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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    RENEWING, ppr.

    1. Making new again; repairing; re-establishing; repeating; reviving; renovating.NWAD RENEWING.2

    2. a. Tending or adapted to renovate.NWAD RENEWING.3

    RENEWING, n. The act of making new; renewal.

    RENIFORM, a. [L. renes, the kidneys, and form.]

    Having the form or shape of the kidneys.NWAD RENIFORM.2

    RENITENCE, RENITENCY, n. [L. renitens, renitor, to resist; re and nitor, to struggle or strive.]

    1. The resistance of a body to pressure; the effort of matter to resume the place or form from which it has been driven by the impulse of other matter; the effect of elasticity.NWAD RENITENCE.2

    2. Moral resistance; reluctance.NWAD RENITENCE.3

    We find a renitency in ourselves to ascribe life and irritability to the cold and motionless fibers of plants.NWAD RENITENCE.4

    RENITENT, a. Resisting pressure or the effect of it; acting against impulse by elastic force.

    RENNET, n.

    The concreted milk found in the stomach of a sucking quadruped, particularly of the calf. It is also written runnet, and this is the preferable orthography.NWAD RENNET.2

    RENNET, RENNETING, n. A kind of apple.

    RENOUNCE, v.t. renouns’. [L. renuncio; re and nuncio, to declare, from the root of nomen, name.]

    1. To disown; to disclaim; to reject; as a title or claim; to refuse to own or acknowledge as belonging to; as, to renounce a title to land or a claim to reward; to renounce all pretensions to applause.NWAD RENOUNCE.2

    2. To deny; to cast off; to reject; to disclaim; as an obligation or duty; as, to renounce allegiance.NWAD RENOUNCE.3

    3. To cast off or reject, as a connection or possession; to forsake; as, to renounce the world and all its cares.NWAD RENOUNCE.4

    We have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty. 2 Corinthians 4:2.NWAD RENOUNCE.5

    RENOUNCE, v.i. renouns’. To declare a renunciation.

    He of my sons who falls to make it good, by one rebellious act renounces to my blood. [Not in use.]NWAD RENOUNCE.7

    RENOUNCE, n. renouns’. The declining to follow suit, when it can be done.

    RENOUNCED, pp. Disowned; denied; rejected; disclaimed.

    RENOUNCEMENT, n. renouns’ment. The act of disclaiming or rejecting; renunciation.

    RENOUNCER, n. One who disowns or disclaims.

    RENOUNCING, ppr. Disowning; disclaiming; rejecting.

    RENOUNCING, n. The act of disowning, disclaiming, denying or rejecting.

    RENOVATE, v.t. [L. renovo; re and novo, to make new; novus, new.]

    To renew; to restore to the first state, or to a good state, after decay, destruction or depravation. It is synonymous with renew, except in its fourth definition, supra.NWAD RENOVATE.2

    RENOVATED, pp. Renewed; made new, fresh or vigorous.

    RENOVATING, ppr. Renewing.

    RENOVATION, n. [L. renovatio.]

    1. The act of renewing; a making new after decay, destruction or depravation; renewal; as the renovation of the heart by grace.NWAD RENOVATION.2

    There is something inexpressibly pleasing in the annual renovation of the world.NWAD RENOVATION.3

    2. A state of being renewed.NWAD RENOVATION.4

    RENOWN, n.

    Fame; celebrity; exalted reputation derived from the extensive praise of great achievements or accomplishments.NWAD RENOWN.2

    Giants of old, men of renown. Genesis 6:4; Numbers 16:2.NWAD RENOWN.3

    RENOWN, v.t. To make famous.

    Soft elocution does thy style renown.NWAD RENOWN.5

    A bard whom pilfer’d pastorals renown.NWAD RENOWN.6

    [This verb is nearly or quite obsolete.]NWAD RENOWN.7

    RENOWNED, a. Famous; celebrated for great and heroic achievements, for distinguished qualities or for grandeur; eminent; as renowned men; a renowned king; a renowned city.

    RENOWNEDLY, adv. With fame or celebrity.

    RENOWNLESS, a. Without renown; inglorious.

    RENT, pp. of rend. Torn asunder; split or burst by violence; torn.

    RENT, n. [from rend.]

    1. A fissure; a break or breach made by force; as a rent made in the earth, in a rock or in a garment.NWAD RENT.3

    2. A schism; a separation; as a rent in the church.NWAD RENT.4

    RENT, v.t. To tear. [See Rend.]

    RENT, v.i. To rant. [Not in use.]

    RENT, n.

    A sum of money, or a certain amount of other valuable thing, issuing yearly from lands or tenements; a compensation or return, in the nature of an acknowledgment, for the possession of a corporeal inheritance.NWAD RENT.8

    Rents, at common law, are of three kinds; rent-service, rent-charge, and rent-seek. Rent-service is when some corporal service is incident to it, as by fealty and a sum of money; rent-charge is when the owner of the rent has no future interest or reversion expectant in the land, but the rent is reserved in the deed by a clause of distress for rent in arrear; rent-seek, dry rent, is rent reserved by deed, but without any clause of distress. There are also rents of assize, certain established rents of free-holders and copy-holders of manors, which cannot be varied; called also quit-rents. These when payable in silver, are called white rents, in contradistinction to rents reserved in work or the baser metals, called black rents, or black mail. Rack-rent is a rent of the full value of the tenement, or near it. A fee farm rent is a rent-charge issuing out of an estate in fee, of at least one fourth of the value of the lands at the time of its reservation.NWAD RENT.9

    RENT, v.t.

    1. To lease; to grant the possession and enjoyment of lands or tenements for a consideration in the nature of rent. The owner of an estate or house rents it to a tenant for a term of years.NWAD RENT.11

    2. To take and hold by lease the possession of land or a tenement, for a consideration in the nature of rent. The tenant rents his estate for a year.NWAD RENT.12

    RENT, v.i. To be leased, or let for rent; as, an estate or a tenement rents for five hundred dollars a year.

    RENTABLE, a. That may be rented.

    RENTAGE, n. Rent. [Not used.]

    RENTAL, n. A schedule or account of rents.

    RENTED, pp. Leased on rent.

    RENTER, n. One who leases an estate; more generally, the lessee or tenant who takes an estate or tenement on rent.

    RENTER, v.t. [L. retracho, retrahere; re and traho, to draw.]

    1. To fine-draw; to sew together the edges of two pieces of cloth without doubling them, so that the seam is scarcely visible.NWAD RENTER.3

    2. In tapestry, to work new warp into a piece of damaged tapestry, and on this to restore the original pattern or design.NWAD RENTER.4

    3. To sew up artfully, as a rent.NWAD RENTER.5

    RENTERED, pp. Fine-drawn; sewed artfully together.

    RENTERER, n. a Fine-drawer.

    RENTERING, ppr. Fine-drawing; sewing artfully together.

    RENTING, ppr. Leasing on rent; taking on rent.

    RENTROLL, n. [rent and roll.] A rental; a list or account of rents or income.

    RENUNCIATION, n. [L. renunciatio.] The act of renouncing; a disowning; rejection. [See Renounce.]

    RENVERSE, v.t. renvers’. To reverse. [Not used.]

    RENVERSE, a. renvers’. In heraldry, inverted; set with the head downward or contrary to the natural posture.

    RENVERSEMENT, n. renvers’ment. The act of reversing. [Not in use.]

    REOBTAIN, v.t. [re and obtain.] To obtain again.

    REOBTAINABLE, a. That may be obtained again.

    REOBTAINED, pp. Obtained again.

    REOBTAINING, ppr. Obtaining again.

    REOPPOSE, v.t. s as z. To oppose again.

    REORDAIN, v.t. [re and ordain.]

    To ordain again, as when the first ordination is defective.NWAD REORDAIN.2

    REORDAINED, pp. Ordained again.

    REORDAINING, ppr. Ordaining again.

    REORDINATION, n. A second ordination.

    REORGANIZATION, n. The act of organizing anew; as repeated reorganization of the troops.

    REORGANIZE, v.t. [re and organize.] To organize anew; to reduce again to a regular body, or to a system; as, to reorganize a society or an army.

    REORGANIZED, pp. Organized anew.

    REORGANIZING, ppr. Organizing anew.

    REPACIFIED, pp. Pacified or appeased again.

    REPACIFY, v.t. [re and pacify.] To pacify again.

    REPACIFYING, ppr. Pacifying again.

    REPACK, v.t. [re and pact.] To pack a second time; as, to repack beef or pork.

    REPACKED, pp. Packed again.

    REPACKER, n. One that repacks.

    REPACKING, ppr. Packing anew.

    REPAID, pp. of repay. Paid back.

    REPAIR, v.t. [L. reparo; re and paro, to prepare. See Pare.]

    1. To restore to a sound or good state after decay, injury, dilapidation or partial destruction; as, to repair a house, a wall or a ship; to repair roads and bridges. Temperance and diet may repair a broken or enfeebled constitution. Food repairs the daily waste of the body.NWAD REPAIR.2

    2. To rebuild a part decayed or destroyed; to fill up; as, to repair a breach.NWAD REPAIR.3

    3. To make amends, as for an injury, by an equivalent; to indemnify for; as, to repair a loss or damage.NWAD REPAIR.4

    REPAIR, n. Restoration to a sound or good state after decay, waste, injury or partial destruction; supply of loss; reparation; as, materials are collected for the repair of a church or a city.

    REPAIR, v.i. To go to; to betake one’s self; to resort; as, to repair to a sanctuary for safety.

    Go, mount the winds and to the shades repair.NWAD REPAIR.7

    REPAIR, n. The act of betaking one’s self to any place; a resorting; abode.

    REPAIRABLE, a. That may be repaired; reparable.

    REPAIRED, pp. Restored to a good or sound state; rebuilt; made good.

    REPAIRER, n. One who repairs, restores or makes amends; as the repairer of decay.

    REPAIRING, ppr. Restoring to a sound state; rebuilding; making amends for loss or injury.

    REPAND, a. [L. repandus.] In botany, a repand leaf is one, the rim of which is terminated by angles having sinuses between them, inscribed in the segment of a circle; or which has a bending or waved margin, without any angles; of which is bordered with numerous minute angles and small segments of circles alternately.

    REPANDOUS, a. [supra.] Bent upwards; convexedly crooked.

    REPARABLE, a. [L. reparabilis. See Repair.]

    1. That may be repaired or restored to a sound or good state; as, a house or wall is not reparable.NWAD REPARABLE.2

    2. That may be retrieved or made good; as, the loss is reparable.NWAD REPARABLE.3

    3. That may be supplied by an equivalent; as a reparable injury.NWAD REPARABLE.4

    REPARABLY, adv. In a manner admitting of restoration to a good state, or of amends, supply or indemnification.


    1. That act of repairing; restoration to soundness or a good state; as the reparation of a bridge or of a highway.NWAD REPARATION.2

    2. Supply of what is wasted; as the reparation of decaying health or strength after disease or exhaustion.NWAD REPARATION.3

    3. Amends; indemnification for loss or damage. A loss may be too great for reparation.NWAD REPARATION.4

    4. Amends; satisfaction for injury.NWAD REPARATION.5

    I am sensible of the scandal I have given by my loose writings, and make what reparation I am able.NWAD REPARATION.6

    REPARATIVE, a. That repairs; restoring to a sound or good state; that amends defect or makes good.

    REPARATIVE, n. That which restores to a good state; that which makes amends.

    REPARTEE, n.

    A smart, ready and witty reply.NWAD REPARTEE.2

    Cupid was as bad as he; hear but the youngster’s repartee.NWAD REPARTEE.3

    REPARTEE, v.i. To make smart and witty replies.

    REPASS, v.t.

    To pass again; to pass or travel back; as, to repass a bridge or a river; to repass the sea.NWAD REPASS.2

    REPASS, v.i. To pass or go back; to move back; as troops passing and repassing before our eyes.

    REPASSED, pp. Passed or traveled back.

    REPASSING, ppr. Passing back.

    REPAST, n. [L. re and pasco, to feed.]

    1. The act of taking food; or the food taken; a meal.NWAD REPAST.2

    From dance to sweet repast they turn.NWAD REPAST.3

    A repast without luxury.NWAD REPAST.4

    2. Good; victuals.NWAD REPAST.5

    Go, and get me some repast.NWAD REPAST.6

    REPAST, v.t. To feed; to feast.

    REPASTURE, n. Food; entertainment. [not in use.]

    REPAY, v.t.

    1. To pay back; to refund; as, to repay money borrowed or advanced.NWAD REPAY.2

    2. To make return or requital; in a good or bad sense; as, to repay kindness; to repay an injury.NWAD REPAY.3

    Benefits which cannot be repaid - are not commonly found to increase affection.NWAD REPAY.4

    3. To recompense, as for a loss.NWAD REPAY.5

    4. To compensate; as false honor repaid in contempt.NWAD REPAY.6

    REPAYABLE, a. That is to be repaid or refunded; as money lent, repayable at the end of sixty days.

    REPAYING, ppr. Paying back; compensating; requiting.


    1. The act of paying back; reimbursement.NWAD REPAYMENT.2

    2. The money or other thing repaid.NWAD REPAYMENT.3

    REPEAL, v.t. [L. appello; ad and pello.]

    1. To recall. [Obsolete as it respects persons.]NWAD REPEAL.2

    2. To recall, as a deed, will, law or statute; to revoke; to abrogate by an authoritative act, or by the same power that made or enacted; as, the legislature may repeal at one session, a law enacted at a preceding one.NWAD REPEAL.3

    REPEAL, n.

    1. Recall from exile. [Not in use.]NWAD REPEAL.5

    2. Revocation; abrogation; as the repeal of a statute.NWAD REPEAL.6

    REPEALABILITY, n. The quality of being repealable.

    REPEALABLE, a. Capable of being repealed; revocable by the same power that enacted. It is held as a sound principle, that charters or grants which vest rights in individuals or corporations, are not repealable without the consent of the grantees, unless a clause reserving the right is inserted in the act.

    REPEALED, pp. Revoked; abrogated.

    REPEALER, n. One that repeals.

    REPEALING, ppr. Revoking; abrogating.

    REPEAT, v.t. [L. repeto; re and peto, to make at or drive towards. this verb ought to be written repete, in analogy with compete, and with repetition.]

    1. To do, make, attempt or utter again; to iterate; as, to repeat an action; to repeat an attempt or exertion; to repeat a word or discourse; to repeat a song; to repeat an argument.NWAD REPEAT.2

    2. To try again.NWAD REPEAT.3

    I the danger will repeat.NWAD REPEAT.4

    3. to recite; to rehearse.NWAD REPEAT.5

    He repeated some lines of Virgil.NWAD REPEAT.6

    To repeat signals, in the navy, is to make the same signal which the admiral or commander has made, or to make a signal again.NWAD REPEAT.7

    REPEAT, n.

    1. In music, a mark directing a part to be repeated in performance.NWAD REPEAT.9

    2. Repetition.NWAD REPEAT.10

    REPEATED, pp. done, attempted or spoken again; recited.

    REPEATEDLY, adv. More than once; again and again, indefinitely. He has been repeatedly warned of his danger.

    REPEATER, n.

    1. One that repeats; one that recites or rehearses.NWAD REPEATER.2

    2. A watch that strikes the hours at will, by the compression of a spring.NWAD REPEATER.3

    REPEATING, ppr. Doing or uttering again.

    REPEDATION, n. [Low L. repedo; re and pes, the foot.] A stepping or going back. [Not in use.]

    REPEL, v.t. [L. repello; re and pello, to drive.]

    1. to drive back; to force to return; to check advance; as, to repel an enemy or an assailant.NWAD REPEL.2

    Hippomedon repell’d the hostile tide.NWAD REPEL.3

    And virtue may repel, though not invade.NWAD REPEL.4

    2. To resist; to oppose; as, to repel an argument.NWAD REPEL.5

    REPEL, v.i.

    1. To act with force in opposition to force impressed. Electricity sometimes attracts and sometimes repels.NWAD REPEL.7

    2. In medicine, to check an afflux to a part of the body.NWAD REPEL.8

    REPELLED, pp. Driven back; resisted.


    1. The principle of repulsion; the quality of a substance which expands or separates particles and enlarges the volume; as the repellency of heat.NWAD REPELLENCY.2

    2. The quality that repels, drives back or resists approach; as the repellency of the electric fluid.NWAD REPELLENCY.3

    3. Repulsive quality.NWAD REPELLENCY.4

    REPELLENT, a. Driving back; able or tending to repel.

    REPELLENT, n. In medicine, a medicine which drives back morbid humors into the mass of the blood, from which they were unduly secreted; or which prevents such an afflux of fluid to a part, as would raise it to a tumor; a discutient.

    REPELLER, n. He or that which repels.

    REPELLING, ppr. Driving back; resisting advance or approach effectually.

    REPENT, a. [L. repo, to creep.] Creeping; as a repent root.

    REPENT, v.i. [L. re and paeniteo, from paena, pain. Gr. See Paint.]

    1. To feel pain, sorrow or regret for something done or spoken; as, to repent that we have lost much time in idleness or sensual pleasure; to repent that we have injured or wounded the feelings of a friend. A person repents only of what he himself has done or said.NWAD REPENT.3

    2. To express sorrow for something past.NWAD REPENT.4

    Enobarbus did before thy face repent.NWAD REPENT.5

    3. To change the mind in consequence of the inconvenience or injury done by past conduct.NWAD REPENT.6

    Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return. Exodus 13:17.NWAD REPENT.7

    4. Applied to the Supreme Being, to change the course of providential dealings. Genesis 6:6; Psalm 106:45.NWAD REPENT.8

    5. In theology, to sorrow or be pained for sin, as a violation of God’s holy law, a dishonor to his character and government, and the foulest ingratitude to a Being of infinite benevolence.NWAD REPENT.9

    Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish. Luke 13:3; Acts 3:19.NWAD REPENT.10

    REPENT, v.t.

    1. To remember with sorrow; as, to repent rash words; to repent an injury done to a neighbor; to repent follies and vices. [See Repentance.]NWAD REPENT.12

    2. With the reciprocal pronoun.NWAD REPENT.13

    No man repented him of his wickedness. Jeremiah 8:6.NWAD REPENT.14

    [This form of expression is now obsolete.]NWAD REPENT.15


    1. Sorrow for any thing done or said; the pain or grief which a person experiences in consequence of the injury or inconvenience produced by his own conduct.NWAD REPENTANCE.2

    2. In theology, the pain, regret or affliction which a person feels on account of his past conduct, because it exposes him to punishment. This sorrow proceeding merely from the fear of punishment, is called legal repentance, as being excited by the terrors of legal penalties, and it may exist without an amendment of life.NWAD REPENTANCE.3

    3. Real penitence; sorrow or deep contrition for sin, as an offense and dishonor to God, a violation of his holy law, and the basest ingratitude towards a Being of infinite benevolence. This is called evangelical repentance, and is accompanied and followed by amendment of life.NWAD REPENTANCE.4

    Repentance is a change of mind, or a conversion from sin to God.NWAD REPENTANCE.5

    Godly sorrow worketh repentance to salvation. 2 Corinthians 7:10; Matthew 3:8.NWAD REPENTANCE.6

    Repentance is the relinquishment of any practice, from conviction that it has offended God.NWAD REPENTANCE.7


    1. Sorrowful for past conduct or words.NWAD REPENTANT.2

    2. Sorrowful for sin.NWAD REPENTANT.3

    3. Expressing or showing sorrow for sin; as repentant tears; repentant ashes; repentant sighs.NWAD REPENTANT.4


    1. One who repents; a penitent.NWAD REPENTANT.6

    2. One that expresses sorrow for sin.NWAD REPENTANT.7

    REPENTER, n. One that repents.

    REPENTING, ppr. Grieving for what is past; feeling pain or contrition for sin.

    REPENTING, n. Act of repenting. Hosea 11:8.

    REPENTINGLY, adv. With repentance.

    REPEOPLE, v.t. [re and people.]

    To people anew; to furnish again with a stock of people. The world after the flood was repeopled by the descendants of one family.NWAD REPEOPLE.2

    REPEOPLED, pp. Stocked anew with inhabitants.

    REPEOPLING, ppr. Furnishing again with a stock of inhabitants.

    REPEOPLING, n. [supra.] The act of furnishing again with inhabitants.

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