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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    FRANKFEE, n. Freehold; a holding of lands in fee simple.

    FRANKINCENSE, n. [frank and incense.] A dry resinous substance in pieces or drops, of a pale yellowish white color, of a bitterish acrid taste, and very inflammable; used as a perfume.

    FRANKING, ppr. Exempting from postage.

    FRANKLAW, n. Free or common law, or the benefit a person has by it.

    FRANKLIN, n. A freeholder. Obs.

    FRANKLINITE, n. A mineral compound of iron, zinc and manganese, found in New Jersey, and named from Dr. Franklin.

    FRANKLY, adv.

    1. Openly; freely; ingenuously; without reserve, constraint or disguise; as, to confess one’s faults frankly.NWAD FRANKLY.2

    2. Liberally; freely; readily. Luke 7:42.NWAD FRANKLY.3

    FRANKMARRIAGE, n. A tenure in tail special; or an estate of inheritance given to a person, together with a wife, and descendible to the heirs of their two bodies begotten.


    1. Plainness of speech; candor; freedom in communication; openness; ingenuousness. He told me his opinions with frankness.NWAD FRANKNESS.2

    2. Fairness; freedom from art or craft; as frankness of dealing.NWAD FRANKNESS.3

    3. Liberality; bounteousness. [Little used.]NWAD FRANKNESS.4

    FRANKPLEDGE, n. A pledge or surety for the good behavior of freemen. Anciently in England, a number of neighbors who were bound for each other’s good behavior.

    FRANKTENEMENT, n. An estate of freehold; the possession of the soil by a freeman.

    FRANTIC, a. [L. phreneticus; Gr. from delirium or raving, from mind, the radical sense of which is to rush, to drive forward.]

    1. Mad; raving; furious; outrageous; wild and disorderly; distracted; as a frantic person; frantic with fear or grief.NWAD FRANTIC.2

    2. Characterized by violence, fury and disorder; noisy; mad; wild; irregular; as the frantic rites of Bacchus.NWAD FRANTIC.3

    FRANTICLY, adv. Madly; distractedly; outrageously.

    FRANTICNESS, n. Madness; fury of passion; distraction.

    FRAP, v.t. In seamen’s language, to cross and draw together the several parts of a tackle to increase the tension.

    FRATERNAL, a. [L. fraternus, from frater, brother.]

    Brotherly; pertaining to brethren; becoming brothers; as fraternal love or affection; a fraternal embrace.NWAD FRATERNAL.2

    FRATERNALLY, adv. In a brotherly manner.

    FRATERNITY, n. [L. fraternitas.]

    1. The state or quality of a brother; brotherhood.NWAD FRATERNITY.2

    2. A body of men associated for their common interest or pleasure; a company; a brotherhood; a society; as the fraternity of free masons.NWAD FRATERNITY.3

    3. Men of the same class, profession, occupation or character.NWAD FRATERNITY.4

    With what terms of respect knaves and sots will speak of their own fraternity.NWAD FRATERNITY.5

    FRATERNIZATION, n. The act of associating and holding fellowship as brethren.

    FRATERNIZE, v.i. To associate or hold fellowship as brothers, or as men of like occupation or character.

    FRATRICIDE, n. [L. fratricidium; frater, brother, and caedo, to kill.]

    1. The crime of murdering a brother.NWAD FRATRICIDE.2

    2. One who murders or kills a brother.NWAD FRATRICIDE.3

    FRAUD, n. [L. fraus.]

    Deceit; deception; trick; artifice by which the right or interest of another is injured; a stratagem intended to obtain some undue advantage; an attempt to gain or the obtaining of an advantage over another by imposition or immoral means, particularly deception in contracts, or bargain and sale, either by stating falsehoods, or suppressing truth.NWAD FRAUD.2

    If success a lover’s toil attends, who asks if force or fraud obtained his ends.NWAD FRAUD.3

    FRAUDFUL, a.

    1. Deceitful in making bargains; trickish; treacherous; applied to persons.NWAD FRAUDFUL.2

    2. Containing fraud or deceit; applied to things.NWAD FRAUDFUL.3

    FRAUDFULLY, adv. Deceitfully; with intention to deceive and gain an undue advantage; trickishly; treacherously; by stratagem.

    FRAUDULENCE, FRAUDULENCY, n. Deceitfulness; trickishness in making bargains, or in social concerns.


    1. Deceitful in making contracts; trickish; applied to persons.NWAD FRAUDULENT.2

    2. Containing fraud; founded on fraud; proceeding from fraud; as a fraudulent bargain.NWAD FRAUDULENT.3

    3. Deceitful; treacherous; obtained or performed by artifice.NWAD FRAUDULENT.4

    FRAUDULENTLY, adv. By fraud; by deceit; by artifice or imposition.

    FRAUGHT, a. fraut.

    1. Laden; loaded; charged; as a vessel richly fraught with goods from India. This sense is used in poetry; but in common business, freighted only is used.NWAD FRAUGHT.2

    2. Filled; stored; full; as a scheme fraught with mischief; the scriptures are fraught with excellent precepts.NWAD FRAUGHT.3

    FRAUGHT, n. A freight; a cargo. [Not now used.]

    FRAUGHT, v.t. To load; to fill; to crowd. Obs.

    FRAUGHTAGE, n. Loading; cargo. [Not used.]

    FRAY, n. [L. fractura, from frango, frico.]

    1. A boil, quarrel or violent riot, that puts men in fear. This is the vulgar word for affray, and the sense seems to refer the word to Fr. effrayer.NWAD FRAY.2

    2. A combat; a battle; also, a single combat or duel.NWAD FRAY.3

    3. A contest; contention.NWAD FRAY.4

    4. A rub; a fret or chafe in cloth; a place injured by rubbing.NWAD FRAY.5

    FRAY, v.t. To fright; to terrify. Obs.

    FRAY, v.t. [L. frico, to rub.]

    1. To rub; to fret, as cloth by wearing.NWAD FRAY.8

    2. To rub; as, a deer frays his head.NWAD FRAY.9

    FRAYED, pp. Frightened; rubbed; worn.

    FRAYING, ppr. Frightening; terrifying; rubbing.

    FRAYING, n. Peel of a deer’s horn.

    FREAK, n.

    1. Literally, a sudden starting or change of place. Hence,NWAD FREAK.2

    2. A sudden causeless change or turn of the mind; a whim or fancy; a capricious prank.NWAD FREAK.3

    She is restless and peevish, and sometimes in a freak will instantly change her habitation.NWAD FREAK.4

    FREAK, v.t. [Heb. to divide.]

    To variegate; to checker.NWAD FREAK.6

    Freaked with many a mingled hue.NWAD FREAK.7

    FREAKISH, a. Apt to change the mind suddenly; whimsical; capricious.

    It may be a question, whether the wife or the woman was the more freakish of the two.NWAD FREAKISH.2

    FREAKISHLY, adv. Capriciously; with sudden change of mind, without cause.

    FREAKISHNESS, n. Capriciousness; whimsicalness.

    FRECKLE, n.

    1. A spot of a yellowish color in the skin, particularly on the face, neck and hands. Freckles may be natural or produced by the action of the sun on the skin, or from the jaundice.NWAD FRECKLE.2

    2. Any small spot or discoloration.NWAD FRECKLE.3

    FRECKLED, a.

    1. Spotted; having small yellowish spots on the skin or surface; as a freckled face or neck.NWAD FRECKLED.2

    2. Spotted; as a freckled cowslip.NWAD FRECKLED.3

    FRECKLEDNESS, n. The state or being freckled.

    FRECKLEFACED, a. Having a face full of freckles.

    FRECKLY, a. Full of freckles; sprinkled with spots.

    FRED, Victorious peace. Our ancestors called a sanctuary, fredstole, a seat of peace.

    FREE, n. [Heb. See Frank.]

    1. Being at liberty; not being under necessity or restraint, physical or moral; a word of general application to the body, the will or mind, and to corporations.NWAD FREE.2

    2. In government, not enslaved; not in a state of vassalage or dependence; subject only to fixed laws, made by consent, and to a regular administration of such laws; not subject to the arbitrary will of a sovereign or lord; as a free state, nation or people.NWAD FREE.3

    3. Instituted by a free people, or by consent or choice of those who are to be subjects, and securing private rights and privileges by fixed laws and principles; not arbitrary or despotic; as a free constitution or government.NWAD FREE.4

    There can be no free government without a democratical branch in the constitution.NWAD FREE.5

    4. Not imprisoned, confined or under arrest; as, the prisoner is set free.NWAD FREE.6

    5. Unconstrained; unrestrained; not under compulsion or control. A man is free to pursue his own choice; he enjoys free will.NWAD FREE.7

    6. Permitted; allowed; open; not appropriated; as, places of honor and confidence are free to all; we seldom hear of a commerce perfectly free.NWAD FREE.8

    7. Not obstructed; as, the water has a free passage or channel; the house is open to a free current of air.NWAD FREE.9

    8. Licentious; unrestrained. The reviewer is very free in his censures.NWAD FREE.10

    9. Open; candid; frank; ingenuous; unreserved; as, we had a free conversation together.NWAD FREE.11

    Will you be free and candid to your friend?NWAD FREE.12

    10. Liberal in expenses; not parsimonious; as a free purse; a man is free to give to all useful institutions.NWAD FREE.13

    11. Gratuitous; not gained by importunity or purchase. He made him a free offer of his services. It is a free gift. The salvation of men is of free grace.NWAD FREE.14

    12. Clear of crime or offense; guiltless; innocent.NWAD FREE.15

    My hands are guilty, but my heart is free.NWAD FREE.16

    13. Not having feeling or suffering; clear; exempt; with from; as free from pain or disease; free from remorse.NWAD FREE.17

    14. Not encumbered with; as free from a burden.NWAD FREE.18

    15. Open to all, without restriction or without expense; as a free school.NWAD FREE.19

    16. Invested with franchises; enjoying certain immunities; with of; as a man free of the city of London.NWAD FREE.20

    17. Possessing without vassalage or slavish conditions; as free of his farm.NWAD FREE.21

    18. Liberated from the government or control of parents, or of a guardian or master. A son or an apprentice, when of age, is free.NWAD FREE.22

    19. Ready; eager; not dull; acting without spurring or shipping; as a free horse.NWAD FREE.23

    20. Genteel; charming. [Not in use.]NWAD FREE.24

    FREE, v.t.

    1. To remove from a thing any encumbrance or obstruction; to disengage from; to rid; to strip; to clear; as, to free the body from clothes; to free the feet from fetters; to free a channel from sand.NWAD FREE.26

    2. To set at liberty; to rescue or release from slavery, captivity or confinement; to loose. The prisoner is freed from arrest.NWAD FREE.27

    3. To disentangle; to disengage.NWAD FREE.28

    4. To exempt.NWAD FREE.29

    He that is dead is freed from sin. Romans 6:7.NWAD FREE.30

    5. To manumit; to release from bondage; as, to free a slave.NWAD FREE.31

    6. To clear from water, as a ship by pumping.NWAD FREE.32

    7. To release from obligation or duty.NWAD FREE.33

    To free from or free of, is to rid of, by removing, in any manner.NWAD FREE.34

    FREEBENCH, n. A widow’s dower in a copyhold.

    FREEBOOTER, n. [See Booty.]

    One who wanders about for plunder; a robber; a pillager; a plunderer.NWAD FREEBOOTER.2

    FREEBOOTING, n. Robbery; plunder; a pillaging.

    FREEBORN, a. Born free; not in vassalage; inheriting liberty.

    FREECHAPEL, n. In England, a chapel founded by the king and not subject to the jurisdiction of the ordinary. The kind may also grant license to a subject to found such a chapel.

    Free city, in Germany, an imperial city, not subject to a prince, but governed by its own magistrates.NWAD FREECHAPEL.2

    FREECOST, n. Without expense; freedom from charges.

    FREED, pp. Set at liberty; loosed; delivered from restraint; cleared of hinderance or obstruction.

    FREEDENIZEN, n. A citizen.

    FREEDMAN, n. A man who has been a slave and is manumitted.

    FREEDOM, n.

    1. A state of exemption from the power or control of another; liberty; exemption from slavery, servitude or confinement. Freedom is personal, civil, political, and religious. [See Liberty.]NWAD FREEDOM.2

    2. Particular privileges; franchise; immunity; as the freedom of a city.NWAD FREEDOM.3

    3. Power of enjoying franchises.NWAD FREEDOM.4

    4. Exemption from fate, necessity, or any constraint in consequence of predetermination or otherwise; as the freedom of the will.NWAD FREEDOM.5

    5. Any exemption from constraint or control.NWAD FREEDOM.6

    6. Ease or facility of doing any thing. He speaks or acts with freedom.NWAD FREEDOM.7

    7. Frankness; boldness. He addressed his audience with freedom.NWAD FREEDOM.8

    8. License; improper familiarity; violation of the rules of decorum; with a plural. Beware of what are called innocent freedoms.NWAD FREEDOM.9

    FREEFISHERY, n. A royal franchise or exclusive privilege of fishing in a public river.

    FREEFOOTED, a. Not restrained in marching. [Not used.]

    FREEHEARTED, a. [See Heart.]

    1. Open; frank; unreserved.NWAD FREEHEARTED.2

    2. Liberal; charitable; generous.NWAD FREEHEARTED.3

    FREEHEARTEDNESS, n. Frankness; openness of heart; liberality.

    FREEHOLD, a. That land or tenement which is held in fee-simple, fee-tail, or for term of life. It is of two kinds; in deed, and in law. The first is the real possession of such land or tenement; the last is the right a man has to such land or tenement, before his entry or seizure.

    Freehold is also extended to such offices as a man holds in fee or for life. It is also taken in opposition to villenage.NWAD FREEHOLD.2

    In the United States, a freehold is an estate which a man holds in his own right, subject to no superior nor to conditions.NWAD FREEHOLD.3

    FREEHOLDER, n. One who owns an estate in fee-simple, fee-tail or for life; the possessor of a freehold. Every juryman must be a freeholder.

    FREEING, ppr. Delivering from restraint; releasing from confinement; removing incumbrances or hinderances from any thing; clearing.

    FREELY, adv.

    1. At liberty; without vassalage, slavery or dependence.NWAD FREELY.2

    2. Without restraint, constraint or compulsion; voluntarily. To render a moral agent accountable, he must act freely.NWAD FREELY.3

    3. Plentifully; in abundance; as, to eat or drink freely.NWAD FREELY.4

    4. Without scruple or reserve; as, to censure freely.NWAD FREELY.5

    5. Without impediment or hinderance.NWAD FREELY.6

    Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat. Genesis 2:16.NWAD FREELY.7

    6. Without necessity, or compulsion from divine predetermination.NWAD FREELY.8

    Freely they stood who stood, and fell who fell.NWAD FREELY.9

    7. Without obstruction; largely; copiously. The patient bled freely.NWAD FREELY.10

    8. Spontaneously; without constraint or persuasion.NWAD FREELY.11

    9. Liberally; generously; as, to give freely to the poor.NWAD FREELY.12

    10. Gratuitously; of free will or grace, with out purchase or consideration.NWAD FREELY.13

    Freely ye have received, freely give. Matthew 10:8.NWAD FREELY.14

    FREEMAN, n. [free and man.]

    1. One who enjoys liberty, or who is not subject to the will of another; one not a slave or vassal.NWAD FREEMAN.2

    2. One who enjoys or is entitled to a franchise or peculiar privilege; as the freemen of a city or state.NWAD FREEMAN.3

    FREEMASON, n. One of the fraternity of masons.

    FREEMINDED, a. Not perplexed; free from care.

    FREENESS, n.

    1. The state or quality of being free, unconstrained, unconfined, unincumbered, or unobstructed.NWAD FREENESS.2

    2. Openness; unreservedness; frankness; ingenuousness; candor; as the freeness of a confession.NWAD FREENESS.3

    3. Liberality; generosity; as freeness in giving.NWAD FREENESS.4

    4. Gratuitousness; as the freeness of divine grace.NWAD FREENESS.5


    1. A school supported by funds, etc., in which pupils are taught without paying for tuition.NWAD FREESCHOOL.2

    2. A school open to admit pupils without restriction.NWAD FREESCHOOL.3

    FREESPOKEN, a. Accustomed to speak without reserve.

    FREESTONE, n. Any species of stone composed of sand or grit, so called because it is easily cut or wrought.

    FREETHINKER, n. A softer name for a deist; an unbeliever; one who discards revelation.

    FREETHINKING, n. Unbelief.

    FREETONGUED, a. Speaking without reserve.

    FREEWARREN, n. A royal franchise or exclusive right of killing beasts and fowls of warren within certain limits.

    FREEWILL, n.

    1. The power of directing our own actions without restraint by necessity or fate.NWAD FREEWILL.2

    2. Voluntariness; spontaneousness.NWAD FREEWILL.3

    FREEWOMAN, n. A woman not a slave.

    FREEZE, v.i. pret. froze; pp. frozen, or froze. [Gr. had for its radical letters.]

    1. To be congealed by cold; to be changed from a liquid to a solid state by the abstraction of heat; to be hardened into ice or a like solid body. Water freezes at the temperature of 32 degrees above zero by Fahrenheit’s thermometer. Mercury freezes at 40 degrees below zero.NWAD FREEZE.2

    2. To be of that degree of cold at which water congeals.NWAD FREEZE.3

    3. To chill; to stagnate, or to retire from the extreme vessels; as, the blood freezes in the veins.NWAD FREEZE.4

    4. To be chilled; to shiver with cold.NWAD FREEZE.5

    5. To die by means of cold. We say a man freezes to death.NWAD FREEZE.6

    FREEZE, v.t.

    1. To congeal; to harden into ice; to change from a fluid to a solid form by cold or abstraction of heat. This weather will freeze the rivers and lakes.NWAD FREEZE.8

    2. To kill by cold; but we often add the words to death. this air will freeze you, or freeze you to death.NWAD FREEZE.9

    3. To chill; to give the sensation of cold and shivering. This horrid tale freezes my blood.NWAD FREEZE.10

    FREEZE, in architecture. [See Frieze.]

    FREIGHT, n. frate. [L. fero; formed like bright.]

    1. The cargo, or any part of the cargo of a ship; lading; that which is carried by water. The freight of a ship consists of cotton; the ship has not a full freight; the owners have advertised for freight; freight will be paid for by the ton.NWAD FREIGHT.2

    2. Transportation of goods. We paid four dollars a ton for the freight from London to Barcelona.NWAD FREIGHT.3

    3. The hire of a ship, or money charged or paid for the transportation of goods. After paying freight and charges, the profit is trifling.NWAD FREIGHT.4

    FREIGHT, v.t.

    1. To load with goods, as a ship or vessel of any kind, for transporting them from one place to another. We freighted the ship for Amsterdam; the ship was freighted with flour for Havana.NWAD FREIGHT.6

    2. To load as the burden.NWAD FREIGHT.7

    FREIGHTED, pp. Loaded, as a ship or vessel.

    FREIGHTER, n. One who loads a ship, or one who charters and loads a ship.

    FREIGHTING, ppr. Loading, as a ship or vessel.

    FREISLEBEN, n. A mineral of a blue or bluish gray color, brittle and soft to the touch.

    FREN, n. A stranger. [Not used.]

    FRENCH, a. Pertaining to France or its inhabitants.

    French Chalk, scaly talc, a variety of indurated talc, in masses composed of small scales; its color is pearly white or grayish.NWAD FRENCH.2

    FRENCH, n. The language spoken by the people of France.

    FRENCH-HORN, n. A wind instrument of music made of metal.

    FRENCHIFY, v.t. To make French; to infect with the manner of the French.

    FRENCHLIKE, a. Resembling the French.

    FRENETIC, a. [See Frantic and Phrenetic.]

    FRENZIED, part. a. Affected with madness.

    FRENZY, n. [L. phrenitis, Gr. from mind, which is from moving, rushing. See Frantic.]

    Madness; distraction; rage; or any violent agitation of the mind approaching to distraction.NWAD FRENZY.2

    All else is towering frenzy and distraction.NWAD FRENZY.3

    FREQUENCE, n. [L. frequentia.] A crowd; a throng; a concourse; an assembly. [Little used.]


    1. A return or occurrence of a thing often repeated at short intervals. The frequency of crimes abates our horror at the commission; the frequency of capital punishments tends to destroy their proper effect.NWAD FREQUENCY.2

    2. A crowd; a throng. [Not used.]NWAD FREQUENCY.3

    FREQUENT, a. [L. frequens.]

    1. Often seen or done; often happening at short intervals; often repeated or occurring. We made frequent visits to the hospital.NWAD FREQUENT.2

    2. Used often to practice any thing. He was frequent and loud in his declamations against the revolution.NWAD FREQUENT.3

    3. Full; crowded; thronged. [Not used.]NWAD FREQUENT.4

    FREQUENT, v.t. [L. frequento.]

    To visit often; to resort to often or habitually. The man who frequents a dram-shop, an ale house, or a gaming table, is in the road to poverty, disgrace and ruin.NWAD FREQUENT.6

    He frequented the court of Augustus.NWAD FREQUENT.7

    FREQUENTABLE, a. Accessible. [Not used.]


    1. The act of frequenting.NWAD FREQUENTATION.2

    2. The habit of visiting often.NWAD FREQUENTATION.3


    In grammar, signifying the frequent repetition of an action; as a frequentative verb.NWAD FREQUENTATIVE.2

    FREQUENTED, pp. Often visited.

    FREQUENTER, n. One who often visits or resorts to customarily.

    FREQUENTLY, adv. Often; many times; at short intervals; commonly.

    FREQUENTNESS, n. The quality of being frequent or often repeated.

    FRESCO, n.

    1. Coolness; shade; a cool refreshing state of the air; duskiness.NWAD FRESCO.2

    2. A picture not drawn in glaring light, but in dusk.NWAD FRESCO.3

    3. A method of painting in relief on walls, performed with water-colors on fresh plaster, or on a wall laid with mortar not yet dry. the colors, incorporating with the mortar, and drying with it, become very durable. It is called fesco, either because it is done on fresh plaster, or because it is used on walls and buildings in the open air.NWAD FRESCO.4

    4. A cool refreshing liquor.NWAD FRESCO.5

    FRESH, a. [Eng. rush, which gives the radical sense, though it may not be the same word.]

    1. Moving with celerity; brisk; strong; somewhat vehement; as a fresh breeze; fresh wind; the primary sense.NWAD FRESH.2

    2. Having the color and appearance of young thrifty plants; lively; not impaired or faded; as when we say, the fields look fresh and green.NWAD FRESH.3

    3. Having the appearance of a healthy youth; florid; ruddy; as a fresh-colored young man.NWAD FRESH.4

    4. New; recently grown; as fresh vegetables.NWAD FRESH.5

    5. New; recently made or obtained. We have a fresh supply of goods from the manufactory, or from India; fresh tea; fresh raisins.NWAD FRESH.6

    6. Not impaired by time; not forgotten or obliterated. The story is fresh in my mind; the ideas are fresh in my recollection.NWAD FRESH.7

    7. Not salt; as fresh water; fresh meat.NWAD FRESH.8

    8. Recently from the well or spring; pure and cool; not warm or vapid. Bring a glass of fresh water.NWAD FRESH.9

    9. In a state like that of recent growth or recentness; as, to preserve flowers and fruit fresh.NWAD FRESH.10

    Fresh as April, sweet as May.NWAD FRESH.11

    10. Repaired from loss or diminution; having new vigor. He rose fresh for the combat.NWAD FRESH.12

    11. New; that has lately come or arrived; as fresh news; fresh dispatches.NWAD FRESH.13

    12. Sweet; in a good state; not stale.NWAD FRESH.14

    13. Unpracticed; unused; not before employed; as a fresh hand on board of a ship.NWAD FRESH.15

    14. Moderately rapid; as, the ship makes fresh way.NWAD FRESH.16

    FRESH, n. A freshet.

    FRESHEN, v.t. fresh’n.

    1. To make fresh; to dulcify; to separate, as water from saline particles; to take saltiness from any thing; as, to freshen water, fish or flesh.NWAD FRESHEN.2

    2. To refresh; to revive. [Not used.]NWAD FRESHEN.3

    3. In seaman’s language, to apply new service to a cable; as, to freshen hawse.NWAD FRESHEN.4

    FRESHEN, v.i.

    1. To grow fresh; to lose salt or saltiness.NWAD FRESHEN.6

    2. To grow brisk or strong; as, the wind freshens.NWAD FRESHEN.7

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