]NWAD FRIGATE.3

    FRIGATE-BUILT, a. Having a quarter deck and forecastle raised above the main deck.

    FRIGATOON, n. A Venetian vessel with a square stern, without a foremast, having only a mainmast and mizenmast.

    FRIGEFACTION, n. [L. frigus, cold, and facio, to make.] The act of making cold. [Little used.]

    FRIGHT, n. frite. [Gr. to fear, that is, to shrink or shiver.]

    Sudden and violent fear; terror; a passion excited by the sudden appearance of danger. It expresses more than fear, and is distinguished from fear and dread, by its sudden invasion and temporary existence; fright being usually of short duration, whereas fear and dread may be long continued.NWAD FRIGHT.2

    FRIGHT, FRIGHTEN, v.t. To terrify; to scare; to alarm suddenly with danger; to shock suddenly with the approach of evil; to daunt; to dismay.

    Nor exile or danger can fright a brave spirit.NWAD FRIGHT.4

    FRIGHTED, FRIGHTENED, pp. Terrified; suddenly alarmed with danger.

    FRIGHTFUL, a. Terrible; dreadful; exciting alarm; impressing terror; as a frightful chasm or precipice; a frightful tempest.

    FRIGHTFULLY, adv.

    1. Terribly; dreadfully; in a manner to impress terror and alarm; horribly.NWAD FRIGHTFULLY.2

    2. Very disagreeably; shockingly. She looks frightfully to day.NWAD FRIGHTFULLY.3

    FRIGHTFULNESS, n. The quality of impressing terror.

    FRIGID, a. [L. frigidus, from frigeo, to be or to grow cold; rigeo, to be stiff or frozen. Gr.]

    1. Cold; wanting heat or warmth; as the frigid zone.NWAD FRIGID.2

    2. Wanting warmth of affection; unfeeling; as a frigid temper or constitution.NWAD FRIGID.3

    3. Wanting natural heat or vigor sufficient to excite the generative power; impotent.NWAD FRIGID.4

    4. Dull; jejune; unanimated; wanting the fire of genius or fancy; as a frigid style; frigid rhymes.NWAD FRIGID.5

    5. Stiff; formal; forbidding; as a frigid look or manner.NWAD FRIGID.6

    6. Wanting zeal; dull; formal; lifeless; as frigid services.NWAD FRIGID.7

    FRIGIDITY, n.

    1. Coldness; want of warmth. But not applied to the air or weather.NWAD FRIGIDITY.2

    2. Want of natural heat, life and vigor of body; impotency; imbecility; as the frigidity of old age.NWAD FRIGIDITY.3

    3. Coldness of affection.NWAD FRIGIDITY.4

    4. Dullness; want of animation or intellectual fire; as the frigidity of sentiments or style.NWAD FRIGIDITY.5

    FRIGIDLY, adv. Coldly; dully; without affection.

    FRIGIDNESS, n. Coldness; dullness; want of heat or vigor; want of affection. [See Frigidity.]

    FRIGORIFIC, a. [L. frigorificus; frigus, cold, and facio, to make.]

    Causing cold; producing or generating cold.NWAD FRIGORIFIC.2

    FRILL, n. [infra.] An edging of fine linen on the bosom of a shirt or other similar thing; a ruffle.

    FRILL, v.i.

    To shake; to quake; to shiver as with cold; as, the hawk frills.NWAD FRILL.3

    FRIM, a. Flourishing. [Not in use.]

    FRINGE, n. frinj. [L. frango, to break.]

    1. An ornamental appendage to the borders of garments or furniture, consisting of loose threads.NWAD FRINGE.2

    The golden fringe ev’n set the ground on flame.NWAD FRINGE.3

    2. Something resembling fringe; an open broken border.NWAD FRINGE.4

    FRINGE, v.t. To adorn or border with fringe or a loose edging.

    FRINGED, pp. Bordered with fringe.

    FRINGEMAKER, n. One who makes fringe.

    FRINGING, ppr. Bordering with fringe.

    FRINGY, a. Adorned with fringes.

    FRIPPERER, n. [See Frippery.] One who deals in old cloths.

    FRIPPERY, n.

    1. Old clothes; cast dresses; clothes thrown aside, after wearing. Hence, waste matter; useless things; trifles; as the frippery of wit.NWAD FRIPPERY.2

    2. The place where old clothes are sold.NWAD FRIPPERY.3

    3. The trade or traffic in old clothes.NWAD FRIPPERY.4

    FRISEUR, n. A hair dresser.

    FRISK, v.i.

    1. To leap; to skip; to spring suddenly one way and the other.NWAD FRISK.2

    The fish fell a frisking in the net.NWAD FRISK.3

    2. To dance, skip and gambol in frolic and gaiety.NWAD FRISK.4

    The frisking satyrs on the summits danced.NWAD FRISK.5

    In vain to frisk or climb he tries.NWAD FRISK.6

    FRISK, a. Lively; brisk; blithe.
    FRISK, n. A frolic; a fit of wanton gaiety.

    FRISKAL, n. A leap or caper. [Not in use.]

    FRISKER, n. One who leaps or dances in gaiety; a wanton; an inconstant or unsettled person.

    FRISKET, n. [See Frisk.]

    In printing, the light frame in which a sheet of paper is confined to be laid on the form for impression.NWAD FRISKET.2

    FRISKFUL, a. Brisk; lively.

    FRISKINESS, n. Briskness and frequency of motion; gaiety; liveliness; a dancing or leaping in frolic.

    FRISKING, ppr. Leaping; skipping; dancing about; moving with life and gaiety.

    FRISKY, a. Gay; lively.

    FRIT, n. [L. frictus, frigo, Eng. to fry.]

    In the manufacture of glass, the matter of which glass is made after it has been calcined or baked in a furnace. It is a composition of silex and fixed alkali, occasionally with other ingredients.NWAD FRIT.2

    FRITH, n. [L. freetum; Gr. from to pass over, or to pass; properly, a passage, a narrow channel that is passable or passed.]

    1. A narrow passage of the sea; a strait. It is used for the opening of a river into the sea; as the frith of Forth, or of Clyde.NWAD FRITH.2

    2. A kind of wear for catching fish.NWAD FRITH.3

    FRITH, n.

    1. A forest; a woody place.NWAD FRITH.5

    2. A small field taken out of a common.NWAD FRITH.6

    [Not used in America.]NWAD FRITH.7

    FRITHY, a. Woody. [Not in use.]

    FRITILLARY, n. [L. fritillus, a dice-box.]

    The crown imperial, a genus of plants, called in the Spanish dictionary checkered lily.NWAD FRITILLARY.2

    FRITTER, n. [L. frictus, fried.]

    1. A small pancake; also, a small piece of meat fried.NWAD FRITTER.2

    2. A fragment; a shred; a small piece.NWAD FRITTER.3

    And cut whole giants into fritters.NWAD FRITTER.4

    FRITTER, v.t.

    1. To cut meat into small pieces to be fried.NWAD FRITTER.6

    2. To break into small pieces or fragments.NWAD FRITTER.7

    Break all their nerves, and fritter all their sense.NWAD FRITTER.8

    To fritter away, is to diminish; to pare off; to reduce to nothing by taking away a little at a time.NWAD FRITTER.9

    FRIVOLITY, n. [See Frivolousness.]

    FRIVOLOUS, a. [L. frivlus, from the root of frio, to break into small pieces, to crumble; tero, trivi, to rub or wear out.]

    Slight; trifling; trivial; of little weight, worth or importance; not worth notice; as a frivolous argument; a frivolous objection or pretext.NWAD FRIVOLOUS.2

    FRIVOLOUSNESS, n. The quality of being trifling or of very little worth or importance; want of consequence.

    FRIVOLOUSLY, adv. In a trifling manner.

    FRIZ, v.t. [See Frieze.]

    1. To curl; to crisp to form into small curls with a crisping-pin.NWAD FRIZ.2

    2. To form the nap of cloth into little hard burs, prominences or knobs.NWAD FRIZ.3

    FRIZED, pp. Curled; formed into little burs on cloth.

    FRIZING, ppr. Curling; forming little hard burs on cloth.

    FRIZZLE, v.t. To curl; to crisp; as hair.

    FRIZZLED, pp. Curled; crisped.

    FRIZZLER, n. One who makes short curls.

    FRIZZLING, ppr. Curling; crisping.

    FRO, adv. [In some languages it is a prefix, having the force of a negative.]

    From; away; back or backward; as in the phrase, to and fro, that is, to and from, forward or toward and backward, hither and thither.NWAD FRO.2

    FROCK, n.

    An upper coat, or an outer garment. The word is now used for a loose garment or shirt worn by men over their other clothes, and for a kind of gown open behind, worn by females. The frock was formerly a garment worn by monks.NWAD FROCK.2

    FROG, n. [L. rana, from the root of rend, from its broken shape, or from leaping, or its fragor or hoarse voice.]

    1. An amphibious animal of the genus Rana, with four feet, a naked body, and without a tail. It is remarkable for swimming with rapidity, and for taking large leaps on land. Frogs lie torpid during winter.NWAD FROG.2

    2. In farriery. [See Frush.]NWAD FROG.3

    FROGBIT, n. A plant, the Hydrocharis.

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