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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    APPARITOR, n. [L. apparo, to prepare, or appareo, to attend.]

    Among the Romans, any officer who attended magistrates and judges to execute their orders. In England, a messenger or officer who serves the process of a spiritual court, or a beadle in the university who carries the mace.NWAD APPARITOR.2

    APPAY, v.t. To satisfy. Obs. [See Pay.]

    APPEACH, v.t. To accuse; to censure, or reproach. Obs. [See Impeach.]

    APPEACHMENT, n. Accusation; charge exhibited. Obs.

    APPEAL, v.i. [L. apello; ad and pello, to drive or send; Gr. We do not see the sense of call in pello, but to drive or press out, is the radical sense of calling, naming. This word coincides in elements with L. balo, Eng. bawl, and peal.]

    1. To refer to a superior judge or court, for the decision of a cause depending, or the revision of a cause decided in a lower court.NWAD APPEAL.2

    I appeal to Cesar. Acts 25:11.NWAD APPEAL.3

    2. To refer to another for the decision of a question controverted, or the counteraction of testimony or facts; as, I appeal to all mankind for the truth of what is alleged.NWAD APPEAL.4

    APPEAL, v.t. To call or remove a cause from an inferior to a superior judge or court. This may be done after trial and judgment in the lower court; or by special statute or agreement, a party may appeal before trial, upon a fictitious issue and judgment. We say the cause was appealed before or after trial.

    APPEAL, v.t. In crimianal law, to charge with a crime; to accuse; to institute a criminal prosecution, for some hainous offense; as, to appeal a person of felony. This process was anciently given to a private person to recover the weregild, or private pecuniary satisfaction for an injury he had received by the murder of a relation, or by some personal injury.

    APPEAL, n.

    1. The removal of a cause or suit from an inferior to a superior tribunal, as from a common pleas court to a superior or supreme court. Also the right of appeal.NWAD APPEAL.8

    2. An accusation; a process instituted by a private person against a man for some hainous crime by which he has been injured, as for murder, larceny, mayhem.NWAD APPEAL.9

    3. A summons to answer to a charge.NWAD APPEAL.10

    4. A call upon a person; a reference to another for proof or decision.NWAD APPEAL.11

    In an oath, a person makes an appeal to the Deity for the truth of his declaration.NWAD APPEAL.12

    5. Resort; recourse.NWAD APPEAL.13

    Every milder method is to be tried, before a nation makes an appeal to arms.NWAD APPEAL.14


    1. That may be appealed; that may be removed to a higher tribunal for decision; as, the cause is appealable.NWAD APPEALABLE.2

    2. That may be accused or called to answer by appeal; applied to persons; as, a criminal is appealable for manslaughter.NWAD APPEALABLE.3

    APPEALANT, n. One who appeals. [Not used.]

    APPEALED, pp. Removed to a higher court, as a cause; prosecuted for a crime by a private person, as a criminal.

    APPEALER, n. One who appeals; an appellor.

    APPEALING, ppr. Removing a cause to a higher tribunal; prosecuting as a private person for an offense; referring to another for a decision.

    APPEAR, v.i. [L. appareo, of ad and pareo, to appear, or be manifest.]

    1. To come or be in sight; to be in view; to be visible.NWAD APPEAR.2

    The leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh. Leviticus 13:43.NWAD APPEAR.3

    And God said, Let the dry land appear. Genesis 1:9.NWAD APPEAR.4

    2. To become visible to the eye, as a spirit, or to the apprehension of the mind; a sense frequent in scripture.NWAD APPEAR.5

    The Lord appeared to Abram, and said. Genesis 12:7.NWAD APPEAR.6

    The angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bush. Exodus 3:2.NWAD APPEAR.7

    3. To stand in presence of, as parties or advocates before a court, or as persons to be tried. The defendant, being called, did not appear.NWAD APPEAR.8

    We must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ. 2 Corinthians 5:10.NWAD APPEAR.9

    4. To be obvious; to be known, as a subject of observation or comprehension.NWAD APPEAR.10

    Let thy work appear to thy servant. Psalm 90:16.NWAD APPEAR.11

    It doth not yet appear what we shall be. 1 John 3:2.NWAD APPEAR.12

    5. To be clear or made clear by evidence; as, this fact appears by ancient records.NWAD APPEAR.13

    But sin that it might appear sin. Romans 7:13.NWAD APPEAR.14

    6. To seem, in opposition to reality.NWAD APPEAR.15

    They disfigure their faces, that they may appear to men to fast. Matthew 6:16.NWAD APPEAR.16

    7. To be discovered, or laid open.NWAD APPEAR.17

    That they shame may appear. Jeremiah 13:26.NWAD APPEAR.18

    APPEAR, n. Appearance. Obs.


    1. The act of coming into sight; the act of becoming visible to the eye; as, his sudden appearance surprised me.NWAD APPEARANCE.2

    2. The thing seen; a phenomenon; as an appearance in the sky.NWAD APPEARANCE.3

    3. Semblance; apparent likeness.NWAD APPEARANCE.4

    There was upon the tabernacle as it were the appearance of fire. Numbers 9:15.NWAD APPEARANCE.5

    4. External show; semblance assumed, in opposition to reality or substance; as, we are often deceived by appearances; he has the appearance of virtue.NWAD APPEARANCE.6

    For man looketh on the outward appearance. 1 Samuel 16:7.NWAD APPEARANCE.7

    5. Personal presence; exhibition of the person; as, he made his first appearance at court or on the stage.NWAD APPEARANCE.8

    6. Exhibition of the character; introduction of a person to the public in a particular character, as a person makes his appearance in the world, as a historian, an artist, or an orator.NWAD APPEARANCE.9

    7. Probability; likelihood. This sense is rather an inference from the third or fourth; as probability is inferred from external semblance or show.NWAD APPEARANCE.10

    8. Presence; mien; figure; as presented by the person, dress or manners; as, the lady made a noble appearance.NWAD APPEARANCE.11

    9. A being present in court; a defendant’s filing common or special bail to a process.NWAD APPEARANCE.12

    10. An apparition.NWAD APPEARANCE.13

    APPEARER, n. The person that appears.

    APPEARING, ppr. Coming in sight; becoming evident; making an external show; seeming; having the semblance.

    APPEARING, n. The act of becoming visible; appearance.

    APPEASABLE, a. That may be appeased, quieted, calmed, or pacified.

    APPEASABLENESS, n. The quality of being appeasable.

    APPEASE, v.t. s as z. [L. pax. See Peace.]

    To make quiet; to calm; to reduce to a state of peace; to still; to pacify; as, to appease the tumult of the ocean or of the passions; to appease hunger or thirst.NWAD APPEASE.2

    [This word is of a general application to every thing in a disturbed, ruffled or agitated state.]NWAD APPEASE.3

    APPEASED, pp. Quieted; calmed; stilled; pacified.

    APPEASEMENT, n. The act of appeasing; the state of being in peace.

    APPEASER, n. One who appeases, or pacifies.

    APPEASIVE, a. Having the power to appease; mitigating; quieting.

    APPELLANT, n. [See Appeal.]

    1. One who appeals, or removes a cause from a lower to a higher tribunal.NWAD APPELLANT.2

    2. One who prosecutes another for a crime.NWAD APPELLANT.3

    3. One who challenges, or summons another to single combat.NWAD APPELLANT.4

    4. In church history, one who appeals from the Constitution Unigenitus to a general council.NWAD APPELLANT.5

    APPELLATE, n. A person appealed, or prosecuted for a crime. [Not now used. See Appellee.]

    APPELLATE, a. Pertaining to appeals; having cognizance of appeals; as “appellate jurisdiction.”

    APPELLATION, n. [L. appellatio. See Appeal.]

    Name; the word by which a thing is called and known. Spenser uses it for appeal.NWAD APPELLATION.2

    APPELLATIVE, a. Pertaining to a common name; noting the common name of a species.

    APPELLATIVE, n. A common name in distinction from a proper name. A common name or appelative stands for a whole class, genus or species of beings, or for universal ideas. Thus man is the name of the whole human race, and fowl of all winged animals. Tree is the name of all plants of a particular class; plant and vegetable are names of things that grow out of the earth. A proper name, on the other hand, stands for a single thing, as, London, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston.

    APPELLATIVELY, adv. According to the manner of nouns appellative; in a manner to express whole classes or species; as, Hercules is sometimes used appellatively, that is, as a common name to signify a strong man.

    APPELLATORY, a. Containing an appeal.

    APPELLEE, n.

    1. The defendant in an appeal.NWAD APPELLEE.2

    2. The person who is appealed, or prosecuted by a private man for a crime.NWAD APPELLEE.3

    APPELLOR, n. The person who institutes an appeal, or prosecutes another for a crime.

    This word is rarely or never used for the plaintiff in appeal from a lower court, who is called the appellant. Appellee is opposed both to appellant and appellor.NWAD APPELLOR.2

    APPEND, v.t. [L. appendo, of ad and pendeo, to hand.]

    1. To hang or attach to, as by a string, so that the thing is suspended; as, a seal appended to a record.NWAD APPEND.2

    2. To add, as an accessory to the principal thing.NWAD APPEND.3

    APPENDAGE, n. Something added to a principal or greater thing, though not necessary to it, as a portico to a house.

    Modesty is the appendage of sobriety.NWAD APPENDAGE.2

    APPENDANCE, APPENDENCE, n. Something annexed. [Not used.]


    1. hanging to; annexed; belonging to something; attached; as, a seal appendant to a paper.NWAD APPENDANT.2

    2. In law, common appendant, is a right belonging to the owners or occupiers of land, to put commonably beasts upon the lord’s waste, and upon the lands of other persons within the same manor. An advowson appendant, is the right of patronage or presentation, annexed to the possession of a manor. So also a common of fishing may be appendant to a freehold.NWAD APPENDANT.3

    APPENDANT, n. That which belongs to another thing, as incidental or subordinate to it.

    APPENDED, pp. Annexed; attached.

    APPENDICATE, v.t. To append; to add to. Obs.

    APPENDICATION, n. An appendage or adjunct. Obs.

    APPENDICLE, n. A small appendage.

    APPENDING, n. That which is by right annexed.

    APPENDIX, n. plu. appendixes. [L. The Latin plural is appendices. See Append.]

    1. something appended or added.NWAD APPENDIX.2

    Normandy became an appendix to England.NWAD APPENDIX.3

    2. An adjunct, concomitant, or appendage.NWAD APPENDIX.4

    3. More generally, a supplement or short treatise added to a book.NWAD APPENDIX.5

    APPERCETIVE, v.t. To comprehend. Obs.

    APPERCEPTION, n. [ad and perception.]

    Perception that reflects upon itself; consciousness.NWAD APPERCEPTION.2

    APPERIL, n. Peril; danger, [Not in use.]

    APPERTAIN, v.i. [L. ad and pertineo, to pertain, of per and teneo, to hold. Pertineo is to reach to, to extend to, hence to belong. See Tenant.]

    To belong, whether by right, nature or appointment.NWAD APPERTAIN.2

    Give it to him to whom it appertaineth. Leviticus 6:5.NWAD APPERTAIN.3

    [See Pertain.]NWAD APPERTAIN.4

    APPERTAINING, pp. Belonging.

    APPERTAINMENT, n. That which belongs.

    APPERTENENCE, n. [See Appurtenance.]

    APPERTINENT, a. Belonging; now written appurtenant.

    APPERTINENT, n. That which belongs to something else. Obs. [See Appurtenance.]

    APPETENCE, APPETENCY, n. [L. appetentia, appetens, from appeto, to desire; of ad and peto, to ask, supplicate or seek, compound. Eng. bid. The primary sense is to strain, to urge or press, or to advance. See Bid.]

    1. In a general sense, desire; but especially, carnal desire; sensual appetite.NWAD APPETENCE.2

    2. The disposition of organized bodies to select and imbibe such portions of matter as serve to support and nourish them, or such particles as are designed, through their agency, to carry on the animal or vegetable economy.NWAD APPETENCE.3

    These lacteals have mouths, and by animal selection or appetency, they absorb such part of the fluid as is agreeable to their palate.NWAD APPETENCE.4

    3. An inclination or propensity in animals to perform certain actions, as in the young to suck, in aquatic fowls to enter into water and to swim.NWAD APPETENCE.5

    4. According to Darwin, animal appetency is synonymous with irritability or sensibility; as the appetency of the eye for light, of the pops to secrete milk, etc.NWAD APPETENCE.6

    5. Attraction, or the tendency in bodies to move toward each other and unite.NWAD APPETENCE.7

    APPETENT, a. Desiring; very desirous.

    APPETIBILITY, n. The quality of being desirable for gratification.

    APPETIBLE, a. [Low L. appetibilis, from appeto.] Desirable; that may be the object of sensual desire.

    APPETITE, n. [L. appetitus, from appeto. See Appetence.]

    1. The natural desire of pleasure or good; the desire of gratification, either of the body or of the mind. Appetites are passions directed to general objects, as the appetite for fame, glory or riches; in distinction from passions directed to some particular objects, which retain their proper name, as the passion of love, envy or gratitude. Passion does not exist without an object; natural appetites exist first, and are then directed to objects.NWAD APPETITE.2

    2. A desire of food or drink; a painful sensation occasioned by hunger or thirst.NWAD APPETITE.3

    3. Strong desire; eagerness or longing.NWAD APPETITE.4

    4. The thing desired.NWAD APPETITE.5

    Power being the natural appetite of princes.NWAD APPETITE.6

    Appetites are natural or artificial. Hunger and thirst are natural appetites; the appetites for olives, tobacco, snuff, etc. are artificial.NWAD APPETITE.7

    In old authors, appetite is followed by to, but regularly it should be followed by for before the object, as an appetite for pleasure.NWAD APPETITE.8

    To be given to appetite, is to be voracious or gluttonous. Proverbs 23:2.NWAD APPETITE.9

    APPETITION, n. [L. appetitio.] Desire. [Rarely used.]

    APPETITIVE, a. That desires; that has the quality of desiring gratification; as appetitive power or faculty.

    APPIAN, a. Designating something that belongs to Appius, particularly a way from Rome through Capua to Brundusium, now Brindisi, constructed by Appius Claudius A.R. 441. It is more than 330 miles in length, formed of hard stone squared, and so wide as to admit two carriages abreast.

    APPLAUD, v.t. [L. applaudo; ad and plaudo, to make a noise by clapping the hands; Eng. loud.]

    1. To praise by clapping the hands, acclamation, or other significant sign.NWAD APPLAUD.2

    2. To praise by words, actions or other means; to express approbation of; to commend; used in a general sense.NWAD APPLAUD.3

    APPLAUDED, pp. Praised by acclamation, or other means; commended.

    APPLAUDER, n. One who praises or commends.

    APPLAUDING, ppr. praising by acclamation; commending.

    APPLAUSE, n. s as z. [L. applausus.]

    A shout of approbation; approbation and praise, expressed by clapping the hands, acclamation or huzzas; approbation expressed. in antiquity, applause differed from acclamation; applause was expressed by the hands, and acclamation by the voice. There were three species of applause, the bombus, a confused din made by the hands or mouth; the imbrices and testae, made by beating a sort of sounding vessels in the theaters. Persons were appointed for the purpose of applauding, and masters were employed to teach the art. The applauds were divided into choruses, and placed opposite to each other, like the choristers in a cathedral.NWAD APPLAUSE.2

    APPLAUSIVE, a. Applauding; containing applause.

    APPLE, n.

    1. The fruit of the apple tree, [pyrus malus,] from which cider is made.NWAD APPLE.2

    2. The apple of the eye is the pupil.NWAD APPLE.3

    Apple of love, or love apple, the tomato, or lycopersicum, a species of Solanum. The stalk is herbaceous, with oval, pinnated leaves, and small yellow flowers. The berry is smooth, soft, of a yellow or reddish color, of the size of a plum. It is used in soups and broths.NWAD APPLE.4

    APPLE, v.t. To form like an apple.

    APPLE-GRAFT, n. A scion of the appletree engrafted.

    APPLE-HARVEST, n. The gathering of apples, or the time of gathering.

    APPLE-PIE, n. a pie made of apples stewed or baked, inclosed in paste, or covered with paste, as in England.

    APPLE-SAUCE, n. A sauce made of stewed apples.

    APPLE-TART, n. A tart made of apples baked on paste.

    APPLE-TREE, n. A tree arranged by Linne under the genus pyrus. The fruit of this tree is indefinitely various. The crab apple is supposed to be the original kind, from which all others have sprung. New varieties are springing annually from the seeds.

    APPLE-WOMAN, n. A woman who sells apples and other fruit.

    APPLE-YARD, n. An orchard; an inclosure for apples.

    APPLIABLE, a. [See Apply.] That may be applied. This word is superseded by applicable.

    APPLIANCE, n. The act of applying, or thing applied. Obs.

    APPLICABILITY, n. [See Apply.] The quality of being applicable, or fit to be applied.

    APPLICABLE, a. That may be applied; fit to be applied, as related to a thing; that may have relation to something else; as, this observation is applicable to the case under consideration.

    APPLICABLENESS, n. Fitness to be applied; the quality of being applicable.

    APPLICABLY, adv. In such a manner that it may be applied.

    APPLICANT, n. One who applies; one who makes request; a petitioner.

    The applicant for a cup of water declares himself to be the Messias.NWAD APPLICANT.2

    The court require the applicant to appear in person.NWAD APPLICANT.3

    APPLICATE, n. A right line drawn across a curve, so as to be bisected by the diameter; an ordinate.

    APPLICATE-ORDINATE. A right line at right angles applied to the axis of any conic section, and bounded by the curve.

    APPLICATION, n. [L. applicatio. See Apply.]

    1. The act of laying on; as the application of emollients to a diseased limb.NWAD APPLICATION.2

    2. The thing applied; as, the pain was abated by the application.NWAD APPLICATION.3

    3. The act of making request or soliciting; as, he made application to a court of chancery.NWAD APPLICATION.4

    4. The act of applying as means; the employment of means; as, children may be governed by a suitable application of rewards and punishments. This is the first signification directed to moral objects.NWAD APPLICATION.5

    5. The act of fixing the mind; intenseness of thought; close study; attention; as, to injure the health by application to study.NWAD APPLICATION.6

    Had his application been equal to his talents, his progress might have been greater.NWAD APPLICATION.7

    6. The act of directing or referring something to a particular case, to discover or illustrate the agreement or disagreement; as, I make the remark and leave you to make the application.NWAD APPLICATION.8

    7. In theology, the act by which the merits of Christ are transferred to man, for his justification.NWAD APPLICATION.9

    8. In geometry, a division for applying one quantity to another, whose areas, but not figures, shall be the same; or the transferring a given line into a circle or other figure, so that its ends shall be in the perimeter of the figure.NWAD APPLICATION.10

    9. In sermons, that part of the discourse, in which the principles before laid down and illustrated, are applied to practical uses.NWAD APPLICATION.11

    APPLICATIVE, a. That applies.

    APPLICATORY, a. That includes the act of applying.

    APPLICATORY, n. That which applies.

    APPLIED, pp. Put on; put to: directed; employed.

    APPLIEDLY, adv. In a manner which may be applied. [Not in use.]

    APPLIER, n. One that applies.

    APPLIMENT, n. Application. [Not in use.]

    APPLY, v.t. [L. applico, of ad and plico, to fold or knit together; Gr. to knit, or twist; Eng. ply, display, and employ.]

    1. To lay on; to put one thing to another; as, to apply the hand to the breast; to apply medicaments to a diseased part of the body.NWAD APPLY.2

    2. To use or employ for a particular purpose, or in a particular case; as, to apply a sum of money to the payment of a debt.NWAD APPLY.3

    3. To put, refer or use, as suitable or relative to something; as, to apply the testimony to the case.NWAD APPLY.4

    4. To fix the mind; to engage and employ with attention; as, apply thy heart to instruction.NWAD APPLY.5

    5. To address or direct; as, “Sacred vows applied to Pluto.”NWAD APPLY.6

    6. To betake; to give the chief part of time and attention; as, to apply one’s self to the study of botany. This is essentially the fourth sense.NWAD APPLY.7

    7. To make application; to have recourse by request; as, to apply one’s self to a counsellor for advice. This is generally used intransitively; as, to apply to a counsellor.NWAD APPLY.8

    8. To busy; to keep at work; to ply. Obs.NWAD APPLY.9

    [Superseded by ply, which see.]NWAD APPLY.10

    APPLY, v.i.

    1. To suit; to agree; to have some connection, agreement or analogy; as, this argument applies well to the case.NWAD APPLY.12

    2. To make request; to solicit; to have recourse, with a view to gain something; as, to apply to the president for an office; I applied to a friend for information.NWAD APPLY.13

    APPLYING, ppr. Laying on; making application.

    APPOINT, v.t.

    1. To fix; to settle; to establish; to make fast.NWAD APPOINT.2

    When he appointed the foundations of the earth. Proverbs 8:29.NWAD APPOINT.3

    2. To constitute, ordain, or fix by decree, order or decision.NWAD APPOINT.4

    Let Pharoah appoint officers over the land. Genesis 41:34.NWAD APPOINT.5

    He hath appointed a day in which he will judge the world. Acts 17:31.NWAD APPOINT.6

    3. To allot, assign or designate.NWAD APPOINT.7

    Aaron and his sons shall appoint every one to his service. Numbers 4:19.NWAD APPOINT.8

    These cities were appointed for all the children of Israel. Joshua 20:9.NWAD APPOINT.9

    4. To purpose or resolve; to fix the intention.NWAD APPOINT.10

    For so he had appointed. Acts 20:13.NWAD APPOINT.11

    5. To ordain, command or order.NWAD APPOINT.12

    Thy servants are ready to do whatever my Lord the King shall appoint. 2 Samuel 15:15.NWAD APPOINT.13

    6. To settle; to fix, name or determine by agreement; as, they appointed a time and place for the meeting.NWAD APPOINT.14

    APPOINTABLE, a. That may be appointed or constituted; as, officers are appointable by the Executive.

    APPOINTED, pp.

    1. Fixed; set; established; decreed; ordained; constituted; allotted.NWAD APPOINTED.2

    2. Furnished; equipped with things necessary; as, a ship or an army is well appointed.NWAD APPOINTED.3


    1. A person appointed. “The commission authorizes them to make appointments, and pay the appointee.”NWAD APPOINTEE.2

    2. A foot soldier in the French army, who, for long service and bravery, received more pay than other privates.NWAD APPOINTEE.3

    APPOINTER, n. One who appoints.

    APPOINTING, ppr. Setting; fixing; ordaining; constituting; assigning.


    1. The act of appointing; designation to office; as, he erred by the appointment of suitable men.NWAD APPOINTMENT.2

    2. Stipulation; assignation; the act of fixing by mutual agreement; as, they made an appointment to meet at six o’clock.NWAD APPOINTMENT.3

    3. Decree; established order or constitution; as, it is our duty to submit to the divine appointments.NWAD APPOINTMENT.4

    4. Direction; order; command.NWAD APPOINTMENT.5

    Wheat, salt, wine and oil, let it be given according to the appointment of the priests. Ezra 6:9.NWAD APPOINTMENT.6

    5. Equipment, furniture, as for a ship, or an army; whatever is appointed for use and management.NWAD APPOINTMENT.7

    6. An allowance to a person; a salary or pension, as to a public officer.NWAD APPOINTMENT.8

    An appointment differs from wages, in being a special grant, or gratification, not fixed, whereas wages are fixed and ordinary.NWAD APPOINTMENT.9

    7. A devise or grant to a charitable use.NWAD APPOINTMENT.10

    APPORTER, n. [L. porto.] A bringer in; one that brings into the country. [Not in use.]

    APPORTION, v.t. [L. ad and portio, portion. See Portion and Part.]

    To divide and assign in just proportion; to distribute among two or more, a just part or share to each; as, to apportion undivided rights; to apportion time among various employments.NWAD APPORTION.2

    APPORTIONED, Divided; set out or assigned in suitable parts or shares.

    APPORTIONER, n. One that apportions.

    APPORTIONING, ppr. Setting out in just proportions or shares.

    APPORTIONMENT, n. The act of apportioning; a dividing into just proportions or shares; a dividing and assigning to each proprietor his just portion of an undivided right or property.

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