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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    PATCHWORK, n. Work composed of pieces of various figures sewed together.

    1. Work composed of pieces clumsily put together.NWAD PATCHWORK.2

    PATE, n.

    1. The head, or rather the top of the head; applied to persons, it is now used in contempt or ridicule.NWAD PATE.2

    2. The skin of a calf’s head.NWAD PATE.3

    3. In fortification, a kind of platform resembling what is called a horse shoe.NWAD PATE.4

    PATED, a. In composition, having a pate; as long-pated, cunning; shallow-pated, having weak intellect.

    PATEE, PATTEE, n. In heraldry, a cross small in the center, and widening to the extremities which are broad.

    PATEFACTION, n. [L. patefactio; pateo, to open, and facio, to make.] The act of opening or manifesting; open declaration.

    PATELLIFORM, a. [L. patella, a dish, and form.] Of the form of a dish or saucer.

    PATELLITE, n. Fossil remains of the patella, a shell.

    PATEN, PATIN, n. [L. patina.] A plate. [Not used.]

    1. In the Romish church, the cover of the chalice, used for holding particles of the host.NWAD PATEN.2

    PATENT, a. [L. patens, from pateo, to open.]

    1. In botany, spreading; forming an acute angle with the stem or branch; as a patent leaf. [See Letter.]NWAD PATENT.2

    2. Open to the perusal of all; as letters patent. [See Letter.]NWAD PATENT.3

    3. Appropriated by letters patent.NWAD PATENT.4

    Madder--in the time of Charles the first, was made a patent commodity.NWAD PATENT.5

    4. Apparent; conspicuous.NWAD PATENT.6

    PATENT, n. A writing given by the proper authority and duly authenticated, granting a privilege to some person or persons. By patent, or letters patent, that is, open letters, the king of Great Britain grants lands, honors and franchises.

    PATENT, v.t. To grant by patent.

    1. To secure the exclusive right of a thing to a person; as, to patent an invention or an original work to the author.NWAD PATENT.9

    PATENTED, pp. Granted by patent; secured by patent or by law as an exclusive privilege.

    PATENTEE, n. One to whom a grant is made or a privilege secured by patent or by law.

    PATENTING, ppr. Granting by patent; securing as a privilege.

    PATENT-ROLLS, n. The records or registers of patents.

    PATERNAL, a. [L. paternus, from pater, father.]

    1. Pertaining to a father; fatherly; as paternal care of affection; paternal favor or admonition.NWAD PATERNAL.2

    2. Derived from the father; hereditary; as a paternal estate.NWAD PATERNAL.3

    PATERNITY, n. Fathership; the relation of a father.

    The world, while it had scarcity of people, underwent no other dominion than paternity and eldership.NWAD PATERNITY.2

    PATERNOSTER, n. [L. our father.] The Lord’s prayer.

    PATH, n. plu. paths. [Gr. to tread.]

    1. A way beaten or trodden by the feet of man or beast, or made hard by wheels; that part of a highway on which animals or carriages ordinarily pass; applied to the ground only, and never to a paved street in a city.NWAD PATH.2

    2. Any narrow way beaten by the foot.NWAD PATH.3

    3. The way, course or track where a body moves in the atmosphere or in space; as the path of a planet or comet; the path of a meteor.NWAD PATH.4

    4. A way or passage.NWAD PATH.5

    5. Course of life.NWAD PATH.6

    He marketh all my paths. Job 33:11.NWAD PATH.7

    6. Precepts; rules prescribed.NWAD PATH.8

    Uphold my going in thy paths. Psalm 17:5.NWAD PATH.9

    7. Course of providential dealings; moral government.NWAD PATH.10

    All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth to such as keep his covenant. Psalm 25:10.NWAD PATH.11

    P`ATH, v.t. To make a path by treading; to beat a path, as in snow.

    To push forward; to cause to go; to make way for.NWAD PATH.13

    P`ATH, v.i. To walk abroad.

    PATHETIC, PATHETICAL, a. [Gr. passion; to suffer.] Affecting or moving the passions, particularly pity, sorrow, grief or other tender emotion; as a pathetic song or discourse; pathetic expostulation.

    No theory of the passions can teach a man to be pathetic.NWAD PATHETIC.2

    PATHETIC, n. Style or manner adapted to awaken the passions, especially tender emotions.

    A musician at Venice is said to have so excelled in the pathetic, as to be able to play any of his auditors into distraction.NWAD PATHETIC.4

    PATHETICALLY, adv. In such a manner as to excite the tender passions.

    PATHETICALNESS, n. The quality of moving the tender passions.

    PATHFLY, n. A fly found in foot-paths.

    PATHIC, n. [Gr.] A catamite; a male that submits to the crime against nature.

    PATHLESS, a. Having no beaten way; untrodden; as a pathless forest; a pathless coast.

    PATHOGNOMONIC, a. [Gr. passion or suffering, and to know.]

    Indicating that which is inseparable from a disease, being found in that and in no other; hence, indicating that by which a disease may be certainly known; characteristic; as pathognomonic symptoms.NWAD PATHOGNOMONIC.2

    PATHOGNOMY, n. [Gr. signification.] Expression of the passions; the science of the signs by which human passions are indicated.

    PATHOLOGIC, PATHOLOGICAL, a. [See Pathology.] Pertaining to pathology.

    PATHOLOGICALLY, adv. In the manner of pathology.

    PATHOLOGIST, n. One who treats of pathology.

    PATHOLOGY, n. [Gr. passion, suffering, and discourse.] That part of medicine which explains the nature of diseases, their causes and symptoms; or the doctrine of the causes and nature of diseases, comprehending nosology, etiology, symptomatology, and therapeutics.

    PATHOS, n. [Gr. to suffer.] Passion; warmth or vehemence, in a speaker; or in language, that which excites emotions and passions.

    PATHWAY, n. A path; usually, a narrow way to be passed on foot.

    1. A way; a course of life. Proverbs 12:28.NWAD PATHWAY.2

    PATIBLE, a. [L. patibilis, from patior, to suffer.]

    Sufferable; tolerable; that may be endured. [Not used.]NWAD PATIBLE.2

    PATIBULARY, a. [L. patibulum, a gallows.]

    Belonging to the gallows, or to execution on the cross.NWAD PATIBULARY.2

    PATIENCE, n. pa’shens. [L. patientia, from patior, to suffer.]

    1. The suffering of afflictions, pain, toil, calamity, provocation or other evil, with a calm, unruffled temper; endurance without murmuring or fretfulness. Patience may spring from constitutional fortitude, from a kind of heroic pride, or from christian submission to the divine will.NWAD PATIENCE.2

    2. A calm temper which bears evils without murmuring or discontent.NWAD PATIENCE.3

    3. The act or quality of waiting long for justice or expected good without discontent.NWAD PATIENCE.4

    Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Matthew 18:26.NWAD PATIENCE.5

    4. Perseverance; constancy in labor or exertion.NWAD PATIENCE.6

    He learnt with patience, and with meekness taught.NWAD PATIENCE.7

    5. The quality of bearing offenses and injuries without anger or revenge.NWAD PATIENCE.8

    His rage was kindled and his patience gone.NWAD PATIENCE.9

    6. Sufferance; permission. [Not used.]NWAD PATIENCE.10

    7. A plant, a species of rumex of dock.NWAD PATIENCE.11

    PATIENT, a. pa’shent. [L. patiens.]

    1. Having the quality of enduring evils without murmuring or fretfulness; sustaining afflictions of body or mind with fortitude, calmness or christian submission to the divine will; as a patient person, or a person of patient temper. It is followed by of before the evil endured; as patient of labor or pain; patient of heat or cold.NWAD PATIENT.2

    2. Not easily provoked; calm under the sufferance of injuries or offenses; not revengeful.NWAD PATIENT.3

    Be patient towards all men. 1 Thessalonians 5:14.NWAD PATIENT.4

    3. Persevering; constant in pursuit or exertion; calmly diligent.NWAD PATIENT.5

    Whatever I have done is due to patient thought.NWAD PATIENT.6

    4. Not hasty; not over eager or impetuous; waiting or expecting with calmness or without discontent.NWAD PATIENT.7

    Not patient to expect the turns of fate.NWAD PATIENT.8

    PATIENT, n. A person or thing that received impressions from external agents; he or that which is passively affected.

    Malice is a passion so impetuous and precipitate, that it often involves the agent and the patient.NWAD PATIENT.10

    1. A person diseased or suffering bodily indisposition. It is used in relation to the physician; as, the physician visits his patient morning and evening.NWAD PATIENT.11

    2. It is sometimes used absolutely for a sick person.NWAD PATIENT.12

    It is wonderful to observe how inapprehensive these patients are of their disease.NWAD PATIENT.13

    PATIENT, v.t. To compose one’s self. [Not used.]

    PATIENTLY, adv. With calmness or composure; without discontent or murmuring. Submit patiently to the unavoidable evils of life.

    1. With calm and constant diligence; as, to examine a subject patiently.NWAD PATIENTLY.2

    2. Without agitation, uneasiness or discontent; without undue haste or eagerness; as, to wait patiently for more favorable events.NWAD PATIENTLY.3

    PATIN. [See Paten.]

    PATLY, adv. [from pat.] Fitly; conveniently.

    PATNESS, n. [from pat.] Fitness; suitableness; convenience.

    PATRIARCH, n. [L. patriarcha; Gr. a family, father, and a chief.]

    1. The father and ruler of a family; one who governs by paternal right. It is usually applied to the progenitors of the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the sons of Jacob, or to the heads of families before the flood; as the antediluvian patriarchs.NWAD PATRIARCH.2

    2. A learned and distinguished character among the Jews.NWAD PATRIARCH.3

    3. In the christian church, a dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Ephesus.NWAD PATRIARCH.4

    PATRIARCHAL, PATRIARCHIC, a. Belonging to patriarchs; possessed by patriarchs; as patriarchal power or jurisdiction; a patriarchal see.

    1. Subject to a patriarch; as a patriarchal church.NWAD PATRIARCHAL.2

    Patriarchal cross, in heraldry, is that where the shaft is twice crossed, the lower arms being longer than the upper ones.NWAD PATRIARCHAL.3

    PATRIARCHATE, PATRIARCHSHIP, n. The office, dignity or jurisdiction of a patriarch or ecclesiastical superior.

    PATRIARCHY, n. The jurisdiction of a patriarch; a patriarchate.

    PATRICIAN, a. [L. patricius, from pater, father.] Senatorial; noble; not plebeian. This epithet is derived from the Roman patres, fathers, the title of Roman senators; as patrician birth or blood; patrician families.

    PATRICIAN, n. A nobleman. In the Roman state, the patricians were the descendants of the first Roman senators.

    PATRIMONIAL, a. Pertaining to a patrimony; inherited from ancestors; as a patrimonial estate.

    PATRIMONIALLY, adv. By inheritance.

    PATRIMONY, n. [L. patrimonium, from pater, father.]

    1. A right or estate inherited from one’s ancestors.NWAD PATRIMONY.2

    2. A church estate or revenue; as St. Peter’s patrimony.NWAD PATRIMONY.3

    PATRIOT, n. [L. patria, one’s native country, form pater, father.]

    A person who loves his country, and zealously supports and defends it and its interests.NWAD PATRIOT.2

    Such tears as patriots shed for dying laws.NWAD PATRIOT.3

    PATRIOT, a. Patriotic; devoted to the welfare of one’s country; as patriot zeal.

    PATRIOTIC, a. Full of patriotism; actuated by the love of one’s country; as a patriotic hero or statesman.

    1. Inspired by the love of one’s country; directed to the public safety and welfare; as patriotic zeal.NWAD PATRIOTIC.2

    PATRIOTISM ,n. Love of one’s country; the passion which aims to serve one’s country, either in defending it from invasion, or protecting its rights and maintaining its laws and institutions in vigor and purity. Patriotism is the characteristic of a good citizen, the noblest passion that animates a man in the character of a citizen.

    PATRISTIC, PATRISTICAL, a. [from L. pater, patres, fathers.]

    Pertaining to the ancient fathers of the christian church.NWAD PATRISTIC.2

    PATROCINATE, v.t. To patronize. [Not used.]

    PATROCINATION, n. Countenance; support. [Not used.]


    1. In war, a round; a walking or marching round by a guard in the night, to watch and observe what passes, and to secure the peace and safety of a camp or other place.NWAD PATROL.2

    2. The guard or persons who go the rounds for observation; a detachment whose duty is to patroll.NWAD PATROL.3

    In France, there is an army of patrols to secure her fiscal regulations.NWAD PATROL.4

    PATROLL, v.i. To go the rounds in a camp or garrison; to march about and observe what passes; as a guard.

    PATROLLING, ppr. Going the rounds, as a guard.

    PATRON, n. [L. patronus; Gr. father.]

    1. Among the Romans, a master who had freed his slave, and retained some rights over him after his emancipation; also, a man of distinction under whose protection another placed himself. Hence,NWAD PATRON.2

    2. One who countenances, supports and protects either a person or a work.NWAD PATRON.3

    3. In the church of Rome, a guardian or saint, whose name a person bears, or under whose special care he is placed and whom he invokes; or a saint in whose name a church or order is founded.NWAD PATRON.4

    4. In the canon or common law, one who has the gift and disposition of a benefice.NWAD PATRON.5

    5. An advocate; a defender; one that specially countenances and supports, or lends aid to advance; as patrons of the arts; a patron of useful undertakings; the patrons of virtue.NWAD PATRON.6

    6. In seamen’s language, the commander of a small vessel or passage-boat; also, one who steers a ship’s long boat.NWAD PATRON.7

    PATRONAGE, n. Special countenance or support; favor or aid afforded to second the views of a person or to promote a design.

    1. Guardianship, as of a saint.NWAD PATRONAGE.2

    2. Advowson; the right of presentation to a church or ecclesiastical benefice.NWAD PATRONAGE.3

    PATRONAGE, v.t. To patronize or support. [Not used.]

    PATRONAL, a. Doing the office of a patron; protecting; supporting; favoring; defending. [Little used.]

    PATRONESS, n. A female that favors, countenances or supports.

    Now night came down, and rose full soonNWAD PATRONESS.2

    That patroness of rogues, the moon.NWAD PATRONESS.3

    1. A female guardian saint.NWAD PATRONESS.4

    2. A female that has the right of presenting to a church living.NWAD PATRONESS.5

    PATRONIZE, v.t. To support; to countenance; to defend; as a patron his client.

    1. To favor; to lend aid to promote; as an undertaking.NWAD PATRONIZE.2

    2. To maintain; to defend; to support.NWAD PATRONIZE.3

    This idea has been patronized by two states only.NWAD PATRONIZE.4

    PATRONIZED, pp. Defended; supported; favored; promoted.

    PATRONIZER, n. One that supports, countenances or favors.

    PATRONIZING, ppr. Defending; supporting; favoring; promoting.

    PATRONLESS, a. Destitute of a patron.

    PATRONYMIC, n. [L. patronymicus; from Gr. father, and name.]

    A name of men or women derived from that of their parents or ancestors; as Tydides, the son of Tydeus, Pelides, the son of Peleus, that is, Achilles.NWAD PATRONYMIC.2

    PATTEN, n.

    1. The base of a column or pillar.NWAD PATTEN.2

    2. A wooden shoe with an iron ring, worn to keep the shoes from the dirt or mud.NWAD PATTEN.3

    PATTEN-MAKER, n. One that makes pattens.

    PATTER, v.i. To strike, as falling drops of water or hail, with a quick succession of small sounds; as pattering hail.

    The stealing shower is scarce to patter heard.NWAD PATTER.2

    PATTERING, ppr. Striking with a quick succession of small sounds.

    PATTERN, n.

    1. An original or model proposed for imitation; the archetype; an exemplar; that which is to be copies or imitated, either in things or in actions; as the pattern of a machine; a pattern of patience. Christ was the most perfect pattern of rectitude, patience and submission ever exhibited on earth.NWAD PATTERN.2

    2. A specimen; a sample; a part showing the figure or quality of the whole; as a pattern of silk cloth.NWAD PATTERN.3

    3. An instance; an example.NWAD PATTERN.4

    4. Any thing cut of formed into the shape of something to be made after it.NWAD PATTERN.5

    To pattern after, to imitate; to follow.NWAD PATTERN.6

    PATTY, n. A little pie.

    PATTY-PAN, n. A pan to bake a little pie in.

    PATULOUS, a. [L. patulus, from pateo, to be open.]

    Spreading, as a patulous calyx; bearing the flowers loose or dispersed, as a patulous peduncle.NWAD PATULOUS.2

    PAUCILOQUY, n. [L. paucus, few, and loquor, to speak.]

    The utterance of few words. [Little used.]NWAD PAUCILOQUY.2

    PAUCITY, n. [L. paucitas, from paucus, few.]

    1. Fewness; smallness of number; as the paucity of schools.NWAD PAUCITY.2

    2. Smallness of quantity; as paucity of blood.NWAD PAUCITY.3

    PAUM, v.t. To impose by fraud; a corruption of palm.

    PAUNCH, n. [L. pantex.] The belly and its contents.

    The paunch, in ruminating quadrupeds, is the first and largest stomach, into which the food is received before rumination.NWAD PAUNCH.2

    PAUNCH, v.t. To pierce or rip the belly; to eviscerate; to take out the contents of the belly.

    PAUPER, n. [L. pauper.] A poor person; particularly, one so indigent as to depend on the parish or town for maintenance.

    PAUPERISM, n. The state of being poor or destitute of the means of support; the state of indigent persons requiring support from the community. The increase of pauperism is an alarming evil.

    PAUSE, n. paux. [L. pausa; Gr. to cease, or cause to rest.]

    1. A stop; a cessation or intermission of action, of speaking, singing, playing or the like; a temporary stop or rest.NWAD PAUSE.2

    2. Cessation proceeding from doubt; suspense.NWAD PAUSE.3

    I stand in pause where I shall first begin.NWAD PAUSE.4

    3. Break or paragraph in writing.NWAD PAUSE.5

    4. A temporary cessation in reading. The use of punctuation is to mark the pauses in writing. In verse, there are two kinds of pauses, the cesural and the final. The cesural pause divides the verse; the final pause closes it. The pauses which mark the sense, and which may be called sentential, are the same in prose and verse.NWAD PAUSE.6

    5. A mark of cessation or intermission of the voice; a point.NWAD PAUSE.7

    PAUSE, v.i. pauz. To make a short stop; to cease to speak for a time; to intermit speaking or action.

    Pausing a while, thus to herself she mused.NWAD PAUSE.9

    1. To stop; to wait; to forbear for a time.NWAD PAUSE.10

    Tarry, pause a day or two,NWAD PAUSE.11

    Before you hazard.NWAD PAUSE.12

    2. To be intermitted. The music pauses.NWAD PAUSE.13

    To pause upon, to deliberate.NWAD PAUSE.14

    PAUSER, n. s as z. One who pauses; one who deliberates.

    PAUSING, ppr. Stopping for a time; ceasing to speak or act; deliberating.

    PAUSINGLY, adv. After a pause; by breaks.

    PAVAN, n. [L. pavo, a peacock.] A grave dance among the Spaniards. In this dance, the performers make a kind of wheel before each other, the gentlemen dancing with cap and sword, princes with long robes, and the ladies with long trails; the motions resembling the stately steps of the peacock.

    PAVE, v.t. [L. pavio; Gr. to beat, to strike.]

    1. To lay or cover with stone or brick so as to make a level or convenient surface for horses, carriages or foot passengers; to floor with brick or stone; as, to pave a street; to pave a side-walk; to pave a court or stable.NWAD PAVE.2

    2. To prepare a passage; to facilitate the introduction of. The invention of printing paved the way for intellectual improvement.NWAD PAVE.3

    PAVED, pp. Laid over with stones or bricks; prepared; as a way.

    PAVEMENT, n. [L. pavimentum.] A floor or covering consisting of stones or bricks, laid on the earth in such a manner as to make a hard and convenient passage; as a pavement of pebbles, of bricks, or of marble.

    PAVEMENT, v.t. To pave; to floor with stone or brick. [Unusual.]

    PAVER, PAVIER, n. One who lays stones for a floor, or whose occupation is to pave.

    PAVILION, n. pavil’yun. [L. papilio, a butterfly, and a pavilion.]

    1. A tent; a temporary movable habitation.NWAD PAVILION.2

    2. In architecture, a kind of turret or building, usually insulated and contained under a single roof; sometimes square and sometimes in the form of a dome. Sometimes a pavilion is a projecting part in the front of a building; sometimes it flanks a corner.NWAD PAVILION.3

    3. In military affairs, a tent raised on posts. The word is sometimes used for a flag, colors, ensign or banner.NWAD PAVILION.4

    4. In heraldry, a covering in form of a tent, investing the armories of kings.NWAD PAVILION.5

    5. Among jewelers, the under side and corner of brilliants, lying between the girdle and collet.NWAD PAVILION.6

    PAVILION, v.t. To furnish with tents.

    1. To shelter with a tent.NWAD PAVILION.8

    PAVILIONED, pp. Furnished with pavilions; sheltered by a tent.

    PAVING, ppr. Flooring with stones or bricks.

    PAVING, n. Pavement; a floor of stones or bricks.

    PAVO, n. [L. a peacock.] A constellation in the southern hemisphere, consisting of fourteen stars; also a fish.

    PAVONE, n. [L. pavo.] A peacock. [Not used.]

    PAVONINE, a. [L. pavoninus, from pavo, a peacock.]

    Resembling the tail of a peacock; iridescent.NWAD PAVONINE.2

    PAW, n. [L. pes, pedis; Eng. foot.]

    1. The foot of beasts of prey having claws, as the lion, the tiger, the dog, cat, etc. Leviticus 11:27.NWAD PAW.2

    2. The hand; in contempt.NWAD PAW.3

    PAW, v.i. To draw the fore foot along the ground; to scrape with the fore foot; as a fiery horse, pawing with his hoof.

    He paweth in the valley. Job 39:21.NWAD PAW.5

    PAW, v.t. To scrape with the fore foot.

    His hot courser paw’d th’ Hungarian plain.NWAD PAW.7

    1. To handle roughly; to scratch.NWAD PAW.8

    2. To fawn; to flatter.NWAD PAW.9

    PAWED, a. Having paws.

    1. Broad footed.NWAD PAWED.2

    PAWKY, a. Arch; cunning. [Local.]

    PAWL, n. [Eng. pole; L. palus. See Pole.] Among seamen, a short bar of wood or iron fixed close to the capstan or windlass of a ship to prevent it from rolling back or giving way.

    PAWN, n. [L. pignus.]

    1. Something given or deposited as security for the payment of money borrowed; a pledge. Pawn is applied only to goods, chattels or money, and not to real estate.NWAD PAWN.2

    Men will not take pawns without use.NWAD PAWN.3

    2. A pledge for the fulfillment of a promise.NWAD PAWN.4

    3. A common man at chess. [See Peon.]NWAD PAWN.5

    In pawn, at pawn, the state of being pledged.NWAD PAWN.6

    Sweet wife, my honor is at pawn.NWAD PAWN.7

    PAWN, v.t. [L. pignero.]

    1. To give or deposit in pledge, or as security for the payment of money borrowed; to pledge; as, she pawned the last piece of plate.NWAD PAWN.9

    2. To pledge for the fulfillment of a promise; as, to pawn one’s word or honor that an agreement shall be fulfilled.NWAD PAWN.10

    PAWN-BROKER, n. One who lends money on pledge or the deposit of goods.

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