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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    DUNE, n. A hill. [See Down.]

    DUN-FISH, n. Codfish cured in a particular manner. [See Dunning.]

    DUNG, n. [G.] The excrement of animals.

    DUNG, v.t. To manure with dung.

    DUNG, v.i. To void excrement.

    DUNGED, pp. Manured with dung.

    DUNGEON, n.

    1. A close prison; or a deep, dark place of confinement.NWAD DUNGEON.2

    And in a dungeon deep.NWAD DUNGEON.3

    They brought Joseph hastily out of the dungeon. Genesis 41:14.NWAD DUNGEON.4

    2. A subterraneous place of close confinement.NWAD DUNGEON.5

    DUNGEON, v.t. To confine in a dungeon.

    DUNGFORK, n. A fork used to throw dung from a stable or into a cart, or to spread it over land.

    DUNGHILL, n.

    1. A heap of dung.NWAD DUNGHILL.2

    2. A mean or vile abode.NWAD DUNGHILL.3

    3. Any mean situation or condition.NWAD DUNGHILL.4

    He lifteth the beggar from the dunghill. 1 Samuel 2:8.NWAD DUNGHILL.5

    4. A term of reproach for a man meanly born. [Not used.]NWAD DUNGHILL.6

    DUNGHILL, a. Sprung from the dunghill; mean; low; base; vile.

    DUNGY, a. Full of dung; filthy; vile.

    DUNGYARD, n. A yard or inclosure where dung is collected.

    DUNLIN, n. A fowl, a species of sandpiper.

    DUNNAGE, n. Faggots, boughs or loose wood laid on the bottom of a ship to raise heavy goods above the bottom.

    DUNNED, pp. [from dun.] Importuned to pay a dept; urged.

    DUNNER, n. [from dun.] One employed in soliciting the payment of debts.

    DUNNING, ppr. [from dun.] Urging for payment of a debt, or for the grant of some favor, or for the obtaining any request; importuning.

    DUNNING, ppr. or n. [from dun, a color.] The operation of curing codfish, in such a manner as to give it a particular color and quality. Fish for dunning are caught early in spring, and often in February. At the Isles of Shoals, off Portsmouth, in New Hampshire, the cod are taken in deep water, split and slack-salted; then laid in a pile for two or three months, in a dark store, covered, for the greatest part of the time, with salt-hay or eel-grass, and pressed with some weight. In April or May, they are opened and piled again as close as possible in the same dark store, till July or August, when they are fit for use.

    DUNNISH, a. Inclined to a dun color; somewhat dun.

    DUNNY, a. Deaf; dull of apprehension. [Local.]

    DUO, n. [L., two.] A song in two parts.

    DUODECAHEDRAL, DUODECAHEDRON, [See Dodecahedral, Dodecahedron.]

    DUODECIMFID, a. [L., twelve; to cleave.] Divided into twelve parts.

    DUODECIMO, a. [L., twelve.] Having or consisting of twelve leaves to a sheet; as a book of duodecimo form or size.

    DUODECIMO, n. A book in which a sheet is folded into twelve leaves.

    DUODECUPLE, a. [L., two; tenfold.] Consisting of twelves.

    DUODENUM, n. [L.] The first of the small intestines.

    DUOLITERAL, a. [L., two; a letter.] Consisting of two letters only; biliteral.

    DUPE, n. [See the verb.] A person who is deceived; or one easily led astray by his credulity; as the dupe of a party.

    DUPE, v.t. To deceive; to trick; to mislead by imposing on ones credulity; as, to be duped by flattery.

    DUPION, n. A double cocoon, formed by two or more silk-worms.

    DUPLE, a. [L.] Double. Duple ratio is that of 2 to 1, 8 to 4, etc.

    DUPLICATE, a. [L., to double; twofold; to fold. See Double.] Double; twofold.

    Duplicate proportion or ratio, is the proportion or ratio of squares. Thus in geometrical proportion, the first term to the third is said to be in a duplicate ratio of the first to the second, or as its square is to the square of the second. Thus in 2. 4. 8. 16., the ratio of 2 to 8 is a duplicate of that of 2 to 4, or as the square of 2 is to the square of 4.NWAD DUPLICATE.2


    1. Another corresponding to the first; or a second thing of the same kind.NWAD DUPLICATE.4

    2. A copy; a transcript. Thus a second letter or bill of exchange exactly like the first is called a duplicate.NWAD DUPLICATE.5

    DUPLICATE, v.t. [L.] To double; to fold.


    1. The act of doubling; the multiplication of a number by 2.NWAD DUPLICATION.2

    2. A folding; a doubling; also, a fold; as the duplication of a membrane.NWAD DUPLICATION.3

    DUPLICATURE, n. A doubling; a fold. In anatomy, the fold of a membrane or vessel.

    DUPLICITY, n. [L., double.]

    1. Doubleness; the number two.NWAD DUPLICITY.2

    2. Doubleness of heart or speech; the act or practice of exhibiting a different or contrary conduct, or uttering different or contrary sentiments, at different times, in relation to the same thing; or the act of dissembling ones real opinions for the purpose of concealing them and misleading persons in the conversation and intercourse of life; double-dealing; dissimulation; deceit.NWAD DUPLICITY.3

    3. In law, duplicity is the pleading of two or more distinct matters or single pleas.NWAD DUPLICITY.4

    DURABILITY, n. [See Durable.] The power of lasting or continuing, in any given state, without perishing; as the durability of cedar or oak timber; the durability of animal and vegetable life is very limited.

    DURABLE, a. [L., to last; hard.] Having the quality of lasting or continuing long in being, without perishing or wearing out as durable timber; durable cloth; durable happiness.

    DURABLENESS, n. Power of lasting; durability; as the durableness of honest fame.

    DURABLY, adv. In a lasting manner; with long continuance.

    DURANCE, n. [L.]

    1. Imprisonment; restraint of the person; custody of the jailer.NWAD DURANCE.2

    2. Continuance; duration. [See Endurance.]NWAD DURANCE.3

    DURANT, n. A glazed woolen stuff; called by some everlasting.

    DURATION, n.

    1. Continuance in time; length or extension of existence, indefinitely; as the duration of life; the duration of a partnership; the duration of any given period of time; everlasting duration. This holding on or continuance of time is divided by us arbitrarily into certain portions, as minutes, hours and days; or it is measured by a succession of events, as by the diurnal and annual revolutions of the earth, or any other succession; and the interval between two events is called a part of duration. This interval may be of any indefinite length, a minute or a century.NWAD DURATION.2

    2. Power of continuance.NWAD DURATION.3

    DURE, v.i. [L. See Durable.] To last; to hold on in time or being; to continue; to endure. [This word is obsolete; endure being substituted.]

    DUREFUL, a. Lasting.

    DURELESS, a. Not lasting; fading.

    DURESS, n. [L. See Durable.]

    1. Literally, hardship; hence, constraint. Technically, duress, in law, is of two kinds; duress of imprisonment, which is imprisonment or restraint of personal liberty; and duress by menaces or threats [per minas,] when a person is threatened with loss of life or limb. Fear of battery is no duress. Duress then is imprisonment or threats intended to compel a person to do a legal act, as to execute a deed; or to commit an offense; in which cases the act is voidable or excusable.NWAD DURESS.2

    2. Imprisonment; restraint of liberty.NWAD DURESS.3

    DURING, ppr. Of dure. Continuing; lasting; holding on; as during life, that is, life continuing; during our earthly pilgrimage; during the space of a year; during this or that. These phrases are the case absolute, or independent clauses; durante vita, durante hoc.

    DURITY, n. [L.]

    1. Hardness; firmness.NWAD DURITY.2

    2. Hardness of mind; harshness. [Little used.]NWAD DURITY.3

    DUROUS, a. Hard. [Not used.]

    DURRA, n. A kind of millet, cultivated in North Africa.

    DURST, pret. Of dare.

    DUSE, n. A demon or evil spirit. Quosdam daemones quos dusios Galli nuncupant. August. De Civ. Dei, 15. 23. What the duse is the matter? The duse is in you. [Vulgar.]

    DUSK, a. [G., tarnish; to tarnish; to become dull or obscure. Gr.]

    1. Tending to darkness, or moderately dark.NWAD DUSK.2

    2. Tending to a dark or black color; moderately black.NWAD DUSK.3

    DUSK, n.

    1. A tending to darkness; incipient or imperfect obscurity; a middle degree between light and darkness; twilight; as the dusk of the evening.NWAD DUSK.5

    2. Tendency to a black color; darkness of color.NWAD DUSK.6

    Whose dusk set off the whiteness of the skin.NWAD DUSK.7

    DUSK, v.t. To make dusky. [Little used.]

    DUSK, v.i. To begin to lose light or whiteness; to grow dark. [Little used.]

    DUSKILY, adv. With partial darkness; with a tendency to blackness or darkness.

    DUSKINESS, n. Incipient or partial darkness; a slight or moderate degree of darkness or blackness.

    DUSKISH, a. Moderately dusky; partially obscure; slightly dark or black; as duskish smoke.

    Duskish tincture.NWAD DUSKISH.2

    DUSKISHLY, adv. Cloudily; darkly.

    DUSKISHNESS, n. Duskiness; approach to darkness.

    DUSKY, a.

    1. Partially dark or obscure; not luminous; as a dusky valley.NWAD DUSKY.2

    A dusky torch.NWAD DUSKY.3

    2. Tending to blackness in color; partially black; dark-colored; not bright; as a dusky brown.NWAD DUSKY.4

    Dusky clouds.NWAD DUSKY.5

    3. Gloomy; sad.NWAD DUSKY.6

    This dusky scene of horror.NWAD DUSKY.7

    4. Intellectually clouded; as a dusky sprite.NWAD DUSKY.8

    DUST, n.

    1. Fine dry particles of earth or other matter, so attenuated that it may be raised and wafted by the wind; powder; as clouds of dust and seas of blood.NWAD DUST.2

    2. Fine dry particles of earth; fine earth.NWAD DUST.3

    The peacock warmeth her eggs in the dust. Job 39:13-14.NWAD DUST.4

    3. Earth; unorganized earthy matter.NWAD DUST.5

    Dust thou art, and to dust shalt thou return. Genesis 3:19.NWAD DUST.6

    4. The grave.NWAD DUST.7

    For now shall I sleep in the dust. Job 7:21.NWAD DUST.8

    5. A low condition.NWAD DUST.9

    God raiseth the poor out of the dust. 1 Samuel 2:8.NWAD DUST.10

    DUST, v.t.

    1. To free from dust; to brush, wipe or sweep away dust; as, to dust a table or a floor.NWAD DUST.12

    2. To sprinkle with dust.NWAD DUST.13

    3. To levigate.NWAD DUST.14

    DUST-BRUSH, n. A brush for cleaning rooms and furniture.

    DUSTER, n. An utensil to clear from dust; also, a sieve.

    DUSTINESS, n. The state of being dusty.

    DUST-MAN, n. One whose employment is to carry away dirt and filth.

    DUSTY, a.

    1. Filled, covered or sprinkled with dust; clouded with dust.NWAD DUSTY.2

    2. Like dust; of the color of dust; as a dusty white; a dusty red.NWAD DUSTY.3

    DUTCH, n. The people of Holland; also, their language.

    DUTCH, a. Pertaining to Holland, or to its inhabitants.

    DUTEOUS, a. [from duty.]

    1. Performing that which is due, or that which law, justice or propriety requires; obedient; respectful to those who have natural or legal authority to require service or duty; as a duteous child or subject.NWAD DUTEOUS.2

    2. Obedient; obsequious; in a good or bad sense.NWAD DUTEOUS.3

    Duteous to the vices of thy mistress.NWAD DUTEOUS.4

    3. Enjoined by duty, or by the relation of one to another; as duteous ties. [Little used.]NWAD DUTEOUS.5

    DUTIABLE, a. [See Duty.] Subject to the imposition of duty or customs; as dutiable goods.

    DUTIED, a. Subjected to duties or customs.

    DUTIFUL, a.

    1. Performing the duties or obligations required by law, justice or propriety; obedient; submissive to natural or legal superiors; respectful; as a dutiful son or daughter; a dutiful ward or servant; a dutiful subject.NWAD DUTIFUL.2

    2. Expressive of respect or a sense of duty; respectful; reverential; required by duty; as dutiful reverence; dutiful attentions.NWAD DUTIFUL.3

    DUTIFULLY, adv. In a dutiful manner; with a regard to duty; obediently; submissively; reverently; respectfully.


    1. Obedience; submission to just authority; habitual performance of duty; as dutifulness to parents.NWAD DUTIFULNESS.2

    2. Reverence; respect.NWAD DUTIFULNESS.3

    DUTY, n.

    1. That which a person owes to another; that which a person is bound, by any natural, moral or legal obligation, to pay, do or perform. Obedience to princes, magistrates and the laws is the duty of every citizen and subject; obedience, respect and kindness to parents are duties of children; fidelity to friends is a duty; reverence, obedience and prayer to God are indispensable duties; the government and religious instruction of children are duties of parents which they cannot neglect without guilt.NWAD DUTY.2

    2. Forbearance of that which is forbid by morality, law, justice or propriety. It is our duty to refrain from lewdness, intemperance, profaneness and injustice.NWAD DUTY.3

    3. Obedience; submission.NWAD DUTY.4

    4. Act of reverence or respect.NWAD DUTY.5

    They both did duty to their lady.NWAD DUTY.6

    5. The business of a soldier or marine on guard; as, the company is on duty. It is applied also to other services or labor.NWAD DUTY.7

    6. The business of war; military service; as, the regiment did duty in Flanders.NWAD DUTY.8

    7. Tax, toll, impost, or customs; excise; any sum of money required by government to be paid on the importation, exportation, or consumption of goods. An impost on land or other real estate, and on the stock of farmers, is not called a duty, but a direct tax.NWAD DUTY.9

    DUUMVIR, n. [L., two; man.] One of two Roman officers or magistrates united int he same public functions.

    DUUMVIRAL, a. Pertaining to the duumvirs or duumvirate of Rome.

    DUUMVIRATE, n. The union of two men in the same office; or the office, dignity or government of two men thus associated; as in ancient Rome.

    DWALE, n.

    1. In heraldry, a sable or black color.NWAD DWALE.2

    2. The deadly nightshade, a plant or a sleepy potion.NWAD DWALE.3

    DWARF, n.

    1. A general name for an animal or plant which is much below the ordinary size of the species or kind. A man that never grows beyond two or three feet in highth, is a dwarf. This word when used alone usually refers to the human species, but sometimes to other animals. When it is applied to plants, it is more generally used in composition; as a dwarf-tree; dwarf-elder.NWAD DWARF.2

    2. An attendant on a lady or knight in romances.NWAD DWARF.3

    DWARF, v.t. To hinder from growing to the natural size; to lessen; to make or keep small.

    DWARFISH, a. Like a dwarf; below the common stature or size; very small; low; petty; despicable; as a dwarfish animal; a dwarfish shrub.

    DWARFISHLY, adv. Like a dwarf.

    DWARFISHNESS, n. Smallness of stature; littleness of size.

    DWAUL, v.i. To be delirious.

    DWELL, v.i. pret. dwelled, usually contracted into dwelt. [See Dally.]

    1. To abide as a permanent resident, or to inhabit for a time; to live in a place; to have a habitation for some time or permanence.NWAD DWELL.2

    God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem. Genesis 9:27.NWAD DWELL.3

    Dwell imports a residence of some continuance. We use abide for the resting of a night or an hour; but we never say, he dwelt in a place a day or a night. Dwell may signify a residence for life or for a much shorter period, but not for a day. In scripture, it denotes a residence of seven days during the feast of tabernacles.NWAD DWELL.4

    Ye shall dwell in booths seven days. Leviticus 23:42.NWAD DWELL.5

    The word was made flesh, and dwelt among us. John 1:14.NWAD DWELL.6

    2. To be in any state or condition; to continue.NWAD DWELL.7

    To dwell in doubtful joy.NWAD DWELL.8

    3. To continue; to be fixed in attention; to hang upon with fondness.NWAD DWELL.9

    The attentive queen dwelt on his accents.NWAD DWELL.10

    They stand at a distance, dwelling on his looks and language, fixed in amazement.NWAD DWELL.11

    4. To continue long; as, to dwell on a subject, in speaking, debate or writing; to dwell on a note in music.NWAD DWELL.12

    Dwell, as a verb transitive, is not used. We who dwell this wild, in Milton, is not a legitimate phrase.NWAD DWELL.13

    DWELLER, n. An inhabitant; a resident of some continuance in a place.

    DWELLING, ppr. Inhabiting; residing; sojourning; continuing with fixed attention.

    DWELLING, n. Habitation; place of residence; abode.

    Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons. Jeremiah 49:33.NWAD DWELLING.3

    1. Continuance; residence; state of life.NWAD DWELLING.4

    Thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field. Daniel 4:25.NWAD DWELLING.5

    DWELLING-HOUSE, n. The house in which one lives.

    DWELLING-PLACE, n. The place of residence.

    DWINDLE, v.i.

    1. To diminish; to become less; to shrink; to waste or consume away. The body dwindles by pining or consumption; an estate swindles by waste, by want of industry or economy; an object dwindles in size, as it recedes from view; an army dwindles by death or desertion.NWAD DWINDLE.2

    Our drooping days have dwindled down to naught.NWAD DWINDLE.3

    2. To degenerate; to sink; to fall away.NWAD DWINDLE.4

    Religious societies may dwindle into factious clubs.NWAD DWINDLE.5

    DWINDLE, v.t. To make less; to bring low.

    1. To break; to disperse.NWAD DWINDLE.7

    DWINDLED, a. Shrunk; diminished in size.

    DWINDLING, ppr. Falling away; becoming less; pining; consuming; moldering away.

    DYE, v.t. [L. tingo, for tigo.]

    To stain; to color; to give a new and permanent color to; applied particularly to cloth or the materials of cloth, as wool, cotton, silk and linen; also to hats, leather, etc. It usually expresses more or a deeper color than tinge.NWAD DYE.2

    DYED, pp. Stained; colored.

    DYEING, ppr. Staining; giving a new and permanent color.

    DYEING, n. The art or practice of giving new and permanent colors; the art of coloring cloth, hats, etc.

    DYER, n. One whose occupation is to dye cloth and the like.

    DYING, ppr. [from die.] Losing life; perishing; expiring; fading away; languishing.

    1. a. Mortal; destined to death; as dying bodies.NWAD DYING.2

    DYNAMETER, n. [Gr. strength, and to measure.]

    An instrument for determining the magnifying power of telescopes.NWAD DYNAMETER.2

    DYNAMETRICAL, a. Pertaining to a dynameter.

    DYNAMICAL, a. [Gr. power.] Pertaining to strength or power.

    DYNAMICS, n. [Gr., power.] That branch of mechanical philosophy which treats of the force of moving bodies; the science of moving powers, and the effect of moving bodies acting on each other and producing motion.

    DYNAMOMETER, n. [See Dynameter.] An instrument for measuring the relative strength of men and other animals.

    DYNAST, n. [See Dynasty.] a ruler; a governor; a prince; a government.

    DYNASTIC, a. Relating to a dynasty or line of kings.

    DYNASTY, n. [Gr. power, sovereignty; a lord or chief; to be able or strong, to prevail.]

    Government; sovereignty; or rather a race or succession of kings of the same line or family, who govern a particular country; as the dynastics of Egypt or Persia.NWAD DYNASTY.2

    The obligation of treaties and contracts is allowed to survive the change of dynasties.NWAD DYNASTY.3

    DYSCRASY, a. [Gr. evil, and habit.] In medicine, an ill habit or state of the humors; distemperature of the juices.

    DYSENTERIC, a. Pertaining to dysentery; accompanied with dysentery; proceeding from dysentery.

    1. Afflicted with dysentery; as a dysenteric patient.NWAD DYSENTERIC.2

    DYSENTERY, n. [L. dysenteria; Gr. bad; intestines.]

    A flux in which the stools consist chiefly of blood and mucus or other morbid matter, accompanied with griping of the bowels, and followed by tenesmus.NWAD DYSENTERY.2

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