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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    ESPOUSE, v.t. espouz’. [L. spondeo, sponsus, the letter n, in the latter, must be casual, or the modern languages have lost the letter. The former is most probable; in which case, spondeo was primarily spodeo, sposus.]

    1. To betroth.NWAD ESPOUSE.2

    When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph. Matthew 1:18.NWAD ESPOUSE.3

    2. To betroth; to promise or engage in marriage, by contract in writing, or by some pledge; as, the king espoused his daughter to a foreign prince. Usually and properly followed by to, rather than with.NWAD ESPOUSE.4

    3. To marry; to wed.NWAD ESPOUSE.5

    4. To unite intimately or indissolubly.NWAD ESPOUSE.6

    I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. 2 Corinthians 11:2.NWAD ESPOUSE.7

    5. To embrace; to take to one’s self, with a view to maintain; as, to espouse the quarrel of another; to espouse a cause.NWAD ESPOUSE.8

    ESPOUSED, pp. Betrothed; affianced; promised in marriage by contract; married; united intimately; embraced.

    ESPOUSER, n. One who espouses; one who defends the cause of another.

    ESPOUSING, ppr. Betrothing; promising in marriage by covenant; marrying; uniting indissolubly; taking part in.

    ESPY, v.t. [L. specio.]

    1. To see at a distance; to have the first sight of a thing remove. Seamen espy land as they approach it.NWAD ESPY.2

    2. To see or discover something intended to be hid, or in a degree concealed and not very visible; as, to espy a man in a crowd, or a thief in a wood.NWAD ESPY.3

    3. To discover unexpectedly.NWAD ESPY.4

    As one of them opened his sack, he espied his money. Genesis 42:27.NWAD ESPY.5

    4. To inspect narrowly; to examine and make discoveries.NWAD ESPY.6

    Moses sent me to espy out the land, and I brought him word again. Joshua 14:7.NWAD ESPY.7

    ESPY, v.i. To look narrowly; to look about; to watch.

    Stand by the way and espy. Jeremiah 48:19.NWAD ESPY.9

    [This word is often pronounced spy, which see.]NWAD ESPY.10

    ESPY, n. A spy; a scout.

    ESQUIRE, n. [L. scutum, a shield; Gr. a hide, of which shields were anciently made.], a shield-bearer or armor-bearer, scutifer; an attendant on a knight. Hence in modern times, a title of dignity next in degree below a knight. In England, this title is given to the younger sons of noblemen, to officers of the king’s courts and of the household, to counselors at law, justices of the peace, while in commission, sheriffs, and other gentlemen. In the United States, the title is given to public officers of all degrees, from governors down to justices and attorneys. Indeed the title, in addressing letters, is bestowed on any person at pleasure, and contains no definite description. It is merely an expression or respect.

    ESQUIRE, v.t. To attend; to wait on.

    ESSAY, v.t. [L. sequor. See Seek. The radical sense is to press, drive, urge, strain, strive.]

    1. To try; to attempt; to endeavor; to exert one’s power or faculties, or to make an effort to perform any thing.NWAD ESSAY.2

    While I this unexampled task essay.NWAD ESSAY.3

    2. To make experiment of.NWAD ESSAY.4

    3. To try the value and purity of metals. In this application, the word is now more generally written assay, which see.NWAD ESSAY.5

    ESSAY, n. A trial; attempt; endeavor; an effort made, or exertion of body or mind, for the performance of any thing. We say, to make an essay.

    Fruitless our hopes, though pious our essays.NWAD ESSAY.7

    1. In literature, a composition intended to prove or illustrate a particular subject; usually shorter and less methodical and finished than a system; as an essay on the life and writings of Homer; an essay on fossils; an essay on commerce.NWAD ESSAY.8

    2. A trial or experiment; as, this is the first essay.NWAD ESSAY.9

    3. Trial or experiment to prove the qualities of a metal.NWAD ESSAY.10

    [In this sense, see Assay.]NWAD ESSAY.11

    4. First taste of any thing.NWAD ESSAY.12

    ESSAYED, pp. Attempted; tried.

    ESSAYER, n. One who writes essays.

    ESSAYING, ppr. Trying; making an effort; attempting.

    ESSAYIST, n. A writer of an essay, or of essays.

    ESSENCE, n. [L. essentia, esse, to be.]

    1. That which constitutes the particular nature of a being or substance, or of a genus, and which distinguishes it from all others.NWAD ESSENCE.2

    Mr. Locke makes a distinction between nominal essence and real essence. The nominal essence, for example, of gold, is that complex idea expressed by gold; the real essence is the constitution of its insensible parts, on which its properties depend, which is unknown to us.NWAD ESSENCE.3

    The essence of God bears no relation to place.NWAD ESSENCE.4

    2. Formal existence; that which makes any thing to be what it is; or rather, the peculiar nature of a thing; the very substance; as the essence of christianity.NWAD ESSENCE.5

    3. Existence; the quality of being.NWAD ESSENCE.6

    I could have resigned my very essence.NWAD ESSENCE.7

    4. A being; an existent person; as heavenly essences.NWAD ESSENCE.8

    5. Species of being.NWAD ESSENCE.9

    6. Constituent substance; as the pure essence of a spirit. [Locke’s real essence, supra.]NWAD ESSENCE.10

    7. The predominant qualities or virtues of any plant or drug, extracted, refined or rectified from grosser matter; or more strictly, a volatile essential oil; as the essence of mint.NWAD ESSENCE.11

    8. Perfume, odor, scent; or the volatile matter constituting perfume.NWAD ESSENCE.12

    Nor let th’ imprisoned essences exhale.NWAD ESSENCE.13

    ESSENCE, v.t. To perfume; to scent.

    ESSENCED, pp. Perfumed; as essenced fops.

    ESSENES, n. Among the Jews, a sect remarkable for their strictness and abstinence.

    ESSENTIAL, a. [L. essentialis.] Necessary to the constitution or existence of a thing. Piety and good works are essential to the christian character. Figure and extension are essential properties of bodies.

    And if each system in gradation roll,NWAD ESSENTIAL.2

    Alike essential to the amazing whole--NWAD ESSENTIAL.3

    1. Important in the highest degree.NWAD ESSENTIAL.4

    Judgment is more essential to a general than courage.NWAD ESSENTIAL.5

    2. Pure; highly rectified. Essential oils are such as are drawn from plants by distillation in an alembic with water, as distinguished from empyreumatic oils, which are raised by a naked fire without water.NWAD ESSENTIAL.6

    ESSENTIAL, n. Existence; being. [Little used.]

    1. First or constituent principles; as the essentials of religion.NWAD ESSENTIAL.8

    2. The chief point; that which is most important.NWAD ESSENTIAL.9

    ESSENTIALITY, n. The quality of being essential; first or constituent principles.

    ESSENTIALLY, adv. By the constitution of nature; in essence; as, minerals and plants are essentially different.

    1. In an important degree; in effect. The two statements differ, but not essentially.NWAD ESSENTIALLY.2

    ESSENTIATE, v.i. To become of the same essence.

    ESSENTIATE, v.t. To form or constitute the essence or being of.

    ESSOIN, n. [Law L. exonia, sonium.]

    1. An excuse; the alleging of an excuse for him who is summoned to appear in court and answer, and who neglects to appear at the day. In England, the three first days of a term are called essoin-days, as three days are allowed for the appearance of suitors.NWAD ESSOIN.2

    2. Excuse; exemption.NWAD ESSOIN.3

    3. He that is excused for non-appearance in court, at the day appointed.NWAD ESSOIN.4

    ESSOIN, v.t. To allow an excuse for non-appearance in court; to excuse for absence.

    ESSOINER, n. An attorney who sufficiently excuses the absence of another.

    ESTABLISH, v.t. [L. stabilio; Heb. to set, fix, establish.]

    1. To set and fix firmly or unalterably; to settle permanently.NWAD ESTABLISH.2

    I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant. Genesis 17:19.NWAD ESTABLISH.3

    2. To found permanently; to erect and fix or settle; as, to establish a colony or an empire.NWAD ESTABLISH.4

    3. To enact or decree by authority and for permanence; to ordain; to appoint; as, to establish laws, regulations, institutions, rules, ordinances, etc.NWAD ESTABLISH.5

    4. To settle or fix; to confirm; as, to establish a person, society or corporation, in possessions or privileges.NWAD ESTABLISH.6

    5. To make firm; to confirm; to ratify what has been previously set or made.NWAD ESTABLISH.7

    Do we then make void the law through faith?NWAD ESTABLISH.8

    God forbid; yea, we establish the law. Romans 3:31.NWAD ESTABLISH.9

    6. To settle or fix what is wavering, doubtful or weak; to confirm.NWAD ESTABLISH.10

    So were the churches established in the faith. Acts 16:5.NWAD ESTABLISH.11

    To the end he may establish your hearts unblamable in holiness. 1 Thessalonians 3:13.NWAD ESTABLISH.12

    7. To confirm; to fulfill; to make good.NWAD ESTABLISH.13

    Establish thy word to thy servant. Psalm 119:38.NWAD ESTABLISH.14

    8. To set up in the place of another and confirm.NWAD ESTABLISH.15

    Who go about to establish their own righteousness. Romans 10:3.NWAD ESTABLISH.16

    ESTABLISHED, pp. Set; fixed firmly; founded; ordained; enacted; ratified; confirmed.

    ESTABLISHER, n. He who establishes, ordains or confirms.

    ESTABLISHING, ppr. Fixing; settling permanently; founding; ratifying; confirming; ordaining.

    ESTABLISHMENT, n. The act of establishing, founding, ratifying or ordaining.

    1. Settlement;; fixed state.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.2

    2. Confirmation; ratification of what has been settled or made.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.3

    3. Settled regulation; form; ordinance; system of laws; constitution of government.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.4

    Bring in that establishment by which all men should be contained in duty.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.5

    4. Fixed or stated allowance for subsistence; income; salary.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.6

    His excellency--might gradually lessen your establishment.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.7

    5. That which is fixed or established; as a permanent military force, a fixed garrison, a local government, an agency, a factory, etc. The king has establishments to support, in the four quarters of the globe.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.8

    6. The episcopal form of religion, so called in England.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.9

    7. Settlement or final rest.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.10

    We set up our hopes and establishment here.NWAD ESTABLISHMENT.11

    ESTAFET, n. A military courier. [See Staff.]

    ESTATE, n. [L. status, from sto, to stand. The roots stb, std, and stg, have nearly the same signification, to set, to fix. It is probable that the L. sto is contracted from stad, as it forms steti.]

    1. In a general sense, fixedness; a fixed condition; now generally written and pronounced state.NWAD ESTATE.2

    She cast us headlong from our high estate.NWAD ESTATE.3

    2. Condition or circumstances of any person or thing, whether high or low. Luke 1:48.NWAD ESTATE.4

    3. Rank; quality.NWAD ESTATE.5

    Who hath not heard of the greatness of your estate?NWAD ESTATE.6

    4. In law, the interest, or quantity of interest, a man has in lands, tenements, or other effects. Estates are real or personal. Real estate consists in lands or freeholds, which descent to heirs; personal estate consists in chattels or movables, which go to executors and administrators. There are also estates for life, for years, at will, etc.NWAD ESTATE.7

    5. Fortune; possessions; property in general. He is a man of a great estate. He left his estate unincumbered.NWAD ESTATE.8

    6. The general business or interest of government; hence, a political body; a commonwealth; a republic. But in this sense, we now use State.NWAD ESTATE.9

    Estates, in the plural, dominions; possessions of a prince.NWAD ESTATE.10

    1. Orders or classes of men in society or government. Herod made a supper for his chief estates. Mark 6:21.NWAD ESTATE.11

    In Great Britain, the estates of the realm are the king, lords and commons; or rather the lords and commons.NWAD ESTATE.12

    ESTATE, v.t. To settle as a fortune. [Little used.]

    1. To establish. [Little used.]NWAD ESTATE.14

    ESTATED, pp. or a. Possessing an estate.

    ESTEEM, v.t. [L. estimo; Gr. to honor or esteem.]

    1. To set a value on, whether high or low; to estimate; to value.NWAD ESTEEM.2

    Then he forsook God who made him, and lightly esteemed the rock of his salvation. Deuteronomy 32:15.NWAD ESTEEM.3

    They that despise me shall be lightly esteemed. 1 Samuel 2:30.NWAD ESTEEM.4

    2. To prize; to set a high value on; to regard with reverence, respect or friendship. When our minds are not biased, we always esteem the industrious, the generous, the brave, the virtuous, and the learned.NWAD ESTEEM.5

    Will he esteem thy riches? Job 36:19.NWAD ESTEEM.6

    3. To hold in opinion; to repute; to think.NWAD ESTEEM.7

    One man esteemeth one day above another; another esteemeth every day alike. Romans 14:5.NWAD ESTEEM.8

    4. To compare in value; to estimate by proportion. [Little used.]NWAD ESTEEM.9

    ESTEEM, n. Estimation; opinion or judgment of merit or demerit. This man is of no worth in my esteem.

    1. High value or estimation; great regard; favorable opinion, founded on supposed worth.NWAD ESTEEM.11

    Both those poets lived in much esteem with good and holy men in orders.NWAD ESTEEM.12

    ESTEEMABLE, a. Worthy of esteem; estimable.

    ESTEEMED, pp. Valued; estimated; highly valued or prized on account of worth; thought; held in opinion.

    ESTEEMER, n. One who esteems; one who sets a high value on any thing.

    A proud esteemer of his own parts.NWAD ESTEEMER.2

    ESTEEMING, ppr. Valuing; estimating; valuing highly; prizing; thinking; deeming.


    1. That is capable of being estimated or valued; as estimable damage.NWAD ESTIMABLE.2

    2. Valuable; worth a great price.NWAD ESTIMABLE.3

    A pound of man’s flesh, taken from a man,NWAD ESTIMABLE.4

    Is not so estimable or profitable.NWAD ESTIMABLE.5

    3. Worthy of esteem or respect; deserving our good opinion or regard.NWAD ESTIMABLE.6

    A lady said of her two companions, that one was more amiable, the other more estimable.NWAD ESTIMABLE.7

    ESTIMABLE, n. That which is worthy of regard.

    ESTIMABLENESS, n. The quality of deserving esteem or regard.

    ESTIMATE, v.t. [L. oestimo. See Esteem.]

    1. To judge and form an opinion of the value of; to rate by judgment or opinion, without weighing or measuring either value, degree, extent or quantity. We estimate the value of cloth by inspection, or the extend of a piece of land, or the distance of a mountain. We estimate the worth of a friend by his known qualities. We estimate the merits or talents of two different men by judgment. We estimate profits, loss and damage. Hence,NWAD ESTIMATE.2

    2. To compute; to calculate; to reckon.NWAD ESTIMATE.3

    ESTIMATE, n. A valuing or rating in the mind; a judgment or opinion of the value, degree, extent or quantity of any thing, without ascertaining it. We form estimates of the expenses of a war, of the probable outfits of a voyage, of the comparative strength or merits of two men, of the extent of a kingdom or its population. Hence estimate may be equivalent to calculation, computation, without measuring or weighing.

    1. Value.NWAD ESTIMATE.5

    ESTIMATED, pp. Valued; rated in opinion or judgment.

    ESTIMATING, ppr. Valuing; rating; forming an opinion or judgment of the value, extent, quantity, or degree of worth of any object; calculating; computing.

    ESTIMATION, n. [L. oestimatio.] The act of estimating.

    1. Calculation; computation; an opinion or judgment of the worth, extent or quantity of any thing, formed without using precise data. We may differ in our estimations of distance, magnitude or amount, and no less in our estimation of moral qualities.NWAD ESTIMATION.2

    1. Esteem; regard; favorable opinion; honor.NWAD ESTIMATION.3

    I shall have estimation among the multitude, and honor with the elders.NWAD ESTIMATION.4

    ESTIMATIVE, a. Having the power of comparing and adjusting the worth or preference. [Little used.]

    1. Imaginative.NWAD ESTIMATIVE.2

    ESTIMATOR, n. One who estimates or values.

    ESTIVAL, a. [L. oestivus, from oestas, summer. See Heat.]

    Pertaining to summer, or continuing for the summer.NWAD ESTIVAL.2

    ESTIVATE, v.i. To pass the summer.

    ESTIVATION, n. [L. oestivatio, from oestas, summer, oestivo, to pass the summer.]

    1. The act of passing the summer.NWAD ESTIVATION.2

    2. In botany, the disposition of the petals within the floral gem or bud; l. convolute, when the petals are rolled together like a scroll; 2. imbricate, when they lie over each other like tiles on a roof; 3. conduplicate, when they are doubled together at the midrib; 4. valvate, when as they are about to expand they are placed like the glumes in grasses.NWAD ESTIVATION.3

    ESTOP, v.t. In law, to impede or bar, by one’s own act.

    A man shall always be estopped by his own deed, or not permitted to aver or prove any thing in contradiction to what he has once solemnly avowed.NWAD ESTOP.2

    ESTOPPED, pp. Hindered; barred; precluded by one’s own act.

    ESTOPPING, ppr. Impeding; barring by one’s own act.

    ESTOPPEL, n. In law, a stop; a plea in bar, grounded on a man’s own act or deed, which estops or precludes him from averring any thing to the contrary.

    If a tenant for years levies a fine to another person, it shall work as an estoppel to the cognizor.NWAD ESTOPPEL.2

    ESTOVERS, n. In law, necessaries, or supplies; a reasonable allowance out of lands or goods for the use of a tenant; such as sustenance of a felon in prison, and for his family, during his imprisonment; alimony for a woman divorced, out of her husband’s estate.

    Common of estovers is the liberty of taking the necessary wood for the use or furniture of a house or farm, from another’s estate. In Saxon, it is expressed by bote, which signifies more or supply, as house-bote, plow-bote, fire-bote, cart-bote, etc.NWAD ESTOVERS.2

    ESTRADE, n. An even or level place.

    ESTRANGE, v.t.

    1. To keep at a distance; to withdraw; to cease to frequent and be familiar with.NWAD ESTRANGE.2

    Had we estranged ourselves form them in things indifferent.NWAD ESTRANGE.3

    I thus estrange my person from her bed.NWAD ESTRANGE.4

    2. To alienate; to divert from its original use or possessor; to apply to a purpose foreign from its original or customary one.NWAD ESTRANGE.5

    They have estranged this place, and burnt incense in it to other gods. Jeremiah 19:4.NWAD ESTRANGE.6

    3. To alienate, as the affections; to turn from kindness to indifference or malevolence.NWAD ESTRANGE.7

    I do not know, to this hour, what it is that has estranged him from me.NWAD ESTRANGE.8

    4. To withdraw; to withhold.NWAD ESTRANGE.9

    We must estrange our belief from what is not clearly evidenced.NWAD ESTRANGE.10

    ESTRANGED, pp. Withdrawn; withheld; alienated.

    ESTRANGEMENT, n. Alienation; a keeping at a distance; removal; voluntary abstraction; as an estrangement of affection.

    An estrangement of desires from better things.NWAD ESTRANGEMENT.2

    ESTRANGING, ppr. Alienating; withdrawing; keeping at or removing to a distance.

    ESTRAPADE, n. The defense of a horse that will not obey, and which, to get rid of his rider, rises before and yerks furiously with his hind legs.

    ESTRAY, v.i. To stray. [See Stray.]

    ESTRAY, n. A tame beast, as a horse, ox or sheep, which is found wandering or without an owner; a beast supposed to have strayed from the power or inclosure of its owner. It is usually written stray.

    ESTREAT, n. [L. extractum, extraho, to draw out.]

    In law, a true copy or duplicate of an original writing, especially of amercements or penalties set down in the rolls of court to be levied by the bailiff or other officer, on every offender.NWAD ESTREAT.2

    ESTREAT, v.i. To extract; to copy.

    ESTREATED, pp. Extracted; copied.

    ESTREPEMENT, n. [Eng. to strip.] In law, spoil; waste; a stripping of land by a tenant, to the prejudice of the owner.

    ESTRICH, n. The ostrich, which see.

    ESTUANCE, n. [L. oestus.] Heat. [Not in use.]

    ESTUARY, n. [L. oestuarium, from oestuo, to boil or foam, oestus, heat, fury, storm.]

    1. An arm of the sea; a frith; a narrow passage, or the mouth of a river or lake, where the tide meets the current, or flows and ebbs.NWAD ESTUARY.2

    2. A vapor-bath.NWAD ESTUARY.3

    ESTUATE, v.i. [L. oestuo, to boil.] To boil; to swell and rage; to be agitated.

    ESTUATION, n. A boiling; agitation; commotion of a fluid.

    ESTURE, n. [L. oestuo.] Violence; commotion. [Not used.]

    ESURIENT, a. [L. esuriens, esurio.] Inclined to eat; hungry.

    ESURINE, a. Eating; corroding. [Little used.]

    ET CAETERA, and the contraction etc., denote the rest, or others of the kind; and so on; and so forth.

    ETCH, v.t.

    1. To make prints on copper-plate by means of lines or strokes first drawn, and then eaten or corroded by nitric acid. The plate is first covered with a proper varnish or ground, which is capable of resisting the acid, and the ground is then scored or scratched by a needle or similar instrument, in the places where the hatchings or engravings are intended to be; the plate is then covered with nitric acid, which corrodes or eats the metal in the lines thus laid bare.NWAD ETCH.2

    2. To sketch; to delineate. [Not in use.]NWAD ETCH.3

    ETCHED, pp. Marked and corroded by nitric acid.

    ETCHING, ppr. Marking or making prints with nitric acid.

    ETCHING, n. The impression taken from an etched copper-plate.

    ETEOSTIC, n. [Gr. true, and a verse.]

    A chronogrammatical composition.NWAD ETEOSTIC.2

    ETERN, a. Eternal; perpetual; endless. [Not used.]

    ETERNAL, a. [L. oeternus, composed of oevum and ternus, oeviternus, Varro. The origin of the last component part of the word is not obvious. It occurs in diuturnus, and seems to denote continuance.]

    1. Without beginning or end of existence.NWAD ETERNAL.2

    The eternal God is thy refuge. Deuteronomy 33:27.NWAD ETERNAL.3

    2. Without beginning of existence.NWAD ETERNAL.4

    To know whether there is any real being, whose duration has been eternal.NWAD ETERNAL.5

    3. Without end of existence or duration; everlasting; endless; immortal.NWAD ETERNAL.6

    That they may obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus with eternal glory. 2 Timothy 2:10.NWAD ETERNAL.7

    What shall I do, that I may have eternal life? Matthew 19:16.NWAD ETERNAL.8

    Suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. Jude 7.NWAD ETERNAL.9

    4. Perpetual; ceaseless; continued without intermission.NWAD ETERNAL.10

    And fires eternal in thy temple shine.NWAD ETERNAL.11

    5. Unchangeable; existing at all times without change; as eternal truth.NWAD ETERNAL.12

    ETERNAL, n. An appellation of God.

    ETERNALIST, n. One who holds the past existence of the world to be infinite.

    ETERNALIZE, v.t. To make eternal; to give endless duration to. [We now use eternize.]

    ETERNALLY, adv. Without beginning or end of duration, or without end only.

    1. Unchangeably; invariably; at all times.NWAD ETERNALLY.2

    That which is morally good must be eternally and unchangeably so.NWAD ETERNALLY.3

    2. Perpetually; without intermission; at all times.NWAD ETERNALLY.4

    Where western gales eternally reside.NWAD ETERNALLY.5

    ETERNITY, n. [L. oeternitas.] Duration or continuance without beginning or end.

    By repeating the idea of any length of duration, with the endless addition of number, we come by the idea of eternity.NWAD ETERNITY.2

    The high and lofty one who inhabiteth eternity. Isaiah 57:15.NWAD ETERNITY.3

    We speak of eternal duration preceding the present time. God has existed from eternity. We also speak of endless or everlasting duration in future, and dating from present time or the present state of things. Some men doubt the eternity of future punishment, though they have less difficulty in admitting the eternity of future rewards.NWAD ETERNITY.4

    ETERNIZE, v.t. [Low L. oeterno.]

    1. To make endless.NWAD ETERNIZE.2

    2. To continue the existence or duration of indefinitely; to perpetuate; as, to eternize woe.NWAD ETERNIZE.3

    So we say, to eternize fame or glory.NWAD ETERNIZE.4

    3. To make forever famous; to immortalize; as, to eternize a name; to eternize exploits.NWAD ETERNIZE.5

    ETERNIZED, pp. Made endless; immortalized.

    ETERNIZING, ppr. Giving endless duration to; immortalizing.

    ETESIAN, a. ete’zhan. [L. etesius; Gr. a year.]

    Stated; blowing at stated times of the year; periodical. Etesian winds are yearly or anniversary winds, answering to the monsoons of the East Indies. The wind is applied, in Greek and Roman writers, to the periodical winds in the Mediterranean, from whatever quarter they blow.NWAD ETESIAN.2

    ETHE, a. Easy.

    ETHEL, a. Noble.

    ETHER, n. [L. oether; Gr. to burn, to shine; Eng. weather.]

    1. A thin, subtil matter, much finer and rarer than air, which, some philosophers suppose, begins from the limits of the atmosphere and occupies the heavenly space.NWAD ETHER.2

    There fields of light and liquid ether flow.NWAD ETHER.3

    2. In chimistry, a very light, volatile and inflammable fluid, produced by the distillation of alcohol or rectified spirit of wine, with an acid. It is lighter than alcohol, of a strong sweet smell, susceptible of great expansion, and of a pungent taste. It is so volatile, that when shaken it is dissipated in an instant.NWAD ETHER.4

    ETHEREAL, a. Formed of ether; containing or filled with ether; as ethereal space; ethereal regions.

    1. Heavenly; celestial; as ethereal messenger.NWAD ETHEREAL.2

    2. Consisting of ether or spirit.NWAD ETHEREAL.3

    Vast chain of being, which from God began,NWAD ETHEREAL.4

    Natures ethereal, human, angel, man.NWAD ETHEREAL.5

    ETHEREOUS, a. Formed of ether; heavenly.

    ETHERIALIZE, v.t. To convert into ether, or into a very subtil fluid.

    ETHERIALIZED, pp. Converted into ether or a very subtil fluid; as an etherialized and incorporeal substrate.

    ETHERIZE, v.t. To convert into ether.

    ETHERIZED, pp. Converted into ether.

    ETHERIZING, ppr. Converting into ether.

    ETHIC, ETHICAL, a. [L. ethicus; Gr. manners.]

    Relating to manners or morals; treating of morality; delivering precepts of morality; as ethic discourses or epistles.NWAD ETHIC.2

    ETHICALLY, adv. According to the doctrines of morality.

    ETHICS, n. The doctrines of morality or social manners; the science of moral philosophy, which teaches men their duty and the reasons of it.

    1. A system of moral principles; a system of rules for regulating the actions and manners of men in society.NWAD ETHICS.2

    Ethiops martial, black oxyd of iron; iron in the form of a very fine powder, and in the first state of calcination.NWAD ETHICS.3

    Ethiops mineral, a combination of mercury and sulphur, of a black color; black sulphuret of mercury.NWAD ETHICS.4

    ETHMOID, ETHMOIDAL, a. [Gr. a sieve, and form.] Resembling a sieve.

    ETHMOID, n. A bone at the top of the root of the nose.

    ETHNIC, ETHNICAL, a. [L. ethnicus; Gr. from nation from the root of G. heide, heath, woods, whence heathen. See Heathen.]

    Heathen; pagan; pertaining to the gentiles or nations not converted to christianity; opposed to Jewish and Christian.NWAD ETHNIC.2

    ETHNIC, n. A heathen; a pagan.

    ETHNICISM, n. Heathenism; paganism; idolatry.

    ETHNOLOGY, n. [Gr. nation, and discourse.] A treatise on nations.

    ETHOLOGICAL, a. [See Ethology.] Treating of ethics or morality.

    ETHOLOGIST, n. One who writes on the subject of manners and morality.

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