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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    SUBPERPENDICULAR, n. [sub and perpendicular.]

    A subnormal, which see.NWAD SUBPERPENDICULAR.2

    SUBPETIOLATE, a. [sub and petiole.] In botany, having a very short petiole.

    SUBPRIOR, n. [sub and prior.] The vicegerent of a prior; a claustral officer who assists the prior.

    SUBPURCHASER, n. A purchaser who buys of a purchaser.

    SUBQUADRATE, a. Nearly square.

    SUBQUADRUPLE, a. [sub and quadruple.] Containing one part of four; as subquadruple proportion.

    SUBQUINQUEFID, a. [sub and quinquefid.] Almost quinfuefid.

    SUBQUINTUPLE, a. [sub and quintuple.] Containing one part of five; as subquintuple proportion.

    SUBRAMOUS, a. [L. sub and ramosus, full of branches.]

    In botany, having few branches.NWAD SUBRAMOUS.2

    SUBRECTOR, n. [sub and rector.] A rector’s deputy or substitute.

    SUBREPTION, n. [L. subreptio, from subrepo, to creep under.]

    The act of obtaining a favor by surprise or unfair representation, that is, by suppression or fraudulent concealment of facts.NWAD SUBREPTION.2

    SUBREPTITIOUS, a. [L. surreptitius, supra.] Falsely crept in; fraudulently obtained. [See Surreptitious.]

    SUBROGATE, v.t. [L. subrogo.] To put in the place of another. [Not in use. See Surrogate.]

    SUBROGATION, n. In the civil law, the substituting of one person in the place of another and giving him his rights.

    SUBROTUND, a. [L. sub and rotundus, round.] Almost round.

    SUBSALINE, a. Moderately saline or salt.

    SUBSALT, n. A salt with less acid than is sufficient to neutralize its radicals; or a salt having an excess of the base.

    SUBSCAPULAR, a. [L. sub and scapula.] The subscapular artery is the large branch of the axillary artery, which rises near the lowest margin of the scapula.

    SUBSCRIBE, v.t. [L. subscribo; sub and scribo, to write.]

    1. To sign with one’s own hand; to give consent to something written, or to bind one’s self by writing one’s name beneath; as, parties subscribe a covenant or contract; a man subscribes a bond or articles of agreement.NWAD SUBSCRIBE.2

    2. To attest by writing one’s name beneath; as, officers subscribe their official acts; and secretaries and clerks subscribe copies of records.NWAD SUBSCRIBE.3

    3. To promise to give by writing one’s name; as, each man subscribed ten dollars or ten shillings.NWAD SUBSCRIBE.4

    4. To submit. [Not in use.]NWAD SUBSCRIBE.5

    SUBSCRIBE, v.i. To promise to give a certain sum by setting one’s name to a paper. The paper was offered and many subscribed.

    1. To assent; as, I could not subscribe to his opinion.NWAD SUBSCRIBE.7

    SUBSCRIBED, pp. Having a name or names written underneath. The petition is subscribed by two thousand persons.

    1. Promised by writing the name and sum.NWAD SUBSCRIBED.2

    A large sum is subscribed.NWAD SUBSCRIBED.3

    SUBSCRIBER, n. One who subscribes; one who contributes to an undertaking by subscribing.

    1. One who enters his name for a paper, book, map and the like.NWAD SUBSCRIBER.2

    SUBSCRIBING, ppr. Writing one’s name underneath; assenting to or attesting by writing the name beneath; entering one’s name as a purchaser.

    SUBSCRIPTION, n. [L. subscriptio.] Any thing, particularly a paper, with names subscribed.

    1. The act of subscribing or writing one’s name underneath; name subscribed; signature.NWAD SUBSCRIPTION.2

    2. Consent or attestation given by underwriting the name.NWAD SUBSCRIPTION.3

    3. The act of contributing to any undertaking.NWAD SUBSCRIPTION.4

    4. Sum subscribed; amount of sums subscribed. We speak of an individual subscription, or of the whole subscription to a fund.NWAD SUBSCRIPTION.5

    5. Submission; obedience. [Not in use.]NWAD SUBSCRIPTION.6

    SUBSECTION, n. [L. sub and sectio.] The part or division of a section; a subdivision; the section of a section.

    SUBSECUTIVE, a. [L. subsequor, subsecutus.]

    Following in a train or succession. [Little used.]NWAD SUBSECUTIVE.2

    SUBSEMITONE, n. In music, the sharp seventh or sensible of any key.

    SUBSEPTUPLE, a. [L. sub and septuplus.] Containing one of seven parts.

    SUBSEQUENCE, n. [L. subsequor, subsequens; sub and sequor, to follow.] A following; a state of coming after something.

    SUBSEQUENT, a. [L. subsequens, supra.]

    1. Following in time; coming or being after something else at any time, indefinitely; as subsequent events; subsequent ages or years; a period long subsequent to the foundation of Rome.NWAD SUBSEQUENT.2

    2. Following in the order of place or succession; succeeding; as a subsequent clause in a treaty. What is obscure in a passage may be illustrated by subsequent words.NWAD SUBSEQUENT.3

    SUBSEQUENTLY, adv. At a later time; in time after something else. Nothing was done at the first meeting; what was subsequently transacted, I do not know.

    1. After something else in order. These difficulties will be subsequently explained.NWAD SUBSEQUENTLY.2

    SUBSERVE, v.t. subserv. [L. subservio; sub and servio, to serve.]

    To serve in subordination; to serve instrumentally. In most engines, we make the laws of matter subserve the purposes of art.NWAD SUBSERVE.2

    Not made to rule,NWAD SUBSERVE.3

    But to subserve where wisdom bears command.NWAD SUBSERVE.4

    SUBSERVIENCE, SUBSERVIENCY, n. Instrumental use; use or operation that promotes some purpose.

    --The body, wherein appears much fitness, use and subserviency to infinite functions.NWAD SUBSERVIENCE.2

    There is a regular subordination and subserviency among all the parts to beneficial ends.NWAD SUBSERVIENCE.3

    SUBSERVIENT, a. [L. subserviens.] Useful as an instrument to promote a purpose; serving to promote some end.

    Hammond had an incredible dexterity, scarcely ever reading any thing which he did not make subservient in one kind or other.NWAD SUBSERVIENT.2

    1. Subordinate; acting as a subordinate instrument. These are the creatures of God, subordinate to him, and subservient to his will.NWAD SUBSERVIENT.3

    These ranks of creatures are subservient one to another.NWAD SUBSERVIENT.4

    SUBSERVIENTLY, adv. In a subservient manner.

    SUBSESSILE, a. [L. sub and sessilis.] In botany, almost sessile; having very short footstalks.

    SUBSEXTUPLE, a. [L. sub and sextuplus.] Containing one part in six.

    SUBSIDE, v.i. [L. subsido; sub and sido, to settle. See Set.]

    1. To sink or fall to the bottom; to settle; as lees.NWAD SUBSIDE.2

    2. To fall into a state of quiet; to cease to rage; to be calmed; to become tranquil. Let the passions subside. The tumults of war will subside. Christ commanded, and the storm subsided.NWAD SUBSIDE.3

    3. To tend downwards; to sink; as a subsiding hill. The land subsides into a plain.NWAD SUBSIDE.4

    4. To abate; to be reduced.NWAD SUBSIDE.5

    In cases of danger, pride and envy naturally subside.NWAD SUBSIDE.6

    SUBSIDENCE, SUBSIDENCY, n. The act or process of sinking or falling, as the lees of liquors.

    1. The act of sinking or gradually descending, as ground.NWAD SUBSIDENCE.2

    SUBSIDIARY, a. [L. subsidiarius. See Subsidy.]

    1. Aiding; assistant; furnishing help. Subsidiary troops are troops of one nation hired by another for military service.NWAD SUBSIDIARY.2

    2. Furnishing additional supplies; as a subsidiary stream.NWAD SUBSIDIARY.3

    SUBSIDIARY, n. An assistant; an auxiliary; he or that which contributes aid or additional supplies.

    SUBSIDIZE, v.t. [from subsidy.] To furnish with a subsidy; to purchase the assistance of another by the payment of a subsidy to him. Great Britain subsidized some of the German powers in the late war with France.

    SUBSIDIZED, pp. Engaged as an auxiliary by means of a subsidy.

    SUBSIDIZING, ppr. Purchasing the assistance of by subsidies.

    SUBSIDY, n. [L. subsidium, from subsido, literally to be or sit under or by.]

    1. Aid in money; supply given; a tax; something furnished for aid, as by the people to their prince; as the subsidies granted formerly to the kings of England.NWAD SUBSIDY.2

    Subsidies were a tax, not immediately on property, but on persons in respect of their reputed estates, after the nominal rate of 4s. the pound for lands, and 2s. 8d. for goods.NWAD SUBSIDY.3

    2. A sum of money paid by one prince or nation to another, to purchase the service of auxiliary troops, or the aid of such foreign prince in a war against an enemy. Thus Great Britain paid subsidies to Austria and Prussia, to engage them to resist the progress of the French.NWAD SUBSIDY.4

    SUBSIGN, v.t. subsi’ne. [L. subsigno; sub and signo, to sign.]

    To sign under; to write beneath. [Little used.]NWAD SUBSIGN.2

    SUBSIGNATION, n. The act of writing the name under something for attestation. [Little used.]

    SUBSIST, v.i. [L. subsisto; sub and sisto, to stand, to be fixed.]

    1. To be; to have existence; applicable to matter or spirit.NWAD SUBSIST.2

    2. To continue; to retain the present state.NWAD SUBSIST.3

    Firm we subsist, but possible to swerve.NWAD SUBSIST.4

    3. To live; to be maintained with food and clothing. How many of the human race subsist on the labors of others! How many armies have subsisted on plunder!NWAD SUBSIST.5

    4. To inhere; to have existence by means of something else; as qualities that subsist in substances.NWAD SUBSIST.6

    SUBSIST, v.t. To feed; to maintain; to support with provisions. The king subsisted his troops on provisions plundered from the enemy.

    SUBSISTENCE, SUBSISTENCY, n. Real being; as a chain of differing subsistencies.

    Not only the things had subsistence, but the very images were of some creatures existing.NWAD SUBSISTENCE.2

    1. Competent provisions; means of supporting life.NWAD SUBSISTENCE.3

    His viceroy could only propose to himself a comfortable subsistence out of the plunder of his province.NWAD SUBSISTENCE.4

    2. That which supplies the means of living; as money, pay or wages.NWAD SUBSISTENCE.5

    3. Inherence in something else, as the subsistence of qualities in bodies.NWAD SUBSISTENCE.6

    SUBSISTENT, a. [L. subsistens.] Having real being; as a subsistent spirit.

    1. Inherent; as qualities subsistent in matter.NWAD SUBSISTENT.2

    SUBSOIL, n. [sub and soil.] The bed or stratum of earth which lies between the surface soil and the base on which they rest.

    SUBSPECIES, n. [sub and species.] A subordinate species; a division of a species.

    SUBSTANCE, n. [L. substantia, substo; sub and sto, to stand.]

    1. In a general sense, being; something existing by itself; that which really is or exists; equally applicable to matter or spirit. Thus the soul of man is called an immaterial substance, a cogitative substance, a substance endued with thought. We say, a stone is a hard substance, tallow is a soft substance.NWAD SUBSTANCE.2

    2. That which supports accidents.NWAD SUBSTANCE.3

    That which subsists by itself is called substance; that which subsists in and by another, is called a mode or manner of being.NWAD SUBSTANCE.4

    3. The essential part; the main or material part. In this epitome, we have the substance of the whole book.NWAD SUBSTANCE.5

    This edition is the same in substance with the Latin.NWAD SUBSTANCE.6

    4. Something real, not imaginary; something solid, not empty.NWAD SUBSTANCE.7

    Heroic virtue did his actions guide,NWAD SUBSTANCE.8

    And he the substance, not th’ appearance chose.NWAD SUBSTANCE.9

    5. Body; corporeal nature or matter.NWAD SUBSTANCE.10

    The qualities of plants are more various than those of animal substances.NWAD SUBSTANCE.11

    6. Goods; estate; means of living. Job’s substance was seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, etc. Job 1:3.NWAD SUBSTANCE.12

    We are--exhausting our substance, but not for our own interest.NWAD SUBSTANCE.13

    SUBSTANTIAL, a. Belonging to substance; real; actually existing.

    If this atheist would have his chance to be a real and substantial agent, he is more stupid than the vulgar.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.2

    1. Real; solid; true; not seeming or imaginary.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.3

    If happiness be a substantial good.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.4

    The substantial ornaments of virtue.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.5

    2. Corporeal; material.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.6

    The rainbow appears like a substantial arch in the sky.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.7

    3. Having substance; strong; stout; solid; as substantial cloth; a substantial fence or gate.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.8

    4. Possessed of goods or estate; responsible; moderately wealthy; as a substantial freeholder or farmer; a substantial citizen.NWAD SUBSTANTIAL.9

    SUBSTANTIALITY, n. The state of real existence.

    1. Corporeity; materiality.NWAD SUBSTANTIALITY.2

    The soul is a stranger to such gross substantiality.NWAD SUBSTANTIALITY.3

    SUBSTANTIALLY, adv. In the manner of a substance; with reality of existence.

    In him his Father shone, substantially express’d.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.2

    1. Strongly; solidly.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.3

    2. Truly; solidly; really.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.4

    The laws of this religion would make men, if they would truly observe them substantially religious towards God, chaste and temperate.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.5

    3. In substance; in the main; essentially.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.6

    This answer is substantially the same as that before given.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.7

    4. With competent goods or estate.NWAD SUBSTANTIALLY.8

    SUBSTANTIALNESS, n. The state of being substantial.

    1. Firmness; strength; power of holding or lasting; as the substantialness of a wall or column.NWAD SUBSTANTIALNESS.2

    SUBSTANTIALS, n. plu. Essential parts.

    SUBSTANTIATE, v.t. To make to exist.

    1. To establish by proof or competent evidence; to verify; to make good, as, to substantiate a charge or allegation; to substantiate a declaration.NWAD SUBSTANTIATE.2

    SUBSTANTIVE, a. Betokening existence; as the substantive verb.

    1. Solid; depending on itself. [Not in use.]NWAD SUBSTANTIVE.2

    SUBSTANTIVE, n. In grammar, a noun or name; the part of speech which expresses something that exists, either material or immaterial. Thus man, horse, city, goodness, excellence, are substantives. [Better called name, L. nomen, or even noun, a corruption of nomen.]

    SUBSTANTIVELY, adv. In substance; essentially.

    1. In grammar, as a name or noun. An adjective or pronoun may be used substantively.NWAD SUBSTANTIVELY.2

    SUBSTILE, n. [sub and stile.] The line of a dial on which the stile is erected.

    SUBSTITUTE, v.t. [L. substituo; sub and statuo, to set.]

    To put in the place of another.NWAD SUBSTITUTE.2

    Some few verses are inserted or substituted in the room of others.NWAD SUBSTITUTE.3

    SUBSTITUTE, n. One person put in the place of another to answer the same purpose. A person may be a substitute with full powers to act for another in an office. Representatives in legislation are the substitutes of their constituents. The orthodox creed of christians is that Christ dies as the substitute of sinners.

    1. One thing put in the place of another. If you have not one medicine, use another as its substitute.NWAD SUBSTITUTE.5

    SUBSTITUTION, n. The act of putting one person or thing in the place of another to supply its place; as the substitution of an agent, attorney or representative to act for one in his absence; the substitution of bank notes for gold and silver, as a circulating medium.

    1. In grammar, syllepsis, or the use of one word for another.NWAD SUBSTITUTION.2

    SUBSTRACT, v.t. [L. subtraho, subractum.] To subtract.

    Note.--Substract was formerly used in analogy with abstract. But in modern usage, it is written according to the Latin, subtract. See this word and its derivatives.NWAD SUBSTRACT.2

    SUBSTRACTION, n. In law, the withdrawing or withholding of some right. Thus the substraction of conjugal rights, is when either the husband or wife withdraws from the other and lives separate. The substraction of a legacy, is the withholding or detaining of it from the legatee by the executor. In like manner, the withholding of any service, rent, duty or custom, is a substraction, for which the law gives a remedy.

    SUBSTRATUM, n. [L. substratus, spread under; sub and sterno.]

    1. That which is laid or spread under; a layer of earth lying under another. In agriculture, the subsoil.NWAD SUBSTRATUM.2

    2. In metaphysics, the matter or substance supposed to furnish the basis in which the perceptible qualities inhere.NWAD SUBSTRATUM.3

    SUBSTRUCTION, n. [L. substructio.] Under building.

    SUBSTRUCTURE, n. [L. sub and structure.] An under structure; a foundation.

    SUBSTYLAR, a. In dialing, the substylar line, is a right line on which the gnomon or style is erected at right angles with the plane.

    SUBSTYLE, n. [sub and style.] In dialing, the line on which the gnomon stands.

    SUBSULPHATE, n. A sulphate with an excess of the base.

    SUBSULTIVE, SUBSULTORY, a. [from L. subsultus, a leap, from subsulto; sub and salio.] Bounding; leaping; moving by sudden leaps or starts, or by twitches.

    SUBSULTORILY, adv. In a bounding manner; by leaps, starts or twitches.

    SUBSULTUS, n. [L.] In medicine, a twitching or convulsive motion; as subsultus tendinum.

    SUBSUME, v.t. [L. sub and sumo.] To assume as a position by consequence. [Not used.]

    SUBTANGENT, n. In geometry, the part of the axis contained between the ordinate and tangent drawn to the same point in a curve.

    SUBTEND, v.t. [L. sub and tendo, to stretch.] To extend under; as the line of a triangle which subtends the right angle; to subtend the chord of an arch. A line from the eye to a planet, subtends an angle of 40 degrees with the horizon.

    SUBTENDED, pp. Extended under.

    SUBTENDING, ppr. Extending under.

    SUBTENSE, n. subtens’. [L. sub and tenus.] The chord of an arch or arc.

    SUBTEPID, a. [L. sub and tepidus, warm.] Moderately warm.

    SUBTER, a Latin preposition, signifies under.

    SUBTERFLUENT, SUBTERFLUOUS, a. [L. subterfluens, subterfluo.]

    Running under or beneath.NWAD SUBTERFLUENT.2

    SUBTERFUGE, n. [L. subter and fugio, to flee.] Literally, that to which a person resorts for escape or concealment; hence, a shift; an evasion; an artifice employed to escape censure or the force of an argument, or to justify opinions or conduct.

    Affect not little shifts and subterfuges, to avoid the force of an argument.NWAD SUBTERFUGE.2

    SUBTERRANE, n. [infra.] A cave or room under ground.

    SUBTERRANEAN, SUBTERRANEOUS, a. [L. subter, under, and terra, earth.] Being or lying under the surface of the earth; situated within the earth or under ground; as subterranean springs; a subterraneous passage.

    [Subterraneal and Subterrany, are not in use.]NWAD SUBTERRANEAN.2

    SUBTERRANITY, n. A place under ground. [Not in use.]

    SUBTERRANY, n. What lies under ground. [Not in use.]

    SUBTIL, a. [L. subtilis. This word is often written subtle, but less properly.]

    1. Thin; not dense or gross; as subtil air; subtil vapor; a subtil medium.NWAD SUBTIL.2

    2. Nice; fine; delicate.NWAD SUBTIL.3

    I do distinguish plainNWAD SUBTIL.4

    Each subtil line of her immortal face.NWAD SUBTIL.5

    3. Acute; piercing; as subtil pain.NWAD SUBTIL.6

    4. Sly; artful; cunning; crafty; insinuating; as a subtil person; a subtil adversary.NWAD SUBTIL.7

    5. Planned by art; deceitful; as a subtil scheme.NWAD SUBTIL.8

    6. Deceitful; treacherous.NWAD SUBTIL.9

    7. Refined; fine; acute; as a subtil argument.NWAD SUBTIL.10

    SUBTILIATE, v.t. To make thin. [Not in use.]

    SUBTILIATION, n. The act of making thin or rare. [Not in use.]

    SUBTILITY, n. Fineness.

    SUBTILIZATION, n. [from subtilize.]

    1. The act of making subtil, fine or thin. In the laboratory, the operation of making so volatile as to rise in steam or vapor.NWAD SUBTILIZATION.2

    2. Refinement; extreme acuteness.NWAD SUBTILIZATION.3

    SUBTILIZE, v.t. [L. subtilis.]

    1. To make thin or fine; to make less gross or coarse.NWAD SUBTILIZE.2

    2. To refine; to spin into niceties; as, to subtilize arguments.NWAD SUBTILIZE.3

    SUBTILIZE, v.i. To refine in argument; to make very nice distinctions.

    In whatever manner the papist might subtilize--NWAD SUBTILIZE.5

    SUBTILLY, adv. Thinly; not densely.

    1. Finely; not grossly or thickly.NWAD SUBTILLY.2

    The opakest bodies, if subtilly divided--become perfectly transparent.NWAD SUBTILLY.3

    2. Artfully; cunningly; craftily; as a scheme subtilly contrived.NWAD SUBTILLY.4

    SUBTILNESS, n. Thinness; rareness; as the subtilness of air.

    1. Fineness; acuteness; as the subtilness of an argument.NWAD SUBTILNESS.2

    2. Cunning; artfulness; as the subtilness of a foe.NWAD SUBTILNESS.3

    SUBTILTY, n. [L. subtilitas.]

    1. Thinness; fineness; exility; in a physical sense; as the subtilty of air or light; the subtilty of sounds.NWAD SUBTILTY.2

    2. Refinement; extreme acuteness.NWAD SUBTILTY.3

    Intelligible discourses are spoiled by too much subtilty in nice divisions.NWAD SUBTILTY.4

    3. Slyness in design; cunning; artifice; usually but less properly written subtlety.NWAD SUBTILTY.5

    SUBTLE, a. [See Subtil.] Sly in design; artful; cunning; insinuating; applied to persons; as a subtle foe.

    1. Cunningly devised; as a subtle stratagem.NWAD SUBTLE.2

    SUBTLY, adv. Slyly; artfully; cunningly.

    Thou seest how subtly to detain thee I devise.NWAD SUBTLY.2

    1. Nicely; delicately.NWAD SUBTLY.3

    In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true.NWAD SUBTLY.4

    SUBTRACT, v.t. [L. subtraho, subtractus; sub and traho, to draw.]

    To withdraw or take a part from the rest; to deduct. Subtract 5 from 9, and the remainder is 4.NWAD SUBTRACT.2

    SUBTRACTED, pp. Withdrawn from the rest; deducted.

    SUBTRACTER, n. He that subtracts.

    1. The number to be taken from a larger number. [Not used.]NWAD SUBTRACTER.2

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