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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    INARACHING, ppr. Grafting by approach.

    INARCHING, n. A method of ingrafting, by which a cion, without being separated from its parent tree, is joined to a stock standing near.

    INARTICULATE, a. [in and articulate.] Not uttered with articulation or junction of the organs of speech; not articulate; not distinct, or with distinction of syllables. The sounds of brutes and fowls are, for the most part, inarticulate.

    INARTICULATELY, adv. Not with distinct syllables; indistinctly.

    INARTICULATENESS, n. Indistinctness of utterance by animal voices; want of distinct articulation.

    INARTICULATION, n. Indistinctness of sounds in speaking.

    INARTIFICIAL, a. [In and artificial.]

    1. Not done by art; not made or performed by the rules of art; formed without art; as an inartificial style of composition.NWAD INARTIFICIAL.2

    2. Simple; artless.NWAD INARTIFICIAL.3

    INARTIFICIALLY, adv. Without art; in an artless manner; contrary to the rules of art.

    INATTENTION, n. [in and attention.] The want of attention, or of fixing the mind steadily on an object; heedlessness; neglect.

    Novel lays attract our ravished ears,NWAD INATTENTION.2

    But old, the mind with inattention hears.NWAD INATTENTION.3

    INATTENTIVE, a. [in and attentive.] Not fixing the mind on an object; heedless; careless; negligent; regardless; as an inattentive spectator or hearer, an inattentive habit.

    INATTENTIVELY, adv. Without attention; carelessly; heedlessly.

    INAUDIBLE, a. [in and audible.] That cannot be heard; as an inaudible voice or sound.

    1. Making no sound; as the inaudible foot of time.NWAD INAUDIBLE.2

    INAUDIBLY, adv. In a manner not to be heard.

    INAUGURAL, a. [L. inauguro; in and augur.]

    1. Pertaining to inauguration; as inaugural ceremonies.NWAD INAUGURAL.2

    2. Made or pronounced at an inauguration; as an inaugural address.NWAD INAUGURAL.3

    INAUGURATE, v.t. [supra.] To introduce or induct into an office with solemnity or suitable ceremonies; to invest with an office in a formal manner; a word borrowed from the ceremonies used by the Romans when they were received into the college of augurs. Kings and emperors are inaugurated by coronation; a prelate, by consecration; and the president of a college by such ceremonies and forms as give weight and authority to the transaction.

    1. To begin with good omens. [Not used.]NWAD INAUGURATE.2

    INAUGURATE, a. Invested with office.

    INAUGURATED, pp. Inducted into office with appropriate ceremonies.

    INAUGURATING, ppr. Inducting into office with solemnities.

    INAUGURATION, n. The act of inducting into office with solemnity; investiture with office by appropriate ceremonies.

    INAUGURATORY, a. Suited to induction into office; pertaining to inauguration; as inauguratory gratulations.

    INAURATION, n. [L. inauro, inauratus; in and aurum, gold.]

    The act or process of gilding, or covering with gold.NWAD INAURATION.2

    INAUSPICATE, a. Ill omened.

    INAUSPICIOUS, a. [in and auspicious.] Ill omened; unfortunate; unlucky; evil; unfavorable. The war commenced at an inauspicious time, and its issue was inauspicious. The counsels of a bad man have an inauspicious influence on society.

    INAUSPICIOUSLY, adv. With ill omens; unfortunately; unfavorably.

    INAUSPICIOUSNESS, n. Unluckiness; unfavorableness.

    INBEING, n. [in and being.] Inherence; inherent existence; inseparableness.

    INBORN, a. [in and born.] Innate; implanted by nature; as inborn passions; inborn worth.

    INBREATHED, a. [in and breathe.] Infused by inspiration.

    INBRED, a. [in and bred, breed.] Bred within; innate; natural; as inbred worth; inbred affection.

    INBREED, v.t. To produce or generate within.

    INCA, n. The name or title given by the natives of Peru to their kings and to the princes of the blood, before the conquest of that country by the Spaniards.

    INCAGE, v.t. [in and cage.] To confine in a cage; to coop us; to confine to any narrow limits.

    INCAGED, pp. Cooped up; confined to a cage or to narrow limits.

    INCAGING, ppr. Confining to a cage or to narrow limits.

    INCAGEMENT, n. Confinement in a cage.

    INCALCULABLE, a. That cannot be calculated; beyond calculation.

    INCALCULABLY, adv. In a degree beyond calculation.

    INCALESCENCE, INCALESCENCY, n. [L. incalescens, incalesco; in and calesco, caleo, to be hot.]

    A growing warm; incipient or increasing heat.NWAD INCALESCENCE.2

    INCALESCENT, a. Growing warm; increasing in heat.

    INCAMERATION, n. [in and camera, a chamber, or arched roof.]

    The act or process of uniting lands, revenues or other rights to the pope’s domain.NWAD INCAMERATION.2

    INCANDESCENCE, n. [L. incandescens, incandesco; in and candesco; candeo, caneo, to be white, to shine; canus, white.]

    A white heat; or the glowing whiteness of a body caused by intense heat. We say, a metal is heated to incandescence.NWAD INCANDESCENCE.2

    INCANDESCENT, a. White or glowing with heat.

    INCANTATION, n. [L. incantatio, incanto; in and canto, to sing.]

    The act of enchanting; enchantment; the act of using certain formulas of words and ceremonies, for the purpose of raising spirits.NWAD INCANTATION.2

    INCANTATORY, a. Dealing by enchantment; magical.

    INCANTING, a. Enchanting. [Not used.]

    INCANTON, v.t. [in and canton.] To unite to a canton or separate community.

    INCAPABILITY, INCAPABLENESS, n. [from incapable.] The quality of being incapable; natural incapacity or want of power; as the incapableness of a child to comprehend logical syllogisms.

    1. Want of legal qualifications or of legal power; as the incapability of holding an office.NWAD INCAPABILITY.2


    1. Wanting capacity sufficient; not having room sufficient to contain or hold; followed by of. We say, a vessel is incapable of containing or holding a certain quantity of liquor; but I believe we rarely or never say, a vessel is incapable of that quantity.NWAD INCAPABLE.2

    2. Wanting natural power or capacity to learn, know, understand or comprehend. Man is incapable of comprehending the essence of the Divine Being. An idiot is incapable of learning to read.NWAD INCAPABLE.3

    3. Not admitting; not in a state to receive; not susceptible of; as, a bridge is incapable of reparation.NWAD INCAPABLE.4

    Is not your father grown incapableNWAD INCAPABLE.5

    Of reasonable affairs?NWAD INCAPABLE.6

    4. Wanting moral power or disposition. He is incapable of a dishonorable act.NWAD INCAPABLE.7

    5. Unqualified or disqualified, in a legal sense; not having the legal or constitutional qualifications. A man not thirty years of age is unqualified, and therefore incapable of holding the office of president of the United States; a man convicted on impeachment is disqualified, and therefore incapable of holding any office of honor or profit under the government.NWAD INCAPABLE.8

    Incapable properly denotes a want of passive power, the power of receiving, and is applicable particularly to the mind; unable denotes the want of active power or power of performing, and is applicable to the body or the mind. [See Incapacity.]NWAD INCAPABLE.9

    INCAPACIOUS, a. [in and capacious.] Not capacious; not large or spacious; narrow; of small content; as an incapacious soul.

    INCAPACIOUSNESS, n. Narrowness; want of containing space.

    INCAPACITATE, v.t. [in and capacitate.]

    1. To deprive of capacity or natural power of learning, knowing, understanding or performing. Old age and infirmity often incapacitate men to exercise the office of a judge.NWAD INCAPACITATE.2

    2. To render or make incapable; as, infancy incapacitates a child for learning algebra.NWAD INCAPACITATE.3

    3. To disable; to weaken; to deprive of competent power or ability. This is an improper use of the word. The loss of an arm disables a soldier, but does not incapacitate him.NWAD INCAPACITATE.4

    4. To render unfit; as, infancy incapacitates one for marriage.NWAD INCAPACITATE.5

    5. To disqualify; to deprive of legal or constitutional requisites; as, conviction of a crime incapacitates one to be a witness.NWAD INCAPACITATE.6

    INCAPACITATION, n. Want of capacity; disqualification.

    INCAPACITY, n. [in and capacity.] Want of capacity, intellectual power, or the power of receiving, containing or understanding; applied to the mind, and it may be natural or casual. There is a natural incapacity in children to comprehend difficult propositions in logic or metaphysics, and a natural incapacity in men to comprehend the nature of spiritual beings. The defect of understanding proceeding from intoxication, or from an injury done to the brain, is a casual incapacity.

    1. Want of qualification or legal requisites; inability; as the incapacity of minors to make binding contracts.NWAD INCAPACITY.2

    2. Disqualification; disability by deprivation of power; as the incapacity of a convict to give testimony in a court of law.NWAD INCAPACITY.3

    INCARCERATE, v.t. [L. incarcero; in and carcer, a prison; Eng. cark, care; showing the primary sense is to press or strain.]

    1. To imprison; to confine in a jail.NWAD INCARCERATE.2

    2. To confine; to shut up or inclose.NWAD INCARCERATE.3

    INC`ARCERATE, a. Imprisoned; confined.

    INCARCERATION, n. The act of imprisoning or confining; imprisonment.

    INCARN, v.t. [L. incarno; in and caro, carnis, flesh.]

    To cover with flesh; to invest with flesh.NWAD INCARN.2

    INC`ARN, v.i. To breed flesh.

    INCARNADINE, a. [L. in and caro, flesh.]

    Flesh-colored; of a carnation color; pale red.NWAD INCARNADINE.2

    INC`ARNADINE, v.t. To dye red or flesh-color. [Little used.]

    INCARNATE, v.t. [L. incarno; in and caro, flesh.]

    To clothe with flesh; to embody in flesh.NWAD INCARNATE.2

    INC`ARNATE, a. Invested with flesh; embodied in flesh; a the incarnate Son of God.

    1. In Scotland, of a red color; flesh-colored.NWAD INCARNATE.4

    INCARNATION, n. The act of clothing with flesh.

    1. The act of assuming flesh, or of taking a human body and the nature of man; as the incarnation of the Son of God.NWAD INCARNATION.2

    2. In surgery, the process of healing wounds and filling the part with new flesh.NWAD INCARNATION.3

    INCARNATIVE, v. Causing new flesh to grow; healing.

    INC`ARNATIVE, n. A medicine that tends to promote the growth of new flesh, and assist nature in the healing of wounds.

    INCASE, v.t. [in and case.] To inclose in a case.

    1. To inclose; to cover or surround with something solid.NWAD INCASE.2

    Rich plates of gold the folding doors incase.NWAD INCASE.3

    INCASED, pp. Inclosed as in a case, sheath or box.

    INCASING, ppr. Inclosing as in a case.

    INCASK, v.t. To put into a cask.

    INCASTELLATED, a. Confined or inclosed in a castle.

    INCATENATION, n. [L. catena, a chain.]

    The act of linking together.NWAD INCATENATION.2

    INCAUTIOUS, a. [in and cautious.] Not cautious; unwary; not circumspect; heedless; not attending to the circumstances on which safety and interest depend; as incautious youth.

    INCAUTIOUSLY, adv. Unwarily; heedlessly; without due circumspection.

    INCAUTIOUSNESS, n. Want of caution; unwariness; want of foresight.

    INCAVATED, a. [L. in and cavo, to make hollow.] Made hollow; bent round or in.

    INCAVATION, n. The act of making hollow.

    1. A hollow made.NWAD INCAVATION.2

    INCEND, v.t. [L. incendo.] To inflame; to excite. [Little used.]

    INCENDIARY, n. [L. incendiarius, from incendo, to burn; in and candeo, to shine, or be on fire.]

    1. A person who maliciously sets fire to another man’s dwelling house, or to any outhouse, being parcel of the same, as a barn or stable; one who is guilty of arson.NWAD INCENDIARY.2

    2. Any person who sets fire to a building.NWAD INCENDIARY.3

    3. A person who excites or inflames factions, and promotes quarrels.NWAD INCENDIARY.4

    Several cities of Greece drove them out as incendiaries.NWAD INCENDIARY.5

    Incendiaries of figure and distinction, who are the inventors and publishers of gross falsehoods, cannot be regarded but with the utmost detestation.NWAD INCENDIARY.6

    4. He or that which excites.NWAD INCENDIARY.7

    INCENDIARY, a. Pertaining to the malicious burning of a dwelling; as an incendiary purpose.

    1. Tending to excite or inflame factions, sedition or quarrels.NWAD INCENDIARY.9

    INCENSE, n. in’cens. [L. incensum, burnt, from incendo, to burn.]

    1. Perfume exhaled by fire; the odors of spices and gums, burnt in religious rites, or as an offering to some deity.NWAD INCENSE.2

    A thick cloud of incense went up. Ezekiel 8:11.NWAD INCENSE.3

    2. The materials burnt for making perfumes. The incense used in the Jewish offerings was a mixture of sweet spices, stacte, onycha, galbanum, and the gum of the frankincense tree.NWAD INCENSE.4

    Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took either of them his censer, and put fire therein and put incense thereon. Leviticus 10:1.NWAD INCENSE.5

    3. Acceptable prayers and praises. Malachi 1:11.NWAD INCENSE.6

    4. In the Materia Medica, a dry resinous substance known by the name of thus and olibanum.NWAD INCENSE.7

    INCENSE, v.t. incens. To perfume with incense. In the Romish church, it is the deacon’s office to incense the officiating priest or prelate, and the choir.

    INCENSE, v.t. incens. To enkindle or inflame to violent anger; to excite angry passions; to provoke; to irritate; to exasperate; to heat; to fire. It expresses less than enrage.

    How could my pious son thy power incense?NWAD INCENSE.10

    INCENSED, pp. Inflamed to violent anger; exasperated.

    INCENSEMENT, n. incens’ment. Violent irritation of the passions; heat; exasperation. It expresses less than rage and fury.

    INCENSING, ppr. Inflaming to anger; irritating; exasperation.

    INCENSION, n. [L. incensio, from incendo, to burn.]

    The act of kindling; the state of being on fire.NWAD INCENSION.2

    INCENSIVE, a. Tending to excite or provoke.

    INCENSOR, n. [L.] A kindler of anger; an inflamer of the angry passions.

    INCENSORY, n. The vessel in which incense is burnt and offered. [We generally use censer.]

    INCENTIVE, a. [Low L. incentivus, from incendo, to burn.]

    Inciting; encouraging or moving.NWAD INCENTIVE.2

    Competency is the most incentive to industry.NWAD INCENTIVE.3

    INCENTIVE, n. [Low L. incentivum.]

    1. That which kindles or inflames; used now in a figurative sense only.NWAD INCENTIVE.5

    2. That which moves the mind or operates on the passions; that which incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action; that which prompts to good or ill; motive; spur. The love of money, and the desire of promotion, are two most powerful incentives to action.NWAD INCENTIVE.6

    INCEPTION, n. [L. inceptio, from incipio, to begin; in and capio, to take.] Beginning.

    I hope this society will not be marked with vivacity of inception, apathy of progress, and prematureness of decay.NWAD INCEPTION.2

    INCEPTIVE, a. [L. inceptivus, from incipio, to begin.]

    Beginning; noting beginning; as an inceptive proposition; an inceptive verb, which expresses the beginning of action.NWAD INCEPTIVE.2

    A point is inceptive of a line, and a line is inceptive of a surface.NWAD INCEPTIVE.3

    INCEPTOR, n. A beginner; one in the rudiments

    INCERATION, n. [L. incero, from cera.] The act of covering with wax.

    INCERTAIN, a. [in and certain.] Uncertain; doubtful; unsteady.

    INCERTAINLY, adv. Doubtfully.

    INCERTAINTY, n. Uncertainty; doubt.

    INCERTITUDE, n. [L. incertitudo, from incertus; in and certus, certain.] Uncertainty; doubtfulness; doubt.

    INCESSABLE, a. Unceasing; continual. [little used.]

    INCESSANCY, n. [from incessant.] Unintermitted continuance; unceasingness.

    INCESSANT, a. [L. in and cessans, from cesso, to cease.]

    Unceasing; unintermitted; uninterrupted; continual; as incessant rains; incessant clamors.NWAD INCESSANT.2

    INCESSANTLY, adv. Without ceasing; continually.

    INCEST, n. [L. incestum; in and castus, chaste.]

    The crime of cohabitation or sexual commerce between persons related within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by the law of a country.NWAD INCEST.2

    Spiritual incest, is a like crime committed between persons who have a spiritual alliance by means of baptism or confirmation. It is also understood of a vicar or other beneficiary, who holds two benefices, the one depending on the collation of the other.NWAD INCEST.3

    INCESTUOUS, a. Guilty of incest; as an incestuous person.

    1. Involving the crime of incest; as an incestuous connection.NWAD INCESTUOUS.2

    INCESTUOUSLY, adv. In an incestuous manner; in a manner to involve the crime of incest.

    INCESTUOUSNESS, n. The state or quality of being incestuous.

    INCH, n. [L. uncia, the twelfth part.]

    1. A lineal measure in Great Britain and the United States, being the twelfth part of a foot, and equal to the length of three barley corns.NWAD INCH.2

    2. Proverbially, a small quantity or degree; as, to die by inches, to gain ground by inches.NWAD INCH.3

    3. A precise point of time.NWAD INCH.4

    Beldame, I think, we watch’d you at an inch. [Unusual.]NWAD INCH.5

    INCH, v.t. To drive by inches or small degrees. [Little used.]

    1. To deal out by inches; to give sparingly. [Little used.]NWAD INCH.7

    INCH, v.i. To advance or retire by small degrees. [Little used.]

    Inched, is added to words of number; as four-inched. But in American the common practice is to add only inch; as a seven-inch cable.NWAD INCH.9

    INCHARITABLE, a. Uncharitable. [The latter is the word used.]

    INCHASTITY, n. [in and chastity.] Lewdness; impurity; unchastity.

    INCHEST, v.t. To put into a chest.

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