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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    WIND-FALLEN, a. Blown down by the wind.

    WIND-FLOWER, n. [wind and flower.] A plant, the anemone.

    WIND-FURNACE, n. [wind and furnace.] A furnace in which the air is supplied by an artificial current, as from a bellows.

    WIND-GAGE, n. [wind and gage.] A soft tumor on the fetlock joints of a horse.

    WIND-GUN, n. An air gun; a gun discharged by the force of compressed air.

    WIND-HATCH, n. [wind and hatch.] In mining, the opening or place where the ore is taken out of the earth.

    WIND-HOVER, n. [wind and hover.] A species of hawk; called also the stannel, but more usually the kestrel.

    WINDINESS, n. [from windey.]

    1. The state of being windy or tempestuous; as the windiness of the weather or season.NWAD WINDINESS.2

    2. Fullness of wind; flatulence.NWAD WINDINESS.3

    3. Tendency to generate wind; as the windiness of vegetables.NWAD WINDINESS.4

    4. Tumor; puffiness.NWAD WINDINESS.5

    The swelling windiness of much knowledge.NWAD WINDINESS.6

    WIND-INSTRUMENT, n. An instrument of music, played by wind, chiefly by the breath; as a flute, a clarinet, etc.

    WINDLAS, WINDLASS, n. [wind and lace.]

    1. A machine for raising great weights, consisting of a cylinder or roller of timber, moving on its axis and turned by levers, with a rope or chain attached to the weight.NWAD WINDLAS.2

    2. A handle by which any thing is turned. [Not in use.]NWAD WINDLAS.3

    WINDLE, n. A spindle; a kind of reel.

    WIND-MILL, n. [wind and mill.] A mill turned by the wind.

    WINDPIPE, n. [wind and pipe.] The passage for the breath to and from the lungs; the trachea.

    WIND-PUMP, n. [wind and pump.] A pump moved by wind, useful in draining lands.

    WIND-RODE, n. A term used by seamen to signify a ship when riding with wind and tide opposed to each other, driven to the leeward of her anchor.

    WINDROW, n. [wind and row.]

    1. A row or line of hay, raked together for the purpose of being rolled into cocks or heaps. [This is the only use of the word in New England.]NWAD WINDROW.2

    2. The green border of a field, dug up in order to carry the earth on other land to mend it.NWAD WINDROW.3

    3. A row of peats set up for drying; or a row of pieces of turf, sod or sward, cut in paring and burning.NWAD WINDROW.4

    WIND-SAIL, n. [wind and sail.] A wide tube or funnel of canvas, used to convey a stream of air into the lower apartments of a ship.

    WINDSEED, n. A plant of the genus Arctolis.

    WIND-SHOCK, n. [wind and shock.] A sort of bruise or shiver in a tree.

    WIND-TIGHT, a. [wind and tight.] So tight as to prevent the passing of wind.

    WINDWARD, n. [wind and ward.] The point from which the wind blows; as, to ply to the windward.

    WINDWARD, a. [wind and ward.] Being on the side towards the point from which the wind blows; as the windward shrouds.

    WINDWARD, adv. Towards the wind.

    WINDY, a.

    1. Consisting of wind; as a windy tempest.NWAD WINDY.2

    2. Next the wind; as the windy side.NWAD WINDY.3

    3. Tempestuous; boisterous; as windy weather.NWAD WINDY.4

    4. Puffy; flatulent; abounding with wind.NWAD WINDY.5

    5. Empty; airy; as windy joy.NWAD WINDY.6

    WIND, v.t. pret. and pp. wound. [G.]

    1. To blow; to sound by blowing or inflation.NWAD WIND.2

    Wind the shrill horn.NWAD WIND.3

    2. To turn; to move, or cause to turn.NWAD WIND.4

    To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus.NWAD WIND.5

    3. To turn round some fixed object; to bind, or to form into a ball or coil by turning; as, to wind thread on a spool; to wind thread into a ball; to wind a rope into a coil.NWAD WIND.6

    4. To introduce by insinuation. The child winds himself into my affections.NWAD WIND.7

    They have little arts and dexterities to wind in such things into discourse.NWAD WIND.8

    5. To change; to vary.NWAD WIND.9

    Were our legislature vested in the prince, he might wind and turn our constitution at his pleasure.NWAD WIND.10

    6. To entwist; to enfold; to encircle.NWAD WIND.11

    7. [With I short, as in win.] To nose; to perceive or to follow by the scent; as, hounds wind an animal.NWAD WIND.12

    8. To ventilate; to expose to the wind; to winnow.NWAD WIND.13

    To wind off, [with I long.] To unwind.NWAD WIND.14

    To wind out, to extricate.NWAD WIND.15

    To wind up,NWAD WIND.16

    1. To bring to a small compass, as a ball of thread.NWAD WIND.17

    2. To bring to a conclusion or settlement; as, to wind up ones affairs.NWAD WIND.18

    3. To put in a state of renovated or continued motion.NWAD WIND.19

    Fate seemd to wind him up for fourscore years.NWAD WIND.20

    To wind up a clock, is to wind the cord by which the weights are suspended, round an axis or pin.NWAD WIND.21

    To wind up a watch, is to wind the spring round its axis or pin.NWAD WIND.22

    4. To raise by degrees.NWAD WIND.23

    Thus they wound up his temper to a pitch--NWAD WIND.24

    5. To straiten, as a string; to put in tune.NWAD WIND.25

    6. To put in order for regular action.NWAD WIND.26

    WIND, v.i.

    1. To turn; to change.NWAD WIND.28

    So swift your judgments turn and wind.NWAD WIND.29

    2. To turn around something; as, vines wind around a pole.NWAD WIND.30

    3. To have a circular direction; as winding stairs.NWAD WIND.31

    4. To crook; to bend. The road winds in various places.NWAD WIND.32

    5. To move round; as, a hare pursued turns and winds.NWAD WIND.33

    To wind out, to be extricated; to escape.NWAD WIND.34

    Long labring underneath, ere they could wind out of such prison.NWAD WIND.35

    WINDER, n. One who winds.

    WINDING, ppr.

    1. Turning; binding about; bending.NWAD WINDING.2

    2. a. Bending; twisting from a direct line or an even surface.NWAD WINDING.3

    WINDING, n.

    1. A turn or turning; a bend; flexure; meander; as the windings of a road or stream.NWAD WINDING.5

    2. A call by the boastswains whistle.NWAD WINDING.6

    WINDING-ENGINE, n. An engine employed in mining, to draw up buckets from a deep pit.

    WINDING-SHEET, n. [winding and sheet.] A sheet in which a corpse is wrapped.

    WINDING-TACKLE, n. [winding and tackle.] A tackle consisting of one fixed triple block, and one double or triple movable block.

    WINDOW, n. [G. The vulgar pronunciation is windor, as if from the Welsh gwyntdor, wind-door.]

    1. An opening in the wall of a building for the admission of light, and of air when necessary. This opening has a frame on the sides, in which are set movable sashes, containing panes of glass. In the United Sates, the sashes are made to rise and fall, for the admission or exclusion of air. In France, windows are shut with frames or sashes that open and shut vertically, like the leaves of a folding door.NWAD WINDOW.2

    2. An aperture or opening.NWAD WINDOW.3

    A window shalt thou make to the ark. Genesis 6:16.NWAD WINDOW.4

    3. The frame or other thing that covers the aperture.NWAD WINDOW.5

    Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes.NWAD WINDOW.6

    4. An aperture; or rather the clouds or water-spouts.NWAD WINDOW.7

    The windows of heaven were opened. Genesis 7:11.NWAD WINDOW.8

    5. Lattice or casement; or the network of wire used before the invention of glass. Judges 5:28.NWAD WINDOW.9

    6. Lines crossing each other.NWAD WINDOW.10

    Till he has windows on his bread and butter.NWAD WINDOW.11

    WINDOW, v.t.

    1. To furnish with windows.NWAD WINDOW.13

    2. To place at a window. [Unusual.]NWAD WINDOW.14

    3. To break into openings. [Unusual.]NWAD WINDOW.15

    WINDOW-BLIND, n. [window and blind.] A blind to intercept the light of a window. Venetian window-blinds are now much used in the United States.

    WINDOW-FRAME, n. [window and frame.] The frame of a window which receives and holds the sashes.

    WINDOW-GLASS, n. [window and glass.] Panes of glass for windows.

    WINDOW-SASH, n. [window and sash.] The sash or light frame in which panes of glass are set for windows.

    WINDOWY, a. Having little crossings like the sashes of a window.

    WINE, n. [Gr.]

    1. The fermented juice of grapes; as the wine of the Madeira grape; the wine of Burgundy or Oporto.NWAD WINE.2

    2. The juice of certain fruits, prepared with sugar, spirits, etc.; as currant wine; gooseberry wine.NWAD WINE.3

    3. Intoxication.NWAD WINE.4

    Noah awoke from his wine. Genesis 9:24.NWAD WINE.5

    4. Drinking.NWAD WINE.6

    They that tarry long at the wine. Proverbs 23:30.NWAD WINE.7

    Corn and wine, in Scripture, are put for all kinds of necessaries for subsistence. Psalm.NWAD WINE.8

    Bread and wine, in the Lords supper, are symbols of the body and blood of Christ.NWAD WINE.9

    WINE-BIBBER, n. One who drinks much wine; a great drinker. Proverbs 23:20.

    WINE-CASK, n. [wine and cask.] A cask in which wine is or has been kept.

    WINE-FLY, n. A small fly found in empty wine casks.

    WINE-GLASS, n. [wine and glass.] A small glass in which wine is drank.

    WINELESS, a. Destitute of wine; as wineless life.

    WINE-MEASURE, n. [See Measure.] The measure by which wines and other spirits are sold, smaller than beer measure.

    WINE-MERCHANT, n. A merchant who deals in wines.

    WINE-PRESS, n. [wine and press.] A place where grapes are pressed.

    WING, n.

    1. The limb of a fowl by which it flies. In a few species of fowls, the wings do not enable them to fly; as is the case with the dodo, ostrich, great auk, and penguin; but in the two former, the wings assist the fowls in running.NWAD WING.2

    2. The limb of an insect by which it flies.NWAD WING.3

    3. In botany, the side petal of a papilionaceous corol; also, an appendage of seeds, by means of which they are wafted in the air and scattered; also, any membranous or leafy dilatation of a footstalk, or of the angles of a stem, branch or flower stalk, or of a calyx.NWAD WING.4

    4. Flight; passage by the wind; as, to be on the wind; to take wing.NWAD WING.5

    5. Means of flying; acceleration. Fear adds wings to flight.NWAD WING.6

    6. Motive or incitement of flight.NWAD WING.7

    Then fiery expedition be my wing.NWAD WING.8

    7. The flank or extreme body or part of an army.NWAD WING.9

    8. Any side-piece.NWAD WING.10

    9. In gardening, a side-shoot.NWAD WING.11

    10. In architecture, a side-building, less than the main edifice.NWAD WING.12

    11. In fortification, the longer sides of hornworks, crown-works, etc.NWAD WING.13

    12. In a fleet, the ships on the extremities, when ranged in a line, or when forming the two sides of a triangle.NWAD WING.14

    13. In a ship, the wings are those parts of the hold and orlop deck, which are nearest the sides.NWAD WING.15

    14. In Scripture, protection; generally in the plural. Psalm 63:7; Exodus 19:4.NWAD WING.16

    On the wings of the wind, with the utmost velocity. Psalm 18:10.NWAD WING.17

    WING, v.t.

    1. To furnish with wings; to enable to fly or to move with celerity.NWAD WING.19

    Who heaves old ocean, and who wings the storms.NWAD WING.20

    2. To supply with side bodies; as on either side well winged.NWAD WING.21

    3. To transport by flight.NWAD WING.22

    I, an old turtle, will wing me to some witherd bough.NWAD WING.23

    Edge the keen sword, and wing th unerring ball.NWAD WING.24

    To wing a flight, to exert the power of flying.NWAD WING.25

    WINGED, pp.

    1. Furnished with wings; transported by flying.NWAD WINGED.2

    2. a. Having wings; as a winged fowl. Genesis 1:21.NWAD WINGED.3

    3. Swift; rapid; as with winged haste.NWAD WINGED.4

    4. Wounded; hurt.NWAD WINGED.5

    5. In botany, furnished with longitudinal membranous appendages, as a winged stalk or stem; or with downy or hairy appendages, as winged seeds.NWAD WINGED.6

    Winged petiole, having a thing membrane or border on each side, or dilated on the sides.NWAD WINGED.7

    Winged leaf, a pennate leaf; a species of compound leaf, wherein a simple leaf has several leaflets fastened to each side of it.NWAD WINGED.8

    6. In heraldry, represented with wings, or having wings of a different color from the body.NWAD WINGED.9

    7. Fanned with wings; swarming with birds.NWAD WINGED.10

    WINDGED-PEA, n. A plant.

    WING-FOOTED, a. [wing and foot.] Swift; moving with rapidity; fleet.

    WINGLESS, a. Having no wings; not able to ascend or fly.

    WING-SHELL, n. [wing and shell.] The shell that covers the wing of insects.

    WINGY, a. Having wings; rapid; as wingy speed.

    WINK, v.i. [G. Wink and wince are radically one word.]

    1. To shut the eyes; to close the eyelids.NWAD WINK.2

    They are not blind, but they wink.NWAD WINK.3

    2. To close and open the eyelids.NWAD WINK.4

    3. To give a hint by a motion of the eyelids.NWAD WINK.5

    Wink at the footman to leave him without a plate.NWAD WINK.6

    4. To close the eyelids and exclude the light.NWAD WINK.7

    Or wink as cowards and afraid.NWAD WINK.8

    5. To be dim; as a winking light.NWAD WINK.9

    To wink at, to connive at; to seem not to see; to tolerate; to overlook, as something not perfectly agreeable; as, to wink at faults.NWAD WINK.10

    WINK, n.

    1. The act of closing the eyelids. I lay awake, and could not sleep a wink.NWAD WINK.12

    I could eclipse and cloud them with a wink.NWAD WINK.13

    2. A hint given by shutting the eye with a significant cast.NWAD WINK.14

    WINKER, n. One who winks.

    WINKING, ppr. Shutting the eyes; shutting and opening the eyelids; hinting by closing the eye; conniving at; overlooking.

    WINKINGLY, adv. With the eye almost closed.

    WINNER, n. [from win.] One who gains by success in competition or contest.

    WINNING, ppr. [from win.]

    1. Gaining success in competition or contest.NWAD WINNING.2

    2. a. Attracting; adapted to gain favor; charming; as a winning address.NWAD WINNING.3

    WINNING, n. The sum won or gained by success in competition or contest.

    WINNOW, v.t. [L., a fan.]

    1. To separate and drive off the chaff from grain by means of wind. Grain is winnowed by a fan, or by a machine, or by pouring it out of a vessel in a current of air.NWAD WINNOW.2

    2. To fan; to beat as with wings.NWAD WINNOW.3

    3. To examine; to sift for the purpose of separating falsehood from truth.NWAD WINNOW.4

    Winnow well this thought.NWAD WINNOW.5

    4. To separate, as the bad from the good.NWAD WINNOW.6

    WINNOW, v.i. To separate chaff from corn.

    Winnow not with every wind.NWAD WINNOW.8

    WINNOWED, pp. Separated from the chaff by wind; sifted; examined.

    WINNOWER, n. One who winnows.

    WINNOWING, ppr. Separating from the chaff by wind; examining.

    WINTER, n.

    1. The cold season of the year. Astronomically considered, winter commences in northern latitudes when the sun enters Capricorn, or at the solstice about the 21st of December, and ends at the equinox in March; but in ordinary discourse, the three winter months are December, January, and February. Our Saxon ancestors reckoned the years by winters; as ten winters; thirty winters. In tropical climates, there are two winters annually; but they cannot be said to be cold. In the temperate and frigid climates, there is one winter only in the year.NWAD WINTER.2

    2. The part of the printing press which sustains the carriage.NWAD WINTER.3

    WINTER, v.i. To pass the winter. He wintered in Italy. Cattle winter well on good fodder.

    WINTER, v.t. To feed or manage during the winter. To winter young cattle on straw, is not profitable. Delicate plants must be wintered under cover.

    WINTER-APPLE, n. [winter and apple.] An apple that keeps well in winter.

    WINTER-BARLEY, n. [winter and barley.] A kind of barley which is sowed in autumn.

    WINTER-BEATEN, a. [winter and beat.] Harassed by the severe weather of winter.

    WINTER-BERRY, n. [winter and berry.] A plant of the genus Prinos.

    WINTER-BLOOM, n. [winter and bloom.] A plant of the genus Azalea.

    WINTER-CHERRY, n. [winter and cherry.] A plant of the genus Physalis, and its fruit, which is of the size of a cherry.

    WINTER-CITRON, n. [winter and citron.] A sort of pear.

    WINTER-CRESS, n. [winter and cress.] A plant of the genus Erysimum.

    WINTER-CROP, n. [winter and crop.] A crop which will bear the winter, or which may be converted into fodder during the winter.

    WINTER-FALLOW, n. [winter and fallow.] Ground that is fallowed in winter.

    WINTER-GARDEN, n. [winter and garden.] An ornamental garden for winter.

    WINTER-GREEN, n. [winter and green.] A plant of the genus Pyrola, useful as a vulnerary.

    WINTER-KILL, v.t. [winter and kill.] To kill by means of the weather in winter; as, to winter-kill wheat or clover.

    WINTER-KILL, v.i. To be killed by the winter. Wheat is liable to winter-kill in moist land.

    WINTER-KILLED, pp. Killed by the winter, as grain.

    WINTER-KILLING, ppr. Killing by the weather in winter.

    WINTER-LODGE, WINTER-LODGMENT, n. [winter and lodge.] In botany, the hybernacle of a plant, which protects the embryo or future shoot from injuries during the winter. It is either a bud or a bulb.

    WINTER-PEAR, n. [winter and pear.] Any pear that keeps well in winter.

    WINTER-QUARTERS, n. [winter and quarters.] The quarters of an army during the winter; a winter residence or station.

    WINTER-RIG, v.t. [winter and rig.] To fallow or till in winter. [Local.]

    WINTER-SOLSTICE, n. [winter and solstice.] The solstice of the winter, which takes place when the sun enters Capricorn, December 21st.

    WINTERED, pp. Kept through the winter.

    WINTERING, ppr. Passing the winter; keeping in winter.

    WINTERLY, a. Such as is suitable to winter. [Little used.]

    WINTERY, a. Suitable to winter; brumal; hyemal; cold; stormy.

    WINY, a. [from wine.] Having the taste or qualities of wine.

    WIPE, v.t.

    1. To rub something soft for cleaning; to clean by rubbing; as, to wipe the hands or face with a towel. Luke 7:38.NWAD WIPE.2

    2. To strike off gently.NWAD WIPE.3

    Some natral tears they droppd, but wipd them soon.NWAD WIPE.4

    3. To cleanse from evil practices or abuses; to overturn and destroy what is foul and hateful.NWAD WIPE.5

    I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish. 2 Kings 21:3.NWAD WIPE.6

    4. To cheat; to defraud.NWAD WIPE.7

    To wipe away, to cleanse by rubbing or tersion; as, to wipe away a stain or reproach.NWAD WIPE.8

    To wipe off, to clear away. Wipe off this foul stain; wipe off the dust.NWAD WIPE.9

    To wipe out, to efface; to obliterate. Wipe out the blot.NWAD WIPE.10

    WIPE, n.

    1. The act of rubbing for the purpose of cleaning.NWAD WIPE.12

    2. A blow; a stroke.NWAD WIPE.13

    3. A gibe; a jeer; a severe sarcasm.NWAD WIPE.14

    4. A bird.NWAD WIPE.15

    WIPED, pp. Rubbed for cleaning; cleaned by rubbing; cleared away; effaced.

    WIPER, n.

    1. One who wipes.NWAD WIPER.2

    2. The instrument used for wiping.NWAD WIPER.3

    WIPING, ppr. Rubbing with a cloth or other soft thing for cleaning; clearing away; effacing.

    WIRE, n. A thread of metal; any metallic substance drawn to an even thread.

    WIRE, v.t. To bind with wire; to apply wire to, as in bottling liquors.

    WIREDRAW, v.t. [wire and draw.]

    1. To draw a metal into wire, which is done by drawing it through a hole in a plate of steel.NWAD WIREDRAW.2

    2. To draw into length.NWAD WIREDRAW.3

    3. To draw by art or violence.NWAD WIREDRAW.4

    My sense has been wiredrawn into blasphemy.NWAD WIREDRAW.5

    4. To draw or spin out to great length and tenuity; as, to wiredraw an argument.NWAD WIREDRAW.6

    WIREDRAWER, n. One who draw metal into wire.


    1. Drawing a metal into wire.NWAD WIREDRAWING.2

    2. Drawing to a great length or fineness.NWAD WIREDRAWING.3

    WIREDRAWN, pp. Drawn into wire; drawn out to great length or fineness.

    WIRE-GRATE, n. [wire and grate.] A grate or contrivance of fine wire work to keep insects out of vineries, hot houses, etc.

    WIRE-HEEL, n. [wire and heel.] A defect and disease in the feet of a horse or other beast.

    WIRE-WORM, n. [wire and worm.] A mischievous worm that sometimes injures grain.

    WIRY, a. Made of wire; like wire.

    WIS, v.t. pret. wist. To think; to suppose; to imagine.

    WISDOM, n. s as z. [G. See Wise.]

    1. The right use or exercise of knowledge; the choice of laudable ends, and of the best means to accomplish them. This is wisdom in act, effect, or practice. If wisdom is to be considered as a faculty of the mind, it is the faculty of discerning or judging what is most just, proper and useful, and if it is to be considered as an acquirement, it is the knowledge and use of what is best, most just, most proper, most conducive to prosperity or happiness. Wisdom in the first sense, or practical wisdom, is nearly synonymous with discretion. I differs somewhat from prudence, in this respect; prudence is the exercise of sound judgment in avoiding evils; wisdom is the exercise of sound judgment either in avoiding evils or attempting good. Prudence then is a species, of which wisdom is the genus.NWAD WISDOM.2

    Wisdom gained by experience, is of inestimable value.NWAD WISDOM.3

    It is hoped that our rulers will act with dignity and wisdom; that they will yield every thing to reason, and refuse every thing to force.NWAD WISDOM.4

    2. In Scripture, human learning; erudition; knowledge of arts and sciences.NWAD WISDOM.5

    Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians. Acts 7:22.NWAD WISDOM.6

    3. Quickness of intellect; readiness of apprehension; dexterity in execution; as the wisdom of Bezaleel and Aholiab. Exodus 31:2-6.NWAD WISDOM.7

    4. Natural instinct and sagacity. Job 39:17.NWAD WISDOM.8

    5. In Scripture theology, wisdom is true religion; godliness; piety; the knowledge and fear of God, and sincere and uniform obedience to his commands. This is the wisdom which is from above. Psalm 90:12; Job 28:28.NWAD WISDOM.9

    6. Profitable words or doctrine. Psalm 37:30.NWAD WISDOM.10

    The wisdom of this world, mere human erudition; or the carnal policy of men, their craft and artifices in promoting their temporal interests; called also fleshly wisdom. 1 Corinthians 2:1; 2 Corinthians 1:12.NWAD WISDOM.11

    The wisdom of words, artificial or affected eloquence; or learning displayed in teaching. 1 Corinthians 1 and 1 Corinthians 2.NWAD WISDOM.12

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