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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    HARDNESS, n. [See Hard.] Firmness; close union of the component parts; compactness; solidity; the quality of bodies which resists impression; opposed to softness and fluidity.

    1. Difficulty to be understood.NWAD HARDNESS.2

    2. Difficulty to be executed or accomplished; as the hardness of an enterprise.NWAD HARDNESS.3

    3. Scarcity; penury; difficulty of obtaining money; as the hardness of the times.NWAD HARDNESS.4

    4. Obduracy; impenitence; confirmed state of wickedness; as hardness of heart.NWAD HARDNESS.5

    5. Coarseness of features; harshness of look; as hardness of favor.NWAD HARDNESS.6

    6. Severity of cold; rigor; as the hardness of winter.NWAD HARDNESS.7

    7. Cruelty of temper; savageness; harshness.NWAD HARDNESS.8

    The blameNWAD HARDNESS.9

    May hang upon your hardness.NWAD HARDNESS.10

    8. Stiffness; harshness; roughness; as the hardnesses of sculpture.NWAD HARDNESS.11

    9. Closeness; niggardliness; stinginess.NWAD HARDNESS.12

    10. Hardship; severe labor, trials or sufferings.NWAD HARDNESS.13

    Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ. 2 Timothy 2:3.NWAD HARDNESS.14

    HARDNIBBED, a. Having a hard nib or point.

    HARDOCK, n. Probably hoardock, dock with whitish leaves.

    HARDS, n. The refuse or coarse part of flax; tow.

    HARDSHIP, n. Toil; fatigue; severe labor or want; whatever oppresses the body.

    1. Injury; oppression; injustice.NWAD HARDSHIP.2

    HARDVISAGED, a. Having coarse features; of a harsh countenance.

    HARDWARE, n. Wares made of iron or other metal, as pots, kettles, saws, knives, etc.

    HARDWAREMAN, n. A maker or seller of hardwares.

    HARDY, a.

    1. Bold; brave; stout; daring; resolute; intrepid.NWAD HARDY.2

    Who is hardy enough to encounter contempt?NWAD HARDY.3

    2. Strong; firm; compact.NWAD HARDY.4

    An unwholesome blast may shake in pieces his hardy fabric.NWAD HARDY.5

    3. Confident; full of assurance; impudent; stubborn to excess.NWAD HARDY.6

    4. Inured to fatigue; rendered firm by exercise, as a veteran soldier.NWAD HARDY.7

    HAR, HARE, HERE, in composition, signify an army, Sax. here, G. heer, D. heir. So Harold is a general of an army; Herwin, a victorious army.

    HARE, n. A quadruped of the genus Lepus, with long ears, a short tail, soft hair, and a divided upper lip. It is a timid animal, often hunted for sport or for its flesh, which is excellent food. It moves by leaps, and is remarkable for its fecundity.

    1. A constellation.NWAD HARE.2

    HARE, v.t. To fright, or to excite, tease and harass, or worry. [Not used. See Harry.]

    HAREBELL, n. A plant of the genus Hyacinthus, with campaniform or bell-shaped flowers.

    HAREBRAINED, a. [hare and brain.] Wild; giddy; volatile; heedless.

    HAREFOOT, n. A bird; a plant.

    HAREHEARTED, a. Timorous; easily frightened.

    HAREHOUND, n. A hound for hunting hares.

    HAREHUNTER, n. One who hunts or is used to hunting hares.

    HAREHUNTING, n. The hunting of hares.

    HARELIP, n. A divided upper lip, like that of a hare.

    HARELIPPED, a. Having a harelip.

    HAREMINT, n. A plant.

    HAREPIPE, n. A snare for catching hares.

    HARE’S-EAR, n. A plant of the genus Bupleurum. The Bastard Hare’s Ear is of the genus Phyllis.

    HARE’S-LETTUCE, n. A plant of the genus Sonchus.

    HAREWORT, n. A plant.

    HAREM, n. A seraglio; a place where Eastern princes confine their women, who are prohibited from the society of others.

    HARENGIFORM, a. [See Herring.] Shaped like a herring.

    HARICOT, n. A kind of ragout of meat and roots.

    1. In French, beans.NWAD HARICOT.2

    HARIER, HARRIER, n. [from hare.] A dog for hunting hares; a kind of hound with an acute sense of smelling.

    HARIOLATION, n. [L. harioltio.] Sooth-saying. [Not in use. See Ariolation.]

    HARK, v.t. [contracted from hearken, which see.]

    To listen; to lend the ear.NWAD HARK.2

    This word is rarely or never used, except in the imperative mode, hark, that is, listen, hear.NWAD HARK.3

    HARL, HERL, n. The skin of flax; the filaments of flax or hemp.

    1. A filamentous substance.NWAD HARL.2

    [In New England, I have heard this word pronounced herl.]NWAD HARL.3

    HARLEQUIN, n. A buffoon, dressed in party-colored clothes, who plays tricks, like a merry-andrew, to divert the populace. This character was first introduced into Italian comedy, but is now a standing character in English pantomime entertainments.

    H`ARLEQUIN, v.i. To play the droll; to make sport by playing ludicrous tricks.

    HARLOCK, n. A plant.

    HARLOT, n.

    1. A woman who prostitutes her body for hire; a prostitute; a common woman.NWAD HARLOT.2

    2. In Scripture, one who forsakes the true God and worships idols. Isaiah 1:21.NWAD HARLOT.3

    3. A servant; a rogue; a cheat.NWAD HARLOT.4

    H`ARLOT, a. Wanton; lewd; low; base.

    H`ARLOT, v.i. To practice lewdness.

    HARLOTRY, n. The trade or practice of prostitution; habitual or customary lewdness.

    HARM, n.

    1. Injury; hurt; damage; detriment.NWAD HARM.2

    Do thyself no harm. Acts 16:28.NWAD HARM.3

    He shall make amends for the harm he hath done in the holy thing. Leviticus 5:16.NWAD HARM.4

    2. Moral wrong; evil; mischief; wickedness; a popular sense of the word.NWAD HARM.5

    H`ARM, v.t. To hurt; to injure; to damage; to impair soundness of body, either animal or vegetable.

    HARMATTAN, n. A dry easterly wind in Africa, which destroys vegetation.

    HARMED, pp. Injured; hurt; damaged.

    HARMEL, n. The wild African rue.

    HARMFUL, a. Hurtful; injurious; noxious; detrimental; mischievous.

    The earth brought forth fruit and food for man, without any mixture of harmful quality.NWAD HARMFUL.2

    HARMFULLY, adv. Hurtfully; injuriously; with damage.

    HARMFULNESS, n. Hurtfulness; noxiousness.

    HARMING, ppr. Hurting; injuring.

    HARMLESS, a. Not hurtful or injurious; innoxious. Ceremonies are harmless in themselves.

    1. Unhurt; undamaged; uninjured; as, to give bond to save another harmless.NWAD HARMLESS.2

    2. Innocent; not guilty.NWAD HARMLESS.3

    Who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners. Hebrews 7:26.NWAD HARMLESS.4

    HARMLESSLY, adv. Innocently; without fault or crime; as, to pass the time harmlessly in recreations.

    1. Without hurt or damage.NWAD HARMLESSLY.2

    Bullets fall harmlessly into wood or feathers.NWAD HARMLESSLY.3

    HARMLESSNESS, n. The quality of being innoxious; freedom from a tendency to injure.

    1. Innocence.NWAD HARMLESSNESS.2

    HARMONIC, HARMONICAL, a. [See Harmony.] Relating to harmony or music; as harmonical use.

    1. Concordant; musical; consonant; as harmonic sounds.NWAD HARMONIC.2

    Harmonic twang of leather, horn and brass.NWAD HARMONIC.3

    The basis of an harmonic system.NWAD HARMONIC.4

    The harmonic elements are the three smallest concords.NWAD HARMONIC.5

    2. An epithet applied to the accessary sounds which accompany the predominant and apparently simple tone of any chord or string.NWAD HARMONIC.6

    Harmonical mean, in arithmetic and algebra, a term used to express certain relations of numbers and quantities, which are supposed to bear an analogy to musical consonances.NWAD HARMONIC.7

    Harmonical proportion, in arithmetic and algebra, is said to obtain between three quantities, or four quantities, in certain cases.NWAD HARMONIC.8

    Harmonical series, a series of many numbers in continued harmonical proportion.NWAD HARMONIC.9

    HARMONICA, n. A collection of musical glasses of a particular form, so arranged as to produce exquisite music.

    HARMONICS, n. Harmonious sounds; consonances.

    1. The doctrine or science of musical sounds.NWAD HARMONICS.2

    2. Derivative sounds, generated with predominant sounds, and produced by subordinate vibrations of a chord or string, when its whole length vibrates. These shorter vibrations produce more acute sounds, and are called acute harmonics.NWAD HARMONICS.3

    3. Grave harmonics are low sounds which accompany every perfect consonance of two sounds.NWAD HARMONICS.4

    HARMONIOUS, a. Adapted to each other; having the parts proportioned to each other; symmetrical.

    God hath made the intellectual world harmonious and beautiful without us.NWAD HARMONIOUS.2

    1. Concordant; consonant; symphonious; musical. Harmonious sounds are such as accord, and are agreeable to the ear.NWAD HARMONIOUS.3

    2. Agreeing; living in peace and friendship; as a harmonious family or society.NWAD HARMONIOUS.4

    HARMONIOUSLY, adv. With just adaptation and proportion of parts to each other.

    Distances, motions, and quantities of matter harmoniously adjusted in this great variety of our system.NWAD HARMONIOUSLY.2

    1. With accordance of sound; musically; in concord.NWAD HARMONIOUSLY.3

    2. In agreement; in peace and friendship.NWAD HARMONIOUSLY.4

    HARMONIOUSNESS, n. Proportion and adaption of parts; musicalness.

    1. Agreement; concord.NWAD HARMONIOUSNESS.2

    HARMONIST, n. A musician; a composer of music.

    1. One who brings together corresponding passages, to show their agreement.NWAD HARMONIST.2

    HARMONIZE, v.i. To be in concord; to agree in sounds.

    1. To agree; to be in peace and friendship; as individuals or families.NWAD HARMONIZE.2

    2. To agree in sense or purport; as, the arguments harmonize; the facts stated by different witnesses harmonize.NWAD HARMONIZE.3

    H`ARMONIZE, v.t. To adjust in fit proportions; to cause to agree.

    1. To make musical; to combine according to the laws of counterpoint.NWAD HARMONIZE.5

    HARMONIZED, pp. Made to be accordant.

    HARMONIZER, n. One that brings together or reconciles.

    1. In music, a practical harmonist.NWAD HARMONIZER.2

    HARMONIZING, ppr. Causing to agree.

    HARMONOMETER, n. An instrument or monochord for measuring the harmonic relations of sounds.

    HARMONY, n. [L. harmonia; Gr. a setting together, a closure or seam, agreement, concert, to fit or adapt, to square.]

    1. The just adaptation of parts to each other, in any system or composition of things, intended to form a connected whole; as the harmony of the universe.NWAD HARMONY.2

    Equality and correspondence are the causes of harmony.NWAD HARMONY.3

    All discord, harmony not understood.NWAD HARMONY.4

    2. Just proportion of sound; consonance; musical concord; the accordance of two or more intervals or sounds, or that union of different sounds which pleases the ear; or a succession of such sounds, called chords.NWAD HARMONY.5

    Ten thousand harps that tuned Angelic harmonies.NWAD HARMONY.6

    3. Concord; agreement; accordance in facts; as the harmony of the gospels.NWAD HARMONY.7

    4. Concord or agreement in views, sentiments or manners, interests, etc., good correspondence; peace and friendship.NWAD HARMONY.8

    The citizens live in harmony.NWAD HARMONY.9

    5. Natural harmony, in music, consists of the harmonic triad or common chord. Artificial harmony, is a mixture of concords and discords. Figured harmony, is when one or more of the parts move, during the continuance of a chord, through certain notes which do not form any of the constituent parts of that chord.NWAD HARMONY.10

    6. Perfect harmony implies the use of untempered concords only. Tempered harmony is when the notes are varied by temperament. [See Temperament.]NWAD HARMONY.11

    HARMOST, n. [Gr. to regulate.] In ancient Greece, a Spartan governor, regulator or perfect.

    HARMOTOME, n. [Gr. a joint, and to cut.] In mineralogy, cross-stone, or staurolite, called also pyramidical zeolite. [See Cross-stone.]

    HARNESS, n.

    1. Armor; the whole accouterments or equipments of a knight or horseman; originally perhaps defensive armor, but in a more modern and enlarged sense, the furniture of a military man, or offensive, as a casque, cuirass, helmet, girdle, sword, buckler, etc.NWAD HARNESS.2

    2. The furniture of a draught horse, whether for a wagon, coach, gig, chaise, etc., called in some of the American states, tackle or tackling, with which, in its primary sense, it is synonymous.NWAD HARNESS.3

    H`ARNESS, v.t. To dress in armor; to equip with armor for war, as a horseman.

    Harnessed in rugged steel.NWAD HARNESS.5

    1. To put on the furniture of a horse for draught.NWAD HARNESS.6

    Harness the horses. Jeremiah 46:4.NWAD HARNESS.7

    2. To defend; to equip or furnish for defense. 1 Maccabees 4:7.NWAD HARNESS.8

    HARNESSED, pp. Equipped with armor; furnished with the dress for draught; defended.

    HARNESSER, n. One who puts on the harness of a horse.

    HARNESSING, ppr. Putting on armor or furniture for draught.

    HARP, n.

    1. An instrument of music of the stringed kind, of a triangular figure, held upright and commonly touched with the fingers.NWAD HARP.2

    2. A constellation.NWAD HARP.3

    H`ARP, v.i. To play on the harp.

    I heard the voice of harpers, harping with their harps. Revelation 14:2.NWAD HARP.5

    1. To dwell on, in speaking or writing; to continue sounding.NWAD HARP.6

    He seemsNWAD HARP.7

    Proud and disdainful, harping on what I am--NWAD HARP.8

    Not what he knew I was.NWAD HARP.9

    2. To touch as a passion; to affect.NWAD HARP.10

    HARPER, n. A player on the harp.

    HARPING, ppr. Playing on a harp; dwelling on continually.

    H`ARPING, n. A continual dwelling on.

    Making infinite merriment by harpings upon old themes.NWAD HARPING.3

    H`ARPING, n. plu. harpings. In ships, harpings are the fore-parts of the wales, which encompass the bow of the ship, and are fastened to the stem. Their use is to strengthen the ship, in the place where she sustains the greatest shock in plunging into the sea.

    Cat-harpings, are ropes which serve to brace in the shrouds of the lower masts, behind their respective yards.NWAD HARPING.5

    HARPING-IRON, n. A harpoon, which see.

    HARPIST, n. A harper.

    HARPOON, n. [Gr. to seize with the claws; probably L. rapio, by transposition of letters.]

    A harping-iron; a spear or javelin, used to strike whales for killing them. It consists of a long shank, with a broad flat triangular head, sharpened at both edges for penetrating the whale with facility. It is generally thrown by hand.NWAD HARPOON.2

    HARPOON, v.t. To strike, catch or kill with a harpoon.

    The beluga is usually caught in nets, but is sometimes harpooned.NWAD HARPOON.4

    HARPOONED, pp. Struck, caught or killed with a harpoon.

    HARPOONER, n. One who uses a harpoon; the man in a whale-boat who throws the harpoon.

    HARPOONING, ppr. Striking with a harpoon.

    HARPSICHORD, n. [harp and chord.] An instrument of music with strings of wire, played by the fingers, by means of keys. The striking of these keys moves certain little jacks, which move a double row of chords or strings, stretched over four bridges on the table of the instrument.

    HARPY, n. [L. harpyia; Gr. to seize or claw.]

    1. In antiquity, the harpies were fabulous winged monsters, having the face of a woman and the body of a vulture, with their feet and fingers armed with sharp claws. They were three in number, Aello, Ocypete, and Celeno. They were sent by Juno to plunder the table of Phineus. They are represented as rapacious and filthy animals.NWAD HARPY.2

    2. Any rapacious or ravenous animal; an extortioner; a plunderer.NWAD HARPY.3

    HARQUEBUSE. [See Arquebuse.]

    HARRATEEN, n. A kind of stuff or cloth.

    HARRIDAN, n. A decayed strumpet.

    HARRIER, n. A hunting hound with a nice sense of smelling.

    HARROW, n. An instrument of agriculture, formed of pieces of timber sometimes crossing each other, and set with iron teeth. It is drawn over plowed land to level it and break the clods, and to cover seed when sown.

    HARROW, v.t. To draw a harrow over, for the purpose of breaking clods and leveling the surface, or for covering seed sown; as, to harrow land or ground.

    1. To break or tear with a harrow.NWAD HARROW.3

    Will he harrow the valleys after thee? Job 39:10.NWAD HARROW.4

    2. To tear; to lacerate; to torment.NWAD HARROW.5

    I could a tale unfold, whose lightest wordNWAD HARROW.6

    Would harrow up thy soul--NWAD HARROW.7

    3. To pillage; to strip; to lay waste by violence. [Not used.]NWAD HARROW.8

    4. To disturb; to agitate.NWAD HARROW.9

    HARROWED, pp. Broken or smoothed by a harrow.

    HARROWER, n. One who harrows.

    1. A hawk.NWAD HARROWER.2

    HARROWING, ppr. Breaking or leveling with a harrow.

    HARRY, v.t.

    1. To strip; to pillage. [See Harrow.]NWAD HARRY.2

    2. To harass; to agitate; to tease.NWAD HARRY.3

    HARRY, v.i. To make harassing incursions.

    HARSH, a.

    1. Rough to the touch; rugged; grating; as harsh sand; harsh cloth; opposed to smooth.NWAD HARSH.2

    2. Sour; rough to the taste; as harsh fruit.NWAD HARSH.3

    3. Rough to the ear; grating; discordant; jarring; as a harsh sound; harsh notes; a harsh voice.NWAD HARSH.4

    4. Austere; crabbed; morose; peevish. Civilization softens the harsh temper or nature of man.NWAD HARSH.5

    5. Rough; rude; abusive; as harsh words; a harsh reflection.NWAD HARSH.6

    6. Rigorous; severe.NWAD HARSH.7

    Though harsh the precept, yet the preacher charm’d.NWAD HARSH.8

    HARSHLY, adv. Roughly; in a harsh manner.

    1. Sourly; austerely.NWAD HARSHLY.2

    2. Severely; morosely; crabbedly; as, to speak or answer harshly.NWAD HARSHLY.3

    3. Roughly; rudely; with violence; as, to treat a person harshly.NWAD HARSHLY.4

    4. Roughly; with a grating sound; unpleasantly.NWAD HARSHLY.5

    It would sound harshly in her ears.NWAD HARSHLY.6

    HARSHNESS, n. Roughness to the touch; opposed to softness and smoothness.

    1. Sourness; austereness; as the harshness of fruit.NWAD HARSHNESS.2

    2. Roughness to the ear; as the harshness of sound or of a voice, or of verse.NWAD HARSHNESS.3

    ‘Tis not enough no harshness gives offense,NWAD HARSHNESS.4

    The sound must seem an echo to the sense.NWAD HARSHNESS.5

    3. Roughness of temper; moroseness; crabbedness; peevishness.NWAD HARSHNESS.6

    4. Roughness in manner or words; severity; as the harshness of reproof.NWAD HARSHNESS.7

    HARSLET, HASLET, n. The heart, liver, lights, etc. of a hog.

    HART, n. A stag or male deer, an animal of the cervine genus.

    HARTBEEST, n. The quanga, or cervine antelope of Africa.

    HARTROYAL, n. A plant.

    HARTSHORN, n. The horn of the hart or male deer. The scrapings or raspings of this horn are medicinal, and used in decoctions, ptisans, etc. Hartshorn jelly is nutritive and strengthening. Hartshorn calcined by a strong and long continued heat, is changed into a white earth, which is employed in medicine as an absorbent. The salt of hartshorn is powerful sudorific, and hartshorn yields also a pungent volatile spirit.

    The jelly of hartshorn is simply gelatine; the earth remaining after calcination, is phosphate of lime; the salt and spirit of hartshorn are muriate of ammonia, with a little animal oil.NWAD HARTSHORN.2

    Hartshorn plantain, a species of Plantago.NWAD HARTSHORN.3

    HARTSTONGUE, n. [See Tongue.] A plant, a species of Asplenium.

    HARTWORT, n. The name of certain plants of the genera, Seseli, Tordylium, and Buplerum.

    HARUSPICE, n. [L. haruspex, from specio, to view.]

    In Roman history, a person who pretended to foretell future events by inspecting the entrails of beasts sacrificed, or watching the circumstances attending their slaughter, or their manner of burning and the ascent of the smoke.NWAD HARUSPICE.2

    HARUSPICY, n. Divination by the inspection of victims.

    HARVEST, n. [L. acerbus.]

    1. The season of reaping and gathering in corn or other crops. It especially refers to the time of collecting corn or grain, which is the chief food of men, as wheat and rye. In Egypt and Syria, the wheat harvest is in April and May; in the south of Europe and of the United States, in June; in the Northern states of America, in July; and in the north of Europe, in August and September. In the United States, the harvest of maiz is mostly in October.NWAD HARVEST.2

    2. The ripe corn or grain collected and secured in barns or stacks. The harvest this year is abundant.NWAD HARVEST.3

    3. The product of labor; fruit or fruits.NWAD HARVEST.4

    Let us the harvest of our labor eat.NWAD HARVEST.5

    4. Fruit or fruits; effects; consequences.NWAD HARVEST.6

    He that sows iniquity will reap a harvest of woe.NWAD HARVEST.7

    5. In Scripture, harvest signifies figuratively the proper season for business.NWAD HARVEST.8

    He that sleepeth in harvest, is a son that causeth shame. Proverbs 10:5.NWAD HARVEST.9

    Also, a people whose sins have ripened them for judgment. Joel 3:13.NWAD HARVEST.10

    Also, the end of the world. Matthew 13:39.NWAD HARVEST.11

    Also, a seasonable time for instructing men in the gospel. Matthew 9:37-38.NWAD HARVEST.12

    H`ARVEST, v.t. To reap or gather ripe corn and other fruits for the use of man and beast.

    HARVESTED, pp. Reaped and collected, as ripe corn and fruits.

    HARVESTER, n. A reaper; a laborer in gathering grain.

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