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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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    JOYFULLY — JUSTICE

    JOYFULLY, adv. With joy; gladly.

    Never did men more joyfully obey.NWAD JOYFULLY.2

    JOYFULNESS, n. Great gladness; joy. Deuteronomy 28:47.

    JOYLESS, a. Destitute of joy; wanting joy.

    With downcast eyes the joyless victor sat.NWAD JOYLESS.2

    Rarely followed by of; as joyless of the grove.NWAD JOYLESS.3

    1. Giving no joy or pleasure.NWAD JOYLESS.4

    A joyless, dismal, black and sorrowful issue.NWAD JOYLESS.5

    JOYLESSLY, adv. Without joy.

    JOYLESSNESS, n. State of being joyless.

    JOYOUS, a. Glad; gay; merry; joyful.

    Joyous the birds; fresh gales and gentle airsNWAD JOYOUS.2

    Whispered it.NWAD JOYOUS.3

    1. Giving joy.NWAD JOYOUS.4

    They, all as glad as birds of joyous prime--NWAD JOYOUS.5

    It has of, before the cause of joy.NWAD JOYOUS.6

    And joyous of our conquest early won.NWAD JOYOUS.7

    JOYOUSLY, adv. With joy or gladness.

    JOYOUSNESS, n. The state of being joyous.

    JUB, n. A bottle or vessel.

    JUBILANT, a. [L. jubilans. See Jubilee.] Uttering songs of triumph; rejoicing; shouting with joy.

    While the bright pomp ascended jubilant.NWAD JUBILANT.2

    JUBILATION, n. [L. jubilatio. See Jubilee.]

    The act of declaring triumph.NWAD JUBILATION.2

    JUBILEE, n. [L. jubilum, from jubilo, to shout for joy; Heb. the blast of a trumpet, coinciding with Eng. bawl, peal, L. pello.]

    1. Among the Jews, every fiftieth year, being the year following the revolution of seven weeks of years, at which time all the slaves were liberated, and all lands which had been alienated during the whole period, reverted to their former owners. This was a time of great rejoicing. Hence,NWAD JUBILEE.2

    2. A season of great public joy and festivity.NWAD JUBILEE.3

    3. A church solemnity or ceremony celebrated at Rome, in which the pope grants plenary indulgence to sinners, or to as many as visit the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul at Rome.NWAD JUBILEE.4

    JUCUNDITY, n. [L. jucunditas, from jucundus, sweet, pleasant.]

    Pleasantness; agreeableness. [Little used.]NWAD JUCUNDITY.2

    JUDAIC, JUDAICAL, a. Pertaining to the Jews.

    JUDAICALLY, adv. After the Jewish manner.

    JUDAISM, n.

    1. The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews, as enjoined in the laws of Moses. Judaism was a temporary dispensation.NWAD JUDAISM.2

    2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and ceremonies.NWAD JUDAISM.3

    JUDAIZE, v.i. To conform to the religious doctrines and rites of the Jews.

    They--prevailed on the Galatians to judaize so far as to observe the rites of Moses in various instances.NWAD JUDAIZE.2

    JUDAIZER, n. One who conforms to the religion of the Jews.

    JUDAIZING, ppr. Conforming to the doctrines and rites of the Jews.

    JUDAS-TREE, n. A plant of the genus Cercis.

    JUDDOCK, n. A small snipe, called also Jack-snipe.

    JUDGE, n. [L. judex, supposed to be compounded of jus, law or right, and dico, to pronounce.]

    1. A civil officer who is invested with authority to hear and determine causes, civil or criminal, between parties, according to his commission; as the judges of the king’s bench, or of the common pleas; judges of the supreme court, of district courts, or of a county court. The judge of a court of equity is called a chancellor.NWAD JUDGE.2

    2. The Supreme Being.NWAD JUDGE.3

    Shall not the judge of all the earth do right? Genesis 18:25.NWAD JUDGE.4

    3. One who presides in a court of judicature.NWAD JUDGE.5

    4. One who has skill to decide on the merits of a question, or on the value of any thing; one who can discern truth and propriety.NWAD JUDGE.6

    A man who is no judge of law, may be a good judge of poetry or eloquence, or of the merits of a painting.NWAD JUDGE.7

    5. In the history of Israel, a chief magistrate, with civil and military powers. The Israelites were governed by judges more than three hundred years, and the history of their transactions is called the book of Judges.NWAD JUDGE.8

    6. A juryman or juror. In criminal suits, the jurors are judges of the law as well as of the fact.NWAD JUDGE.9

    JUDGE, v.i. [L. judico.]

    1. To compare facts or ideas, and perceive their agreement or disagreement, and thus to distinguish truth from falsehood.NWAD JUDGE.11

    Judge not according to the appearance John 7:24.NWAD JUDGE.12

    2. To form an opinion; to bring to issue the reasoning or deliberations of the mind.NWAD JUDGE.13

    If I did not know the originals, I should not be able to judge, by the copies, which was Virgil and which Ovid.NWAD JUDGE.14

    3. To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to pass sentence. He was present on the bench, but could not judge in the case.NWAD JUDGE.15

    The Lord judge between thee and me. Genesis 16:5.NWAD JUDGE.16

    4. To discern; to distinguish; to consider accurately for the purpose of forming an opinion or conclusion.NWAD JUDGE.17

    Judge in yourselves; is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered? 1 Corinthians 11:13.NWAD JUDGE.18

    JUDGE, v.t. To hear and determine a case; to examine and decide.

    Chaos shall judge the strife.NWAD JUDGE.20

    1. To try; to examine and pass sentence on.NWAD JUDGE.21

    Take ye him and judge him according to your law. John 18:31.NWAD JUDGE.22

    God shall judge the righteous and the wicked. Ecclesiastes 3:17.NWAD JUDGE.23

    2. Rightly to understand and discern.NWAD JUDGE.24

    He that is spiritual, judgeth all things. 1 Corinthians 2:15.NWAD JUDGE.25

    3. To censure rashly; to pass severe sentence.NWAD JUDGE.26

    Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matthew 7:1.NWAD JUDGE.27

    4. To esteem; to think; to reckon.NWAD JUDGE.28

    If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord-- Acts 16:15.NWAD JUDGE.29

    5. To rule or govern.NWAD JUDGE.30

    The Lord shall judge his people. Hebrews 10:30.NWAD JUDGE.31

    6. To doom to punishment; to punish.NWAD JUDGE.32

    I will judge thee according to thy ways. Ezekiel 7:8.NWAD JUDGE.33

    JUDGED, pp. Heard and determined; tried judicially; sentenced; censured; doomed.

    JUDGER, n. One who judges or passes sentence.

    JUDGESHIP, n. judj’ship. The office of a judge.

    JUDGING, ppr. Hearing and determining; forming an opinion; dooming.

    JUDGMENT, n. The act of judging; the act or process of the mind in comparing its ideas, to find their agreement or disagreement, and to ascertain truth; or the process of examining facts and arguments, to ascertain propriety and justice; or the process of examining the relations between one proposition and another.

    1. The faculty of the mind by which man is enabled to compare ideas and ascertain the relations of terms and propositions; as a man of clear judgment or sound judgment. The judgment may be biased by prejudice. Judgment supplies the want of certain knowledge.NWAD JUDGMENT.2

    2. The determination of the mind, formed from comparing the relations of ideas, or the comparison of facts and arguments. In the formation of our judgments, we should be careful to weigh and compare all the facts connected with the subject.NWAD JUDGMENT.3

    3. In law, the sentence of doom pronounced in any cause, civil or criminal, by the judge or court by which it is tried. Judgment may be rendered on demurrer, on a verdict, on a confession or default, or on a non-suit. Judgment, though pronounced by the judge or court, is properly the determination or sentence of the law. A pardon may be pleaded in arrest of judgment.NWAD JUDGMENT.4

    4. The right or power of passing sentence.NWAD JUDGMENT.5

    5. Determination; decision.NWAD JUDGMENT.6

    Let reason govern us in the formation of our judgment of things proposed to our inquiry.NWAD JUDGMENT.7

    6. Opinion; notion.NWAD JUDGMENT.8

    She, in my judgment, was as fair as you.NWAD JUDGMENT.9

    7. In Scripture, the spirit of wisdom and prudence, enabling a person to discern right and wrong, good and evil.NWAD JUDGMENT.10

    Give the king thy judgments, O God. Psalm 72:1.NWAD JUDGMENT.11

    8. A remarkable punishment; an extraordinary calamity inflicted by God on sinners.NWAD JUDGMENT.12

    Judgments are prepared for scorners. Proverbs 19:29; Isaiah 26:9.NWAD JUDGMENT.13

    9. The spiritual government of the world.NWAD JUDGMENT.14

    The Father hath committed all judgment to the Son. John 5:22.NWAD JUDGMENT.15

    10. The righteous statutes and commandments of God are called his judgments. Psalm 119:7-175.NWAD JUDGMENT.16

    11. The doctrines of the gospel, or God’s word. Matthew 12:18, 20.NWAD JUDGMENT.17

    12. Justice and equity. Luke 11:42; Isaiah 1:17, 21, 27.NWAD JUDGMENT.18

    13. The decrees and purposes of God concerning nations. Romans 11:33.NWAD JUDGMENT.19

    14. A court or tribunal. Matthew 5:21-22.NWAD JUDGMENT.20

    15. Controversies, or decisions of controversies. 1 Corinthians 6:4.NWAD JUDGMENT.21

    16. The gospel, or kingdom of grace. Matthew 12:18, 20.NWAD JUDGMENT.22

    17. The final trial of the human race, when God will decide the fate of every individual, and award sentence according to justice.NWAD JUDGMENT.23

    For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil. Ecclesiastes 12:14.NWAD JUDGMENT.24

    Judgment of God. Formerly this term was applied to extraordinary trials of secret crimes, as by arms and single combat, by ordeal, or hot plowshares, etc.; it being imagined that God would work miracles to vindicate innocence.NWAD JUDGMENT.25

    JUDGMENT-DAY, n. The last day, or day when final judgment will be pronounced on the subjects of God’s moral government.

    JUDGMENT-HALL, n. The hall where courts are held.

    JUDGMENT-SEAT, n. The seat or bench on which judges sit in court.

    1. A court; a tribunal.NWAD JUDGMENT-SEAT.2

    We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ. Romans 14:10.NWAD JUDGMENT-SEAT.3

    JUDICATIVE, a. Having power to judge.

    JUDICATORY, a. Dispensing justice.

    JUDICATORY, n. [L. judicatorium.] A court of justice; a tribunal.

    1. Distribution of justice.NWAD JUDICATORY.3

    JUDICATURE, n. The power of distributing justice by legal trial and determination. A court of judicature is a court invested with powers to administer justice between man and man.

    1. A court of justice; a judicatory.NWAD JUDICATURE.2

    JUDICIAL, a. Pertaining to courts of justice; as judicial power.

    1. Practiced in the distribution of justice; as judicial proceedings.NWAD JUDICIAL.2

    2. Proceeding from a court of justice; as a judicial determination.NWAD JUDICIAL.3

    3. Issued by a court under its seal; as a judicial writ.NWAD JUDICIAL.4

    4. Inflicted, as a penalty or in judgment; as judicial hardness of heart; a judicial punishment.NWAD JUDICIAL.5

    JUDICIALLY, adv. In the forms of legal justice; as a sentence judicially declared.

    1. By way of penalty or judgment; as, to be judicially punished.NWAD JUDICIALLY.2

    JUDICIARY, n. [L. judiciarius.]

    1. Passing judgment or sentence.NWAD JUDICIARY.2

    2. Pertaining to the courts of judicature or legal tribunals.NWAD JUDICIARY.3

    JUDICIARY, n. That branch of government which is concerned in the trial and determination of controversies between parties, and of criminal prosecutions; the system of courts of justice in a government. An independent judiciary is the firmest bulwark of freedom.

    JUDICIOUS, a.

    1. According to sound judgment; wise; prudent; rational; adapted to obtain a good end by the best means; used of things. Nothing is more important to success in the world than a judicious application of time, unless it may be a judicious expenditure of money.NWAD JUDICIOUS.2

    2. Acting according to sound judgment; possessing sound judgment; wise; directed by reason and wisdom; used of persons; as a judicious magistrate; a judicious historian.NWAD JUDICIOUS.3

    JUDICIOUSLY, adv. With good judgment; with discretion or wisdom; skillfully.

    Longinus has judiciously preferred the sublime genius that sometimes errs, to the middling or indifferent one, which makes few faults, but seldom rises to excellence.NWAD JUDICIOUSLY.2

    JUDICIOUSNESS, n. The quality of acting or being according to sound judgment.

    JUG, n. [Low L. caucus.] A vessel, usually earthen, with a swelling belly and narrow mouth, used for holding and conveying liquors.

    JUGGLE, v.i. [L. joculor, to jest, from jocus, a joke; jocor, to joke;]

    1. To play tricks by slight of hand; to amuse and make sport by tricks, which make a false show of extraordinary powers.NWAD JUGGLE.2

    2. To practice artifice or imposture.NWAD JUGGLE.3

    Be these juggling fiends no more believed.NWAD JUGGLE.4

    JUGGLE, v.t. To deceive by trick or artifice.

    Is’t possible that spells of France should juggleNWAD JUGGLE.6

    Men into such strange mockeries?NWAD JUGGLE.7

    JUGGLE, n. A trick by legerdemain.

    1. An imposture; a deception.NWAD JUGGLE.9

    JUGGLER, n.

    1. One who practices or exhibits tricks by slight of hand; one who makes sport by tricks of extraordinary dexterity, by which the spectator is deceived. Jugglers are punishable by law.NWAD JUGGLER.2

    2. A cheat; a deceiver; a trickish fellow.NWAD JUGGLER.3

    JUGGLING, ppr. Playing tricks by slight of hand; deceiving.

    JUGGLING, n. The act or practice of exhibiting tricks of legerdemain.

    JUGGLINGLY, adv. In a deceptive manner.

    JUGULAR, a. [L. jugulum, the neck, either from jugum, a yoke, or from its radical sense, to extend, to join. See Join.]

    Pertaining to the neck or throat; as the jugular vein.NWAD JUGULAR.2

    JUGULAR, n. A large vein of the neck.

    JUICE, JUSE, n. juse. The sap of vegetables; the fluid part of animal substances.

    JUICE, v.t. To moisten.

    JUICELESS, a. ju’seless. Destitute of juice; dry; without moisture.

    JUICINESS, n. ju’siness. The state of abounding with juice; succulence in plants.

    JUICY, a. ju’sy. Abounding with juice; moist; succulent.

    JUISE, n. [L. jus.] Judgment; justice.

    JUJUB, JUJUBE, n. [L. zizyphum.] The name of a plant and of its fruit, which is pulpy and resembles a small plum. The plant is arranged under the genus Rhamnus. The fruit was formerly used in pectoral decoctions, but it is now in little reputation.

    JUKE, v.i. To perch. [Not used.]

    JULEP, n. In pharmacy, a medicine composed of some proper liquor and a sirup of sugar, of extemporaneous preparation, serving as a vehicle to other forms of medicine.

    JULIAN, a. Noting the old account of the year, as regulated by Julius Caesar, which continued to be used till 1752, when the Gregorian year, or new style, was adopted.

    Julian Alps, called also Carnian, between Venetia and Noricum.NWAD JULIAN.2

    JULIS, n. A small fish with a green back.

    JULUS, n. [Gr. a handful or bundle.]

    1. In botany, a catkin or ament, a species of calyx or inflorescence, consisting of chaffy scales arranged along a stalk, as in hazel, birch, willow, etc.NWAD JULUS.2

    2. A genus of multiped insects, of the order of Apters, of a semi-cylindrical form, with moniliform antennae, and two articulated palpi.NWAD JULUS.3

    JULY, n. The seventh month of the year, during which the sun enters the sign Leo. It is so called from Julius, the surname of Caius Caesar, who was born in this month. Before that time, this month was called Quintilis, or the fifth month, according to the old Roman calendar, in which March was the first month of the year.

    JULY-FLOWER, n. The name of certain species of plants. The clove July-flower is of the genus Dianthus; the queen’s July-flower of the genus Hesperis; and the stock July-flower of the genus Cheiranthus. [See Gilly-flower.]

    JUMART, n. The offspring of a bull and a mare.

    JUMBLE, v.t. To mix in a confused mass; to put or throw together without order. It is often followed by together.

    One may observe how apt that is to jumble together passages of Scripture.NWAD JUMBLE.2

    JUMBLE, v.i. To meet, mix or unite in a confused manner.
    JUMBLE, n. Confused mixture, mass or collection without order.

    JUMBLED, pp. Mixed or collected in a confused mass.

    JUMBLEMENT, n. Confused mixture. [Not in use.]

    JUMBLER, a. One who mixes things in confusion.

    JUMBLING, ppr. Putting or mixing in a confused mass.

    JUMENT, n. [L. jumentum, a beast.] A beast of burden. [Not used.]

    JUMP, v.i.

    1. To leap; to skip; to spring. Applied to men, it signifies to spring upwards or forwards with both feet, in distinction from hop, which signifies to spring with one foot. A man jumps over a ditch; a beast jumps over a fence. A man jumps upon a horse; a goat jumps from rock to rock.NWAD JUMP.2

    2. To spring over any thing; to pass to at a leap.NWAD JUMP.3

    Here, upon this bank and shelve of time,NWAD JUMP.4

    We’d jump the life to come.NWAD JUMP.5

    We see a little, presume a great deal, and so jump to the conclusion.NWAD JUMP.6

    3. To bound; to pass from object to object; to jolt.NWAD JUMP.7

    The noise of the rattling of the wheels, and of the prancing horses, and of the jumping chariots. Nahum 3:2.NWAD JUMP.8

    4. To agree; to tally; to coincide.NWAD JUMP.9

    In some sort it jumps with my humor.NWAD JUMP.10

    [This use of the word is now vulgar, and in America, I think, is confined to the single phrase, to jump in judgment.]NWAD JUMP.11

    JUMP, v.t. To pass by a leap; to pass over eagerly or hastily; as, to jump a stream. [But over is understood.]
    JUMP, n. The act of jumping; a leap; a spring; a bound.

    1. A lucky chance.NWAD JUMP.14

    JUMP, n. A kind of loose or limber stays or waistcoat, worn by females.
    JUMP, adv. Exactly; nicely.

    JUMPER, n. One who jumps.

    JUMPING, ppr. Leaping; springing; bounding.

    JUNCATE, n. [L. juncus, a rush.]

    1. A cheese-cake; a kind of sweetmeat of curds and sugar.NWAD JUNCATE.2

    2. Any kind of delicate food.NWAD JUNCATE.3

    3. A furtive or private entertainment. [It is now written junket.]NWAD JUNCATE.4

    JUNCOUS, a. [L. junceus or juncosus, from juncus, a rush.]

    Full of bulrushes. [Little used.]NWAD JUNCOUS.2

    JUNCTION, n. [L. junctio, from jungo, to join.]

    1. The act or operation of joining; as the junction of two armies or detachments.NWAD JUNCTION.2

    2. Union; coalition; combination.NWAD JUNCTION.3

    3. The place or point of union.NWAD JUNCTION.4

    JUNCTURE, n. [L. junctura; jungo, to join.]

    1. A joining; union; amity; as the juncture of hearts. [Little used.]NWAD JUNCTURE.2

    2. A union of two bodies; a seam; particularly, a joint or articulation.NWAD JUNCTURE.3

    3. The line or point at which two bodies are joined.NWAD JUNCTURE.4

    4. A point of time; particularly, a point rendered critical or important by a concurrence of circumstances.NWAD JUNCTURE.5

    JUNE, n. [L. junius.] The sixth month of the year, when the sun enters the sign Cancer.

    JUNGLE, n. In Hindoostan, a thick wood of small trees or shrubs.

    JUNGLY, a. Consisting of jungles; abounding with jungles.

    JUNIOR, a. [L. from juvenis, young; quasi, juvenior.]

    Younger; not as old as another; as a junior partner in a company. It is applied to distinguish the younger of two persons bearing the same name in one family or town, and opposed to elder; as John Doe junior.NWAD JUNIOR.2

    JUNIOR, n. A person younger than another.

    The fools, my juniors by a year--NWAD JUNIOR.4

    JUNIORITY, n. The state of being junior.

    JUNIPER, n. [L. juniperus.] A tree or shrub bearing berries of a bluish color, of a warm, pungent, sweet taste, yielding when fresh, by expression, a rich, sweet, aromatic juice. They are useful carminatives and stomachics. The wood of the tree is of a reddish color, hard and durable, and is used in cabinet work and veneering. The oil of juniper mixed with that of nuts makes an excellent varnish; and the resin powdered is used under the name of pounce.

    JUNK, n. [L. juncus.]

    1. Pieces of old cable or old cordage, used for making points, gaskets, mats, etc., and when untwisted and picked to pieces, it forms oakum for filling the seams of ships.NWAD JUNK.2

    2. A small ship used in China; a Chinese vessel. [An eastern word.]NWAD JUNK.3

    JUNKET, n. [See Juncate.] A sweetmeat.

    1. A stolen entertainment.NWAD JUNKET.2

    JUNKET, v.i. To feast in secret; to make an entertainment by stealth.

    1. To feast.NWAD JUNKET.4

    Job’s children junketed and feasted together often.NWAD JUNKET.5

    JUNTO, n. [L. junctus, joined.]

    1. Primarily, a select council or assembly, which deliberates in secret on any affair of government. In a good sense, it is not used in English; but hence,NWAD JUNTO.2

    2. A cabal; a meeting or collection of men combined for secret deliberation and intrigue for party purposes; a faction; as a junto of ministers.NWAD JUNTO.3

    JUPITER, n. [L. the air or heavens; Jovis pater.]

    1. The supreme deity among the Greeks and Romans.NWAD JUPITER.2

    2. One of the superior planets, remarkable for its brightness. Its diameter is about eighty-nine thousand miles; its distance from the sun, four hundred and ninety millions of miles, and its revolution round the sun a little less than twelve years.NWAD JUPITER.3

    JUPPON, n. A short close coat.

    JURAT, n. [L. juratus, sworn, from juro, to swear.]

    In England, a magistrate in some corporations; an alderman, or an assistant to a bailiff.NWAD JURAT.2

    JURATORY, a. [L. juro, to swear.]

    Comprising an oath; as juratory caution. [Little used.]NWAD JURATORY.2

    JURIDICAL, a. [L. juridicus; jus, juris, law, and dico, to pronounce.]

    1. Acting in the distribution of justice; pertaining to a judge.NWAD JURIDICAL.2

    2. Used in courts of law or tribunals of justice.NWAD JURIDICAL.3

    JURIDICALLY, adv. According to forms of law, or proceedings in tribunals of justice; with legal authority.

    JURISCONSULT, n. [L. juris consultus; jus and consultus, consulo, to consult.] Among the Romans, a man learned in the law; a counselor at law; a master of Roman jurisprudence, who was consulted on the interpretation of the laws.

    JURISDICTION, n. [L. jurisdictio; jus, juris, law, and dictio, from dico, to pronounce.]

    1. The legal power of authority of doing justice in cases of complaint; the power of executing the laws and distributing justice. Thus we speak of certain suits or actions, or the cognizance of certain crimes being within the jurisdiction of a court, that is, within the limits of their authority or commission. Inferior courts have jurisdiction of debt and trespass, or of smaller offenses; the supreme courts have jurisdiction of treason, murder, and other high crimes. Jurisdiction is secular or ecclesiastical.NWAD JURISDICTION.2

    2. Power of governing or legislating. The legislature of one state can exercise no jurisdiction in another.NWAD JURISDICTION.3

    3. The power or right of exercising authority. Nations claim exclusive jurisdiction on the sea, to the extent of a marine league from the main land or shore.NWAD JURISDICTION.4

    4. The limit within which power may be exercised.NWAD JURISDICTION.5

    Jurisdiction, in its most general sense, is the power to make, declare or apply the law; when confined to the judiciary department, it is what we denominate the judicial power, the right of administering justice through the laws, by the means which the laws have provided for that purpose. Jurisdiction, is limited to place or territory, to persons, or to particular subjects.NWAD JURISDICTION.6

    JURISDICTIONAL, a. Pertaining to jurisdiction; as jurisdictional rights.

    JURISDICTIVE, a. Having jurisdiction.

    JURISPRUDENCE, n. [L. jurisprudentia; jus, law, and prudentia, science.] The science of law; the knowledge of the laws, customs and rights of men in a state or community, necessary for the due administration of justice. The study of jurisprudence, next to that of theology, is the most important and useful to men.

    JURISPRUDENT, a. Understanding law.

    JURISPRUDENTIAL, a. Pertaining to jurisprudence.

    JURIST, n. [L. jus, juris, law.]

    1. A man who professes the science of law; one versed in the law, or more particularly, in the civil law; a civilian.NWAD JURIST.2

    2. One versed in the law of nations, or who writes on the subject.NWAD JURIST.3

    JUROR, n. [L. jurator; or rather juro, to swear.]

    One that serves on a jury; one sworn to deliver the truth on the evidence given him concerning any matter in question or on trial.NWAD JUROR.2

    JURY, n. [L. juro, to swear.] A number of freeholders, selected in the manner prescribed by law, empaneled and sworn to inquire into and try any matter of fact, and to declare the truth on the evidence given them in the case. Grand juries consist usually of twenty four freeholders at least, and are summoned to try matters alleged in indictments. Petty juries, consisting usually of twelve men, attend courts to try matters of fact in civil causes, and to decide both the law and the fact in criminal prosecutions. The decision of a petty jury is called a verdict.

    JURYMAN, n. One who is empaneled on a jury, or who serves as a juror.

    JURYMAST, n. A mast erected in a ship to supply the place of one carried away in a tempest or an engagement, etc. The most probable origin of the word jury, in this compound, is that proposed by Thomson, from the Fr. jour, day, quasi, joure, temporary, or from L. juvare, to assist.

    JUST, a. [L. justus. The primary sense is probably straight or close, from the sense of setting, erecting, or extending.]

    1. Regular; orderly; due; suitable.NWAD JUST.2

    When allNWAD JUST.3

    The war shall stand ranged in its just array.NWAD JUST.4

    2. Exactly proportioned; proper.NWAD JUST.5

    Pleaseth your lordshipNWAD JUST.6

    To meet his grace, just distance ‘tween our armies?NWAD JUST.7

    3. Full; complete to the common standard.NWAD JUST.8

    He was a comely personage, a little above just stature.NWAD JUST.9

    4. Full; true; a sense allied to the preceding, or the same.NWAD JUST.10

    --So that once the skirmish was like to have come to a just battle.NWAD JUST.11

    5. In a moral sense, upright; honest; having principles of rectitude; or conforming exactly to the laws, and to principles of rectitude in social conduct; equitable in the distribution of justice; as a just judge.NWAD JUST.12

    6. In an evangelical sense, righteous; religious; influenced by a regard to the laws of God; or living in exact conformity to the divine will.NWAD JUST.13

    There is not a just man on earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. Ecclesiastes 7:20.NWAD JUST.14

    7. Conformed to rules of justice; doing equal justice.NWAD JUST.15

    Just balances, just weights, a just ephah and a just him shall ye have. Leviticus 19:36.NWAD JUST.16

    8. Conformed to truth; exact; proper; accurate; as just thoughts; just expressions; just images or representations; a just description; a just inference.NWAD JUST.17

    9. True; founded in truth and fact; as a just charge or accusation.NWAD JUST.18

    10. Innocent; blameless; without guilt.NWAD JUST.19

    How should man be just with God? Job 9:2.NWAD JUST.20

    11. Equitable; due; merited; as a just recompense or reward.NWAD JUST.21

    --Whose damnation is just. Romans 3:8.NWAD JUST.22

    12. True to promises; faithful; as just to one’s word or engagements.NWAD JUST.23

    13. Impartial; allowing what is due; giving fair representation of character, merit or demerit.NWAD JUST.24

    JUST, adv. Close or closely;; near or nearly, in place. He stood just by the speaker, and heard what he said. He stood just at the entrance of the city.

    1. Near or nearly in time; almost. Just at that moment he arose and fled.NWAD JUST.26

    2. Exactly; nicely; accurately. They remain just of the same opinion.NWAD JUST.27

    ‘Tis with our judgments as our watches;NWAD JUST.28

    Go just alike, yet each believes his own.NWAD JUST.29

    3. Merely; barely; exactly.NWAD JUST.30

    --And having just enough, not covet more.NWAD JUST.31

    4. Narrowly. He just escaped without injury.NWAD JUST.32

    JUST, n. A mock encounter on horseback; a combat for sport or for exercise, in which the combatants pushed with lances and swords, man to man, in mock fight; a tilt; one of the exercises at tournaments.
    JUST, v.i.

    1. To engage in mock fight on horseback.NWAD JUST.35

    2. To push; to drive; to justle.NWAD JUST.36

    JUSTICE, n. [L. justitia, from justus, just.]

    1. The virtue which consists in giving to every one what is his due; practical conformity to the laws and to principles of rectitude in the dealings of men with each other; honesty; integrity in commerce or mutual intercourse. Justice is distributive or commutative. Distributive justice belongs to magistrates or rulers, and consists in distributing to every man that right or equity which the laws and the principles of equity require; or in deciding controversies according to the laws and to principles of equity. Commutative justice consists in fair dealing in trade and mutual intercourse between man and man.NWAD JUSTICE.2

    2. Impartiality; equal distribution of right in expressing opinions; fair representation of facts respecting merit or demerit. In criticisms, narrations, history or discourse, it is a duty to do justice to every man, whether friend or foe.NWAD JUSTICE.3

    3. Equity; agreeableness to right; as, he proved the justice of his claim. This should, in strictness, be justness.NWAD JUSTICE.4

    4. Vindictive retribution; merited punishment. Sooner or later, justice overtakes the criminal.NWAD JUSTICE.5

    5. Right; application of equity. His arm will do him justice.NWAD JUSTICE.6

    6. [Low L. justiciarius.] A person commissioned to hold courts, or to try and decide controversies and administer justice to individuals; as the Chief Justice of the king’s bench, or of the common pleas, in England; the Chief Justice of the supreme court in the United States, etc. and justices of the peace.NWAD JUSTICE.7

    JUSTICE, v.t. To administer justice. [Little used.]
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