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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    JIBOYA, n. An American serpent of the largest kind.

    JIG, n. A kind of light dance, or a tune or air.

    1. A ballad.NWAD JIG.2

    JIG, v.i. To dance a jig.

    JIGGER, n. In sea-language, a machine consisting of a rope about five feet long, with a block at one end and a sheave at the other, used to hold on the cable when it is heaved into the ship, by the revolution of the windlass.

    JIGGISH, a. Suitable to a jig.

    JIGMAKER, n. One who makes or plays jigs.

    1. A ballad maker.NWAD JIGMAKER.2

    JIGPIN, n. A pin used by miners to hold the turn-beams, and prevent them from turning.

    JILL, n. A young woman; in contempt. [See Gill.]

    JILL-FLIRT, n. A light wanton woman.

    JILT, n. [of uncertain etymology.] A woman who gives her lover hopes and capriciously disappoints him; a woman who trifles with her lover.

    1. A name of contempt for a woman.NWAD JILT.2

    JILT, v.t. To encourage a lover and then frustrate his hopes; to trick in love; to give hopes to a lover and then reject him.

    JILT, v.i. To play the jilt; to practice deception in love and discard lovers.

    JIMMERS, n. Jointed hinges.

    JINGLE, v.i. To sound with a fine sharp rattle; to clink; as jingling chains or bells. [See also Gingle.]

    JINGLE, v.t. To cause to give a sharp sound, as a little bell or as pieces of metal.

    The bells she jingled, and the whistle blew.NWAD JINGLE.3

    JINGLE, n. A rattling or clinking sound, as of little bells or pieces of metal.

    1. A little bell or rattle.NWAD JINGLE.5

    2. Correspondence of sound in rhymes.NWAD JINGLE.6

    JINGLING, ppr. Giving a sharp fine rattling sound, as a little bell or as pieces of metal.

    JIPPO, n. A waistcoat or kind of stays for females.

    JOB, n. [of unknown origin, but perhaps allied to chop, primarily to strike or drive.]

    1. A piece of work; any thing to be done, whether of more or less importance. The carpenter or mason undertakes to build a house by the job. The erection of Westminster bridge was a heavy job; and it was a great job to erect Central wharf, in Boston. The mechanic has many small jobs on hand.NWAD JOB.2

    2. A lucrative business; an undertaking with a view to profit.NWAD JOB.3

    No cheek is known to blush nor heart to throb,NWAD JOB.4

    Save when they lose a question or a job.NWAD JOB.5

    3. A sudden stab with a pointed instrument. [This seems to be nearly the original sense.]NWAD JOB.6

    To do the job for one, to kill him.NWAD JOB.7

    JOB, v.t. To strike or stab with a sharp instrument.

    1. To drive in a sharp pointed instrument.NWAD JOB.9

    JOB, v.i. To deal in the public stocks; to buy and sell as a broker.

    The judge shall job, the bishop bite the town,NWAD JOB.11

    and mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown.NWAD JOB.12

    JOBBER, n. One who does small jobs.

    1. A dealer in the public stocks or funds; usually called a stock-jobber.NWAD JOBBER.2

    2. One who engages in a low, lucrative affair.NWAD JOBBER.3

    JOBBERNOWL, n. A loggerhead; a blockhead. [A low word.]

    JOB’S-TEARS, n. A plant of the genus Coix.

    JOCKEY, n. [said to be from Jackey, a diminutive of Jack, John; primarily, a boy that rides horses.]

    1. A man that rides horses in a race.NWAD JOCKEY.2

    2. A dealer in horses; one who makes it his business to buy and sell horses for gain. Hence,NWAD JOCKEY.3

    3. A cheat; one who deceives or takes undue advantage in trade.NWAD JOCKEY.4

    JOCKEY, v.t. To cheat; to trick; to deceive in trade.

    1. To jostle by riding against one.NWAD JOCKEY.6

    JOCKEYSHIP, n. The art or practice of riding horses.

    JOCOSE, a. [L. jocosus, from jocus, a joke.]

    1. Given to jokes and jesting; merry; waggish; used of persons.NWAD JOCOSE.2

    2. Containing a joke; sportive; merry; as jocose or comical airs.NWAD JOCOSE.3

    JOCOSELY, adv. In jest; for sport or game; waggishly.

    JOCOSENESS, n. The quality of being jocose; waggery; merriment. [Jocosity is not used.]

    JOCO-SERIOUS, a. Partaking of mirth and seriousness.

    JOCULAR, a. [L. jocularis, from jocus, a joke.]

    1. Jocose; waggish; merry; given to jesting; used of persons.NWAD JOCULAR.2

    2. Containing jokes; sportive; not serious; as a jocular expression or style.NWAD JOCULAR.3

    JOCULARITY, n. Merriment; jesting.

    JOCULARLY, adv. In jest; for sport or mirth.

    JOCULARY, a. Jocular. [Not in use.]

    JOCULATOR, n. [L.] A jester; a droll; a minstrel.

    JOCULATORY, a. Droll; merrily said.

    JOCUND, a. [L. jocundus, from jocus, a joke.]

    Merry; gay; airy; lively; sportive.NWAD JOCUND.2

    Rural sports and jocund strains.NWAD JOCUND.3

    JOCUNDITY, JOCUNDNESS, n. State of being merry; gayety.

    JOCUNDLY, adv. Merrily; gayly.

    JOG, v.t. [Eng. shock, shake.] To push or shake with the elbow or hand; to give notice or excite attention by a slight push.

    Sudden I jogged Ulysses.NWAD JOG.2

    JOG, v.i. To move by jogs or small shocks, like those of a slow trot.

    So hung his destiny, never to rot,NWAD JOG.4

    While he might still jog on, and keep his trot.NWAD JOG.5

    1. To walk or travel idly, heavily or slowly.NWAD JOG.6

    Thus they jog on, still tricking, never thriving.NWAD JOG.7

    JOG, n. A push; a slight shake; a shake or push intended to give notice or awaken attention. When your friend falls asleep at church, give him a jog.

    1. A rub; a small stop; obstruction.NWAD JOG.9

    JOGGER, n. One who walks or moves heavily and slowly.

    1. One who gives a sudden push.NWAD JOGGER.2

    JOGGING, ppr. Pushing slightly.

    JOGGING, n. A slight push or shake.

    JOGGLE, v.t. [from jog.] To shake slightly; to give a sudden but slight push.

    JOGGLED, pp. Slightly shaken.

    JOGGLING, ppr. Shaking slightly.

    JOHANNES, n. [John, latinized.] A Portuguese gold coin of the value of eight dollars; contracted often into joe; as a joe, or half-joe. It is named from the figure of king John, which it bears.

    JOHNAPPLE, n. A sort of apple, good for spring use, when other fruit is spent.

    JOIN, v.t. [L. jungo, jungere; jungo for jugo, jugum; Eng. yoke; Gr. a yoke, and a pair, to join.]

    1. To set or bring one thing in contiguity with another.NWAD JOIN.2

    Woe to them that join house to house, that lay field to field. Isaiah 5:8.NWAD JOIN.3

    2. To couple; to connect; to combine; as, to join ideas.NWAD JOIN.4

    3. To unite in league or marriage.NWAD JOIN.5

    Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honor in abundance, and joined affinity with Ahab. 2 Chronicles 18:1.NWAD JOIN.6

    What God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. Matthew 19:6.NWAD JOIN.7

    4. To associate.NWAD JOIN.8

    Go near and join thyself to this chariot. Acts 8:29.NWAD JOIN.9

    5. To unite in any act.NWAD JOIN.10

    Thy tuneful voice with numbers join.NWAD JOIN.11

    6. To unite in concord.NWAD JOIN.12

    But that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind, and in the same judgment. 1 Corinthians 1:10.NWAD JOIN.13

    The phrase, to join battle, is probably elliptical, for join in battle; or it is borrowed from the Latin, committere proelium, to send together the battle.NWAD JOIN.14

    In general, join signifies to unite two entire things without breach or intermixture, by contact or contiguity, either temporary or permanent. It differs from connect, which signifies properly, to unite by an intermediate substance. But join, unite, and connect are often used synonymously.NWAD JOIN.15

    JOIN, v.i. To grow to; to adhere. The place where two bones of the body join, is called a joint or articulation.

    1. To be contiguous, close or in contact; as when two houses join.NWAD JOIN.17

    2. To unite with in marriage, league, confederacy, partnership or society. Russia and Austria joined in opposition to Buonaparte’s ambitious views. Men join in great undertakings, and in companies for trade or manufacture. They join in entertainments and amusements. They join in benevolent associations. It is often followed by with.NWAD JOIN.18

    Any other may join with him that is injured, and assist him in recovering satisfaction.NWAD JOIN.19

    Should we again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with the people of these abominations? Ezra 9:14.NWAD JOIN.20

    JOINDER, n. A joining; as a joinder in demurrer.

    JOINED, pp. Added; united; set or fastened together; associated; confederated.

    JOINER, n. One whose occupation is to construct things by joining pieces of wood; but appropriately and usually, a mechanic who does the wood-work in the covering and finishing of buildings. This is the true and original sense of the word in Great Britain and in New England. This person is called in New York, a carpenter. [See Carpenter.]

    JOINERY, n. The art of fitting and joining pieces of timber in the construction of utensils or parts of a building, so as to form one entire piece.

    JOINHAND, n. Writing in which letters are joined in words; as distinguished from writing in single letters.

    JOINING, ppr. Adding; making contiguous; uniting; confederating.

    JOINT, n. [L. junctura. See Join.]

    1. The joining of two or more things.NWAD JOINT.2

    2. In anatomy, the joining of two or more bones; an articulation; as the elbow, the knee, or the knuckle.NWAD JOINT.3

    3. A knot; the union of two parts of a plant; or the space between two joints; an internode; as the joint of a cane, or of a stalk of maiz.NWAD JOINT.4

    4. A hinge; a juncture of parts which admits of motion.NWAD JOINT.5

    5. The place where two pieces of timber are united.NWAD JOINT.6

    6. In joinery, straight lines are called a joint, when two pieces of wood are planed.NWAD JOINT.7

    7. One of the limbs of an animal cut up by the butcher.NWAD JOINT.8

    Out of joint, luxated; dislocated; as when the head of a bone is displaced from its socket. Hence figuratively, confused; disordered; misplaced.NWAD JOINT.9

    JOINT, a. Shared by two or more; as joint property.

    1. United in the same profession; having an interest in the same thing; as a joint-heir or heiress.NWAD JOINT.11

    2. United; combined; acting in concert; as a joint force; joint efforts; joint vigor.NWAD JOINT.12

    Joint stock, the capital or fund of a company or partnership in business.NWAD JOINT.13

    JOINT, v.t. To form with joints or articulations; used mostly in the participle; as the fingers are jointed; a cane has a jointed stalk.

    1. To form many parts into one; as jointed wood.NWAD JOINT.15

    2. To cut or divide into joints or quarters.NWAD JOINT.16

    JOINTED, pp. Formed with articulations, as the stem of a plant.

    1. Separated into joints or quarters.NWAD JOINTED.2

    JOINTER, n. A long plane, a joiner’s utensil.

    JOINT-HEIR, n. [joint and heir.] A heir having a joint interest with another. Romans 8:17.

    JOINTLY, adv. Together; unitedly; in concert; with cooperation.

    1. With union of interest; as, to be jointly concerned in a voyage.NWAD JOINTLY.2

    JOINTRESS, n. A woman who has a jointure.

    JOINTSTOOL, n. A stool consisting of parts inserted in each other.

    JOINT-TENANCY, n. [joint and tenant.] A tenure of estate by unity of interest, title, time and possession.

    JOINT-TENANT, n. [joint and tenant.] One who holds an estate by joint-tenancy.

    JOINTURE, n. An estate in lands or tenements, settled on a woman in consideration of marriage, and which she is to enjoy after her husband’s decease.

    JOINTURE, v.t. To settle a jointure upon.

    JOINTURED, pp. Endowed with a jointure.

    JOIST, n. A small piece of timber, such as is framed into the girders and summers of a building to support a floor.

    JOIST, v.t. To fit in joists; to lay joists.

    JOKE, n. [L. jocus.]

    1. A jest; something said for the sake of exciting a laugh; something witty or sportive; raillery. A jealous person will rarely bear a joke.NWAD JOKE.2

    2. An illusion; something not real, or to no purpose.NWAD JOKE.3

    Inclose whole downs in walls, ‘tis all a joke!NWAD JOKE.4

    In joke, in jest; for the sake of raising a laugh; not in earnest.NWAD JOKE.5

    JOKE, v.i. [L. jocor.] To jest; to be merry in words or actions.

    JOKE, v.t. To rally; to cast jokes at; to make merry with.

    JOKER, n. A jester; a merry fellow.

    JOKING, ppr. Jesting; making merry with.

    JOLE, n. [sometimes written jowl.]

    1. The cheek; used in the phrase, cheek by jole, that is, with the cheeks together, close, tete a tete.NWAD JOLE.2

    2. The head of a fish.NWAD JOLE.3

    JOLE, v.t. To strike the head against any thing; to clash with violence. [Not used.]

    JOLLILY, adv. [See Jolly.] With noisy mirth; with a disposition to noisy mirth.

    JOLLIMENT, n. Mirth; merriment.

    JOLLINESS, JOLLITY, n. [from jolly.] Noisy mirth; gayety; merriment; festivity.

    All was now turned to jollity and game.NWAD JOLLINESS.2

    1. Elevation of spirit; gayety.NWAD JOLLINESS.3

    He with a proud jollity commanded him to leave that quarrel for him who was only worthy to enter into it.NWAD JOLLINESS.4

    [This word in America is not now applied to respectable company.]NWAD JOLLINESS.5

    JOLLY, a.

    1. Merry; gay; lively; full of life and mirth; jovial. It expresses more life and noise than cheerful; as a jolly troop of huntsmen.NWAD JOLLY.2

    [It is seldom applied in colloquial usage to respectable company. We rarely say of respectable persons, they are jolly. It is applied to the young and the vulgar.]NWAD JOLLY.3

    2. Expressing mirth or inspiring it.NWAD JOLLY.4

    And with his jolly pipe delights the groves.NWAD JOLLY.5

    The coachman is swelled into jolly dimensions by frequent potations of malt liquors.NWAD JOLLY.6

    3. Exciting mirth and gayety; as jolly May.NWAD JOLLY.7

    4. Like one in high health; pretty.NWAD JOLLY.8

    JOLLY-BOAT, n. A small boat belonging to a ship.

    JOLT, v.i. To shake with short abrupt risings and fallings; as a carriage moving on rough ground. The carriage jolts.

    JOLT, v.t. To shake with sudden jerks, as in a carriage on rough ground, or on a high trotting horse; as the horse or carriage jolts the rider.

    JOLT, n. A shock or shake by a sudden jerk, as in a carriage.

    JOLTER, n. He or that which jolts.

    JOLTHEAD, n. A greathead; a dunce; a blockhead.

    JOLTING, ppr. Giving sudden jerks or shakes.

    JONQUIL, n. [L. juncus, a rush.] A plant of the genus Narcissus or daffodil, bearing beautiful flowers, of various colors, yellow and white.

    JORDEN, n. A vessel for chamber uses.

    JOSO, n. A small fish of the gudgeon kind.

    JOSTLE, v.t. jos’l. To run against; to push.

    JOSTLED, pp. Run against; pushed. We say, a thing is jostled out of its place.

    JOSTLING, ppr. Running against; pushing.

    JOSTLING, n. A running against; a crowding.

    JOT, n. [Heb. yod.] An iota; a point; a tittle; the least quantity assignable.

    Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one title shall in no wise pass from the law till all shall be fulfilled. Matthew 5:18.NWAD JOT.2

    A man may read much, and acquire not a jot of knowledge, or be a jot the wiser.NWAD JOT.3

    JOT, v.t. To set down; to make a memorandum of.

    JOTTING, n. A memorandum.

    JOUISSANCE, n. Jollity; merriment. [Not in use.]

    JOURNAL, n. jur’nal. [L. diurnum. This was originally an adjective, signifying daily, as in Spenser and Shakespeare; but the adjective is obsolete.]

    1. A diary; an account of daily transactions and events; or the book containing such account.NWAD JOURNAL.2

    2. Among merchants, a book in which every particular article or charge is fairly entered from the waste book or blotter.NWAD JOURNAL.3

    3. In navigation, a daily register of the ship’s course and distance, the winds, weather, and other occurrences.NWAD JOURNAL.4

    4. A paper published daily, or other newspaper; also, the title of a book or pamphlet published at stated times, containing an account of inventions, discoveries and improvements in arts and sciences; as the Journal de Savans; the Journal of Science.NWAD JOURNAL.5

    JOURNALIST, n. jur’nalist. The writer of a journal or diary.

    JOURNALIZE, v.t. jur’nalize. To enter in a journal.

    JOURNEY, n. jur’ny. [L. diurnus, dies.]

    1. The travel of a day.NWAD JOURNEY.2

    2. Travel by land to any distance and for any time, indefinitely; as a journey from London to Paris, or to Rome; a journey to visit a brother; a week’s journey; we made two journeys to Philadelphia.NWAD JOURNEY.3

    3. Passage form one place to another; as a long journey from the upper regions.NWAD JOURNEY.4

    4. It may sometimes include a passing by water.NWAD JOURNEY.5

    JOURNEY, v.i. jur’ny. To travel form place to place; to pass from home to a distance.

    Abram journeyed, going on still towards the south. Genesis 12:9.NWAD JOURNEY.7

    JOURNEYING, ppr. Traveling; passing from place to place.

    JOURNEYING, n. A traveling or passing from one place to another; as the journeyings of the children of Israel.

    JOURNEYMAN, n. [jounrey and man.] Strictly, a man hired to work by the day, but in fact, any mechanic who is hired to work for another in his employment, whether by the month, year or other term. It is applied only to mechanics in their own occupations.

    JOURNEY-WORK, n. Work done for hire by a mechanic in his proper occupation. [This word is never applied to farming.]

    JOUST. [See Just.]

    JOVE, n. [L. Jovis.]

    1. The name of the Supreme Deity among the Romans.NWAD JOVE.2

    2. The planet jupiter.NWAD JOVE.3

    Or ask of yonder argent fields above.NWAD JOVE.4

    Why Jove’s satellites are less than Jove.NWAD JOVE.5

    3. The air or atmosphere, or the god of the air.NWAD JOVE.6

    And Jove descends in showers of kindly rain.NWAD JOVE.7

    JOVIAL, a. [from Jove, supra.] Under the influence of Jupiter, the planet.

    --The fixed stars astrologically differenced by the planets, and esteemed Martial or Jovial according to the colors whereby they answer these planets.NWAD JOVIAL.2

    JOVIAL, a.

    1. Gay; merry; airy; joyous; jolly; as a jovial youth; a jovial throng.NWAD JOVIAL.4

    2. Expressive of mirth and hilarity.NWAD JOVIAL.5

    His odes are some of them panegyrical, others moral, the rest are jovial or bacchanalian.NWAD JOVIAL.6

    JOVIALIST, n. One who lives a jovial life.

    JOVIALLY, adv. Merrily; gayly; with noisy mirth.

    JOVIALNESS, n. Noisy mirth; gayety.

    JOWL, n. The cheek. [See Jole.]

    JOWLER, n. The name of a hunting dog, beagle or other dog.

    JOWTER, n. A fish driver.

    JOY, n.

    1. The passion or emotion excited by the acquisition or expectation of good; that excitement of pleasurable feelings which is caused by success, good fortune, the gratification of desire or some good possessed, or by a rational prospect of possessing what we love or desire; gladness; exultation; exhilaration of spirits.NWAD JOY.2

    Joy is a delight of the mind, from the consideration of the present or assured approaching possession of a good.NWAD JOY.3

    Bring heavenly balm to heal my country’s wounds,NWAD JOY.4

    Joy to my soul and transport to my lay.NWAD JOY.5

    2. Gayety; mirth; festivity.NWAD JOY.6

    The roofs with joy resound.NWAD JOY.7

    3. Happiness; felicity.NWAD JOY.8

    Her heavenly form beheld, all wished her joy.NWAD JOY.9

    4. A glorious and triumphant state.NWAD JOY.10

    --Who for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross. Hebrews 12:2.NWAD JOY.11

    5. The cause of joy or happiness.NWAD JOY.12

    For ye are our glory and joy. 1 Thessalonians 2:20.NWAD JOY.13

    6. A term of fondness; the cause of you.NWAD JOY.14

    JOY, v.i. To rejoice; to be glad; to exult.

    I will joy in the God of my salvation. Habakkuk 3:18.NWAD JOY.16

    JOY, v.t. To give joy to; to congratulate; to entertain kindly.

    1. To gladden; to exhilarate.NWAD JOY.18

    My soul was joyed in vain.NWAD JOY.19

    2. To enjoy; to have or possess with pleasure, or to have pleasure in the possession of. [Little used. See Enjoy.]NWAD JOY.20

    JOYANCE, n. Gayety; festivity.

    JOYED, pp. Gladdened; enjoyed.

    JOYFUL, a. Full of joy; very glad; exulting.

    My soul shall be joyful in my God. Isaiah 61:10.NWAD JOYFUL.2

    Rarely, it has of before the cause of joy.NWAD JOYFUL.3

    Sad for their loss, but joyful of our life.NWAD JOYFUL.4

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