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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    ROUGHINGS, n. ruf’ings. Grass after mowing or reaping. [Local.]

    ROUGHLY, adv. ruf’ly.

    1. With uneven surface; with asperities on the surface.NWAD ROUGHLY.2

    2. Harshly; uncivilly; rudely; as, to be treated roughly.NWAD ROUGHLY.3

    3. Severely; without tenderness; as, to blame too roughly.NWAD ROUGHLY.4

    4. Austerely to the taste.NWAD ROUGHLY.5

    5. Boisterously; tempestuously.NWAD ROUGHLY.6

    6. Harshly to the ear.NWAD ROUGHLY.7

    7. Violently; not gently.NWAD ROUGHLY.8

    ROUGHNESS, n. ruf’ness.

    1. Unevenness of surface, occasioned by small prominences; asperity of surface; as the roughness of a board, of a floor, or of a rock.NWAD ROUGHNESS.2

    2. Austereness to the taste; as the roughness of sloes.NWAD ROUGHNESS.3

    3. Taste of astringency.NWAD ROUGHNESS.4

    4. Harshness to the ear; as the roughness of sounds.NWAD ROUGHNESS.5

    5. Ruggedness of temper; harshness; austerity.NWAD ROUGHNESS.6

    6. Coarseness of manners or behavior; rudeness.NWAD ROUGHNESS.7

    Severity breedeth fear; but roughness breedeth hate.NWAD ROUGHNESS.8

    7. Want of delicacy or refinement; as military roughness.NWAD ROUGHNESS.9

    8. Severity; harshness or violence of discipline.NWAD ROUGHNESS.10

    9. Violence of operation in medicines.NWAD ROUGHNESS.11

    10. Unpolished or unfinished state; as the roughness of a gem or a draught.NWAD ROUGHNESS.12

    11. Inelegance of dress or appearance.NWAD ROUGHNESS.13

    12. Tempestuousness; boisterousness; as of winds or weather.NWAD ROUGHNESS.14

    13. Violent agitation by wind; as the roughness of the sea in a storm.NWAD ROUGHNESS.15

    14. Coarseness of features.NWAD ROUGHNESS.16

    ROUGH-SHOD, a. ruf’-shod. Shod with shoes armed with points; as a rough-shod horse. [This word is not generally used in America. In New England, instead of rough-shod, calked is used.]

    ROUGHT, for raught; pret. of reach. Obs.

    ROUGH-WORK, v.t. ruf’-work. [rough and work.]

    To work over coarsely, without regard to nicety, smoothness or finish.NWAD ROUGH-WORK.2

    ROUGH-WROUGHT, a. ruf’-raut. Wrought or done coarsely.

    ROULEAU, n. roolo’. A little roll; a roll of guineas in paper.

    ROUN, v.i. To whisper. Obs.

    ROUN, v.t. To address in a whisper. Obs.

    ROUNCE, n. rouns’. The handle of a printing press.

    ROUNCEVAL, n. A variety of pea, so called.

    ROUND, a.

    1. Cylindrical; circular; spherical or globular. Round is applicable to a cylinder as well as to a globe or sphere. We say, the barrel of a musket is round; a ball is round; a circle is round.NWAD ROUND.2

    2. Full; large; as a round sum or price.NWAD ROUND.3

    3. Full; smooth; flowing; not defective or abrupt.NWAD ROUND.4

    In his satires, Horace is quick, round and pleasant.NWAD ROUND.5

    His style, though round and comprehensive -NWAD ROUND.6

    4. Plain; open; candid; fair.NWAD ROUND.7

    Round dealing is the honor of man’s nature.NWAD ROUND.8

    Let her be round with him.NWAD ROUND.9

    5. Full; quick; brisk; as a round trot.NWAD ROUND.10

    6. Full; plump; bold; positive; as a round assertion.NWAD ROUND.11

    A round number, is a number that ends with a cipher, and may be divided by 10 without a remainder; a complete or full number. It is remarkable that the W. cant, a hundred, the L. centum, and Sax. hund, signify properly a circle, and this use of round may have originated in a like idea.NWAD ROUND.12

    ROUND, n.

    1. A circle; a circular thing, or a circle in motion.NWAD ROUND.14

    With rounds of waxen tapers on their heads.NWAD ROUND.15

    Knit your hands, and beat the ground in a light fantastic round.NWAD ROUND.16

    2. Action or performance in a circle, or passing through a series of hands or things and coming to the point of beginning; or the time of such action.NWAD ROUND.17

    Women to cards may be compared; we play a round or two; when used, we throw away.NWAD ROUND.18

    The feast was serv’d; the bowl was crown’d; to the king’s pleasure went the mirthful round.NWAD ROUND.19

    So we say, a round of labors or duties.NWAD ROUND.20

    We run the daily round.NWAD ROUND.21

    3. Rotation in office; succession in vicissitude.NWAD ROUND.22

    4. A rundle; the step of a ladder.NWAD ROUND.23

    All the rounds like Jacob’s ladder rise.NWAD ROUND.24

    5. A walk performed by a guard or an officer round the rampart of a garrison, or among sentinels, to see that the sentinels are faithful and all things safe. Hence the officer and men who perform this duty are called the rounds.NWAD ROUND.25

    6. A dance; a song; a roundelay, or a species of fugue.NWAD ROUND.26

    7. A general discharge of fire-arms by a body of troops, in which each soldier fires once. In volleys, it is usual for a company or regiment to fire three rounds.NWAD ROUND.27

    A round of cartridges and balls, one cartridge to each man; as, to supply a regiment with a single round or with twelve rounds of cartridges.NWAD ROUND.28

    ROUND, adv.

    1. On all sides.NWAD ROUND.30

    Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round. Luke 19:43.NWAD ROUND.31

    2. Circularly; in a circular form; as, a wheel turns round.NWAD ROUND.32

    3. From one side or party to another; as, to come or turn round. Hence these expressions signify to change sides or opinions.NWAD ROUND.33

    4. Not in a direct line; by a course longer than the direct course. The shortest course is not the best; let us go round.NWAD ROUND.34

    All round, in common speech, denotes over the whole place, or in every direction.NWAD ROUND.35

    Round about is tautological.NWAD ROUND.36

    ROUND, prep.

    1. On every side of; as, the people stood round him; the sun sheds light round the earth. In this sense, around is much used, and all is often used to modify the word. They stood all round or around him.NWAD ROUND.38

    2. About; in a circular course, or in all parts; as, to go round the city. He led his guest round his fields and garden. he wanders round the world.NWAD ROUND.39

    3. Circularly; about; as, to wind a cable round the windlass.NWAD ROUND.40

    To come or get round one, in popular language, is to gain advantage over one by flattery or deception; to circumvent.NWAD ROUND.41

    ROUND, v.t.

    1. To make circular, spherical or cylindrical; as, to round a silver coin; to round the edges of any thing.NWAD ROUND.43

    Worms with many feet, that round themselves into balls, are bred chiefly under logs of timber.NWAD ROUND.44

    2. To surround; to encircle; to encompass.NWAD ROUND.45

    Th’ inclusive verge of golden metal that must round my brow.NWAD ROUND.46

    Our little life is rounded with a sleep.NWAD ROUND.47

    3. To form to the arch or figure of the section of a circle.NWAD ROUND.48

    The figures on our modern medals are raised and rounded to very great perfection.NWAD ROUND.49

    4. To move about any thing; as, the sun, in polar regions, rounds the horizon.NWAD ROUND.50

    5. To make full, smooth and flowing; as, to round periods in writing.NWAD ROUND.51

    To round in, among seamen, to pull upon a slack rope, which passes through one or more blocks in a direction nearly horizontal.NWAD ROUND.52

    ROUND, v.i.

    1. To grow or become round.NWAD ROUND.54

    The queen, your mother, rounds space.NWAD ROUND.55

    2. To go round, as a guard.NWAD ROUND.56

    - They nightly rounding walk.NWAD ROUND.57

    To round to, in sailing, is to turn the head of the ship towards the wind.NWAD ROUND.58

    ROUND, v.i. To whisper; as, to round in the ear. Obs.

    ROUNDABOUT, a. [round and about.]

    1. Indirect; going round; loose.NWAD ROUNDABOUT.2

    Paraphrase is a roundabout way of translating.NWAD ROUNDABOUT.3

    2. Ample; extensive; as roundabout sense.NWAD ROUNDABOUT.4

    3. Encircling; encompassing.NWAD ROUNDABOUT.5

    [In any sense, this word is inelegant.]NWAD ROUNDABOUT.6

    ROUNDABOUT, n. A large strait coat.


    1. A sort of ancient poem, consisting of thirteen verses, of which eight are in one kind of rhyme and five in another. It is divided into couplets; at the end of the second and third of which, the beginning of the poem is repeated, and that, if possible, in an equivocal or punning sense.NWAD ROUNDEL.2

    2. A round form or figure. [Not used.]NWAD ROUNDEL.3

    ROUNDER, n. [See Rondure.] Circumference; inclosure. [Not in use.]

    ROUNDHEAD, n. [round and head.] A name formerly given to a puritan, from the practice which prevailed among the puritans of cropping the hair round.

    ROUNDHEADED, a. Having a round head or top.


    1. A constable’s prison; the prison to secure persons taken up by the night-watch, till they can be examined by a magistrate.NWAD ROUNDHOUSE.2

    2. In a ship of war, a certain necessary near the head, for the use of particular officers.NWAD ROUNDHOUSE.3

    3. In large merchantmen and ships of war, a cabin or apartment in the after part of the quarter-deck, having the poop for its roof; sometimes called the coach. It is the master’s lodging room.NWAD ROUNDHOUSE.4

    ROUNDING, ppr.

    1. Making round or circular.NWAD ROUNDING.2

    2. Making full, flowing and smooth.NWAD ROUNDING.3

    ROUNDING, a. Round or roundish; nearly round.

    ROUNDING, n. Among seamen, old ropes wound about the part of the cable which lies in the hawse, or athwart the stem, to prevent its chafing.

    Rounding in, a pulling upon a slack rope, which passes through one or more blocks in a direction nearly horizontal. Rounding up is a pulling in like manner, when a tackle hangs in a perpendicular direction.NWAD ROUNDING.6

    ROUNDISH, a. Somewhat round; nearly round; as a roundish seed; a roundish figure.

    ROUNDISHNESS, n. The state of being roundish.

    ROUNDLET, n. A little circle.

    ROUNDLY, adv.

    1. In a round form or manner.NWAD ROUNDLY.2

    2. Openly; boldly; without reserve; peremptorily.NWAD ROUNDLY.3

    He affirms every thing roundly.NWAD ROUNDLY.4

    3. Plainly; fully. He gives them roundly to understand that their duty is submission.NWAD ROUNDLY.5

    4. Briskly; with speed.NWAD ROUNDLY.6

    When the mind has brought itself to attention, it will be able to cope with difficulties and master them, and then it may go on roundly.NWAD ROUNDLY.7

    5. Completely; to the purpose; vigorously; in earnest.NWAD ROUNDLY.8


    1. The quality of being round, circular, spherical, globular or cylindrical; circularity; sphericity; cylindrical form; rotundity; as the roundness of the globe, of the orb of the sun, of a ball, of a bowl, etc.NWAD ROUNDNESS.2

    2. Fullness; smoothness of flow; as the roundness of a period.NWAD ROUNDNESS.3

    3. Openness; plainness; boldness; positiveness; as the roundness of an assertion.NWAD ROUNDNESS.4

    ROUNDRIDGE, v.t. [round and ridge.] In tillage, to form round ridges by plowing.


    A written petition, memorial or remonstrance signed by names in a ring or circle.NWAD ROUNDROBIN.2

    ROUNDS, n. plu.

    1. [See Round, n. No. 5.]NWAD ROUNDS.2

    2. Round-top. [See Top.]NWAD ROUNDS.3

    ROUSE, v.t. rouz. [This word, written also arouse, seems to belong to the family of raise or rush. See Raise.]

    1. To wake from sleep or repose. Genesis 49:9.NWAD ROUSE.2

    2. To excite to thought or action from a state of idleness, languor, stupidity or inattention.NWAD ROUSE.3

    3. To put into action; to agitate.NWAD ROUSE.4

    Blust’ring winds that rous’d the sea.NWAD ROUSE.5

    4. To drive a beast from his den or place of rest.NWAD ROUSE.6

    ROUSE, v.i.

    1. To awake from sleep or repose.NWAD ROUSE.8

    Morpheus rouses from his bed.NWAD ROUSE.9

    2. To be excited to thought or action from a state of indolence, sluggishness, languor or inattention.NWAD ROUSE.10

    ROUSE, v.i. In seamen’s language, to pull together upon a cable, etc. without the assistance of tackles or other mechanical power.

    ROUSE, n. rouz.

    A full glass of liquor; a bumper in honor of a health. Obs.NWAD ROUSE.13

    ROUSED, pp. Awakened from sleep; excited to thought or action.

    ROUSER, n. One that rouses or excites.

    ROUSING, ppr.

    1. Awaking from sleep; exciting; calling into action.NWAD ROUSING.2

    2. a. Having power to awaken or excite.NWAD ROUSING.3

    3. Great; violent; as a rousing fire. [Vulgar.]NWAD ROUSING.4

    ROUT, n.

    1. A rabble; a clamorous multitude; a tumultuous crowd; as a rout of people assembled.NWAD ROUT.2

    The endless routs of wretched thralls.NWAD ROUT.3

    2. In law, a rout is where three persons or more meet to do an unlawful act upon a common quarrel, as forcibly to break down fences on a right claimed of common or of way, and make some advances towards it.NWAD ROUT.4

    3. A select company; a party for gaming.NWAD ROUT.5

    ROUT, n. [This is a corruption of the L. ruptus, from rumpo, to break.]

    The breaking or defeat of an army or band of troops, or the disorder and confusion of troops thus defeated and put to flight.NWAD ROUT.7

    ROUT, v.t. To break the ranks of troops and put them to flight in disorder; to defeat and throw into confusion.

    The king’s horse - routed and defeated the whole army.NWAD ROUT.9

    ROUT, v.i. To assemble in a clamorous and tumultuous crowd. [Not in use.]

    ROUT, n. [It belongs to the family of ride and L. gradior; properly a going or passing.]

    The course or way which is traveled or passed, or to be passed; a passing; a course; a march.NWAD ROUT.12

    Wide through the furzy field their rout they take.NWAD ROUT.13

    Rout and road are not synonymous.NWAD ROUT.14

    We say, to mend or repair a road, but not to mend a rout. We use rout for a course of passing, and not without reference to the passing of some person or body of men; but rout is not the road itself.NWAD ROUT.15

    ROUT, v.i. To snore. Obs.

    ROUT, v.t. [for root.] To turn up the ground with the snout; to search. [Not in use.]

    ROUTINE, n. rootee’n. [L. rota, a wheel.]

    1. A round of business, amusements or pleasure, daily or frequently pursued; particularly, a course of business or official duties, regularly or frequently returning.NWAD ROUTINE.2

    2. Any regular habit or practice not accommodated to circumstances.NWAD ROUTINE.3

    ROVE, v.i. [L. rapio.]

    To wander; to ramble; to range; to go, move or pass without certain direction in any manner, by walking, riding, flying or otherwise.NWAD ROVE.2

    For who has power to walk, has power to rove.NWAD ROVE.3

    ROVE, v.t. To wander over; as roving a field; roving the town. This is an elliptical form of expression, for roving over, through or about the town.

    ROVE, v.t. To draw a thread, string or cord through an eye or aperture.

    ROVER, n.

    1. A wanderer; one who rambles about.NWAD ROVER.2

    2. A fickle or inconstant person.NWAD ROVER.3

    3. A robber or pirate; a freebooter. [So corsair is from L. cursus, curro, to run.]NWAD ROVER.4

    At rovers, without any particular aim; at random; as shooting at rovers.NWAD ROVER.5

    [I never heard this expression in the United States.]NWAD ROVER.6

    ROVING, ppr. Rambling; wandering; passing a cord through an eye.

    ROW, n.

    A series of persons or things arranged in a continued line; a line; a rank; a file; as a row of trees; a row of gems or pearls; a row of houses or columns.NWAD ROW.2

    Where the bright Seraphim in burning row.NWAD ROW.3

    ROW, v.t. [Gr. to row, an oar. If the noun is the primary word, ruder and rother, an oar, may be from the root of rod, L. radius, or from the root of rado, to rub, grate, sweep. If the verb is the primary word, the sense is to sweep, to urge, drive, impel. See Rudder.]

    1. To impel, as a boat or vessel along the surface of water by oars; as, to row a boat.NWAD ROW.5

    2. To transport by rowing; as, to row the captain ashore in his barge.NWAD ROW.6

    ROW, v.i. To labor with the oar; as, to row well; to row with oars muffled.

    ROWABLE, a. Capable of being rowed or rowed upon. [Not in use.]

    ROWED, pp. Driven by oars.

    ROWEL, n. [L. rota.]

    1. The little wheel of a spur, formed with sharp points.NWAD ROWEL.2

    2. Among farriers, a roll of hair or silk, used as an issue on horses, answering to a seton in surgery.NWAD ROWEL.3

    3. A little flat ring or wheel of plate or iron on horses’ bits.NWAD ROWEL.4

    ROWEL, v.t. To insert a rowel in; to pierce the skin and keep open the wound by a rowel.

    ROWEN, n. [Heb. to be green, to thrive.]

    Rowen is a field kept up till after Michaelmas, that the corn left on the ground may sprout into green.NWAD ROWEN.2

    Turn your cows that give milk into your rowens, till snow comes.NWAD ROWEN.3

    In New England, the second growth of grass in a season. We never apply the word to a field, nor to a growth of corn, after harvest, nor is the word ever used in the plural. The first growth of grass for mowing is called the first crop, and the second rowen.NWAD ROWEN.4

    ROWER, n. One that rows or manages an oar in rowing.

    ROWING, ppr. Impelling, as a boat by oars.

    ROWLEY-RAGG, [See Ragg.]

    ROW-LOCK, n. That part of a boat’s gunwale on which the oar rests in rowing.

    ROW-PORT, n. A little square hole in the side of small vessels of war, near the surface of the water, for the use of an oar for rowing in a calm.

    ROYAL, a. [L. regalis, from rex, king. See Reck and Right.]

    1. Kingly; pertaining to a king; regal; as royal power or prerogative; a royal garden; royal domains; the royal family.NWAD ROYAL.2

    2. Becoming a king; magnificent; as royal state.NWAD ROYAL.3

    3. Noble; illustrious.NWAD ROYAL.4

    How doth that royal merchant, good Antonio?NWAD ROYAL.5

    ROYAL, n.

    1. A large kind of paper. It is used as a noun or an adjective.NWAD ROYAL.7

    2. Among seamen, a small sail spread immediately above the top-gallant-sail; sometimes termed the top-gallant-royal.NWAD ROYAL.8

    3. One of the shoots of a stag’s head.NWAD ROYAL.9

    4. In artillery, a small mortar.NWAD ROYAL.10

    5. In England, one of the soldiers of the first regiment of foot, called the royals, and supposed to be the oldest regular corps in Europe.NWAD ROYAL.11

    ROYALISM, n. Attachment to the principles or cause of royalty, or to a royal government.

    ROYALIST, n. An adherent to a king, or one attached to a kingly government.

    Where Candish fought, the royalist prevail’d.NWAD ROYALIST.2

    ROYALIZE, v.t. To make royal.

    ROYALLY, adv. In a kingly manner; like a king; as becomes a king.

    His body shall be royally interr’d.NWAD ROYALLY.2

    ROYALTY, n.

    1. Kingship; the character, state or office of a king.NWAD ROYALTY.2

    Royalty by birth was the sweetest way of majesty.NWAD ROYALTY.3

    2. Royalties, plu. emblems of royalty; regalia.NWAD ROYALTY.4

    3. Rights of a king; prerogatives.NWAD ROYALTY.5

    ROYNE, v.t. To bite; to gnaw. [Not in use.]

    ROYNISH, a.

    Mean; paltry; as the roynish clown. [Not in use.]NWAD ROYNISH.2

    ROYTELET, n. A little king. [Not in use.]

    ROYTISH, a. Wild; irregular. [Not in use.]

    RUB, v.t. [L. probrum, exprobro; Gr. to rub. We have the elements of the word in scrape, scrub, L. scribo, Gr.]

    1. To move something along the surface of a body with pressure; as, to rub the face or arms with the hand; to rub the body with flannel. Vessels are scoured or cleaned by rubbing them.NWAD RUB.2

    2. To wipe; to clean; to scour; but rub is a generic term, applicable to friction for every purpose.NWAD RUB.3

    3. To touch so as to leave behind something which touches; to spread over; as to rub any thing with oil.NWAD RUB.4

    4. To polish; to retouch; with over.NWAD RUB.5

    The whole business of our redemption is to rub over the defaced copy of the creation.NWAD RUB.6

    5. To obstruct by collision. [Unusual.]NWAD RUB.7

    In popular language, rub is used for teasing, fretting, upbraiding, reproaching or vexing with gibes or sarcasms.NWAD RUB.8

    To rub down, to clean by rubbing; to comb or curry, as a horse.NWAD RUB.9

    To rub off, to clean any thing by rubbing; to separate by friction; as, to rub off rust.NWAD RUB.10

    1. To rub out, to erase; to obliterate; as, to rub out marks or letters.NWAD RUB.11

    2. To remove or separate by friction; as, to rub out a stain.NWAD RUB.12

    To rub upon, to touch hard.NWAD RUB.13

    1. To rub up, to burnish; to polish; to clean.NWAD RUB.14

    2. To excite; to awaken; to rouse to action; as, to rub up the memory.NWAD RUB.15

    RUB, v.i.

    1. To move along the surface of a body with pressure; as, a wheel rubs against the gate-post.NWAD RUB.17

    2. To fret; to chafe; as, to rub upon a sore.NWAD RUB.18

    3. To move or pass with difficulty; as, to rub through woods, as huntsmen; to rub through the world.NWAD RUB.19

    RUB, n.

    1. The act of rubbing; friction.NWAD RUB.21

    2. That which renders motion or progress difficult; collision; hinderance; obstruction.NWAD RUB.22

    Now every rub is smoothed in our way.NWAD RUB.23

    Upon this rub the English embassadors thought fit to demur.NWAD RUB.24

    All sort of rubs will be laid in the way.NWAD RUB.25

    3. Inequality of ground that hinders the motion of a bowl.NWAD RUB.26

    4. Difficulty; cause of uneasiness; pinch.NWAD RUB.27

    To sleep, perchance to dream; ay, there’s the rub.NWAD RUB.28

    5. Sarcasm; joke; something grating to the feelings.NWAD RUB.29

    RUB, RUB’-STONE, n. [rub and stone.] A stone, usually some kind of sandstone, used to sharpen instruments; a whetstone.

    RUBBAGE, RUBBIDGE, RUBBLE, for rubbish, vulgar and not used.

    RUBBER, n.

    1. One that rubs.NWAD RUBBER.2

    2. The instrument or thing used in rubbing or cleaning.NWAD RUBBER.3

    3. A coarse file, or the rough part of it.NWAD RUBBER.4

    4. A whetstone; a rubstone.NWAD RUBBER.5

    5. The gaming, two games out of three; or the game that decides the contest; or a contest consisting of three games.NWAD RUBBER.6

    India rubber, elastic resin, or caoutchouc, a substance produced from the syringe tree of south America; a substance remarkably pliable and elastic.NWAD RUBBER.7

    RUBBISH, n. [from rub; properly, that which is rubbed off; but not now used in this limited sense.]

    1. Fragments of buildings; broken or imperfect pieces of any structure; ruins.NWAD RUBBISH.2

    He saw the towns one half in rubbish lie.NWAD RUBBISH.3

    2. Waste or rejected matter; any thing worthless.NWAD RUBBISH.4

    3. Mingled mass; confusion.NWAD RUBBISH.5

    RUBBLE-STONE, n. A stone, so called from its being rubbed and worn by water; graywacke.

    RUBEFACIENT, a. [L. rubefacio, infra.] Making red.

    RUBEFACIENT, n. In medicine, a substance or external application which excites redness of the skin.

    RUBELLITE, n. [from L. rubeus, red.] A silicious mineral of a red color of various shades; the red shorl; siberite. It occurs in accumulated groups of a middle or large size, with straight tubular-like stria. In a red heat, it becomes snow-white and seems to phosphoresce.

    Rubellite is red tourmaline.NWAD RUBELLITE.2

    RUBESCENT, a. [L. rubescens, rubesco, from rubeo, to redden or to be red.]

    Growing or becoming red; tending to a red color.NWAD RUBESCENT.2

    RUBICAN, a. [L. rubeo, to be red.]

    Rubican color of a horse, is a bay, sorrel or black, with a light gray or white upon the flanks, but the gray or white not predominant there.NWAD RUBICAN.2

    RUBICEL, n. [L. rubeo, to be red.] A gem or mineral, a variety of ruby of a reddish color, from Brazil.

    RUBICUND, a. [L. rubicundus.] Inclining to redness.

    RUBIED, a. Red as a ruby; as a rubied lip; rubied nectar.

    RUBIFIC, a. [L. ruber and facio.] Making red; as rubific rays.

    RUBIFICATION, n. The act of making red.

    RUBIFORM, n. [L. ruber, red, and form.] Having the form of red; as, the rubiform rays of the sun are least refrangible.

    RUBIFY, v.t. [L. ruber, red and facio, to make.] To make red. [Little used.]

    RUBIOUS, a. [L. rubeus.] Red; ruddy. [Not in use.]

    RUBLE, n. roo’bl.

    A silver coin of Russia, of the value of about fifty seven cents, or two shillings and seven pence sterling; in Russia, a hundred kopecks; originally, the fourth part of a grivna or pound, which was cut into four equal parts.NWAD RUBLE.2

    RUBRIC, n. [L. rubrica; rubeo, to be red.]

    1. In the canon law, a title or article in certain ancient law books; so called because written in red letters.NWAD RUBRIC.2

    2. Directions printed in prayer books.NWAD RUBRIC.3

    The rubric and the rules relating to the liturgy are established by royal authority, as well as the liturgy itself.NWAD RUBRIC.4

    RUBRIC, v.t. To adorn with red.

    RUBRIC, RU’BRICAL, a. Red.

    RUBRICAL, a. Placed in rubrics.

    RUBRICATE, v.t. [L. rubricatus.] To mark or distinguish with red.

    RUBRICATE, a. Marked with red.

    RUBY, n. [L. rubeo, to be red.]

    1. A precious stone; a mineral of a carmine red color, sometimes verging to violet, or intermediate between carmine and hyacinth red; but its parts vary in color, and hence it is called sapphire ruby or orange red, and by some vermeille or rubicel.NWAD RUBY.2

    There are two kinds of ruby, the oriental or corundum, and the spinelle. The latter is distinguishable from the former by its color and crystallization.NWAD RUBY.3

    The ruby is next in hardness and value to the diamond, and highly esteemed in jewelry.NWAD RUBY.4

    2. Redness; red color.NWAD RUBY.5

    3. Any thing red.NWAD RUBY.6

    4. A blain; a blotch; a carbuncle. [The ruby is said to be the stone called by Pliny a carbuncle.]NWAD RUBY.7

    Ruby of arsenic or sulphur, is the realgar, or red combination of arsenic and sulphur.NWAD RUBY.8

    Ruby of zink, is the red blend.NWAD RUBY.9

    Rock ruby, the amethystizontes of the ancients, is the most value species of garnet.NWAD RUBY.10

    RUBY, v.t. To make red.

    RUBY, a. Of the color of the ruby; red; as ruby lips.

    RUCK, v.t. [L. rugo, to wrinkle, to fold; ruga, a fold.]

    1. To cower; to bend and set close. [Not in use.]NWAD RUCK.2

    2. To wrinkle; as, to ruck up cloth or a garment.NWAD RUCK.3

    [In this sense, the word is still used by the common people of New England.]NWAD RUCK.4

    RUCK, n. A wrinkle; a fold; a plait.

    RUCTATION, n. [L. ructo, to belch.] The act of belching wind from the stomach.

    RUD, to make red, used by Spenser, is a different spelling of red. Obs. [See Ruddy.]

    RUD, n. [See Red and Ruddy.]

    1. Redness; blush; also, red ocher.NWAD RUD.3

    2. The fish rudd.NWAD RUD.4

    RUDD, n. [probably from red, ruddy.] A fish of the genus Cyprinus, with a deep body like the bream, but thicker, a prominent back, and small head. The back is of an olive color; the sides and belly yellow, marked with red; the ventral and anal fins and tail of a deep red color.

    RUDDER, n. [See Row. The oar was the first rudder used by man, and is still the instrument of steering certain boats.]

    1. In navigation, the instrument by which a ship is steered; that part of the helm which consists of a piece of timber, broad at the bottom, which enters the water and is attached to the stern-post by hinges, on which it turns. This timber is managed by means of the tiller or wheel.NWAD RUDDER.2

    2. That which guides or governs the course.NWAD RUDDER.3

    For rhyme the rudder is of verses.NWAD RUDDER.4

    3. A sieve. [Local. See Riddle.]NWAD RUDDER.5

    Rudder perch, a small fish with the upper part of the body brown, varied with large round spots of yellow, the belly and sides streaked with lines of white and yellow. This fish is said to follow the rudders of ships in the warm parts of the Atlantic.NWAD RUDDER.6

    RUDDINESS, n. [from ruddy.] The state of being ruddy; redness, or rather a lively flesh color; that degree of redness which characterizes high health; applied chiefly to the complexion or color of the human skin; as the ruddiness of the cheeks or lips.

    RUDDLE, n.

    The name of a species of chalk or red earth, colored by iron.NWAD RUDDLE.2

    RUDDLE-MAN, n. One who digs ruddle.

    RUDDOC, n.

    A bird; otherwise called red-breast.NWAD RUDDOC.2

    RUDDY, a.

    1. Of a red color; of a lively flesh color, or the color of the human skin in high health. Thus we say, reddy cheeks, ruddy lips, a reddy face or skin, a ruddy youth; and in poetic language, ruddy fruit. But the word is chiefly applied to the human skin.NWAD RUDDY.2

    2. Of a bright yellow color; as ruddy gold. [Unusual.]NWAD RUDDY.3

    RUDE, a. [L. rudis. The sense is probably rough, broken, and this word may be allied to raw and crude.]

    1. rough; uneven; rugged; unformed by art; as rude workmanship, that is, roughly finished; rude and unpolished stones.NWAD RUDE.2

    2. Rough; of coarse manners; unpolished; uncivil; clownish; rustic; as a rude countryman; rude behavior; rude treatment; a rude attack.NWAD RUDE.3

    Ruffian, let go that rude uncivil touch.NWAD RUDE.4

    3. Violent; tumultuous; boisterous; turbulent; as rude winds; the rude agitation of the sea.NWAD RUDE.5

    4. violent; fierce; impetuous; as the rude shock of armies.NWAD RUDE.6

    5. Harsh; inclement; as the rude winter.NWAD RUDE.7

    6. Ignorant; untaught; savage; barbarous; as the rude natives of America or of New Holland; the rude ancestors of the Greeks.NWAD RUDE.8

    7. Raw; untaught; ignorant; not skilled or practiced; as rude in speech; rude in arms.NWAD RUDE.9

    8. Artless; inelegant; not polished; as a rude translation of Virgil.NWAD RUDE.10

    RUDELY, adv.

    1. With roughness; as a mountain rudely formed.NWAD RUDELY.2

    2. Violently; fiercely; tumultuously. The door was rudely assaulted.NWAD RUDELY.3

    3. In a rude or uncivil manner; as, to be rudely accosted.NWAD RUDELY.4

    4. Without exactness or nicety; coarsely; as work rudely executed.NWAD RUDELY.5

    I that am rudely stamp’d, and want love’s majesty to strut before a wanton ambling nymph.NWAD RUDELY.6

    5. Unskillfully.NWAD RUDELY.7

    My muse, though rudely, has resign’d some faint resemblance of his godlike mind.NWAD RUDELY.8

    6. Without elegance.NWAD RUDELY.9

    RUDENESS, n.

    1. A rough broken state; unevenness; wildness; as the rudeness of a mountain, country or landscape.NWAD RUDENESS.2

    2. Coarseness of manners; incivility; rusticity; vulgarity.NWAD RUDENESS.3

    And kings the rudeness of their joy must bear.NWAD RUDENESS.4

    3. Ignorance; unskillfulness.NWAD RUDENESS.5

    What he did amiss was rather through rudeness and want of judgment -NWAD RUDENESS.6

    4. Artlessness; coarseness; inelegance; as the rudeness of a painting or piece of sculpture.NWAD RUDENESS.7

    5. Violence; impetuosity; as the rudeness of an attack or shock.NWAD RUDENESS.8

    6. Violence; storminess; as the rudeness of winds or of the season.NWAD RUDENESS.9

    RUDENTURE, n. [L. rudens, a rope.]

    In architecture, the figure of a rope or staff, plain or carved, with which the flutings of columns are sometimes filled.NWAD RUDENTURE.2

    RUDERARY, a. [Low L. ruderarius; from the root of rudis, and indicating the primary sense of rude to be broken.] Belonging to rubbish. [Not used.]

    RUDERATION, n. [L. ruderatio, from rudero, to pave with broken stones.]

    The act of paving with pebbles or little stones. [Not used.]NWAD RUDERATION.2

    RUDESBY, n. An uncivil turbulent fellow. [Not in use.]

    RUDIMENT, n. [L. rudimentum. If connected with erudio, it denotes what is taught. But the real origin is not obvious.]

    1. A first principle or element; that which is to be first learnt; as the rudiments of learning or science. Articulate sounds are the rudiments of language; letters or characters are the rudiments of written language; the primary rules of any art or science are its rudiments. Hence instruction in the rudiments of any art or science, constitutes the beginning of education in that art or science.NWAD RUDIMENT.2

    2. The original of any thing in its first form. Thus in botany, the germen, ovary or seed-bud, is the rudiment of the fruit yet in embryo; and the seed is the rudiment of a new plant.NWAD RUDIMENT.3

    Rudiment, in natural history, is also an imperfect organ; one which is never fully formed. Thus the flowers in the genus Pentstemon, have four stamens and a rudiment of a fifth, (a simple filament without an anther.)NWAD RUDIMENT.4

    God beholds the first imperfect rudiments of virtue in the soul.NWAD RUDIMENT.5

    RUDIMENT, v.t. to furnish with first principles or rules; to ground; to settle in first principles.

    RUDIMENTAL, a. Initial; pertaining to rudiments, or consisting in first principles; as rudimental essays.

    RUE, v.t. ru. [L. rudo, to roar, to bray.]

    To lament; to regret; to grieve for; as, to rue the commission of a crime; to rue the day.NWAD RUE.2

    Thy will chose freely what it now so justly rues.NWAD RUE.3

    RUE, v.i. To have compassion. [Not in use.]

    RUE, n. Sorrow; repentance. [Not in use.]

    RUE, n. ru. [Gr. L.]

    A plant of the genus Ruta, of several species. The common garden rue is medicinal, as a stimulant and detergent.NWAD RUE.7

    RUEFUL, a. ru’ful. [rue and full.]

    1. Woeful; mournful; sorrowful; to be lamented.NWAD RUEFUL.2

    Spur them to rueful work.NWAD RUEFUL.3

    2. Expressing sorrow.NWAD RUEFUL.4

    He sigh’d and cast a rueful eye.NWAD RUEFUL.5

    RUEFULLY, adv. Mournfully; sorrowfully.

    RUEFULNESS, n. Sorrowfulness; mournfulness.

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