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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary

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    SUPERFICIAL — SUPERTRAGICAL

    SUPERFICIAL, a.

    1. Being on the surface; not penetrating the substance of a thing; as a superficial color; a superficial covering.NWAD SUPERFICIAL.2

    2. Composing the surface or exterior part; as, soil constitutes the superficial part of the earth.NWAD SUPERFICIAL.3

    3. Shallow; contrived to cover something.NWAD SUPERFICIAL.4

    This superficial taleNWAD SUPERFICIAL.5

    Is but a preface to her worthy praise.NWAD SUPERFICIAL.6

    4. Shallow; not deep or profound; reaching or comprehending only what is obvious or apparent; as a superficial scholar; superficial knowledge.NWAD SUPERFICIAL.7

    SUPERFICIALITY, n. The quality of being superficial. [Not much used.]

    SUPERFICIALLY, adv. On the surface only; as a substance superficially tinged with a color.

    1. On the surface or exterior part only; without penetrating the substance or essence; as, to survey things superficially.NWAD SUPERFICIALLY.2

    2. Without going deep or searching things to the bottom; slightly. He reasons superficially.NWAD SUPERFICIALLY.3

    I have laid down superficially my present thoughts.NWAD SUPERFICIALLY.4

    SUPERFICIALNESS, n. Shallowness; position on the surface.

    1. Slight knowledge; shallowness of observation or learning; show without substance.NWAD SUPERFICIALNESS.2

    SUPERFICIES, n. [L. from super, upon, and facies, face.] The surface; the exterior part of a thing. A superficies consists of length and breadth; as the superficies of a plate or of a sphere. Superficies is rectilinear, curvilinear, plane, convex or concave.

    SUPERFINE, a. [super and fine.] Very fine or most fine; surpassing others in fineness; as superfine cloth. The word is chiefly used of cloth, but sometimes of liquors; as superfine wine or cider; and of other things, as superfine wire; superfine flour.

    SUPERFLUENCE, n. [L. super and fluo, to flow.] Superfluity; more than is necessary. [Little used.]

    SUPERFLUITANCE, n. [L. super and fluito, to float.] The act of floating above or on the surface. [Little used.]

    SUPERFLUITANT, a. Floating above or on the surface. [Little used.]

    SUPERFLUITY, n. [L. superfluitas; super and fluo, to flow.]

    1. Superabundance; a greater quantity than is wanted; as a superfluity of water or provisions.NWAD SUPERFLUITY.2

    2. Something that is beyond what is wanted; something rendered unnecessary by its abundance. Among the superfluities of life we seldom number the abundance of money.NWAD SUPERFLUITY.3

    SUPERFLUOUS, a. [L. superfluus, overflowing; super and fluo, to flow.]

    1. More than is wanted; rendered unnecessary by superabundance; as a superfluous supply of corn.NWAD SUPERFLUOUS.2

    2. More than sufficient; unnecessary; useless; as a composition abounding with superfluous words. Superfluous epithets rather enfeeble than strengthen description. If what has been said will not convince, it would be superfluous to say more.NWAD SUPERFLUOUS.3

    Superfluous interval, in music, is one that exceeds a true diatonic interval by a semitone minor.NWAD SUPERFLUOUS.4

    Superfluous polygamy, (Polygamia superflua,) a kind of inflorescence or compound flower, in which the florets of the disk are hermaphrodite and fertile, and those of the ray, though female or pistiliferous only, are also fertile; designating the second order of the class Syngenesia of Linne.NWAD SUPERFLUOUS.5

    Superfluous sound or tone, is one which contains a semitone minor more than a tone.NWAD SUPERFLUOUS.6

    SUPERFLUOUSLY, adv. With excess; in a degree beyond what is necessary.

    SUPERFLUOUSNESS, n. The state of being superfluous or beyond what is wanted.

    SUPERFLUX, n. [L. super and fluxus.] That which is more than is wanted. [Little used.]

    SUPERFOLIATION, n. [super and foliation.] Excess of foliation. [Not used.]

    SUPERHUMAN, a. [super and human.] Above or beyond what is human; divine.

    SUPERIMPOSE, v.t. superimpo’ze. [super and impose.] To lay or impose on something else; as a stratum of earth superimposed on a different stratum.

    SUPERIMPOSED, pp. Laid or imposed on something.

    SUPERIMPOSING, ppr. Laying on something else.

    SUPERIMPOSITION, n. The act of laying or the state of being placed on something else.

    SUPERIMPREGNATION, n. [super and impregnation.] The act of impregnating upon a prior impregnation; impregnation when previously impregnated.

    SUPERINCUMBENT, a. [super and incumbent.] Lying or resting on something else.

    SUPERINDUCE, v.t. [super and induce.] To bring in or upon as an addition to something; as, to superinduce a virtue or quality upon a person not before possessing it.

    Long custom of sinning superinduces upon the soul new and absurd desires.NWAD SUPERINDUCE.2

    SUPERINDUCED, pp. Induced or brought upon something.

    SUPERINDUCING, ppr. Inducing on something else.

    SUPERINDUCTION, n. The act of superinducing.

    The superinduction of ill habits quickly defaces the first rude draught of virtue.NWAD SUPERINDUCTION.2

    SUPERINJECTION, n. [super and injection.] An injection succeeding another.

    SUPERINSPECT, v.t. [super and inspect.] To oversee; to superintend by inspection. [Little used.]

    SUPERINSTITUTION, n. [super and institution.] One institution upon another; as when A is instituted and admitted to a benefice upon a title, and B is instituted and admitted upon the presentation of another.

    SUPERINTELLECTUAL, a. [super and intellectual.] Being above intellect.

    SUPERINTEND, v.t. [super and intend.] To have or exercise the charge and oversight of; to oversee with the power of direction; to take care of with authority; as, an officer superintends the building of a ship or the construction of a fort. God exercises a superintending care over all his creatures.

    SUPERINTENDED, pp. Overseen; taken care of.

    SUPERINTENDENCE, SUPERINTENDENCY, n. The act of superintending; care and oversight for the purpose of direction and with authority to direct.

    SUPERINTENDENT, n. One who has the oversight and charge of something, with the power of direction; as the superintendent of an alms-house or work-house; the superintendent of public works; the superintendent of customs or finance.

    1. An ecclesiastical superior in some reformed churches.NWAD SUPERINTENDENT.2

    SUPERINTENDING, ppr. Overseeing with the authority to direct what shall be done and how it shall be done.

    SUPERIOR, a. [Sp. L. from super, above.]

    1. Higher; upper; more elevated in place; as the superior limb of the sun; the superior part of an image.NWAD SUPERIOR.2

    2. Higher in rank or office; more exalted in dignity; as a superior officer; a superior degree of nobility.NWAD SUPERIOR.3

    3. Higher or greater in excellence; surpassing others in the greatness, goodness or value of any quality; as a man of superior merit, of superior bravery, of superior talents or understanding, of superior accomplishments.NWAD SUPERIOR.4

    4. Being beyond the power or influence of; too great or firm to be subdued or affected by; as a man superior to revenge.NWAD SUPERIOR.5

    There is not on earth a spectacle more worthy than a great man superior to his sufferings.NWAD SUPERIOR.6

    5. In botany, a superior flower has the receptacle of the flower above the germ; a superior germ is included within the corol.NWAD SUPERIOR.7

    SUPERIOR, n. One who is more advanced in age. Old persons or elders are the superiors of the young.

    1. One who is more elevated in rank or office.NWAD SUPERIOR.9

    2. One who surpasses others in dignity, excellence or qualities of any kind. As a writer of pure English, Addison has no superior.NWAD SUPERIOR.10

    3. The chief of a monastery, convent or abbey.NWAD SUPERIOR.11

    SUPERIORITY, n. Pre-eminence; the quality of being more advanced or higher, greater or more excellent than another in any respect; as superiority of age, of rank or dignity, of attainments or excellence. The superiority of others in fortune and rank, is more readily acknowledged than superiority of understanding.

    SUPERLATION, n. [L. superlatio.] Exaltation of any thing beyond truth or propriety. [I believe not used.]

    SUPERLATIVE, a. [L. superlativus; super and latio, latus, fero.]

    1. Highest in degree; most eminent; surpassing all other; as a man of superlative wisdom or prudence, of superlative worth; a woman of superlative beauty.NWAD SUPERLATIVE.2

    2. Supreme; as the superlative glory of the divine character.NWAD SUPERLATIVE.3

    3. In grammar, expressing the highest or utmost degree; as the superlative degree of comparison.NWAD SUPERLATIVE.4

    SUPERLATIVE, n. In grammar, the superlative degree of adjectives, which is formed by the termination est, as meanest, highest, bravest; or by the use of most, as most high, most brave; or by least, as least amiable.

    SUPERLATIVELY, adv. In a manner expressing the utmost degree.

    I shall not speak superlatively of them.NWAD SUPERLATIVELY.2

    1. In the highest or utmost degree. Tiberius was superlatively wicked; Clodius was superlatively profligate.NWAD SUPERLATIVELY.3

    SUPERLATIVENESS, n. The state of being in the highest degree.

    SUPERLUNAR, SUPERLUNARY, a. [L. super and luna, the moon.] Being above the moon; not sublunary or of this world.

    The head that turns at superlunar things.NWAD SUPERLUNAR.2

    SUPERMUNDANE, a. [super and mundane.] Being above the world.

    SUPERNAL, a. [L. supernus, super.] Being in a higher place or region; locally higher; as the supernal orbs; supernal regions.

    1. Relating to things above; celestial; heavenly; as supernal grace.NWAD SUPERNAL.2

    Not by the sufferings of supernal pow’r.NWAD SUPERNAL.3

    SUPERNATANT, a. [L. supernatans, supernato; super and nato, to swim.] Swimming above; floating on the surface; as oil supernatant on water.

    SUPERNATATION, n. The act of floating on the surface of a fluid.

    SUPERNATURAL, a. [super and natural.] Being beyond or exceeding the powers or laws of nature; miraculous. A supernatural event is one which is not produced according to the ordinary or established laws of natural things. Thus if iron has more specific gravity than water, it will sink in that fluid; and the floating of iron on water must be a supernatural event. Now no human being can alter a law of nature; the floating of iron on water therefore must be caused by divine power specially exerted to suspend, in this instance, a law of nature. Hence supernatural events or miracles can be produced only by the immediate agency of divine power.

    SUPERNATURALLY, adv. In a manner exceeding the established course or laws of nature. The prophets must have been supernaturally taught or enlightened, for their predictions were beyond human fore-knowledge.

    SUPERNATURALNESS, n. The state or quality of being beyond the power or ordinary laws of nature.

    SUPERNUMERARY, a. [L. super and numerus, number.]

    1. Exceeding the number stated or prescribed; as a supernumerary officer in a regiment; a supernumerary canon in the church.NWAD SUPERNUMERARY.2

    2. Exceeding a necessary, a usual or a round number; as supernumerary addresses; supernumerary expense.NWAD SUPERNUMERARY.3

    SUPERNUMERARY, n. A person or thing beyond the number stated, or beyond what is necessary or usual. On the reduction of the regiments, several supernumeraries were to be provided for.

    SUPERPARTICULAR, a. [super and particular.] Noting a ratio when the excess of the greater term is a unit; as the ratio of 1 to 2, or of 3 to 4.

    SUPERPARTIENT, a. [L. super and partio.] Noting a ratio when the excess of the greater term is more than a unit; as that of 3 to 5, or of 7 to 10.

    SUPERPLANT, n. [super and plant.] A plant growing on another plant; as the mistletoe. [Not used.] [We now use parasite.]

    SUPERPLUSAGE, n. [L. super and plus.] That which is more than enough; excess. [We now use surplusage, which see.]

    SUPERPONDERATE, v.t. [L. super and pondero.] To weigh over and above. [Not used.]

    SUPERPOSE, v.t. superpo’ze. [super and Fr. poser, to law.]

    To law upon, as one kind of rock on another.NWAD SUPERPOSE.2

    SUPERPOSED, pp. Laid or being upon something.

    SUPERPOSING, ppr. Placing upon something.

    SUPERPOSITION, n. [super and position.]

    1. A placing above; a lying or being situated above or upon something; as the superposition of rocks.NWAD SUPERPOSITION.2

    2. That which is situated above or upon something else.NWAD SUPERPOSITION.3

    SUPERPRAISE, v.t. su’perpraze. To praise to excess.

    SUPERPROPORTION, n. [super and proportion.] Overplus of proportion.

    SUPERPURGATION, n. [super and purgation.] More purgation than is sufficient.

    SUPERREFLECTION, n. [super and reflection.] The reflection of an image reflected.

    SUPERREWARD, v.t. To reward to excess.

    SUPERROYAL, a. [super and royal.] Larger than royal; denoting the largest species of printing paper.

    SUPERSALIENCY, n. [L. super and salio, to leap.]

    The act of leaping on any thing. [Little used.]NWAD SUPERSALIENCY.2

    SUPERSALIENT, a. Leaping upon.

    SUPERSALT, n. In chimistry, a salt with an excess of acid, as supertartrate of potash.

    SUPERSATURATE, v.t. [L. super and saturo.] To saturate to excess.

    SUPERSATURATED, pp. Saturated to excess.

    SUPERSATURATING, ppr. Saturating or filling to excess.

    SUPERSATURATION, n. The operation of saturating to excess; or the state of being thus saturated.

    SUPERSCRIBE, v.t. [L. super and scribo, to write.] To write or engrave on the top, outside or surface; or to write the name or address of one on the outside or cover; as, to superscribe a letter.

    SUPERSCRIBED, pp. Inscribed on the outside.

    SUPERSCRIBING, ppr. Inscribing, writing or engraving on the outside, or on the top.

    SUPERSCRIPTION, n. The act of superscribing.

    1. That which is written or engraved on the outside, or above something else.NWAD SUPERSCRIPTION.2

    The superscription of his accusation was written over, THE KING OF THE JEWS. Mark 15:26; Luke 23:38.NWAD SUPERSCRIPTION.3

    2. An impression of letters on coins. Matthew 22:20.NWAD SUPERSCRIPTION.4

    SUPERSECULAR, a. [super and secular.] Being above the world or secular things.

    SUPERSEDE, v.t. [L. supersedeo; super and sedeo, to sit.]

    1. Literally, to set above; hence, to make void, inefficacious or useless by superior power, or by coming in the place of; to set aside; to render unnecessary; to suspend. The use of artillery in making breaches in walls, has superseded the use of the battering ram. The effect of passion is to supersede the workings of reason.NWAD SUPERSEDE.2

    Nothing is supposed that can supersede the known laws of natural motion.NWAD SUPERSEDE.3

    2. To come or be placed in the room of; hence, to displace or render unnecessary; as, an officer is superseded by the appointment of another person.NWAD SUPERSEDE.4

    SUPERSEDEAS, n. In law, a writ of supersedeas, is a writ or command to suspend the powers of an officer in certain cases, or to stay proceedings. This writ does not destroy the power of an officer, for it may be revived by another writ called a procedendo.

    SUPERSEDED, pp. Made void; rendered unnecessary or inefficacious; displaced; suspended.

    SUPERSEDING, ppr. Coming in the place of; setting aside; rendering useless; displacing; suspending.

    SUPERSEDURE, n. The act of superseding; as the supersedure of trial by jury. [New.]

    SUPERSERVICEABLE, a. [super and serviceable.] Over officious; doing more than is required or desired. [Not in use.]

    SUPERSTITION, n. [L. superstitio, supersto; super and sto, to stand.]

    1. Excessive exactness or rigor in religious opinions or practice; extreme and unnecessary scruples in the observance of religious rites not commanded, or of points of minor importance; excess or extravagance in religion; the doing of things not required by God, or abstaining from things not forbidden; or the belief of what is absurd, or belief without evidence.NWAD SUPERSTITION.2

    Superstition has reference to god, to religion, or to beings superior to man.NWAD SUPERSTITION.3

    2. False religion; false worship.NWAD SUPERSTITION.4

    3. Rite or practice proceeding from excess of scruples in religion. In this sense, it admits of a plural.NWAD SUPERSTITION.5

    They the truthNWAD SUPERSTITION.6

    With superstitions and traditions taint.NWAD SUPERSTITION.7

    4. Excessive nicety; scrupulous exactness.NWAD SUPERSTITION.8

    5. Belief in the direct agency of superior powers in certain extraordinary or singular events, or in omens and prognostics.NWAD SUPERSTITION.9

    SUPERSTITIONIST, n. One addicted to superstition.

    SUPERSTITIOUS, a. [L. superstitiosus.]

    1. Over scrupulous and rigid in religious observances; addicted to superstition; full of idle fancies and scruples in regard to religion; as superstitious people.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUS.2

    2. Proceeding from superstition; manifesting superstition; as superstitious rites; superstitious observances.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUS.3

    3. Over exact; scrupulous beyond need.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUS.4

    Superstitious use, in law, the use of land for a religious purpose, or by a religious corporation.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUS.5

    SUPERSTITIOUSLY, adv. In a superstitious manner; with excessive regard to uncommanded rites or unessential opinions and forms in religion.

    1. With too much care; with excessive exactness or scruple.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUSLY.2

    2. With extreme credulity in regard to the agency of superior beings in extraordinary events.NWAD SUPERSTITIOUSLY.3

    SUPERSTITIOUSNESS, n. Superstition.

    SUPERSTRAIN, v.t. [super and strain.] To overstrain or stretch. [Little used.]

    SUPERSTRATUM, n. [super and stratum.] A stratum or layer above another, or resting on something else.

    SUPERSTRUCT, v.t. [L. superstruo; super and struo, to lay.]

    To build upon; to erect.NWAD SUPERSTRUCT.2

    This is the only proper basis on which to superstruct first innocence and then virtue. [Little used.]NWAD SUPERSTRUCT.3

    SUPERSTRUCTION, n. An edifice erected on something.

    My own profession hath taught me not to erect new super structions on an old ruin.NWAD SUPERSTRUCTION.2

    SUPERSTRUCTIVE, a. Built or erected on something else.

    SUPERSTUCTURE, n. Any structure or edifice built on something else; particularly, the building raised on a foundation. This word is used to distinguish what is erected on a wall or foundation from the foundation itself.

    1. Any thing erected on a foundation or basis. In education, we begin with teaching languages as the foundation, and proceed to erect on that foundation the superstructure of science.NWAD SUPERSTUCTURE.2

    SUPERSUBSTANTIAL, a. [super and substantial.] More than substantial; being more than substance.

    SUPERSULPHATE, n. Sulphate with an excess of acid.

    SUPERSULPHURETED, a. Combined with an excess of sulphur.

    SUPERTERRENE, a. [super and terrene.] Being above ground, or above the earth.

    SUPERTERRESTRIAL, a. Being above the earth, or above what belongs to the earth.

    SUPERTONIC, n. In music, the note next above the key-note.

    SUPERTRAGICAL, a. Tragical to excess.

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