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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    VILIPEND, v.t. [L. vilipendo.] To despise. [Not in use.]

    VILIPENDENCY, n. Disesteem; alight. [Not in use.]

    VILITY, n. Vileness; baseness. [Not in use.]

    VILL, n. [L. villa.] A village; a small collection of houses.

    The statute of Exeter, 14 Edward I mentions entire-vills, demi-vills, and hamlets.NWAD VILL.2

    VILLA, n. [L. villa.]

    A country seat or a farm, furnished with a mansion and convenient out-houses.NWAD VILLA.2

    VILLAGE, n. A small assemblage of houses, less than a town or city, and inhabited chiefly by farmers and other laboring people. In England, it is said that a village is distinguished from a town by the want of a market.

    In the United States, no such distinction exists, and any small assemblage of houses in the country is called a village.NWAD VILLAGE.2

    VILLAGER, n. An inhabitant of a village.

    VILLAGERY, n. a district of villages.


    1. In feudal law, a villain or villein is one who holds lands by a base or servile tenure, or in villenage. Villains were of two sorts; villains regardant, that is, annexed to the manor, adscriptitii glebae; or villains in gross, that is, annexed to the person of their lord, and transferable from one to another.NWAD VILLAIN.2

    2. A vile wicked person; a man extremely depraved, and capable or guilty of great crimes. We call by the name of villain, the thief, the robber, the burglarian, the murderer, the incendiary, the ravisher, the seducer, the cheat, the swindler. etc.NWAD VILLAIN.3

    Calm thinking villains, whom no faith could fix.NWAD VILLAIN.4

    VILLAKIN, n. A little village; a word used by Gay.


    1. The state of a villain; base servitude.NWAD VILLANAGE.2

    2. A base tenure of lands; tenure on condition of doing the meanest services for the lord; usually written villenage.NWAD VILLANAGE.3

    3. Baseness; infamy. [See Villany.]NWAD VILLANAGE.4

    VILLANIZE, v.t. to debase; to degrade; to defame; to revile.

    Were virtue by descent, a noble name could never villanize his father’s fame.NWAD VILLANIZE.2

    VILLANIZED, pp. Defamed; debased. [Little used.]

    VILLANIZING, ppr. Defaming; debasing. [Little used.]

    VILLANOUS, VILLAINOUS, a. [from villain.]

    1. Base; very vile.NWAD VILLANOUS.2

    2. Wicked; extremely depraved; as a villanous person or wretch.NWAD VILLANOUS.3

    3. Proceeding from extreme depravity; as a villanous action.NWAD VILLANOUS.4

    4. Sorry; vile; mischievous; in a familiar sense; as a villanous trick of the eye.NWAD VILLANOUS.5

    Villanous judgment, in old law, a judgment that casts reproach on the guilty person.NWAD VILLANOUS.6

    VILLANOUSLY, adv. Basely; with extreme wickedness or depravity.

    VILLANOUSNESS, n. Baseness; extreme depravity.


    1. Extreme depravity; atrocious wickedness; as the villany of the thief or the robber; the villany of the seducer.NWAD VILLANY.2

    The commendation is not in his wit, but in his villany.NWAD VILLANY.3

    2. A crime; an action of deep depravity. In this sense, the word has a plural.NWAD VILLANY.4

    Such villanies roused Horace into wrath.NWAD VILLANY.5

    VILLATIC, a. [L. villaticus.] Pertaining to a village.

    Tame villatic fowl.NWAD VILLATIC.2

    VILLENAGE, n. [from villain.] a tenure of lands and tenements by base services.

    VILLOUS, a. [L. villosus, from villus, hair, Eng. wool.]

    1. Abounding with fine hairs or wooly substance; nappy shaggy; rough; as a villous coat.NWAD VILLOUS.2

    The villous coat of the stomach and intentines is the inner mucous membrane, so called from the innumerable villi or fine fibrils with which its internal surface is covered.NWAD VILLOUS.3

    2. In botany, pubescent; covered with soft hairs.NWAD VILLOUS.4

    VIMINAL, a. [L. viminalis.] Pertaining to twigs; consisting of twigs; producing twigs.

    VIMINEOUS, a. [L. vimineus, from vimen, a twig. Made of twigs or shoots.]

    In the hive’s vimineous dome.NWAD VIMINEOUS.2

    VINACEOUS, a. [from L. vinacceus.] Belonging to wine or grapes.

    VINCIBLE, a. [from L. vinco, to conquer. See Victor.]

    Conquerable; that may be overcome or subdued.NWAD VINCIBLE.2

    He not vincible in spirit -NWAD VINCIBLE.3

    VINCIBLENESS, n. the capacity of being conquered; conquerableness.

    VINCTURE, n. [L. vinctura.] a binding. [Not in use.]

    VINDEMIAL, a. [L. vindemialis, from vindemia, vintage; vinea and demo.] Belonging to a vintage or grape harvest.

    VINDEMIATE, v.i. [supra.] to gather the vintage.

    VINDEMIATION, n. The operation of gathering grapes.

    VINDICABILITY, n. The quality of being vindicable, or capable of support or justification.

    VINDICABLE, a. [infra.] That may be vindicated, justified or supported.

    VINDICATE, v.t. [L. vindico.]

    1. To defend; to justify; to support or maintain as true or correct, against denial, censure or objections.NWAD VINDICATE.2

    When the respondent denies any proposition, the opponent must vindicate it.NWAD VINDICATE.3

    Laugh where we must, be candid where we can; but vindicate the ways of God to man.NWAD VINDICATE.4

    2. To assert; to defend with success; to maintain; to prove to be just or valid; as, to vindicate a claim or title.NWAD VINDICATE.5

    3. To defend with arms, or otherwise; as, to vindicate our rights.NWAD VINDICATE.6

    4. to avenge; to punish; as a war to vindicate or punish infidelity.NWAD VINDICATE.7

    God is more powerful to exact subjection and to vindicate rebellion.NWAD VINDICATE.8

    [This latter use is entirely obsolete.]NWAD VINDICATE.9

    VINDICATED, pp. Defended; supported; maintained; proved to be just or true.

    VINDICATING, ppr. Defending; supporting against denial, censure, charge or impeachment; proving to be true or just; defending by force.

    VINDICATION, n. [L. vindico.]

    1. The defense of any thing, or a justification against denial or censure, or against objections or accusations; as the vindication of opinions or of a creed; the vindication of the Scriptures against the objections and cavils of infidels.NWAD VINDICATION.2

    2. The act of supporting by proof or legal process; the proving of any thing to be just; as the vindication of a title, claim or right.NWAD VINDICATION.3

    3. Defense by force or otherwise; as the vindication of the rights of man; the vindication of our liberties or the rights of conscience.NWAD VINDICATION.4


    1. Tending to vindicate.NWAD VINDICATIVE.2

    2. Revengeful. [This is now generally vindictive.]NWAD VINDICATIVE.3

    VINDICATOR, n. One who vindicates; one who justifies or maintains; one who defends.


    1. Punitory; inflicting punishment; avenging.NWAD VINDICATORY.2

    The afflictions of Job were not vindicatory punishments.NWAD VINDICATORY.3

    2. Tending to vindicate; justificatory.NWAD VINDICATORY.4

    VINDICTIVE, a. Revengeful; given to revenge.

    I am vindictive enough to repel force by force.NWAD VINDICTIVE.2

    VINDICTIVELY, adv. By way of revenge; revengefully.


    1. A revengeful temper.NWAD VINDICTIVENESS.2

    2. Revengefulness.NWAD VINDICTIVENESS.3

    VINE, n. [L. vinca. See Wine.]

    1. A plant that produces grapes, of the genus Vitis, and of a great number of varieties.NWAD VINE.2

    2. The long slender stem of any plant, that trails on the ground, or climbs and supports itself by winding round a fixed object, or by seizing any fixed thing with its tendrils or claspers. Thus we speak of the hop vine, the bean vine, the vines of melons, squashes, pumpkins, and other encurbitaceous plants.NWAD VINE.3

    VINED, a. Having leaves like those of the vine.

    VINE-DRESSER, n. [vine and dresser.] One who dresses, trims, prunes and cultivates vines.

    VINE-FRETTER, n. [vine and fret.] A small insect that injures vines, the aphis or puceron.

    VINEGAR, n.

    1. Vegetable acid; an acid liquor obtained from wine, cider, beer or other liquors, by the second or acetous fermentation. Vinegar may differ indefinitely in the degree of its acidity. When highly concentrated, it is called radical vinegar.NWAD VINEGAR.2

    2. Any thing really or metaphorically sour. [Not in use.]NWAD VINEGAR.3

    Vinegar of lead, a liquor formed by digesting ceruse or litharge with a sufficient quantity of vinegar to dissolve it.NWAD VINEGAR.4

    VINE-GRUB, n. [vine and grub.] A little insect that infests vines; the vine-fretter or puceron.

    VINERY, n. In gardening, an erection for supporting vines and exposing them to artificial heat, consisting of a wall with stoves and flues.


    A plantation of vines producing grapes; properly, an inclosure or yard for grape-vines.NWAD VINEYARD.2

    VINNEWED, a. Moldy; musty. [Not in use.]

    VINNEWEDNESS, n. Mustiness; moldiness. [Not in use.]

    VINNY, a. [supra.] Moldy; musty. [Not in use.]

    VINOLENCY, n. [L. vinolentia, from vinum, wine.] Drunkenness. [Not used.]

    VINOLENT, a. Given to wine. [Not used.]

    VINOSITY, n. State or quality of being vinous.

    VINOUS, a. [L. vinum, wine.]

    Having the qualities of wine; pertaining to wine; as a vinous taste; a vinous flavor; vinous fermentation.NWAD VINOUS.2

    VINTAGE, n. [L. vindemia.]

    1. The produce of the vine for the season. The vintage is abundant.NWAD VINTAGE.2

    2. The time of gathering the crop of grapes.NWAD VINTAGE.3

    3. The wine produced by the crop of grapes in one season.NWAD VINTAGE.4

    VINTAGER, n. One that gathers the vintage.

    VINTNER, n. One who deals in wine; a wine-seller.

    VINTRY, n. A place where wine is sold.

    VINY, a.

    1. Belonging to vines; producing grapes.NWAD VINY.2

    2. Abounding in vines.NWAD VINY.3

    VIOL, n. A stringed musical instrument, of the same form as the violin, but larger, and having formerly six strings, to be struck with a bow. Viols are of different kinds. The largest of all is the base viol, whose tones are deep, soft and agreeable. The violin now takes the place of the old viol.

    Me softer airs befit, and softer strings of lute, or viol, still more apt for mournful things.NWAD VIOL.2

    VIOLABLE, a. [L. violabilis. See Violate.]

    That may be violated, broken or injured.NWAD VIOLABLE.2

    VIOLACEOUS, a. [L. viola, a violet.] Resembling violets.

    VIOLATE, v.t. [L. violo.]

    1. To injure; to hurt; to interrupt; to disturb; as, to violate sleep.NWAD VIOLATE.2

    Kindness for man, and pity for his fate, may mix with bliss and yet not violate.NWAD VIOLATE.3

    2. To break; to infringe; to transgress; as, to violate the laws of the state, or the rules of good breeding; to violate the divine commands; to violate one’s vows or promises. Promises and commands may be violated negatively, by non-observance.NWAD VIOLATE.4

    3. To injure; to do violence to.NWAD VIOLATE.5

    Forbid to violate the sacred fruit.NWAD VIOLATE.6

    4. To treat with irreverence; to profane; as, to violate the sanctity of a holy place.NWAD VIOLATE.7

    5. To ravish; to compress by force.NWAD VIOLATE.8

    VIOLATED, pp. Injured; broken; transgressed; ravished.

    VIOLATING, ppr. Injuring; infringing; ravishing.


    1. The act of violating or injuring; interruption, as of sleep or peace.NWAD VIOLATION.2

    2. Infringement; transgression; non-observance; as the violation of law or positive command; a violation of covenants, engagements and promises; a violation of vows.NWAD VIOLATION.3

    3. Act of irreverence; profanation or contemptuous treatment of sacred things; as the violation of a church.NWAD VIOLATION.4

    4. Ravishment; rape.NWAD VIOLATION.5

    VIOLATOR, n.

    1. One who violates, injures, interrupts or disturbs; as a violator of repose.NWAD VIOLATOR.2

    2. One who infringes or transgresses; as a violator of law.NWAD VIOLATOR.3

    3. One who profanes or treats with irreverence; as a violator of sacred things.NWAD VIOLATOR.4

    4. A ravisher.NWAD VIOLATOR.5

    VIOLENCE, n. [L. violentia.]

    1. Physical force; strength of action or motion; as the violence of a storm; the violence of a blow or of a conflict.NWAD VIOLENCE.2

    2. Moral force; vehemence. The critic attacked the work with violence.NWAD VIOLENCE.3

    3. Outrage; unjust force; crimes of all kinds.NWAD VIOLENCE.4

    The earth was filled with violence. Genesis 6:11.NWAD VIOLENCE.5

    4. Eagerness; vehemence.NWAD VIOLENCE.6

    You ask with violence.NWAD VIOLENCE.7

    5. Injury; infringement. Offer no violence to the laws, or to the rules of civility.NWAD VIOLENCE.8

    6. Injury; hurt.NWAD VIOLENCE.9

    Do violence to no man. Luke 3:14.NWAD VIOLENCE.10

    7. Ravishment; rape.NWAD VIOLENCE.11

    To do violence to or on, to attack; to murder.NWAD VIOLENCE.12

    But, as it seems, did violence on herself.NWAD VIOLENCE.13

    To do violence to, to outrage; to force; to injure. He does violence to his own opinions.NWAD VIOLENCE.14

    VIOLENCE, v.t. To assault; to injure; also, to bring by violence. [Little used.]

    VIOLENT, a. [L. violentus.]

    1. Forcible; moving or acting with physical strength; urged or driven with force; as a violent wind; a violent stream; a violent assault or blow; a violent conflict.NWAD VIOLENT.2

    2. Vehement; outrageous; as a violent attack on the minister.NWAD VIOLENT.3

    3. Produced or continued by force; not spontaneous or natural.NWAD VIOLENT.4

    No violent state can be perpetual.NWAD VIOLENT.5

    4. Produced by violence; not natural; as a violent death.NWAD VIOLENT.6

    5. Acting by violence; assailant; not authorized.NWAD VIOLENT.7

    Some violent hands were laid on Humphry’s life.NWAD VIOLENT.8

    6. Fierce; vehement; as a violent philippic; a violent remonstrance.NWAD VIOLENT.9

    We might be reckoned fierce and violent.NWAD VIOLENT.10

    7. Severe; extreme; as violent pains.NWAD VIOLENT.11

    8. Extorted; not voluntary.NWAD VIOLENT.12

    Vows made in pain, are violent and void.NWAD VIOLENT.13

    Violent presumption, in law, is presumption that arises from circumstances which necessarily attend such facts. Such circumstances being proved, the mind infers with confidence that the fact has taken place, and this confidence is a violent presumption, which amounts to proof.NWAD VIOLENT.14

    VIOLENT, n. An assailant. [Not in use.]

    VIOLENT, v.t. To urge with violence. [Not used.]

    VIOLENTLY, adv. With force; forcibly; vehemently; as, the wind blows violently.

    Forfeitures must not be exacted violently.NWAD VIOLENTLY.2

    VIOLET, n. [L. viola.]

    A plant and flower of the genus Viola, of many species.NWAD VIOLET.2

    VIOLIN, n.

    A musical instrument with four strings, played with a bow; a fiddle; one of the most perfect and most powerful instruments that has been invented.NWAD VIOLIN.2

    VIOLINIST, n. A person skilled in playing on a violin.

    VIOLIST, n. A player on the viol.

    VIOLONCELLO, n. A stringed instrument of music; a base viol of four strings, or a little base violin with long large strings, giving sounds an octave lower than the base violin.

    VIOLONO, n. A double base, a deep toned instrument.

    VIPER, n. [L. vipera.]

    1. A serpent, a species of coluber, whose bite is remarkably venomous.NWAD VIPER.2

    A viper came out of the heat, and fastened on his hand. Acts 28:3.NWAD VIPER.3

    2. A person or thing mischievous or malignant.NWAD VIPER.4

    VIPERINE, a. [L. viperinus.] Pertaining to a viper or to vipers.

    VIPEROUS, a. [L. viperus.] Having the qualities of a viper; malignant; venomous; as a viperous tongue.

    VIPER’S BUGLOSS, n. A plant of the genus Echium.

    VIPER’S GRASS, n. A plant of the genus Scorzonera.

    VIRAGO, n. [L. from vir, a man.]

    1. A woman of the extraordinary stature, strength and courage; a female who has the robust body and masculine mind of a man; a female warrior.NWAD VIRAGO.2

    To arms! to arms! the fierce virago cries.NWAD VIRAGO.3

    2. In common language, a bold, impudent, turbulent woman; a termagant.NWAD VIRAGO.4

    VIRE, n. An arrow. Obs.

    VIRELAY, n.

    A song or little poem among the Provencal poets in France; a roundelay. It sometimes consisted of two rhymes only, and short verses, with stops.NWAD VIRELAY.2

    To which a lady sung a virelay.NWAD VIRELAY.3

    VIRENT, a. [L. virens, from vireo, to flourish or be green.]

    Green; verdant; fresh.NWAD VIRENT.2

    VIRGATE, a. nearly vurgate. [L. virga, a rod.]

    In botany, having the shape of a rod or wand; as a virgate stem.NWAD VIRGATE.2

    VIRGATE, n. A yardland.

    VIRGE, [See Verge.]


    1. Pertaining to Virgil, the Roman poet.NWAD VIRGILIAN.2

    2. Resembling the style of Virgil.NWAD VIRGILIAN.3

    VIRGIN, n. nearly vur’gin. [L. virgo.]

    1. A woman who has had no carnal knowledge of man.NWAD VIRGIN.2

    2. A woman not a mother. [Unusual.]NWAD VIRGIN.3

    3. The sign Virgo. [See Virgo.]NWAD VIRGIN.4

    VIRGIN, a.

    1. Pure; untouched; as virgin gold.NWAD VIRGIN.6

    2. Fresh; new; unused; as virgin soil.NWAD VIRGIN.7

    VIRGIN, v.i. To play the virgin; a cant word.

    VIRGINAL, a. Pertaining to a virgin; maidenly; as virginal chastity.

    VIRGINAL, n. A keyed instrument of one string, jack and quill to each note, like a spinet, but in shape resembling the forte piano; out of use.

    VIRGINAL, v.i. To pat; to strike as on a virginal [A cant word.]

    VIRGINITY, n. [L. virginitas.] Maidenhood; the state of having had no carnal knowledge of man.

    VIRGIN’S BOWER, n. A plant of the genus Clematis.

    VIRGO, n. [L.] A sign of the zodiac which the sun enters in August; a constellation, containing according to the British catalogue, one hundred and ten stars.

    VIRIDITY, n. [L. virditas, from vireo, to be green.]

    Greenness; verdure; the color of fresh vegetables.NWAD VIRIDITY.2

    VIRILE, a. [L. virilis, from vir, a man, vireo.]

    1. Pertaining to a man, in the eminent sense of the word, [not to man, in the sense of the human race;] belonging to the male sex; as virile age.NWAD VIRILE.2

    2. Masculine; not puerile or feminine; as virile strength or vigor.NWAD VIRILE.3

    VIRILITY, n. [L. virilitas.]

    1. Manhood; the state of the male sex, which has arrived to the maturity and strength of a man, and to the power of procreation.NWAD VIRILITY.2

    2. The power of procreation.NWAD VIRILITY.3

    3. Character of man. [Unusual.]NWAD VIRILITY.4

    VIRTU, n. A love of the fine arts; a taste for curiosities.

    VIRTUAL, a. [See Virtue.]

    1. Potential; having the power of acting or of invisible efficacy without the material or sensible part.NWAD VIRTUAL.2

    Every kind that lives, fomented by his virtual power, and warm’d.NWAD VIRTUAL.3

    Neither an actual nor virtual intention of the mind, but only that which may be gathered from the outward acts.NWAD VIRTUAL.4

    2. Being in essence or effect, not in fact; as the virtual presence of a man in his agent or substitute.NWAD VIRTUAL.5

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