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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    TUNICLE, n. [from tunic.] A natural covering; an integument.

    TUNING, ppr. Uttering harmoniously or melodiously; putting in due order for making the proper sounds.

    TUNING-FORK, n. A steel instrument consisting of two prongs and a handle; used for tuning instruments.

    TUNING-HAMMER, n. An instrument for tuning instruments of music.

    TUNKER, n. The tunkers are a religious sect in Pennsylvania, of German origin, resembling English baptists.

    TUNNAGE, a. [from tun.] The amount of tuns that a ship will carry; the content or burthen of a ship. A ship pays duty according to her tunnage.

    1. The duty charged on ships according to their burthen, or the number of tuns at which they are rated.NWAD TUNNAGE.2

    2. A duty laid on liquors according to their measure.NWAD TUNNAGE.3

    3. A duty paid to mariners by merchants for unloading their ships, after a rate by the tun.NWAD TUNNAGE.4

    4. The whole amount of shipping, estimated by the tuns.NWAD TUNNAGE.5

    TUNNEL, n. A vessel with a broad mouth at one end, and a pipe or tube at the other, for conveying liquor into casks.

    1. The opening of a chimney for the passage of smoke; called generally a funnel.NWAD TUNNEL.2

    2. A large subterraneous arch through a hill for a canal and the passage of boats. Smaller drains or culverts are also called tunnels.NWAD TUNNEL.3

    TUNNEL, v.t. To form like a tunnel; as, to tunnel fibrous plants into nests.

    1. To catch in a net called a tunnel-net.NWAD TUNNEL.5

    2. To form with net-work.NWAD TUNNEL.6

    TUNNEL-KILN, n. A lime-kiln in which coal is burnt, as distinguished from a flame kiln, in which wood or peat is used.

    TUNNEL-NET, n. A net with a wide mouth at one end and narrow at the other.

    TUNNEL-PIT, n. A shaft sunk from the top of the ground to the level of an intended tunnel, for drawing up the earth and stones.

    TUNNING, ppr. Putting into casks.

    TUNNY, n. [L. thynnus.] A fish of the genus Scomber, the Spanish mackerel. The largest weigh upwards of four hundred pounds.

    TUP, n. A ram. [Local.]

    TUP, v.t. To butt, as a ram. [Local.]

    1. To cover, as a ram. [Local.]NWAD TUP.3

    TUPELO, n. A tree of the genus Nyssa.

    TUP-MAN, n. A man who deals in tups. [Local.]

    TURBAN, n. A head dress worn by the orientals, consisting of a cap, and a sash of fine linen or taffeta artfully wound round it in plaits. The cap is red or green, roundish on the top, and quilted with cotton. The sash of the Turks is white linen; that of the Persians is red woolen.

    1. In conchology, the whole set of whirls of a shell.NWAD TURBAN.2

    TURBANED, a. Wearing a turban; as a turbaned Turk.

    TURBAN-SHELL, n. In natural history, a genus of shells, or rather of sea urchins, (echinodermata,) of a hemispheric or spheroidal shape, the Cidaris of Klein.

    TURBAN-TOP, n. A plant of the genus Helvella; a kind of fungus or mushroom.

    TURBARY, n. [from turf; Latinized, turbaria.]

    1. In law, a right of digging turf on another man’s land. Common of turbary, is the liberty which a tenant enjoys of digging turf on the lord’s waste.NWAD TURBARY.2

    2. The place where turf is dug.NWAD TURBARY.3

    TURBID, a. [L. turbidus, from turbo, to disturb, that is, to stir, to turn.] Properly, having the lees disturbed; but in a more general sense, muddy; foul with extraneous matter; thick; not clear; used of liquids of any kind; as turbid water; turbid wine. Streams running on clay generally appear to be turbid. This is often the case with the river Seine.

    TURBIDLY, adv. Proudly; haughtily; a Latinism. [Not in use.]

    TURBIDNESS, n. Muddiness; foulness.

    TURBILLION, n. A whirl; a vortex.

    TURBINATE, TURBINATED, a. [L. turbinatus, formed like atop, form turbo, turben, atop.]

    1. In conchology, spiral, or wreathed conically from a larger base to a kind of apex; as turbinated shells.NWAD TURBINATE.2

    2. In botany, shaped like a top or cone inverted; narrow at the base, and broad at the apex; as a turbinated germ, nectary or pericarp.NWAD TURBINATE.3

    3. Whirling. [Little used.]NWAD TURBINATE.4

    TURBINATION, n. The act of spinning or whirling, as a top.

    TURBINITE, TURBITE, n. A petrified shell of the turbo kind.

    TURBIT, n. A variety of the domestic pigeon, remarkable for its short beak; called by the Dutch kort-bek, short beak.

    1. The turbot.NWAD TURBIT.2

    TURBITH, TURPETH, n. A root brought from the East Indies, particularly from Cambaya, Surat and Goa, or from Ceylon. It is the cortical part of the root of a species of Convolvulus. That sold in the shops is a longish root, of the thickness of the finger, resinous, heavy, and of a brownish hue without, but whitish within. It is cathartic.

    Turbith or turpeth mineral, is the yellow precipitate of mercury, called sometimes yellow subsulphate of mercury, or subdeutosulphate.NWAD TURBITH.2

    TURBOT, n. A fish of the genus Pleuronectes, [fishes which swim on the side.] It grows to the weight of twenty or thirty pounds, and is much esteemed by epicures.

    TURBULENCE, TURBULENCY, n. [See Turbulent.] A disturbed state; tumult; confusion; as the turbulence of the times; turbulence in political affairs.

    1. Disorder or tumult of the passions; as turbulence of mind.NWAD TURBULENCE.2

    2. Agitation; tumultuousness; as turbulence of blood.NWAD TURBULENCE.3

    3. Disposition to resist authority; insubordination; as the turbulence of subjects.NWAD TURBULENCE.4

    TURBULENT, a. [L. turbulentus, from turbo, to disturb.]

    1. Disturbed; agitated; tumultuous; being in violent commotion; as the turbulent ocean.NWAD TURBULENT.2

    Calm region once,NWAD TURBULENT.3

    And full of peace, now tost and turbulent.NWAD TURBULENT.4

    The turbulent mirth of wine.NWAD TURBULENT.5

    2. Restless; unquiet; refractory; disposed to insubordination and disorder; as turbulent spirits.NWAD TURBULENT.6

    3. Producing commotion.NWAD TURBULENT.7

    Whose heads that turbulent liquor fills with fumes.NWAD TURBULENT.8

    TURBULENTLY, adv. Tumultuously; with violent agitation; with refractoriness.

    TURCISM, n. The religion of the Turks.

    TURF, n.

    1. That upper stratum of earth and vegetable mold, which is filled with the roots of grass and other small plants, so as to adhere and form a kind of mat. This is otherwise called sward and sod.NWAD TURF.2

    2. Peat; a peculiar kind of blackish, fibrous, vegetable, earthy substance, used as fuel. [Dryden and Addison wrote turfs, in the plural. But when turf or peat is cut into small pieces, the practice now is to call them turves.]NWAD TURF.3

    3. Race-ground; or horse-racing.NWAD TURF.4

    The honors of the turf are all our own.NWAD TURF.5

    TURF, v.t. To cover with turf or sod; as, to turf a bank or the border of a terrace.

    TURF-COVERED, a. Covered with turf.

    TURF-DRAIN, n. A drain filled with turf or peat.

    TURFED, pp. Covered with turf or green sod.

    TURF-HEDGE, n. A hedge or fence formed with turf and plants of different kinds.

    TURF-HOUSE, n. A house or shed formed of turf, common in the northern parts of Europe.

    TURFINESS, n. [from turfy.] The state of abounding with turf, or of having the consistence or qualities of turf.

    TURFING, ppr. Covering with turf.

    TURFING, n. The operation of laying down turf, or covering with turf.

    TURFING-IRON, n. An implement for paring off turf.

    TURFING-SPADE, n. An instrument for under-cutting turf, when marked out by the plow.

    TURF-MOSS, n. A tract of turfy, mossy, or boggy land.

    TURF-SPADE, n. A spade for cutting and digging turf, longer and narrower than the common spade.

    TURFY, a. Abounding with turf.

    1. Having the qualities of turf.NWAD TURFY.2

    TURGENT, a. [L. turgens, form turgeo, to swell.] Swelling; tumid; rising into a tumor or puffy state; as when the humors are turgent.

    TURGESCENCE, TURGESCENCY, n. [L. turgescens.] The act of swelling.

    1. The state of being swelled.NWAD TURGESCENCE.2

    2. Empty pompousness; inflation; bombast.NWAD TURGESCENCE.3

    TURGID, a. [L. turgidus, from turgeo, to swell.]

    1. Swelled; bloated; distended beyond its natural state by some internal agent or expansive force.NWAD TURGID.2

    A bladder held by the fire grew turgid.NWAD TURGID.3

    More generally, the word is applied to an enlarged part of the body; as a turgid limb.NWAD TURGID.4

    2. Tumid; pompous; inflated; bombastic; as a turgid style; a turgid manner of talking.NWAD TURGID.5

    TURGIDITY, n. State of being swelled; tumidness.

    TURGIDLY, adv. With swelling or empty pomp.

    TURGIDNESS, n. A swelling or swelled state of a thing; distention beyond its natural state by some internal force or agent, as in a limb.

    1. Pompousness; inflated manner of writing or speaking; bombast; as the turgidness of language or style.NWAD TURGIDNESS.2

    TURIONIFEROUS, a. [L. turio, a shoot, and fero, to bear.]

    Producing shoots.NWAD TURIONIFEROUS.2

    TURKEY, TURKY, n. [As this fowl was not brought from Turkey, it would be more correct to write the name turky.] A large fowl, the Meleagris gallopavo, a distinct genus. It is a native of America, and its flesh furnishes most delicious food. Wild turkies abound in the forests of America, and domestic turkies are bred in other countries, as well as in America.

    TURKEY-STONE, n. Another name of the oil-stone, from Turkey.

    TURKOIS, n. A mineral, called also calaite, brought from the east; of a beautiful light green color, occurring in thin layers, or in rounded masses, or in reniform masses, with a botryoidal surface. It is susceptible of a high polish, and is used in jewelry. It is usually written in the French manner.

    TURK’S-CAP, n. A plant of the genus Lilium.

    TURK’S-HEAD, n. A plant of the genus Cactus.

    TURK’S-TURBAN, n. A plant of the genus Ranunculus.

    TURM, n. [L. turma.] A troop. [Not English.]

    TURMALIN, n. An electric stone. [See Tourmalin.]

    TURMERIC, n. Indian saffron; a medicinal root brought from the East Indies, the root of the Curcuma longa. It is externally grayish, but internally of a deep lively yellow or saffron color. It has a slight aromatic smell, and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste. It is used for dyeing, and in some cases, as a medicine. This name is sometimes given to the blood-root of America.

    TURMOIL, n. [I know not the origin of this word; but it is probably from the root of the L. turba, turbo, turma, or of turn.]

    Disturbance, tumult; harassing labor; trouble; molestation by tumult.NWAD TURMOIL.2

    There I’ll rest, as after much turmoilNWAD TURMOIL.3

    A blessed soul doth in Elysium.NWAD TURMOIL.4

    TURMOIL, v.t. To harass with commotion.

    It is her fatal misfortune--to be miserably tossed and turmoiled with these storms of affliction.NWAD TURMOIL.6

    1. To disquiet; to weary.NWAD TURMOIL.7

    TURMOIL, v.i. To be disquieted; to be in commotion.

    TURN, v.t. [L. turnus; torniare, to turn; tornare, to return; torneare, tornire, to turn, to fence round, to tilt; torniamento, tournament.]

    1. To cause to move in a circular course; as, to turn a wheel; to turn a spindle; to turn the body.NWAD TURN.2

    2. To change or shift sides; to put the upper side downwards, or one side in the place of the other. It is said a hen turns her eggs often when sitting.NWAD TURN.3

    3. To alter, as a position.NWAD TURN.4

    ExpertNWAD TURN.5

    When to advance, or stand, or turn the sway of battle.NWAD TURN.6

    4. To cause to preponderate; to change the state of a balance; as, to turn the scale.NWAD TURN.7

    5. To bring the inside out; as, to turn a coat.NWAD TURN.8

    6. To alter, as the posture of the body, or direction of the look.NWAD TURN.9

    The monarch turns him to his royal guest.NWAD TURN.10

    7. To form on a lathe; to make round.NWAD TURN.11

    8. To form; to shape; used in the participle; as a body finely turned.NWAD TURN.12

    Him limbs how turn’d.NWAD TURN.13

    9. To change; to transform; as, to turn evil to good; to turn goods into money.NWAD TURN.14

    Impatience turns an ague into a fever.NWAD TURN.15

    I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness. 2 Samuel 15:31.NWAD TURN.16

    10. To metamorphose; as, to turn a worm into a winged insect.NWAD TURN.17

    11. To alter or change, as color; as, to turn green to blue.NWAD TURN.18

    12. To change or alter in any manner; to vary.NWAD TURN.19

    13. To translate; as, to turn Greek into English.NWAD TURN.20

    --Who turns a Persian tale for half a crown.NWAD TURN.21

    14. To change, as the manner of writing; as, to turn prose into verse.NWAD TURN.22

    15. To change, as from one opinion or party to another; as, to turn one from a tory to whig; to turn Mohammedan or a pagan to a Christian.NWAD TURN.23

    16. To change in regard to inclination or temper.NWAD TURN.24

    Turn thee to me, and have mercy upon me. Psalm 25:16.NWAD TURN.25

    17. To change or alter from one purpose or effect to another.NWAD TURN.26

    God will make these evils the occasion of greater good, by turning them to our advantage.NWAD TURN.27

    18. To transfer.NWAD TURN.28

    Therefore he slew him, and turned the kingdom to David. 1 Chronicles 10:14.NWAD TURN.29

    19. To cause to nauseate or lothe; as, to turn the stomach.NWAD TURN.30

    20. To make giddy.NWAD TURN.31

    Eastern priests in giddy circles run,NWAD TURN.32

    And turn their heads to imitate the sun.NWAD TURN.33

    21. To infatuate; to make mad, wild or enthusiastic; as, to turn the brain.NWAD TURN.34

    22. To change direction to or from any point; as, to turn the eyes to the heavens; to turn the eyes from a disgusting spectacle.NWAD TURN.35

    23. To direct by a change to a certain purpose or object; to direct, as the inclination, thoughts or mind. I have turned my mind to the subject.NWAD TURN.36

    My thoughts are turn’d on peace.NWAD TURN.37

    24. To revolve; to agitate in the mind.NWAD TURN.38

    Turn those ideas about in your mind.NWAD TURN.39

    25. To bend from a perpendicular direction; as, to turn the edge of an instrument.NWAD TURN.40

    26. To move from a direct course or strait line; to cause to deviate; as, to turn a horse from the road, or a ship from her course.NWAD TURN.41

    27. To apply by a change of use.NWAD TURN.42

    When the passage is open, land will be turned most to cattle.NWAD TURN.43

    28. To reverse.NWAD TURN.44

    The Lord thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee. Deuteronomy 30:3.NWAD TURN.45

    29. To keep passing and changing in the course of trade; as, to turn money or stock two or three times in the year.NWAD TURN.46

    30. To adapt the mind; chiefly in the participle.NWAD TURN.47

    He was perfectly well turned for trade.NWAD TURN.48

    31. To make acid; to sour; as, to turn cider or wine; to turn milk.NWAD TURN.49

    32. To persuade to renounce an opinion; to dissuade from a purpose, or cause to change sides. You cannot turn a firm man.NWAD TURN.50

    To turn aside, to avert.NWAD TURN.51

    To turn away, to dismiss from service; to discard; as, to turn away a servant.NWAD TURN.52

    1. To avert; as, to turn away wrath or evil.NWAD TURN.53

    To turn back, to return; as, to turn back goods to the seller. [Little used.]NWAD TURN.54

    To turn down, to fold or double down.NWAD TURN.55

    To turn in, to fold or double; as, to turn in the edge of cloth.NWAD TURN.56

    To turn off, to dismiss contemptuously; as, to turn off a sycophant or parasite.NWAD TURN.57

    1. To give over; to resign. We are not so wholly turned off from that reversion.NWAD TURN.58

    2. To divert; to deflect; as, to turn off the thoughts from serious subjects.NWAD TURN.59

    To be turned of, to be advanced beyond; as, to be turned of sixty six.NWAD TURN.60

    To turn out, to drive out; to expel; as, to turn a family out of doors, or out of the house.NWAD TURN.61

    1. To put to pasture; as cattle or horses.NWAD TURN.62

    To turn over, to change sides; to roll over.NWAD TURN.63

    1. To transfer; as, to turn over a business to another hand.NWAD TURN.64

    2. To open and examine one leaf after another; as, to turn over a concordance.NWAD TURN.65

    3. To overset.NWAD TURN.66

    To turn to, to have recourse to.NWAD TURN.67

    Helvetius’ tables may be turned to on all occasions.NWAD TURN.68

    To turn upon, to retort; to throw back; as, to turn the arguments of an opponent upon himself.NWAD TURN.69

    To turn the back, to flee; to retreat. Exodus 23:27.NWAD TURN.70

    To turn the back upon, to quit with contempt; to forsake.NWAD TURN.71

    To turn the die or dice, to change fortune.NWAD TURN.72

    TURN, v.i. To move round; to have a circular motion; as, a wheel turns on its axis; a spindle turns on a pivot; a man turns on his heel.

    1. To be directed.NWAD TURN.74

    The understanding turns inwards on itself, and reflects on its own operations.NWAD TURN.75

    2. To show regard by directing the look towards any thing.NWAD TURN.76

    Turn mighty monarch, turn this way;NWAD TURN.77

    Do not refuse to hear.NWAD TURN.78

    3. To move the body round. He turned to me with a smile.NWAD TURN.79

    4. To move; to change posture. Let your body be at rest; do not turn in the least.NWAD TURN.80

    5. To deviate; as, to turn from the road or course.NWAD TURN.81

    6. To alter; to be changed or transformed; as, wood turns to stone; water turns to ice; one color turns to another.NWAD TURN.82

    7. To become by change; as, the fur of certain animals turns in winter.NWAD TURN.83

    Cygnets from gray turn white.NWAD TURN.84

    8. To change sides. A man in a fever turns often.NWAD TURN.85

    9. To change opinions or parties; as, to turn Christian or Mohammedan.NWAD TURN.86

    10. To change the mind or conduct.NWAD TURN.87

    Turn from thy fierce wrath. Exodus 32:12.NWAD TURN.88

    11. To change to acid; as, mild turns suddenly during a thunder storm.NWAD TURN.89

    12. To be brought eventually; to result or terminate in. This trade has not turned to much account or advantage. The application of steam turns to good account, both on land and water.NWAD TURN.90

    13. To depend on for decision. The question turns on a single fact or point.NWAD TURN.91

    14. To become giddy.NWAD TURN.92

    I’ll look no more,NWAD TURN.93

    Lest my brain turn.NWAD TURN.94

    15. To change a course of life; to repent.NWAD TURN.95

    Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways, for why will ye die? Ezekiel 33:11.NWAD TURN.96

    16. To change the course or direction; as, the tide turns.NWAD TURN.97

    To turn about, to move the face to another quarter.NWAD TURN.98

    To turn away, to deviate.NWAD TURN.99

    1. To depart from; to forsake.NWAD TURN.100

    To turn in, to bend inwards.NWAD TURN.101

    1. To enter for lodgings or entertainment. Genesis 19:2.NWAD TURN.102

    2. To go to bed.NWAD TURN.103

    To turn off, to be diverted; to deviate from a course. The road turns off to the left.NWAD TURN.104

    To turn on or upon, to reply or retort.NWAD TURN.105

    1. To depend on.NWAD TURN.106

    To turn out, to move from its place, as a bone.NWAD TURN.107

    1. To bend outwards; to project.NWAD TURN.108

    2. To rise from bed; also, to come abroad.NWAD TURN.109

    To turn over, to turn from side to side; to roll; to tumble.NWAD TURN.110

    1. To change sides or parties.NWAD TURN.111

    To turn to, to be directed; as, the needle turns to the magnetic pole.NWAD TURN.112

    To turn under, to bend or be folded downwards.NWAD TURN.113

    To turn up, to bend or be doubled upwards.NWAD TURN.114

    TURN, n. The act of turning; movement or motion in a circular direction, whether horizontally, vertically or otherwise; a revolution; as the turn of a wheel.

    1. A winding; a meandering course; a bend or bending; as the turn of river.NWAD TURN.116

    2. A walk to and from.NWAD TURN.117

    I will take a turn in your garden.NWAD TURN.118

    3. Change; alteration; vicissitude; as the turns and varieties of passions.NWAD TURN.119

    Too well the turns of mortal chance I know.NWAD TURN.120

    4. Successive course.NWAD TURN.121

    Nobleness and bounty--which virtues had their turns in the king’s nature.NWAD TURN.122

    5. Manner of proceeding; change of direction. This affair may take a different turn from that which we expect.NWAD TURN.123

    6. Chance; hap; opportunity.NWAD TURN.124

    Every one has a fair turn to be as great as he pleases.NWAD TURN.125

    7. Occasion; incidental opportunity.NWAD TURN.126

    An old dog falling from his speed, was loaded at every turn with blows and reproaches.NWAD TURN.127

    8. Time at which, by successive vicissitudes, any thing is to be had or done. They take each other’s turn.NWAD TURN.128

    His turn will come to laugh at you again.NWAD TURN.129

    9. Action of kindness or malice.NWAD TURN.130

    Thanks are half lost when good turns are delay’d.NWAD TURN.131

    Some malicious natures place their delight in doing ill turns.NWAD TURN.132

    10. Reigning inclination or course. Religion is not to be adapted to the turn and fashion of the age.NWAD TURN.133

    11. A step off the ladder at the gallows.NWAD TURN.134

    12. Convenience; occasion; purpose; exigence; as, this will not serve his turn.NWAD TURN.135

    13. Form; cast; shape; manner; in a literal or figurative sense; as the turn of thought; a man of a sprightly turn in conversation.NWAD TURN.136

    The turn of his thoughts and expression is unharmonious.NWAD TURN.137

    Female virtues are of a domestic turn.NWAD TURN.138

    The Roman poets, in their description of a beautiful man, often mention the turn of his neck and arms.NWAD TURN.139

    14. Manner of arranging words in a sentence.NWAD TURN.140

    15. Change; new position of things. Some evil happens at every turn of affairs.NWAD TURN.141

    16. Change of direction; as the turn of the tide from flood to ebb.NWAD TURN.142

    17. One round of a rope or cord.NWAD TURN.143

    18. In mining, a pit sunk in some part of a drift.NWAD TURN.144

    19. Turn or tourn, in law. The sheriff’s turn is a court of record, held by the sheriff twice a year in every hundred within his county. [England.]NWAD TURN.145

    By turns, one after another; alternately.NWAD TURN.146

    They assist each other by turns.NWAD TURN.147

    1. At intervals.NWAD TURN.148

    They feel by turns the bitter change.NWAD TURN.149

    To take turns, to take each other’s places alternately.NWAD TURN.150

    TURN-BENCH, n. [turn and bench.] A kind of iron lathe.

    TURNCOAT, n. [turn and coat.] One who forsakes his party or principles.

    TURNED, pp. Moved in a circle; changed.

    TURNEP, n. [L. napus, a turnep.] A bulbous root or plant of the genus Brassica, of great value for food; an esculent root of several varieties.

    TURNER, n. One whose occupation is to form things with a lathe; one who turns.

    TURNERITE, n. A rare mineral occurring in small crystals of a yellowish brown color, externally brilliant and translucent.

    TURNERY, n. The art of forming into a cylindrical shape by the lathe.

    1. Things made by a turner or in the lathe.NWAD TURNERY.2

    TURNING, ppr. Moving in a circle; changing; winding.

    TURNING, n. A winding; a bending course; flexure; meander.

    1. Deviation from the way or proper course.NWAD TURNING.3

    TURNINGNESS, n. Quality of turning; tergivesation. [Not in use.]

    TURNPIKE, n. [turn and pike.] Strictly, a frame consisting of two bars crossing each other at right angles, and turning on a post or pin, to hinder the passage of breasts, but admitting a person to pass between the arms.

    1. A gate set across a road to stop travelers and carriages till toll is paid for keeping the road in repair.NWAD TURNPIKE.2

    2. A turnpike road.NWAD TURNPIKE.3

    3. In military affairs, a beam filled with spikes to obstruct passage.NWAD TURNPIKE.4

    TURNPIKE, v.t. To form, as a road, in the manner of a turnpike road; to throw the path of a road into a rounded form.

    TURNPIKE-ROAD, n. A road on which turnpikes or toll-gates are established by law, and which are made and kept in repair by the toll collected from travelers or passengers who use the road.

    TURNSERVING, n. [turn and serve.] The act or practice of serving one’s turn or promoting private interest.

    TURN-SICK, a. [turn and sick.] Giddy.

    TURNSOLE, n. [turn and L. sol, the sun.] A plant of the genus Heliotropium, so named because its flower is supposed to turn towards the sun.

    TURNSPIT, n. [turn and spit.] A person who turns a spit.

    His lordship is his majesty’s turnspit.NWAD TURNSPIT.2

    1. A variety of the dog, so called from turning the spit.NWAD TURNSPIT.3

    TURNSTILE, n. [turn and stile.] A turnpike in a foot-path.

    TURNSTONE, n. [turn and stone.] A bird, called the sea-dotterel, the Tringa morinella, a little larger than an English blackbird. This bird takes its name from its practice of turning up small stones in search of insects.

    TURPENTINE, a. [L. terebinthina.] A transparent resinous substance, flowing naturally or by incision from several species of trees, as from the pine, larch, fir, etc. Common turpentine is of about the consistence of honey; but there are several varieties.

    TURPENTINE-TREE, n. A tree of the genus Pistacia, which produces not only its proper fruit, but a kind of horn which grows on the surface of its leaves. This is found to be an excrescence, the effect of the puncture of an insect, and is produced in the same manner as the galls of other plants.

    TURPITUDE, n. [L. turpitudo, from turpis, foul, base.]

    1. Inherent baseness or vileness of principle in the human heart; extreme depravity.NWAD TURPITUDE.2

    2. Baseness or vileness of words or actions; shameful wickedness.NWAD TURPITUDE.3

    TURREL, n. A tool used by coopers.

    TURRET, n. [L. turris.] A little tower; a small eminence or spire attached to a building and rising above it.

    And lift her turrets nearer to the sky.NWAD TURRET.2

    1. In the art of war, movable turrets, used formerly by the Romans, were buildings of a square form, consisting of ten or even twenty stories, and sometimes one hundred and twenty cubits high, moved on wheels. They were employed in approaches to a fortified place, for carrying soldiers, engines, ladders, casting-bridges and other necessaries.NWAD TURRET.3

    TURRETED, a. Formed like a tower; as a turreted lamp.

    1. Furnished with turrets.NWAD TURRETED.2

    TURRILITE, n. The fossil remains of a spiral multilocular shell.

    TURTLE, n. [L. turtur.]

    1. A fowl of the genus Columba; called also the turtle dove, and turtle pigeon. It is a wild species, frequenting the thickest parts of the woods, and its note is plaintive and tender.NWAD TURTLE.2

    2. The name sometimes given to the common tortoise.NWAD TURTLE.3

    3. The name given to the large sea-tortoise.NWAD TURTLE.4

    TURTLE-DOVE, n. A species of the genus Columba. [See Turtle.]

    TURTLE-SHELL, n. [turtle and shell.] A shell, a beautiful species of Murex; also, tortoise-shell.

    TUSCAN, a. Pertaining to Tuscany in Italy; an epithet given to one of the orders of columns, the most ancient and simple.

    TUSCAN, n. An order of columns.

    TUSH, an exclamation, indicating check, rebuke or contempt. Tush, tush, never tell me such a story as that.

    TUSH, n. A tooth.

    TUSK, n. The long pointed tooth of certain rapacious, carnivorous or fighting animals; as the tusks of the boar.

    TUSK, v.i. To gnash the teeth, as a boar.

    TUSKED, TUSKY, a. Furnished with tusks; as the tusky boar.

    TUSSLE, n. A struggle; a conflict. [Vulgar.] [See Touse.]

    TUSSUC, TUSSOC, n. A tuft of grass or twigs.

    TUT, an exclamation, used for checking or rebuking.

    TUT, n. An imperial ensign of a golden globe with a cross on it.

    Tut bargain, among miners, a bargain by the lump. [Qu. L. totus.]NWAD TUT.3

    TUTELAGE, n. [from L. tutela, protection, from tueor, to defend.]

    1. Guardianship; protection; applied to the person protecting; as, the king’s right of seignory and tutelage.NWAD TUTELAGE.2

    2. State of being under a guardian.NWAD TUTELAGE.3

    TUTELAR, TUTELARY, a. [L. tutelaris, supra.] Having the guardianship or charge of protecting a person or a thing; guardian; protecting; as tutelary genii; tutelary goddesses.

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