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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    REPRINTING, ppr. Printing again; renewing an impression.

    REPRISAL, n. s as z. [L. prendo.]

    1. The seizure or taking of any thing from an enemy by way of retaliation or indemnification for something taken or detained by him.NWAD REPRISAL.2

    2. That which is taken from an enemy to indemnify an owner for something of his which the enemy has seized. Reprisals may consist of persons or of goods. Letters of marque and reprisal may be obtained in order to seize the bodies or goods of the subjects of an offending state, until satisfaction shall be made.NWAD REPRISAL.3

    3. Recaption; a retaking of a man’s own goods or any of his family, wife, child or servant, wrongfully taken from him or detained by another. In this case, the owner may retake the goods or persons wherever he finds them.NWAD REPRISAL.4

    Letters of marque and reprisal, a commission granted by the supreme authority of a state to a subject, empowering him to pass the frontiers [marque,] that is, enter an enemy’s territories and capture the goods and persons of the enemy, in return for goods or persons taken by him.NWAD REPRISAL.5

    4. The act of retorting on an enemy by inflicting suffering or death on a prisoner taken from him, in retaliation of an act of inhumanity.NWAD REPRISAL.6

    REPRISE, n. s as z. A taking by way of retaliation. Obs.

    REPRISE, v.t. s as z.

    1. To take again. Obs.NWAD REPRISE.3

    2. To recompense; to pay. Obs.NWAD REPRISE.4

    REPRIZES, n. plu. In law, yearly deductions out of a manor, as rent-charge, rent-seek, etc.

    REPROACH, v.t. [L. prox, in proximus.]

    1. To censure in terms of opprobrium or contempt.NWAD REPROACH.2

    Mezentius with his ardor warm’d his fainting friends, reproach’d their shameful flight, repell’d the victors.NWAD REPROACH.3

    2. To charge with a fault in severe language.NWAD REPROACH.4

    That shame there sit not, and reproach us as unclean.NWAD REPROACH.5

    3. To upbraid; to suggest blame for any thing. A man’s conscience will reproach him for a criminal, mean or unworthy action.NWAD REPROACH.6

    4. To treat with scorn or contempt. Luke 6:22.NWAD REPROACH.7

    REPROACH, n.

    1. Censure mingled with contempt or derision; contumelious or opprobrious language towards any person; abusive reflections; as foul-mouthed reproach.NWAD REPROACH.9

    2. Shame; infamy; disgrace.NWAD REPROACH.10

    Give not thine heritage to reproach. Joel 2:17; Isaiah 4:1.NWAD REPROACH.11

    3. Object of contempt, scorn or derision.NWAD REPROACH.12

    Come, and let us build up the wall of Jerusalem, that we may be no more a reproach. Nehemiah 2:17.NWAD REPROACH.13

    4. That which is the cause of shame or disgrace. Genesis 30:23.NWAD REPROACH.14


    1. Deserving reproach.NWAD REPROACHABLE.2

    2. Opprobrious; scurrilous. [Not proper.]NWAD REPROACHABLE.3

    REPROACHED, pp. Censured in terms of contempt; upbraided.


    1. Expressing censure with contempt; scurrilous; opprobrious; as reproachful words.NWAD REPROACHFUL.2

    2. Shameful; bringing or casting reproach; infamous; base; vile; as reproachful conduct; a reproachful life.NWAD REPROACHFUL.3


    1. In terms of reproach; opprobriously; scurrilously 1 Timothy 5:14.NWAD REPROACHFULLY.2

    2. Shamefully; disgracefully; contemptuously.NWAD REPROACHFULLY.3

    REPROBATE, a. [L. reprobatus, reprobo, to disallow; re and probo, to prove.]

    1. Not enduring proof or trial; not of standard purity or fineness; disallowed; rejected.NWAD REPROBATE.2

    Reprobate silver shall men call them, because the Lord hath rejected them. Jeremiah 6:30.NWAD REPROBATE.3

    2. Abandoned in sin; lost to virtue or grace.NWAD REPROBATE.4

    They profess that they know God, but in works deny him, being abominable and disobedient, and to every good work reprobate. Titus 1:16.NWAD REPROBATE.5

    3. Abandoned to error, or in apostasy. 2 Timothy 3:8.NWAD REPROBATE.6

    REPROBATE, n. A person abandoned to sin; one lost to virtue and religion.

    I acknowledge myself a reprobate, a villain, a traitor to the king.NWAD REPROBATE.8

    REPROBATE, v.t.

    1. To disapprove with detestation or marks of extreme dislike; to disallow; to reject. It expresses more than disapprove or disallow. We disapprove of slight faults and improprieties; we reprobate what is mean or criminal.NWAD REPROBATE.10

    2. In a milder sense, to disallow.NWAD REPROBATE.11

    Such an answer as this, is reprobated and disallowed of in law.NWAD REPROBATE.12

    3. To abandon to wickedness and eternal destruction.NWAD REPROBATE.13

    4. To abandon to his sentence, without hope of pardon.NWAD REPROBATE.14

    Drive him out to reprobated exile.NWAD REPROBATE.15

    REPROBATED, pp. Disapproved with abhorrence; rejected; abandoned to wickedness or to destruction.

    REPROBATENESS, n. The state of being reprobate.

    REPROBATER, n. One that reprobates.

    REPROBATING, ppr. Disapproving with extreme dislike; rejecting; abandoning to wickedness or to destruction.

    REPROBATION, n. [L. reprobatio.]

    1. The act of disallowing with detestation, or of expressing extreme dislike.NWAD REPROBATION.2

    2. The act of abandoning or state of being abandoned to eternal destruction.NWAD REPROBATION.3

    When a sinner is so hardened as to feel no remorse or misgiving of conscience, it is considered as a sign of reprobation.NWAD REPROBATION.4

    3. A condemnatory sentence; rejection.NWAD REPROBATION.5

    Set a brand of reprobation on clipped poetry and false coin.NWAD REPROBATION.6

    REPROBATIONER, n. One who abandons others to eternal destruction.

    REPRODUCE, v.t. [re and produce.] To produce again; to renew the production of a thing destroyed. Trees are reproduced by new shoots from the roots or stump; and certain animals, as the polype, are reproduced from cuttings.

    REPRODUCED, pp. Produced anew.

    REPRODUCER, n. One or that which reproduces.

    REPRODUCING, ppr. Producing anew.

    REPRODUCTION, n. The act or process of reproducing that which has been destroyed; as the reproduction of plants or animals from cuttings or slips. The reproduction of several parts of lobsters and crabs is one of the greatest curiosities in natural history.

    REPROOF, n. [from reprove.]

    1. Blame expressed to the face; censure for a fault; reprehension.NWAD REPROOF.2

    Those best can bear reproof, who merit praise.NWAD REPROOF.3

    He that hateth reproof is brutish. Proverbs 12:1.NWAD REPROOF.4

    2. Blame cast; censure directed to a person.NWAD REPROOF.5

    REPROVABLE, a. [from reprove.] Worthy of reproof; deserving censure; blamable.

    REPROVE, v.t. [L. reprobo; re and probo, to prove.]

    1. To blame; to censure.NWAD REPROVE.2

    I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices - Psalm 50:8.NWAD REPROVE.3

    2. To charge with a fault to the face; to chide; to reprehend. Luke 3:19.NWAD REPROVE.4

    3. To blame for; with of; as, to reprove one of laziness.NWAD REPROVE.5

    4. To convince of a fault, or to make it manifest. John 16:8.NWAD REPROVE.6

    5. To refute; to disprove. [Not in use.]NWAD REPROVE.7

    6. To excite a sense of guilt. The heart or conscience reproves us.NWAD REPROVE.8

    7. To manifest silent disapprobation or blame.NWAD REPROVE.9

    The vicious cannot bear the presence of the good, whose very looks reprove them, and whose life is a severe, though silent admonition.NWAD REPROVE.10

    REPROVED, pp. Blamed; reprehended; convinced of a fault.

    REPROVER, n. One that reproves; he or that which blames. Conscience is a bold reprover.

    REPROVING, ppr. Blaming; censuring.

    REPRUNE, v.t. [re and prune.] To prune a second time.

    REPRUNED, pp. Pruned a second time.

    REPRUNING, ppr. Pruning a second time.

    REPTILE, a. [L. reptilis, from repo, to creep, Gr. See Creep.]

    1. Creeping; moving on the belly, or with many small feet.NWAD REPTILE.2

    2. Groveling; low; vulgar; as a reptile race or crew; reptile vices.NWAD REPTILE.3

    REPTILE, n.

    1. An animal that moves on its belly, or by means of small short legs, as earth-worms, caterpillars, snakes and the like.NWAD REPTILE.5

    In zoology, the reptiles constitute an order of the class Amphibian, including all such as are furnished with limbs or articulated extremities, as tortoises, lizards and frogs.NWAD REPTILE.6

    2. A groveling or very mean person; a term of contempt.NWAD REPTILE.7

    REPUBLIC, n. [L. respublica; res and publica; public affairs.]

    1. A commonwealth; a state in which the exercise of the sovereign power is lodged in representatives elected by the people. In modern usage, it differs from a democracy or democratic state, in which the people exercise the powers of sovereignty in person. Yet the democracies of Greece are often called republics.NWAD REPUBLIC.2

    2. Common interest; the public. [Not in use.]NWAD REPUBLIC.3

    Republic of letters, the collective body of learned men.NWAD REPUBLIC.4


    1. Pertaining to a republic; consisting of a commonwealth; as a republican constitution or government.NWAD REPUBLICAN.2

    2. Consonant to the principles of a republic; as republican sentiments or opinions; republican manners.NWAD REPUBLICAN.3

    REPUBLICAN, n. One who favors or prefers a republican form of government.


    1. A republican form or system of government.NWAD REPUBLICANISM.2

    2. Attachment to a republican form of government.NWAD REPUBLICANISM.3

    REPUBLICANIZE, v.t. To convert to republican principles; as, to republicanize the rising generation.

    REPUBLICATION, n. [re and publication.]

    1. A second publication, or a new publication of something before published.NWAD REPUBLICATION.2

    2. A second publication, as of a former will, renewal.NWAD REPUBLICATION.3

    If there be many testaments, the last overthrows all the former; but the republication of a former will, revokes one of a later date, and establishes the first.NWAD REPUBLICATION.4

    REPUBLISH, v.t. [re and publish.]

    1. To publish a second time, or to publish a new edition of a work before published.NWAD REPUBLISH.2

    2. To publish anew.NWAD REPUBLISH.3

    Unless, subsequent to the purchase or contract, the devisor republishes his will.NWAD REPUBLISH.4

    REPUBLISHED, pp. Published anew.

    REPUBLISHER, n. One who republishes.

    REPUBLISHING, ppr. Publishing again.

    REPUDIABLE, a. [from repudiate.] That may be rejected; fit or proper to be put away.

    REPUDIATE, v.t. [L. repudio.]

    1. To cast away; to reject; to discard.NWAD REPUDIATE.2

    Atheists - repudiate all title to the kingdom of heaven.NWAD REPUDIATE.3

    2. Appropriately, to put away; to divorce; as a wife.NWAD REPUDIATE.4

    REPUDIATED, pp. Cast off; rejected; discarded; divorced.

    REPUDIATING, ppr. Casting off; rejecting; divorcing.

    REPUDIATION, n. [L. repudiatio.]

    1. Rejection.NWAD REPUDIATION.2

    2. Divorce; as the repudiation of a wife.NWAD REPUDIATION.3

    REPUGN, n. repu’ne. [L. repugno; re and pugno.]

    To oppose; to resist. [Not used.]NWAD REPUGN.2

    REPUGNANCE, REPUGNANCY, n. [L. repugnantia, from repugno, to resist; re and pugno, to fight.]

    1. Opposition of mind; reluctance; unwillingness.NWAD REPUGNANCE.2

    2. Opposition or struggle of passions; resistance.NWAD REPUGNANCE.3

    3. Opposition of principles or qualities; inconsistency; contrariety.NWAD REPUGNANCE.4

    But where difference is without repugnancy, that which hath been can be no prejudice to that which is.NWAD REPUGNANCE.5

    REPUGNANT, a. [L. repugnans.]

    1. Opposite; contrary; inconsistent; properly followed by to. Every sin is repugnant to the will of God. Every thing morally wrong, is repugnant both to the honor, as well as to the interest of the offender.NWAD REPUGNANT.2

    2. Disobedient; not obsequious. [Not in use.]NWAD REPUGNANT.3

    REPUGNANTLY, adv. With opposition; in contradiction.

    REPULLULATE, v.i. [L. re and pullulo, to bud.] To bud again.

    REPULLULATION, n. The act of budding again.

    REPULSE, n. repuls’. [L. repulsa, from repello; re and pello, to drive.]

    1. A being checked in advancing, or driven back by force. The enemy met with a repulse and retreated.NWAD REPULSE.2

    2. Refusal; denial.NWAD REPULSE.3

    REPULSE, v.t. repuls’. [L. repulsus, repello.]

    To repel; to beat or drive back as, to repulse an assailant or advancing enemy.NWAD REPULSE.5

    REPULSED, pp. Repelled; driven back.

    REPULSER, n. One that repulses or drives back.

    REPULSING, ppr. Driving back.


    1. In physics, the power of repelling or driving off; that property of bodies which causes them to recede from each other or avoid coming in contact.NWAD REPULSION.2

    2. The act of repelling.NWAD REPULSION.3


    1. Repelling; driving off, or keeping from approach. The repulsive power of the electric fluid is remarkable.NWAD REPULSIVE.2

    2. Cold; reserved; forbidding; as repulsive manners.NWAD REPULSIVE.3

    REPULSIVENESS, n. The quality of being repulsive or forbidding.

    REPULSORY, a. Repulsive; driving back.

    REPURCHASE, v.t. [re and purchase.] To buy again; to buy back; to regain by purchase or expense.

    REPURCHASE, n. The act of buying again; the purchase again of what has been sold.

    REPURCHASED, pp. Bought back or again; regained by expense; as a throne repurchased with the blood of enemies.

    REPURCHASING, ppr. Buying back or again; regaining by the payment of a price.

    REPUTABLE, a. [from repute.]

    1. Being in good repute; held in esteem; as a reputable man or character; reputable conduct. It expresses less than respectable and honorable, denoting the good opinion of men, without distinction or great qualities.NWAD REPUTABLE.2

    2. Consistent with reputation; not mean or disgraceful. It is evidence of extreme depravity that vice is in any case reputable.NWAD REPUTABLE.3

    In the article of danger, it is as reputable to elude an enemy as to defeat one.NWAD REPUTABLE.4

    REPUTABLENESS, n. The quality of being reputable.

    REPUTABLY, adv. With reputation; without disgrace or discredit; as, to fill an office reputably.

    REPUTATION, n. [L. reputatio.]

    1. Good name; the credit, honor or character which is derived from a favorable public opinion or esteem. Reputation is a valuable species of property or right, which should never be violated. With the loss of reputation, a man and especially a woman, loses most of the enjoyments of life.NWAD REPUTATION.2

    The best evidence of reputation is a man’s whole life.NWAD REPUTATION.3

    2. Character by report; in a good or bad sense; as, a man has the reputation of being rich or poor, or of being a thief.NWAD REPUTATION.4

    REPUTE, v.t. [L. reputo; re and puto, to think.]

    To think; to account; to hold; to reckon.NWAD REPUTE.2

    The king was reputed a prince most prudent.NWAD REPUTE.3

    Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight. Job 18:3.NWAD REPUTE.4

    REPUTE, n.

    1. Reputation; good character; the credit or honor derived from common or public opinion; as men of repute.NWAD REPUTE.6

    2. Character; in a bad sense; as a man held in bad repute.NWAD REPUTE.7

    3. Established opinion; as upheld by old repute.NWAD REPUTE.8

    REPUTED, pp. Reckoned; accounted.

    REPUTEDLY, adv. In common opinion or estimation.

    REPUTELESS, a. Disreputable; disgraceful.

    REPUTING, ppr. Thinking; reckoning; accounting.

    REQUEST, n. [L. requisitus, requiro; re and quaero, to seek. See Quest, Question.]

    1. The expression of desire to some person for something to be granted or done; an asking; a petition.NWAD REQUEST.2

    Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen. Esther 7:7.NWAD REQUEST.3

    2. Prayer; the expression of desire to a superior or to the Almighty. Philippians 4:6.NWAD REQUEST.4

    3. The thing asked for or requested.NWAD REQUEST.5

    I will both hear and grant you your requests.NWAD REQUEST.6

    He gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul. Psalm 106:15.NWAD REQUEST.7

    4. A state of being desired or held in such estimation as to be sought after or pursued.NWAD REQUEST.8

    Knowledge and fame were in as great request as wealth among us now.NWAD REQUEST.9

    In request, in demand; in credit or reputation.NWAD REQUEST.10

    Coriolanus being now in no request.NWAD REQUEST.11

    Request expresses less earnestness than entreaty and supplication, and supposes a right in the person requested to deny or refuse to grant. In this it differs from demand.NWAD REQUEST.12

    REQUEST, v.t.

    1. To ask; to solicit; to express desire for.NWAD REQUEST.14

    The weight of the golden ear-rings which he requested, was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold. Judges 8:26.NWAD REQUEST.15

    2. To express desire to; to ask. We requested a friend to accompany us.NWAD REQUEST.16

    Court of requests, in England, a court of equity for the relief of such persons as addressed his majesty by supplication.NWAD REQUEST.17

    3. A court of conscience for the recovery of small debts, held by two aldermen and four commoners, who try causes by the oath of parties and of other witnesses.NWAD REQUEST.18

    REQUESTED, pp. Asked; desired; solicited.

    REQUESTER, n. One who requests; a petitioner.

    REQUESTING, ppr. Asking; petitioning.

    REQUICKEN, v.t. [re and quicken.] To reanimate; to give new life to.

    REQUICKENED, pp. Reanimated.

    REQUICKENING, ppr. Reanimating; invigorating.

    REQUIEM, n. [L.]

    1. In the Romish church, a hymn or mass sung for the dead, for the rest of his soul; so called from the first word.NWAD REQUIEM.2

    2. Rest; quiet; peace. [Not in use.]NWAD REQUIEM.3

    REQUIETORY, n. [Low L. requietorium.] A sepulcher. [Not in use.]

    REQUIRABLE, a. [from require.] That may be required; fit or proper to be demanded.

    REQUIRE, v.t. [L. requiro; re and quaero, to seek. See Query.]

    1. To demand; to ask, as of right and by authority. We require a person to do a thing, and we require a thing to be done.NWAD REQUIRE.2

    Why then doth my lord require this thing? 1 Chronicles 21:3.NWAD REQUIRE.3

    2. To claim; to render necessary; as a duty or any thing indispensable; as, the law of God requires strict obedience.NWAD REQUIRE.4

    3. To ask as a favor; to request.NWAD REQUIRE.5

    I was ashamed to require of the king a band of soldiers and horsemen to help us against the enemy in the way. Ezra 8:22.NWAD REQUIRE.6

    [In this sense, the word is rarely used.]NWAD REQUIRE.7

    4. To call to account for.NWAD REQUIRE.8

    I will require my flock at their hand. Ezekiel 34:10.NWAD REQUIRE.9

    5. To make necessary; to need; to demand.NWAD REQUIRE.10

    The king’s business required haste. 1 Samuel 21:8.NWAD REQUIRE.11

    6. To avenge; to take satisfaction for. 1 Samuel 20:16.NWAD REQUIRE.12

    REQUIRED, pp. Demanded; needed; necessary.

    REQUIREMENT, n. Demand; requisition.

    This ruler was one of those who believe that they can fill us every requirement contained in the rule of righteousness.NWAD REQUIREMENT.2

    The Bristol water is of service where the secretions exceed the requirements of health.NWAD REQUIREMENT.3

    REQUIRER, n. One who requires.

    REQUIRING, ppr. Demanding; needing;

    REQUISITE, a. s as z. [L. requiitus, from requiro.]

    Required by the nature of things or by circumstances; necessary; so needful that it cannot be dispensed with. Repentance and faith are requisite to salvation. Air is requisite to support life. Heat is requisite to vegetation.NWAD REQUISITE.2

    REQUISITE, n. That which is necessary; something indispensable. Contentment is a requisite to a happy life.

    God on his part has declared the requisites on ours; what we must do to obtain blessings, is the great business of us all to know.NWAD REQUISITE.4

    REQUISITELY, adv. Necessarily; in a requisite manner.

    REQUISITENESS, n. The state of being requisite or necessary; necessity.

    REQUISITION, n. [See Require.]

    Demand; application made as of right. Under the old confederation of the American states, congress often made requisitions on the states for money to supply the treasury; but they had no power to enforce their requisitions, and the states neglected or partially complied with them.NWAD REQUISITION.2

    REQUISITIVE, a. Expressing or implying demand.

    REQUISITORY, a. Sought for; demanded. [Little used.]

    REQUITAL, n. [from requite.]

    1. Return for any office, good or bad; in a good sense, compensation; recompense; as the requital of services; in a bad sense, retaliation or punishment, as the requital of evil deeds.NWAD REQUITAL.2

    2. Return; reciprocal action.NWAD REQUITAL.3

    No merit their aversion can remove, nor ill requital can efface their love.NWAD REQUITAL.4

    REQUITE, v.t. [from quit, L. cedo.]

    1. To repay either good or evil; in a good sense, to recompense; to return an equivalent in good; to reward.NWAD REQUITE.2

    I also will requite you this kindness. 2 Samuel 2:6; 1 Timothy 5:4.NWAD REQUITE.3

    In a bad sense, to retaliate; to return evil for evil; to punish.NWAD REQUITE.4

    Joseph will certainly requite us all the evil which we did to him. Genesis 50:15.NWAD REQUITE.5

    2. To do or give in return.NWAD REQUITE.6

    He hath requited me evil for good. 1 Samuel 25:21.NWAD REQUITE.7

    REQUITED, pp. Repaid; recompensed; rewarded.

    REQUITER, n. One who requites.

    REQUITING, ppr. Recompensing; rewarding; giving in return.

    RERE-MOUSE, n. A bat. [See Rear-mouse.]

    RE-RESOLVE, v.t. re-rezolv’. To resolve a second time.

    RERE-WARD, n. [rear and ward.] The part of an army that marches in the rear, as the guard; the rear guard. [The latter othography is to be preferred.] Numbers 10:25; Isaiah 52:12.

    RESAIL, v. or i. [re and sail.] To sail back.

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