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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    ANNOTATE, v.i. [L. annoto.] To comment; to make remarks on a writing.

    ANNOTATION, n. [L. annotatio, of ad and notatio, a marking, from noto, to mark, or nota, a mark.]

    1. A remark, note or commentary on some passage of a book, intended to illustrate its meaning; generally used in the plural, as annotations on the scriptures.NWAD ANNOTATION.2

    2. The first symptoms of a fever, or attack of a paroxysm.NWAD ANNOTATION.3

    ANNOTATOR, n. A writer of notes; a commentator; a scholiast; one who writes notes to illustrate the composition of an author.

    ANNOTTA, n. Orlean, or roucou; a hard dry paste, consisting of the pellicles of the seeds of the bixa orellana, a shrub growing in S. America and the W. Indies. It is moderately hard, of a brown color on the outside, and a dull red within. It is used in dyeing to give an orange cast to a simple yellow. It is used also in coloring cheese. [See Anotta.]

    ANNOUNCE, v.t. announs’. [L. annuncio, to deliver a message, of ad and nuncio, to tell from nuncius, a messenger.]

    1. To publish; to proclaim; to give notice, or first notice; as, the birth of Christ was announced by an angel.NWAD ANNOUNCE.2

    2. To pronounce; to declare by judicial sentence.NWAD ANNOUNCE.3

    ANNOUNCED, pp. Proclaimed; first published.

    ANNOUNCEMENT, n. announs’ment. The act of giving notice; proclamation; publication.

    ANNOUNCER, n. One that announces, or first gives notice; a proclaimer.

    ANNOUNCING, ppr. Introducing notice; first publishing; proclaiming.

    ANNOY, v.t. [L. neceo, to hurt, that is, to strike; neco, to kill.]

    To incommode; to injure or disturb by continued or repeated acts; to tease, vex or molest; as, to annoy an army by impeding their march, or by a continued cannonade.NWAD ANNOY.2

    ANNOY, n. Injury or molestation from continued acts or inconvenience.

    ANNOYANCE, n. That which annoys, or injures; the act of annoying; the state of being annoyed. It includes something more than inconvenience.

    ANNOYED, pp. Incommoded, injured or molested by something that is continued or repeated.

    ANNOYER, n. One that annoys.

    ANNOYFUL, a. Giving trouble; incommoding; molesting. [Not used.]

    ANNOYING, ppr. Incommoding; hurting; molesting.

    ANNOYOUS, a. Troublesome. [Not used.]

    ANNUAL, a. [L. annalis, from annus, a year; Gr.]

    1. Yearly; that returns every year; coming yearly; as an annual feast.NWAD ANNUAL.2

    2. Lasting or continuing only one year or season; that requires to be renewed every year; as an annual plant. Leaves that grow in the spring, and perish in the autumn, are called annual, in opposition to evergreens.NWAD ANNUAL.3

    3. Performed in a year; as the annual motion of the earth.NWAD ANNUAL.4

    ANNUAL, n. A plant that lives but one year, or rather but one summer.

    ANNUALLY, adv. Yearly; returning every year; year by year.

    ANNUITANT, n. [See Annuity.]

    One who receives or is entitled to receive an annuity.NWAD ANNUITANT.2

    ANNUITY, n. [See Annual.]

    A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for life or for ever; an annual income, charged on the person of the grantor; or an annual allowance. Governments often borrow money upon annuities, that is, for a certain sum advanced on loan, the government contracts to pay the lender a specific sum, for life, or for a term of years. The stock created by such loans is transferable.NWAD ANNUITY.2

    ANNUL, v.t. [L. ad nullum, to nothing.]

    1. To make void; to nullify; to abrogate; to abolish; used appropriately of laws, decrees, edicts, decisions of courts, or other established rules, permanent usages, and the like, which are made void by competent authority.NWAD ANNUL.2

    2. To reduce to nothing; to obliterate. [Not is much use.]NWAD ANNUL.3

    ANNULAR, a. [L. annulus, a ring, from Celtic ain, a circle, and ul, young, small; annulus, a little circle.]

    Having the form of a ring; pertaining to a ring.NWAD ANNULAR.2

    Annular crystal is when a hexahedral prism has six, or an octahedral prism eight marginal faces, disposed in a ring about each base; or when these prisms are truncated on all their terminal edges.NWAD ANNULAR.3

    ANNULARY, a. Having the form of a ring.

    ANNULATED, a. Furnished with rings, or circles, like rings; having belts.

    ANNULET, n. [L. annulus, a ring.]

    In architecture, a small square member in the Doric capital, under the quarter round; also a narrow flat molding, which is common to many places, as in the bases or capitals; called also a fillet, or listil, or cincture, or a list, timea, eye brow or square rabbit.NWAD ANNULET.2

    In heraldry, a little circle, borne as a charge is coats of arms; formerly reputed a mark of nobility and jurisdiction; it being the custom of prelates to receive their investiture per baculum et annulum, by staff and ring. It denotes also strength and eternity, by its circular form. Among the Romans, it represented liberty and distinction of rank. It denotes also difference, or mark of distinction, which the fifth brother of a family ought to bear on his coat of arms.NWAD ANNULET.3

    ANNULLED, pp. Made void; abrogated.

    ANNULLING, ppr. Abrogating; abolishing.

    ANNULMENT, n. The act of annulling.

    ANNUMERATE, v.t. [L. annumero, of ad and numero, to numer, from numerus, number. See Number.]

    To add to a former number; to unite to something before mentioned.NWAD ANNUMERATE.2

    ANNUMERATION, n. Addition to a former number.

    ANNUNCIATE, v.t. [See Announce.] To bring tidings; to announce.


    1. An announcing; the tidings brought by the angel to Mary, of the incarnation of Christ. Also the day celebrated by the church, in memory of the angel’s salutation of the blessed virgin, which is the 25th of March. The Jews give the title to a part of the ceremony of the passover.NWAD ANNUNCIATION.2

    2. Proclamation; promulgation.NWAD ANNUNCIATION.3

    ANNUNCIATOR, n. One who announces; an officer in the church of Constantinople, whose business was to inform the people of the festivals which were to be celebrated.

    ANODYNE, [Gr. pain.]

    Any medicine which allays pain, or causes sleep, as an opiate, paregoric, narcotic, etc.NWAD ANODYNE.2

    ANODYNE, a. Assuaging pain; causing sleep, or insensibility.

    ANOINT, v.t. [L. ungo.]

    1. To pour oil upon; to smear or rub over with oil or unctuous substances; also to spread over, as oil. We say, the man anoints another, or the oil anoints him.NWAD ANOINT.2

    2. To consecrate by unction, or the use of oil.NWAD ANOINT.3

    Thou shalt anoint the altar, and sanctify it. Exodus 29:36.NWAD ANOINT.4

    3. To smear or daub.NWAD ANOINT.5

    He anointed the eyes of the blind man with clay. John 9:6.NWAD ANOINT.6

    4. To prepare, in allusion to the consecrating use of oil.NWAD ANOINT.7

    Anoint the shield. Isaiah 21:5.NWAD ANOINT.8

    To anoint the head with oil, Psalm 23:5 seems to signify to communicate the consolations of the Holy Spirit.NWAD ANOINT.9

    The use of oil in consecrations, was of high antiquity. Kings, prophets and priests were set apart or consecrated to their offices by the use of oil. Hence the peculiar application of the term anointed to Jesus Christ.NWAD ANOINT.10

    ANOINTED, pp. Smeared or rubbed with oil; set apart; consecrated with oil.

    ANOINTED, n. The Messiah, or Son of God, consecrated to the great office of Redeemer; called the Lord’s anointed. Cyrus is also called the Lord’s anointed. Isaiah 45:1.

    ANOINTER, n. One who anoints.

    ANOINTING, ppr. Smearing with oil; pouring on oil, or other oleaginous substance; consecrating.

    ANOINTING, n. The act of smearing with oil; a consecrating.

    ANOINTMENT, n. The act of anointing, or state of being anointed.

    ANOLE, n. A species of lizard in the W. Indies, of a yellowish color, having several blue and green stripes running down its back.

    ANOMALIPED, a. [Gr. inequality and L. pes, foot.]

    An epithet given to fowls, whose middle toe is united to the exterior by three phalanges, and to the interior by one only.NWAD ANOMALIPED.2

    ANOMALIPED, n. An anomalous footed fowl. [See the adjective.]

    ANOMALISM, n. An anomaly; a deviation from rule.

    ANOMALISTIC, ANOMALISTICAL, a. Irregular; departing from common or established rules.

    In astronomy, the anomalistic year is the time in which the earth passes through her orbit, which is longer than the tropical year, on account of the precession of the equinoxes.NWAD ANOMALISTIC.2

    ANOMALOUS, a. Irregular; deviating from a general rule, method or analogy; applied, in grammar, to words which deviate from the common rules of inflection; and in astronomy, to the seemingly irregular motions of the planets; but applied also generally to whatever is irregular; as, an anomalous character; anomalous pronunciation.

    ANOMALOUSLY, adv. Irregularly; in a manner different from common rule, method or analogy.

    ANOMALY, n. [Gr. inequality, equal, similar.]

    1. Irregularity; deviation from the common rule; thus oxen, the plural of ox, is an anomaly, in grammar, as the regular plural would be oxes.NWAD ANOMALY.2

    2. In astronomy, an irregularity in the motion of a planet, whereby it deviates from the aphelion or apogee.NWAD ANOMALY.3

    3. In music, a false scale or interval.NWAD ANOMALY.4

    ANOMEANS, n. [Gr. dissimilar.]

    In church history, the pure Arians, as distinguished from the Semi-Arians.NWAD ANOMEANS.2

    ANOMIA, n. [Gr. rule.]

    A genus of bivalve shells, so called from their unequal valves; the beaked cockle.NWAD ANOMIA.2

    ANOMITE, n. A fossil shell of the genus anomia.

    ANOMORHOMBOID, n. [Gr irregular, and of a rhomboidal figure.]

    A genus os spars, pellucid, and crystaline, of no determinate form externally, but breaking into regular rhomboidal masses. The species are five, mostly of a white color.NWAD ANOMORHOMBOID.2

    ANOMY, n. [Gr.] A violation of law. [Rarely used.]

    ANON, adv.

    1. Quickly; without intermission: soon; immediately.NWAD ANON.2

    The same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it. Matthew 13:20.NWAD ANON.3

    2. Sometimes; now and then; at other times; accompanied with ever, ever and anon.NWAD ANON.4

    ANONYMOUS, a. [L. anonymus; Gr. name. See Name.]

    Nameless; wanting a name; without the real name of the author; as, an anonymous pamphlet.NWAD ANONYMOUS.2

    ANONYMOUSLY, adv. Without a name.

    ANOPLOTHER, ANOPLOTHERIUM, n. [Gr. a beast.]

    This is the name which Cuvier has given to a genus of animals, whose bones are found in the gypsum quarries near Paris; a genus now extinct.NWAD ANOPLOTHER.2

    ANOPSY, n. [Gr. sight.] Want of sight; invision. [Little used.]

    ANOREXY, n. [Gr. appetite.]

    Want of appetite, without a lothing of food.NWAD ANOREXY.2

    ANOTHER, a. [an, or one and other.]

    1. Not the same; different; as, we have one form of government; France, another.NWAD ANOTHER.2

    2. One more, in addition to a former number, indefinitely; as, grant one request, they will ask another favor, another and another.NWAD ANOTHER.3

    3. Any other; any different person, indefinitely; as, “Let another praise thee and not thy own mouth.” This word is often used without a noun, becoming a substitute for the name of the person or thing; as in the last example. It is also much used in opposition to one, as in the first and second passages cited. It is also frequently used with one, in a reciprocal sense; as, “love one another;” “bear one another’s burdens;” that is, love one, or let one love another.NWAD ANOTHER.4

    ANOTHER-GAINES, adv. Of another kind. Obs.

    ANOTHER-GATES, adv. Of another sort. Obs.

    ANOTHER-GUISE, a. Of a different kind; different. This is a vulgar word, and usually contracted into other guess.

    ANOTTA, n. An elegant red color, formed from the pellicles or pulp of the seeds of the bixa, a tree common in South America. This is called also Terra Orleana and Roco. The annotta is made by steeping the seeds for seven or eight days, pounding them to separate the red skins, then straining the liquor, boiling it, taking off the scum which is the coloring matter, then boiling it to a due consistence, and making it into balls.

    ANSATED, a. [L. ansatus, from ansa, a handle.]

    Having a handle or handles, or something in the form of handles.NWAD ANSATED.2

    ANSER, n. [L. a goose.]

    1. In zoology, the name of the goose, whether tame or wild. The domestic goose is the gray-lag or wild goose, domesticated.NWAD ANSER.2

    2. In astronomy, a small star, in the milky way, between the swan and eagle.NWAD ANSER.3

    ANSERINE, a. [L. anserinum, from anser, a goose.]

    1. Resembling the skin of a goose; uneven; as, an anserine skin.NWAD ANSERINE.2

    2. Pertaining to the ansers.NWAD ANSERINE.3

    ANSERS, n. In Linne’s system, the third order of aves or fowls, whose characteristics are a smooth bill, broadest at the point, covered with a smooth skin, and furnished with teeth. The tongue is fleshy, and the toes are webbed or palmated. It includes all the web-footed water fowls, with legs and feet adapted to swimming.

    ANSLAIGHT, n. [See Slay.] An attack; an affray. [Not in use.]

    ANSWER, v.t. ansur.

    1. To speak in return to a call or question, or to a speech, declaration or argument of another person; as, “I have called and ye have not answered.” “He answered the question or the argument.” This may be in agreement and confirmation of what was said, or in opposition to it.NWAD ANSWER.2

    2. To be equivalent to; to be adequate to, or sufficient to accomplish the object. “Money answereth all things,” noting, primarily, return.NWAD ANSWER.3

    3. To comply with, fulfill, pay or satisfy; as, he answered my order; to answer a debt.NWAD ANSWER.4

    4. To act in return, or opposition; as, the enemy answered our fire by a shower of grape shot.NWAD ANSWER.5

    5. To bear a due proportion to; to be equal or adequate; to suit; as, a weapon does not answer the size and strength of the man using it; the success does not answer our expectation.NWAD ANSWER.6

    6. To perform what was intended; to accomplish; as, the measure does not answer its end; it does not answer the purpose.NWAD ANSWER.7

    7. To be opposite to; to face; as, fire answers fire.NWAD ANSWER.8

    8. To write in reply; to reply to another writing, by way of explanation, refutation or justification; as, to answer a pamphlet.NWAD ANSWER.9

    9. To solve, as a proposition or problem in mathematics.NWAD ANSWER.10

    This word may be applied to a great variety of objects, expressing the idea of a return; as the notes, or sounds of birds, and other animals; an echo, etc.NWAD ANSWER.11

    ANSWER, v.i.

    1. To reply; to speak by way of return; as, there is none to answer. 1 Kings 18:29.NWAD ANSWER.13

    2. To be accountable, liable or responsible; followed by to before the person, and for before the thing for which one is liable; as, the man must answer to his employer for the money entrusted to his care; we can not answer to God for our offenses.NWAD ANSWER.14

    3. To vindicate, or give a justificatory account of; followed by for; as, a man cannot answer for his friend.NWAD ANSWER.15

    4. To correspond with; to suit with; followed by to.NWAD ANSWER.16

    In water face answereth to face, so the heart of man to man. Proverbs 27:19.NWAD ANSWER.17

    5. To act reciprocally, as the strings of an instrument to the hand.NWAD ANSWER.18

    6. To stand as opposite or correlative; as, allegiance in the subject answers to protection on the part of the prince or government.NWAD ANSWER.19

    7. To return, as sound reverberated; to echo.NWAD ANSWER.20

    The noise seems to fly away, and answer at a great distance.NWAD ANSWER.21

    8. To succeed; to effect the object intended; to have a good effect; as, gypsum answers as a manure on a dry soil.NWAD ANSWER.22

    ANSWER, n.

    1. A reply; that which is said, in return to a call, a question, an argument or an allegation.NWAD ANSWER.24

    A soft answer turneth away wrath. Prov.NWAD ANSWER.25

    I called him, but he gave me no answer. Song of Solomon 5:6.NWAD ANSWER.26

    2. An account to be rendered to justice.NWAD ANSWER.27

    He will call you to so hot an answer for it.NWAD ANSWER.28

    3. In law, a counter-statement of facts, in a course of pleadings; a confutation of what the other party has alleged.NWAD ANSWER.29

    4. A writing, pamphlet or book, in reply to another.NWAD ANSWER.30

    5. A reverberated sound; an echo.NWAD ANSWER.31

    6. A return; that which is sent in consequence of some petition, as a blessing is sent in answer to prayer.NWAD ANSWER.32

    7. A solution, the result of a mathematical operation.NWAD ANSWER.33

    8. The reply of a legislative body or house to an address or message of the supreme magistrate.NWAD ANSWER.34


    1. That may be answered; that to which a reply may be made, usually implying that the answer may be satisfactory; as, an answerable argument.NWAD ANSWERABLE.2

    2. Obliged to give an account, or liable to be called to account; amenable; responsible; as, an agent is answerable to his principal.NWAD ANSWERABLE.3

    3. Obliged or liable to pay, indemnify or make good; as, to be answerable for a debt or for damages.NWAD ANSWERABLE.4

    4. Correspondent; agreeing with; in conformity with; as, the features expressed in a picture are answerable to the original.NWAD ANSWERABLE.5

    5. Suitable; suited; proportionate; as, an achievement answerable to the preparation for it.NWAD ANSWERABLE.6

    6. Equal; correspondent; proportionate; as, the success is answerable to my desires.NWAD ANSWERABLE.7

    ANSWERABLENESS, n. The quality of being answerable, liable, responsible, or correspondent.

    ANSWERABLY, adv. In due proportion, correspondence or conformity; suitably; as, continents have rivers answerably larger than isles.

    ANSWERED, pp. Replied to; fulfilled; paid; complied with; accomplished; solved; confuted.

    ANSWERER, n. One who answers; he or that which makes a return to what another has spoken; he who writes an answer.

    ANSWERING, ppr. Replying; corresponding to; fulfilling; solving; succeeding; reverberating; confuting.

    ANSWER-JOBBER, n. One who makes a business of writing answers.

    ANT, in old authors, is a contraction of an it, that is if it. [See An.]

    ANT, in our vulgar dialect, as in the phrases, I ant, you ant, he ant, we ant, etc., is undoubtedly a contraction of the Danish er, ere, the substantive verb in the present tense of the Indicative Mode. These phrases are doubtless legitimate remains of the Gothic dialect.

    ANT, n.

    An emmet; a pismire. Ants constitute a genus of insects of the hymenopteral order, of which the characteristics are; a small scale between the breast and belly, with a joint so deep that the animal appears as if almost cut in two. The females, and the neuter or working ants, which have no sexual characteristics, are furnished with a hidden sting; and both males and females have wings, but the neuters have none. These insects meet together in companies, and maintain a sort of republic. They raise hillocks of earth, in which they live. In these there are paths, leading to the repositories of their provisions. The large black ants, in the warm climates of America, to avoid the effects of great rains, build large nests on trees, of light earth, roundish and plastered smooth.NWAD ANT.4

    ANT-BEAR or ANT-EATER, n. A quadruped that feeds upon ants. This animal has no teeth, but a snout or muzzle, with a long cylindrical tongue. the body is covered with long hair. There are several species, constituting the genus, myrmecophaga, ant eaters.

    ANT-EGGS, n. Little white balls found in the hillocks of ants, usually supposed to be their eggs, but found on examination to be the young brood, in their first state. They are vermicules, wrapped in a film, composed of a silky substance spun like a spider’s web.

    ANT-HILL, n. A little tumulus or hillock, formed by ants, for their habitation.

    ANTA, n. In ancient architecture, a square column, at the corner of a building; a pilaster; written also ante.

    ANTACID, n. [anti and acid.]

    In pharmacy, an alkali, or a remedy for sourness or acidity; better written anti-acid.NWAD ANTACID.2

    ANTACRID, n. [anti and acrid.] That which corrects acrimony; better written anti-acrid.

    ANTAGONISM, n. Opposition of action; counteraction of things or principles.

    ANTAGONIST, n. [Gr. against, and a champion. See Act and Agony.]

    1. One who contends with another in combat; used primarily in the Grecian games. An adversary.NWAD ANTAGONIST.2

    2. An opponent in controversy.NWAD ANTAGONIST.3

    3. In anatomy, a muscle which acts in opposition to another; as a flexor, which bends a part, is the antagonist of an extensor, which extends it.NWAD ANTAGONIST.4

    ANTAGONIST, a. Counteracting; opposing; combating; as, an antagonist muscle.

    ANTAGONISTIC, a. Opposing in combat; contending against.

    ANTAGONIZE, v.i. To contend against; to act in opposition; to oppose in argument.

    ANTAGONY, n. Contest; opposition [Not used.]

    ANTALGIC, a. [Gr. against, and pain.] Alleviating pain; anodyne.

    ANTANACLASIS, n. [Gr. a driving back.]

    1. In rhetoric, a figure, which consists in repeating the same word in a different sense; as, whilst we live, let us live. Learn some craft when young, that when old you may live without craft.NWAD ANTANACLASIS.2

    2. It is also a repetition of words, beginning a sentence, after a long parenthesis; as, shall that heart, (which not only feels them, but which has all motions of life placed in them,) shall that heart, etc.NWAD ANTANACLASIS.3

    ANTANAGOGE, n. antanago’gy. [Gr. against, and a taking up.]

    In rhetoric, a figure which consists in replying to an adversary, by way of recrimination; as, when the accusation of one party is unanswerable, the accused person charges him with the same or other crime.NWAD ANTANAGOGE.2

    ANTAPHRODISIAC, a. [Gr. against, and venereal, from Venus.]

    Antivenereal; having the quality of extinguishing or lessening venereal desire.NWAD ANTAPHRODISIAC.2

    ANTAPHRODISIAC, n. A medicine that lessens or extinguishes the venereal appetite.

    ANTAPHRODITIC, a. [Gr. See the preceding words.] Antivenereal, abating the venereal appetite, or efficacious against the venereal disease.

    ANTAPHRODITIC, n. A medicine which abates the venereal appetite, or is good against the venereal disease.

    ANTAPOPLECTIC, a. Good against apoplexy.

    ANTARCTIC, a. [Gr. against, and the bear, a northern constellation.]

    Opposite to the northern or arctic pole; relating to the southern pole or to the region near it, and applied especially to a lesser circle, distant from the pole 23 degrees 28’. Thus we say the antarctic pole, antarctic circle, or antarctic region.NWAD ANTARCTIC.2

    ANTARES, n. The name of a star of the first magnitude, called also the scorpion’s heart. Its longitude is 60 degrees 13’ 14" of Sagittarius; and its latitude 4 degrees 31’ 26" South.

    ANTARTHRITIC, n. A remedy which cures or alleviates the gout.

    ANTARTHRITIC, a. [Gr against, and gout.] Counteracting the gout.

    ANTASTHMATIC, a. [Gr. against, and asthma.] Opposing the asthma.

    ANTASTHMATIC, n. A remedy for the asthma.

    ANTE. A Latin preposition, Gr.; much used in the composition of English words, especially in words from the Latin and Greek languages. It signifies before in place, in front; hence opposite, contrary; and figuratively, before in time. The Latin ante is generally used in the sense of before, and the Greek, in that of opposite, or in the place of.

    ANTE, ANTA, n. A pilaster. In heraldry, ante denotes that the pieces are let into one another, in the manner there expressed, as by dove tails, rounds, swallow tails, etc.

    ANTEACT, n. [ante and act.] A preceding act.

    ANTECEDANEOUS, a. [Infra.] Antecedent; preceding in time.

    ANTECEDE, v.t. [ante and cedo, to go. See Cede.] To go before in time; to precede.

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