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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    RECUMB, v.i. [L. recumbo; re and cumbo, to lie down.] To lean; to recline; to repose.

    RECUMBENCE, n. [from L. recumbens.] The act of reposing or resting in confidence.


    1. The posture of leaning, reclining or lying.NWAD RECUMBENCY.2

    2. Rest; repose; idle state.NWAD RECUMBENCY.3

    RECUMBENT, a. [L. recumbens.]

    1. Leaning; reclining; as the recumbent posture of the Romans at their meals.NWAD RECUMBENT.2

    2. Reposing; inactive; idle.NWAD RECUMBENT.3

    RECUPERATION, n. [L. recuperatio.] Recovery, as of any thing lost.

    RECUPERATIVE, RECUPERATORY, a. Tending to recovery; pertaining to recovery.

    RECUR, v.i. [L. recurro; re and curro, to run.]

    1. To return to the thought or mind.NWAD RECUR.2

    When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will recur in the mind, when the word is heard.NWAD RECUR.3

    2. To resort; to have recourse.NWAD RECUR.4

    If to avoid succession in eternal existence, they recur to the punctum stans of the schools, they will very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration.NWAD RECUR.5

    RECURE, v.t. [re and cure.] To cure; to recover. [Not in use.]

    RECURE, n. Cure; recovery. [Not in use.]

    RECURELESS, a. Incapable of cure or remedy. [Not in use.]


    1. Return; as the recurrence of error.NWAD RECURRENCE.2

    2. Resort; the having recourse.NWAD RECURRENCE.3

    RECURRENT, a. [L. recurrens.]

    1. Returning from time to time; as recurrent pains of a disease.NWAD RECURRENT.2

    2. In crystallography, a recurrent crystal is one whose faces, being counted in annular ranges from one extremity to the other, furnish two different numbers which succeed each other times, as 4, 8, 4, 8, 4.NWAD RECURRENT.3

    3. In anatomy, the recurrent nerve is a branch of the par vagum, given off in the upper part of the thorax, which is reflected and runs up along the trachea to the larynx.NWAD RECURRENT.4

    RECURSION, n. [L. recursus, recurro; re and curro, to run.] Return. [Little used.]

    RECURVATE, v.t. [L. recurro; re and curvo, to bend.] To bend back.


    1. In botany, bent, bowed or curved downwards; as a recurvate leaf.NWAD RECURVATE.3

    2. Bent outward; as a recurvate prickle, awn, petiole, calyx or corol.NWAD RECURVATE.4

    RECURVATION, RECURVITY, n. A bending or flexure backwards.

    RECURVE, v.t. recurv’. [L. recurvo, supra.] To bend back.

    RECURVED, pp. Bent back or downwards; as a recurved leaf.

    RECURVIROSTER, n. [L. recurvus, bent back, and rostrum, a beak.]

    A fowl whose beak or bill bends upwards, as the avoset.NWAD RECURVIROSTER.2

    RECURVOUS, a. [L. recurvus.] Bent backwards.

    RECUSANCY, n. Non-conformity. [See Recusant.]

    RECUSANT, a. s as z. [L. recusans, recuso, to refuse; re and the root of causa, signifying to drive. The primary sense is to repel or drive back.]

    Refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as a recusant lord.NWAD RECUSANT.2

    RECUSANT, n. [supra.]

    1. In English history, a person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as a popish recusant, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope.NWAD RECUSANT.4

    2. One who refuses communion with the church of England; a non-conformist.NWAD RECUSANT.5

    All that are recusants of holy rites.NWAD RECUSANT.6

    RECUSATION, n. [L. recusatio.]

    1. Refusal.NWAD RECUSATION.2

    2. In law, the act of refusing a judge, or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality. [This practice is now obsolete.]NWAD RECUSATION.3

    RECUSE, v.t. s as z. [L. recuso.] To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause. [The practice and the word are obsolete.]

    RED, a. [Gr red, and a rose, from its color. Heb. to descend, to bring down. L. gradior, also to correct, to teach, erudio. See also Rad.]

    Of a bright color, resembling blood. Red is a simple or primary color, but of several different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, etc. We say red color, red cloth, red flame, red eyes, red cheeks, red lead, etc.NWAD RED.2

    Red book of the exchequer, an ancient English record or manuscript containing various treatises relating to the times before the conquest.NWAD RED.3

    Red men, red people, red children, the aboriginals of America, as distinguished from the whites.NWAD RED.4

    RED, n. A red color; as a brighter color, the best of all the reds.

    REDACT, v.t. [L. redactus, redigo; red, re, and ago.]

    To force; to reduce to form. [Not used.]NWAD REDACT.2

    REDAN, n. [written sometimes redent and redens; said to be contracted from L. recedens. Lunier.]

    In fortification, a work indented, or formed with salient and re-entering angles, so that one part may flank and defend another.NWAD REDAN.2

    REDARGUE, v.t. [L. redarguo; red, re, and arguo.] To refute. [Not in use.]

    REDARGUTION, n. [supra.] Refutation; conviction. [Not in use.]

    RED-BERRIED, a. Having or bearing red berries; as red-berried shrub cassia.

    RED-BIRD, n. The popular name of several birds in the United States, as the Tanagra aestiva or summer red-bird, the Tanagra rubra, and the Baltimore oriole or hangnest.

    REDBREAST, n. A bird so called from the color of its breast, a species of Motacilla. In America, this name is given to the robin, so called, a species of Turdus.

    REDBUD, n. A plant or tree of the genus Cercis.

    RED-CHALK, n. A kind of clay ironstone; reddle.

    RED-COAT, n. A name given to a soldier who wears a red coat.

    REDDEN, v.t. red’n. [from red.] To make red.

    REDDEN, v.i. red’n.

    1. To grow or become red.NWAD REDDEN.3

    - The coral redden and the ruby glow.NWAD REDDEN.4

    2. To blush.NWAD REDDEN.5

    Appius reddens at each word you speak.NWAD REDDEN.6

    REDDENDUM, n. In law, the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease.

    REDDISH, a. Somewhat red; moderately red. Leviticus 13:19.

    REDDISHNESS, n. Redness in a moderate degree.

    REDDITION, n. [L. reddo, to return.]

    1. A returning of any thing; restitution; surrender.NWAD REDDITION.2

    2. Explanation; representation.NWAD REDDITION.3

    REDDITIVE, a. [L. redditivus, from reddo.]

    Returning; answering to an interrogative; a term of grammar.NWAD REDDITIVE.2

    REDDLE, n. [from red.] Red chalk, commonly used as a pigment. It is a mineral of a florid color, but not of a deep red.

    REDE, n. Counsel; advice. Obs.

    REDE, v.t. To counsel or advise. Obs.

    REDEEM, v.t. [L. redimo; red, re, and emo, to obtain or purchase.]

    1. To purchase back; to ransom; to liberate or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying an equivalent; as, to redeem prisoners or captured goods; to redeem a pledge.NWAD REDEEM.2

    2. To repurchase what has been sold; to regain possession of a thing alienated, by repaying the value of it to the possessor.NWAD REDEEM.3

    If a man [shall] sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold. Leviticus 25:29.NWAD REDEEM.4

    3. To rescue; to recover; to deliver from.NWAD REDEEM.5

    Th’ Almighty from the grave hath me redeem’d.NWAD REDEEM.6

    Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. Psalm 25:22; Deuteronomy 7:8.NWAD REDEEM.7

    The mass of earth not yet redeemed from chaos.NWAD REDEEM.8

    4. To compensate; to make amends for.NWAD REDEEM.9

    It is a chance which does redeem all sorrows.NWAD REDEEM.10

    By lesser ills the greater to redeem.NWAD REDEEM.11

    5. To free by making atonement.NWAD REDEEM.12

    Thou hast one daughter who redeems nature from the general curse.NWAD REDEEM.13

    6. To pay the penalty of.NWAD REDEEM.14

    Which of you will be mortal to redeem man’s mortal crime?NWAD REDEEM.15

    7. To save.NWAD REDEEM.16

    He could not have redeemed a portion of his time for contemplating the powers of nature.NWAD REDEEM.17

    8. To perform what has been promised; to make good by performance. He has redeemed his pledge or promise.NWAD REDEEM.18

    9. In law, to recall an estate, or to obtain the right to re-enter upon a mortgaged estate by paying to the mortgagee his principal, interest, and expenses or costs.NWAD REDEEM.19

    10. In theology, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God’s violated law, by obedience and suffering in the place of the sinner, or by doing and suffering that which is accepted in lieu of the sinner’s obedience.NWAD REDEEM.20

    Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us. Galatians 3:13; Titus 2:14.NWAD REDEEM.21

    11. In commerce, to purchase or pay the value in specie, of any promissory note, bill or other evidence of debt, given by the state, by a company or corporation, or by an individual. The credit of a state, a banking company or individuals, is good when they can redeem all their stock, notes or bills, at par.NWAD REDEEM.22

    To redeem time, is to use more diligence in the improvement of it; to be diligent and active in duty and preparation. Ephesians 5:16.NWAD REDEEM.23


    1. That may be redeemed; capable of redemption.NWAD REDEEMABLE.2

    2. That may be purchased or paid for in gold and silver, and brought into the possession of government or the original promiser.NWAD REDEEMABLE.3

    The capital of the debt of the United States may be considered in the light of an annuity redeemable at the pleasure of the government.NWAD REDEEMABLE.4

    REDEEMABLENESS, n. The state of being redeemable.

    REDEEMED, pp. Ransomed; delivered from bondage, distress, penalty, liability, or from the possession of another, by paying an equivalent.

    REDEEMER, n.

    1. One who redeems or ransoms.NWAD REDEEMER.2

    2. The Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.NWAD REDEEMER.3

    REDEEMING, ppr. Ransoming; procuring deliverance from captivity, capture, bondage, sin, distress or liability to suffer, by the payment of an equivalent.

    REDELIBERATE, v.i. [re and deliberate.] To deliberate again.

    REDELIBERATE, v.t. To reconsider. [Not in use.]

    REDELIVER, v.t. [re and deliver.]

    1. To deliver back.NWAD REDELIVER.2

    2. To deliver again; to liberate a second time.NWAD REDELIVER.3

    REDELIVERANCE, n. A second deliverance.

    REDELIVERED, pp. Delivered back; liberated again.

    REDELIVERING, ppr. Delivering back; liberating again.

    REDELIVERY, n. The act of delivering back; also, a second delivery or liberation.

    REDEMAND, v.t. [re and demand.]

    To demand back; to demand again.NWAD REDEMAND.2

    REDEMAND, n. A demanding back again.

    REDEMANDABLE, a. That may be demanded back.

    REDEMANDED, pp. Demanded back or again.

    REDEMANDING, ppr. Demanding back or again.

    REDEMISE, v.t. s as z. [re and demise.] To convey or transfer back, as an estate in fee simple, fee tail, for life or a term of years.

    REDEMISE, n. Reconveyance; the transfer of an estate back to the person who has demised it; as the demise and redemise of an estate in fee simple, fee tail, or for life or years, by mutual leases.

    REDEMISED, pp. Reconveyed, as an estate.

    REDEMISING, ppr. Reconveying.

    REDEMPTION, n. [L. redemptio. See Redeem.]

    1. Repurchase of captured goods or prisoners; the act of procuring the deliverance of persons or things from the possession and power of captors by the payment of an equivalent; ransom; release; as the redemption of prisoners taken in war; the redemption of a ship and cargo.NWAD REDEMPTION.2

    2. Deliverance from bondage, distress, or from liability to any evil or forfeiture, either by money, labor or other means.NWAD REDEMPTION.3

    3. Repurchase, as of lands alienated. Leviticus 25:24; Jeremiah 32:7-8.NWAD REDEMPTION.4

    4. The liberation of an estate from a mortgage; or the purchase of the right to re-enter upon it by paying the principal sum for which it was mortgaged with interest and cost; also, the right of redeeming and re-entering.NWAD REDEMPTION.5

    5. Repurchase of notes, bills or other evidence of debt by paying their value in specie to their holders.NWAD REDEMPTION.6

    6. In theology, the purchase of God’s favor by the death and sufferings of Christ; the ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God’s violated law by the atonement of Christ.NWAD REDEMPTION.7

    In whom we have redemption through his blood. Ephesians 1:7; Colossians 1:14.NWAD REDEMPTION.8

    REDEMPTIONER, n. One who redeems himself, or purchases his release from debt or obligation to the master of a ship by his services; or one whose services are sold to pay the expenses of his passage to America.

    REDEMPTORY, a. Paid for ransom; as Hector’s redemptory price.

    REDENTED, a. Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.

    REDESCEND, v.i. [re and descent.] To descend again.

    REDESCENDING, ppr. Descending again.

    REDEYE, n. [red and eye.] A fish of a red color, particularly the iris.

    REDGUM, n. A disease of new born infants; an eruption of red pimples in early infancy.

    RED-HAIRED, a. Having hair of a red or sandy color.

    RED-HOT, n. Red with heat; heated to redness; as red-hot iron; red-hot balls.

    REDIENT, a. [L. rediens, redeo, to return.] Returning.

    REDIGEST, v.t. To digest or reduce to form a second time.

    REDIGESTED, pp. Digested again.

    REDIGESTING, ppr. Digesting a second time; reducing again to order.

    REDINTEGRATE, v.t. [L. redintegro; red, re, and integro, from integer, whole.]

    To make whole again; to renew; to restore to a perfect state.NWAD REDINTEGRATE.2

    REDINTEGRATE, a. Renewed; restored to wholeness or a perfect state.

    REDINTEGRATED, pp. Renewed; restored to entireness.

    REDINTEGRATING, ppr. Restoring to a perfect state.


    1. Renovation; restoration to a whole or sound state.NWAD REDINTEGRATION.2

    2. In chimistry, the restoration of any mixed body or matter to its former nature and constitution.NWAD REDINTEGRATION.3

    REDISBURSE, v.t. redisburs’. [re and disburse.] To repay or refund.

    REDISPOSE, v.t. s as z. [re and dispose.] To dispose or adjust again.

    REDISPOSED, pp. Disposed anew.

    REDISPOSING, ppr. Disposing or adjusting anew.

    REDISSEIZIN, n. [re and disseizin.] In law, a writ of redisseizin, is a writ to recover seizin of lands or tenements against a redisseizor.

    REDISSEIZOR, n. [re and disseizor.] A person who disseizes lands or tenements a second time, or after a recovery of the same from him in an action of novel disseizin.

    REDISSOLVE, v.t. redizolv’. [re and dissolve.] To dissolve again.

    REDISSOLVED, pp. Dissolved a second time.

    REDISSOLVING, ppr. Dissolving again.

    REDISTRIBUTE, v.t. [re and distribute.] To distribute again; to deal back again.

    REDISTRIBUTED, pp. Distributed again or back.

    REDISTRIBUTING, pp. Distributing again or back.

    REDISTRIBUTION, n. A dealing back, or a second distribution.

    RED-LED, n. red-led. [red and lead.] Minium, or red oxyd of lead, composed of 88 parts of lead and 12 of oxygen.

    REDLY, adv. With redness.

    REDNESS, n. [See Red.] The quality of being red; red color.

    REDOLENCE, REDOLENCY, n. [from redolent.] Sweet scent.

    REDOLENT, a. [L. redolens, redoleo; red, re, and oleo, to smell.]

    Having or diffusing a sweet scent.NWAD REDOLENT.2

    REDOUBLE, v.t. redub’l. [re and double.]

    1. To repeat in return.NWAD REDOUBLE.2

    2. To repeat often; as, to redouble blows.NWAD REDOUBLE.3

    3. To increase by repeated or continued additions.NWAD REDOUBLE.4

    And AEtna rages with redoubl’d heat.NWAD REDOUBLE.5

    REDOUBLE, v.i. redub’l. To become twice as much.

    The argument redoubles upon us.NWAD REDOUBLE.7

    REDOUBLED, pp. redub’ld. Repeated in return; repeated over and over; increased by repeated or continued additions.

    REDOUBLING, ppr. redub’ling. Repeating in return; repeating again and again; increasing by repeated or continued additions.

    REDOUND, v.i. [L. redundo; red, re, and undo, to rise or swell, as waves.]

    1. To be sent, rolled or driven back.NWAD REDOUND.2

    The evil, soon driven back, redounded as a flood on those from whom it sprung.NWAD REDOUND.3

    2. To conduce in the consequence; to contribute; to result.NWAD REDOUND.4

    The honor done to our religion ultimately redounds to God the author of it.NWAD REDOUND.5

    3. To proceed in the consequence or effect; to result.NWAD REDOUND.6

    There will no small use redound from them to that manufactures.NWAD REDOUND.7

    REDOUNDING, ppr. Conducing; contributing; resulting.

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