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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    EXHORT, v.t. egzhort’. [L. exhortor; ex and hortor, to encourage, to embolden, to cheer, to advise. The primary sense seems to be to excite or to give strength, spirit or courage.]

    1. To incite by words or advice; to animate or urge by arguments to a good deed or to any laudable conduct or course of action.NWAD EXHORT.2

    I exhort you to be of good cheer. Acts 27:22.NWAD EXHORT.3

    Young men also exhort to be sober minded.NWAD EXHORT.4

    Exhort servants to be obedient to their masters. Titus 2:9.NWAD EXHORT.5

    2. To advise; to warn; to caution.NWAD EXHORT.6

    3. To incite or stimulate to exertion.NWAD EXHORT.7

    EXHORT, v.i. To deliver exhortation; to use words or arguments to incite to good deeds.

    And with many other words did he testify and exhort. Acts 2:40.NWAD EXHORT.9

    EXHORTATION, n. The act or practice of exhorting; the act of inciting to laudable deeds; incitement to that which is good or commendable.

    1. The form of words intended to incite and encourage.NWAD EXHORTATION.2

    2. Advice; counsel.NWAD EXHORTATION.3

    EXHORTATIVE, a. Containing exhortation.

    EXHORTATORY, a. Tending to exhort; serving for exhortation.

    EXHORTED, pp. Incited by words to good deeds; animated to a laudable course of conduct; advised.

    EXHORTER, n. One who exhorts or encourages.

    EXHORTING, ppr. Inciting to good deeds by words or arguments; encouraging; counseling.

    EXHUMATION, n. [L. ex and humus, ground.]

    1. The digging up a dead body interred; the disinterring of a corpse.NWAD EXHUMATION.2

    2. The digging up of any thing buried.NWAD EXHUMATION.3

    EXICCATE, EXICCATION. [See Exsiccate.]

    EXIGENCE, EXIGENCY, n. [L. exigens from exigo, to exact; ex and ago, to drive.]

    1. Demand; urgency; urgent need or want. We speak of the exigence of the case; the exigence of the times, or of business.NWAD EXIGENCE.2

    2. Pressing necessity; distress; any case which demands immediate action, supply or remedy. A wise man adapts his measures to his exigencies. In the present exigency, no time is to be lost.NWAD EXIGENCE.3

    EXIGENT, n. Pressing business; occasion that calls for immediate help. [Not used. See Exigence.]

    1. In law, a writ which lies where the defendant is not to be found, or after a return of non est inventus on former writs; the exigent or exigi facias then issues, which requires the sheriff to cause the defendant to be proclaimed or exacted, in five county courts successively, to render himself; and if he does not, he is outlawed.NWAD EXIGENT.2

    2. End; extremity. [Not used.]NWAD EXIGENT.3

    EXIGENTER, n. An officer in the court of Common Pleas in England who makes out exigents and proclamations, in cases of outlawry.

    EXIGIBLE, a. [See Exigence.] That may be exacted; demandable; requirable.

    EXIGUITY, n. [L. exiguitas.] Smallness; slenderness. [Little used.]

    EXIGUOUS, a. [L. exiguus.] Small; slender; minute; diminutive. [Little used.]

    EXILE, n. eg’zile. [L. exilium, exul; The word is probably compounded of ex and a root in Sl, signifying to depart, or cut off, to separate, or the thrust away, perhaps L. salio.]

    1. Banishment; the state of being expelled from one’s native country or place of residence by authority, and forbid to return, either for a limited time or for perpetuity.NWAD EXILE.2

    2. An abandonment of one’s country, or removal to a foreign country for residence, through fear, disgust or resentment, or for any cause distinct from business, is called a voluntary exile, as is also a separation from one’s country and friends by distress or necessity.NWAD EXILE.3

    3. The person banished, or expelled from his country by authority; also, one who abandons his country and resides in another; or one who is separated from his country and friends by necessity.NWAD EXILE.4

    EXILE, v.t. To banish, as a person from his country or from a particular jurisdiction by authority, with a prohibition of return; to drive away, expel or transport from one’s country.

    1. To drive from one’s country by misfortune, necessity or distress.NWAD EXILE.6

    To exile one’s self, is to quit one’s country with a view not to returnNWAD EXILE.7

    EXILE, a. eg’zil, [L. exilis.] Slender; thin; fine.

    EXILED, pp. Banished; expelled from one’s country by authority.

    EXILEMENT, n. Banishment.

    EXILING, ppr. Banishing; expelling from one’s country by law, edict or sentence; voluntarily departing from one’s country, and residing in another.

    EXILITION, n. [L. exilio, for exsalio, to leap out.]

    A sudden springing or leaping out. [Little used.]NWAD EXILITION.2

    EXILITY, n. [L. exilitas.] Slenderness; fineness; thinness.

    EXIMIOUS, a. [L. eximius.] Excellent. [Little used.]

    EXINANITE, v.t. [L. exinanio.] To make empty; to weaken. [Not used.]

    EXINANITION, n. [L. exinanitio, from exinanio, to empty or evacuate; ex and inanio, to empty, inanis, empty, void.]

    An emptying or evacuation; hence, privation; loss; destitution. [Little used.]NWAD EXINANITION.2

    EXIST, v.i. egzist’. [L. existo; ex and sisto, or more directly from Gr. to set, place or fix; L. sto, to stand. The primary sense is to set, fix or be fixed, whence the sense of permanence, continuance.]

    1. To be; to have an essence or real being; applicable to matter or body, and to spiritual substances. A supreme being and first cause of all other beings must have existed from eternity, for no being can have created himself.NWAD EXIST.2

    2. To live; to have life or animation. Men cannot exist in water, nor fishes on land.NWAD EXIST.3

    3. To remain; to endure; to continue in being. How long shall national enmities exist?NWAD EXIST.4

    EXISTENCE, n. The state of being or having essence; as the existence of body and of soul in union; the separate existence of the soul; immortal existence; temporal existence.

    1. Life; animation.NWAD EXISTENCE.2

    2. Continued being; duration; continuation. We speak of the existence of troubles or calamities, or of happiness. During the existence of national calamities, our pious ancestors always had recourse to prayer for divine aid.NWAD EXISTENCE.3

    EXISTENT, a. Being; having being, essence or existence.

    The eyes and mind are fastened on objects which have no real being, as if they were truly existent.NWAD EXISTENT.2

    EXISTENTIAL, a. Having existence.

    EXIT, n. [L. the 3d person of exeo, to go out.] Literally, he goes out or departs. Hence,

    1. The departure of a player from the state, when he has performed his part. This is also a term set in a play, to mark the time of an actor’s quitting the state.NWAD EXIT.2

    2. Any departure; the act of quitting the state of action or of life; death; decease.NWAD EXIT.3

    3. A way of departure; passage out of a place.NWAD EXIT.4

    4. A going out; departure.NWAD EXIT.5

    EXITIAL, EXITIOUS, a. [L. exitialis.] Destructive to a life.

    EX-LEGISLATOR, n. One who has been a legislator, but is not at present.

    EX-MINISTER, n. One who has been minister, but is not in office.

    EXODE, n. [Gr. See Exodus.] In the Greek drama, the concluding part of a play, or the part which comprehends all that is said after the last interlude.

    EXODUS, EXODY, n. [Gr. way.] Departure from a place; particularly, the departure of the Israelites from Egypt under the conduct of Moses.

    1. The second book of the Old Testament, which gives a history of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt.NWAD EXODUS.2

    Ex officio, [L.] By virtue of office, and without special authority. A justice of the peace may ex officio take sureties of the peace.NWAD EXODUS.3

    EXOGLOSS, n. [Gr. tongue.] A genus of fishes found in the American seas, whose lower jaw is trilobed, and the middle lobe protruded performs the office of a tongue.

    EXOLETE, a. [L. exoleltus.] Obsolete. [Not in use.]

    EXOLUTION, n. Laxation of the nerves. [Not in use.]

    EXOLVE, v.t. To loose. [Not in use.]

    EXOMPHALOS, n. [Gr.] A navel rupture.

    EXONERATE, v.t. egzon’erate. [L. exonero; ex and onero, to load, onus, a load.]

    1. To unload; to disburden.NWAD EXONERATE.2

    The vessels exonerate themselves into a common duct.NWAD EXONERATE.3

    But more generally, in a figurative sense.NWAD EXONERATE.4

    2. To cast off, as a charge or as blame resting on one; to clear of something that lies upon the character as an imputation; as, to exonerate one’s self from blame, or from the charge of avarice.NWAD EXONERATE.5

    3. To cast off, as an obligation, debt or duty; to discharge of responsibility or liability; as, a surety exonerates himself by producing a man in court.NWAD EXONERATE.6

    EXONERATED, pp. Unloaded; disburdened; freed from a charge, imputation or responsibility.

    EXONERATING, ppr. Unloading; disburdening; freeing from any charge or imputation.

    EXONERATION, n. The act of disburdening or discharging; the act of freeing from a charge or imputation.

    EXONERATIVE, a. Freeing from a burden or obligation.

    EXORABLE, a. [L. exorabilis, from exoro; ex and oro, to pray.]

    That may be moved or persuaded by entreaty.NWAD EXORABLE.2

    EXORBITANCE, EXORBITANCY, n. egzorb’itance. [L. exorbitans, from ex and orbita, the track of a wheel, orbis, and orb.]

    Literally, a going beyond or without the tract or usual limit. Hence, enormity; extravagance; a deviation from rule or the ordinary limits or right or propriety; as the exorbitances of the tongue, or of deportment.NWAD EXORBITANCE.2

    The reverence of my presence may be a curb to your exorbitancies.NWAD EXORBITANCE.3

    EXORBITANT, a. [L. exorbitans.] Literally, departing from an orbit or usual track. Hence, deviating from the usual course; going beyond the appointed rules or established limits of right or propriety; hence, excessive; extravagant; enormous. We speak of exorbitant appetites and passions; exorbitant demands or claims; exorbitant taxes.

    1. Anomalous; not comprehended in a settled rule or method.NWAD EXORBITANT.2

    The Jews were inured with causes exorbitant.NWAD EXORBITANT.3

    EXORBITANTLY, adv. Enormously; excessively.

    EXORBITATE, v.i. To go beyond the usual track or orbit; to deviate from the usual limit.

    EXORCISE, v.i. s as z. [Gr. to adjure, to bind by oath, an oath.]

    1. To adjure by some holy name; but chiefly, to expel evil spirits by conjurations, prayers and ceremonies. To exorcise a person, is to expel from him the evil spirit supposed to possess him. To exorcise a demon or evil spirit, is to cast him out or drive him from a person, by prayers or other ceremonies.NWAD EXORCISE.2

    2. To purify from unclean spirits by adjurations and ceremonies; to deliver from the influence of malignant spirits or demons; as, to exorcise a bed or a house.NWAD EXORCISE.3

    EXORCISED, pp. Expelled from a person or place by conjurations and prayers; freed from demons in like manner.

    EXORCISER, n. One who pretends to cast out evil spirits by adjurations and conjuration.

    EXORCISING, ppr. Expelling evil spirits by prayers and ceremonies.

    EXORCISM, n. [L. exorcismus.] The expulsion of evil spirits from persons or places by certain adjurations and ceremonies. Exorcism was common among the Jews, and still makes a part of the superstitions of some churches.

    EXORCIST, n. One who pretends to expel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers, and ceremonies. Acts 19:13.

    EXORDIAL, a. [infra.] Pertaining to the exordium of a discourse; introductory.

    EXORDIUM, n. plu. exordiums. [L. from exodior; ex and ordior, to begin. See Order.] In oratory, the beginning; the introductory part of a discourse, which prepares the audience for the main subject; the preface or proemial part of a composition. The exordium may be formal and deliberate, or abrupt and vehement, according to the nature of the subject and occasion.

    EXORNATION, n. [L. exornatio, from exorno; ex and orno, to adorn.]

    Ornament; decoration; embellishment.NWAD EXORNATION.2

    EXORTIVE, a. [L. exortivus; ex and ortus, a rising.] Rising; relating to the east.

    EXOSSATED, a. [infra.] Deprived of bones.

    EXOSSEOUS, a. [L. ex and ossa, bones.] Without bones; destitute of bones; as exosseous animals.

    EXOTERIC, a. [Gr. exterior.] External; public; opposed to esoteric or secret. The exoteric doctrines of the ancient philosophers were those which were openly professed and taught. The esoteric were secret, or taught only to a few chosen disciples.

    EXOTERY, n. What is obvious or common.

    EXOTIC, a. [Gr. without.] Foreign; pertaining to or produced in a foreign country; not native; extraneous; as an exotic plant; an exotic term or word.

    EXOTIC, n. A plant, shrub or tree not native; a plant produced in a foreign country.

    1. A word of foreign origin.NWAD EXOTIC.3

    EXPAND, v.t. [L. expando; es and pando, to open or spread; Eng. span. The primary sense is to strain or stretch, and this seems to be the sense of bend, L. pandus.]

    1. To open; to spread; as, a flower expands its leaves.NWAD EXPAND.2

    2. To spread; to enlarge a surface; to diffuse; as, a stream expands its waters over a plain.NWAD EXPAND.3

    3. To dilate; to enlarge in bulk; to distend; as, to expand the chest by inspiration; heat expands all bodies; air is expanded by rarefaction.NWAD EXPAND.4

    4. To enlarge; to extend; as, to expand the sphere of benevolence; to expand the heart or affections.NWAD EXPAND.5

    ESPAND, v.i. To open; to spread. Flowers expand in spring.

    1. To dilate; to extend in bulk or surface. Metals expand by heat. A lake expands, when swelled by rains.NWAD ESPAND.2

    2. To enlarge; as, the heart expands with joy.NWAD ESPAND.3

    EXPANDED, pp. Opened; spread; extended; dilated; enlarged; diffused.

    EXPANDING, ppr. Opening; spreading; extending; dilating; diffusing.

    EXPANSE, n. expans’. [L. expansum.] A spreading; extend; a wide extent of space or body; as the expanse of heave.

    The smooth expanse of crystal lakes.NWAD EXPANSE.2

    EXPANSIBILITY, n. [from expansible.] The capacity of being expanded; capacity of extension in surface or bulk; as the expansibility of air.

    EXPANSIBLE, a. Capable of being expanded or spread; capable of being extended, dilated or diffused.

    Bodies are not expansible in proportion to their weight.NWAD EXPANSIBLE.2

    EXPANSILE, a. Capable of expanding, or of being dilated.

    EXPANSION, n. [L. expansio.] The act of expanding or spreading out.

    1. The state of being expanded; the enlargement of surface or bulk; dilatation. We apply expansion to surface, as the expansion of a sheet or of a lake, and to bulk, as the expansion of fluids or metals by heat; but not to a line or length without breadth.NWAD EXPANSION.2

    2. Extent; space to which any thing is enlarged; also, pure space or distance between remote bodies.NWAD EXPANSION.3

    3. Enlargement; as the expansion of the heart or affections.NWAD EXPANSION.4

    EXPANSIVE, a. Having the power to expand, to spread, or to dilate; as the expansive force of heat or fire.

    1. Having the capacity of being expanded; as the expansive quality of air; the expansive atmosphere.NWAD EXPANSIVE.2

    2. Widely extended; as expansive benevolence.NWAD EXPANSIVE.3

    EXPANSIVENESS, n. The quality of being expansive.

    Ex parte, [L.] On one part; as a hearing or a council ex parte, on one side only.NWAD EXPANSIVENESS.2

    EXPATIATE, v.i. [L. expatior; ex and spatior, to wander, to enlarge in discourse, spatium, space, probably allied to pateo, to open.]

    1. To open at large; to rove without prescribed limits; to wander in space without restraint.NWAD EXPATIATE.2

    He bids his soul expatiate in the skies.NWAD EXPATIATE.3

    Expatiate free o’er all this scene of man.NWAD EXPATIATE.4

    2. To enlarge in discourse or writing; to be copious in argument or discussion. On important topics the orator thinks himself at liberty to expatiate.NWAD EXPATIATE.5

    EXPATIATING, ppr. Roving at large; moving in space without certain limits or restraint; enlarging in discourse or writing.

    EXPATIATOR, n. One who enlarges or amplifies in language.

    EXPATRIATE, v.t. [L. ex and patria, country.]

    In a general sense, to banish.NWAD EXPATRIATE.2

    To expatriate one’s self, is to quit one’s country, renouncing citizenship and allegiance in that country, to take residence and become a citizen in another country. The right to expatriate one’s self is denied in feudal countries, and much controverted in the U. States.NWAD EXPATRIATE.3

    EXPATRIATED, pp. Banished; removed from one’s native country, with renunciation of citizenship and allegiance.

    EXPATRIATING, ppr. Banishing; abandoning one’s country, with renunciation of allegiance.

    EXPATRIATION, n. Banishment. More generally, the forsaking one’s own country, with a renunciation of allegiance, and with the view of becoming a permanent resident and citizen in another country.

    EXPECT, v.t. [L. expecto; ex and specto, to look, that is, to reach forward, or to fix the eyes.]

    1. To wait for.NWAD EXPECT.2

    The guards,NWAD EXPECT.3

    By me encamp’d on yonder hill, expectNWAD EXPECT.4

    Their motion.NWAD EXPECT.5

    [This sense, though often used by Gibbon, seems to be obsolescent.]NWAD EXPECT.6

    2. To look for; to have a previous apprehension of something future, whether good or evil; to entertain at least a slight belief that an event will happen. We expect a visit that has been promised. We expect money will be paid at the time it is due, though we are often disappointed.NWAD EXPECT.7

    Expect, in its legitimate sense, always refers to a future event. The common phrase, I expect it was, is a vulgar as it is improper.NWAD EXPECT.8

    EXPECTABLE, a. To be expected; that may be expected.

    EXPECTANCE, EXPECTANCY, n. The act or state of expecting; expectation.

    1. Something expected.NWAD EXPECTANCE.2

    2. Hope; a looking for with pleasure.NWAD EXPECTANCE.3

    EXPECTANCY, n. In law, a state of waiting or suspension. An estate in expectancy is one which is to take effect or commence after the determination of another estate. Estates of this kind are remainders and reversions. A remainder, or estate in remainder, is one which is limited to take effect and be enjoyed after another estate is determined. Thus when a grant of land is made to A for twenty years, and after the determination of that term, to B and his heirs forever; A is tenant for years, remainder to B in fee. In this case, the estate of B is in expectancy, that is, waiting for the determination of the estate for years. A reversion is the residue of an estate left in the grantor, to commence in possession after the determination of a particular estate granted out by him. As when A leases an estate to B for twenty years; after the determination of that period, the estate reverts to the lessor, but during the term the estate of the lessor is in expectancy.

    EXPECTANT, a. Waiting; looking for.

    1. An expectant estate, is one which is suspended till the determination of a particular estate.NWAD EXPECTANT.2

    EXPECTANT, n. One who expects; one who waits in expectation; one held in dependence by his belief or hope of receiving some good. Those who have the gift of offices are usually surrounded by expectants.

    EXPECTATION, n. [L. expectatio.] The act of expecting or looking forward to a future event with at least some reason to believe the event will happen. Expectation differs from hope. Hope originates in desire, and may exist with little or no ground of belief that the desired event will arrive. Expectation is founded on some reasons which render the event probably. Hope is directed to some good; expectation is directed to good or evil.

    The same weakness of mind which indulges absurd expectations, produces petulance in disappointment.NWAD EXPECTATION.2

    1. The state of expecting, either with hope or fear.NWAD EXPECTATION.3

    2. Prospect of good to come.NWAD EXPECTATION.4

    My soul, wait thou only on God, for my expectation is from him. Psalm 62:5.NWAD EXPECTATION.5

    3. The object of expectation; the expected Messiah.NWAD EXPECTATION.6

    4. A state or qualities in a person which excite expectations in others of some future excellence; as a youth of expectation.NWAD EXPECTATION.7

    We now more generally say, a youth of promise.NWAD EXPECTATION.8

    5. In chances, expectation is applied to contingent events, and is reducible to computation. A sum of money in expectation, when an event happens, has a determinate value before that event happens. If the chances of receiving or not receiving a hundred dollars, when an event arrives, are equal; then, before the arrival of the event, the expectation is worth half the money.NWAD EXPECTATION.9

    EXPECTATIVE, n. That which is expected. [Not used.]

    EXPECTER, n. One who expects; one who waits for something, or for another person.

    EXPECTING, ppr. Waiting or looking for the arrival of.

    EXPECTORANT, a. [See Expectorate.] Having the quality of promoting discharges from the lungs.

    EXPECTORANT, n. A medicine which promotes discharges from the lungs.

    EXPECTORATE, v.t. [L. expectoro; ex and pectus, the breast.]

    To eject from the trachea or lungs; to discharge phlegm or other matter, by coughing, hawking and spitting.NWAD EXPECTORATE.2

    EXPECTORATED, pp. Discharged from the lungs.

    EXPECTORATING, ppr. Throwing from the lungs by hawking and spitting.

    EXPECTORATION, n. The act of discharging phlegm or mucus from the lungs, by coughing, hawking and spitting.

    EXPECTORATIVE, a. Having the quality of promoting expectoration.

    EXPEDIATE, v.t. To expedite. [Not in use.]

    EXPEDIENCE, EXPEDIENCY, n. [See Speed, Expedient and Expedite.]

    1. Fitness or suitableness to effect some good end or the purpose intended; propriety under the particular circumstances of a case. The practicability of a measure is often obvious, when the expedience of it is questionable.NWAD EXPEDIENCE.2

    2. Expedition; adventure. [Not now used.]NWAD EXPEDIENCE.3

    3. Expedition; haste; dispatch. [Not now use.]NWAD EXPEDIENCE.4

    EXPEDIENT, a. [L. expediens; expedio, to hasten; Eng. speed.]

    1. Literally, hastening; urging forward. Hence, tending to promote the object proposed; fit or suitable for the purpose; proper under the circumstances. Many things may be lawful, which are not expedient.NWAD EXPEDIENT.2

    2. Useful; profitable.NWAD EXPEDIENT.3

    3. Quick; expeditious. [Not used.]NWAD EXPEDIENT.4

    EXPEDIENT, n. That which serves to promote or advance; any means which may be employed to accomplish an end. Let every expedient be employed to effect an important object, nor let exertions cease till all expedients fail of producing the effect.

    1. Shift; means devised or employed in an exigency.NWAD EXPEDIENT.6

    EXPEDIENTLY, adv. Fitly; suitably; conveniently.

    1. Hastily; quickly.NWAD EXPEDIENTLY.2

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