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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    CALADE, n. The slope or declivity of a rising manege-ground.

    CALAITE, n. A name given to the turquois; which see.

    CALAMANCO, n. A woolen stuff, of a fine gloss, and checkered in the warp.

    CALAMAR, n. An animal, having an oblong body and ten legs. On the belly are two bladders containing a black fluid, which the animal emits when pursued. It is called also sea-sleeve and cuttle-fish.

    CALAMBAC, n. Aloes-wood, xyloe-aloes, a drug, which is the product of a tree growing in China and some of the Indian isles. It is of a light spungy texture, very porous, and the pores so filled with a soft fragrant resin, that it may be indented by the fingers and chewed like mastich. It is also called tambac. The two coarser kinds are called lignum aloes, and calambour.

    CALAMBOUR, n. A species of the aloes-wood, of a dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and less fragrant than calambac. This wood is used by cabinet-makers and inlayers.

    CALAMIFEROUS, a. Producing plants having a long, hollow, knotted stem.

    CALAMINE, CALAMIN, n. Lapis calaminaris, or cadmia fossilis; an ore of zink, much used in the composition of brass. This term is applied both to the siliceous oxyd and the native carbonate of zink. They an scarcely be distinguished by their external characters. They are generally compact, often stalactitic, and sometimes crystalized. Most of the calamines of England and Scotland are said to be carbonates.

    CALAMINT, n. A plant, a species of Melissa, or baum, an aromatic plant, and a weak corroborant.

    Water-calamint is a species of Mentha, or mint.NWAD CALAMINT.2

    CALAMISTRATE, v.t. To curl or frizzle the hair.

    CALAMISTRATION, n. The act of curling the hair.

    CALAMIT, n. A mineral, probably a variety of Tremolite. It occurs in imperfect or rounded prismatic crystals, longitudinally striated, and sometimes resembling a reed. Its structure is foliated; its luster vitreous, and more or less shining.


    1. Very miserable; involved in deep distress; oppressed with infelicity; wretched from misfortune; applied to men.NWAD CALAMITOUS.2

    2. Producing distress and misery; making wretched; applied to external circumstances; as a calamitous event.NWAD CALAMITOUS.3

    3. Full of misery; distressful; wretched; applied to state or condition.NWAD CALAMITOUS.4

    CALAMITOUSLY, adv. In a manner to bring great distress.

    CALAMITOUSNESS, n. Deep distress; wretchedness; misery; the quality of producing misery.

    CALAMITY, n. Any great misfortune, or cause of misery; generally applied to events or disasters which produce extensive evils, as loss of crops, earthquakes, conflagrations, defeat of armies, and the like. But it is applied also to the misfortunes which bring great distress upon individuals.

    The deliberations of calamity are rarely wise.NWAD CALAMITY.2

    CALAMUS, n.

    1. The generic name of the Indian cane, called also rotang. It is without branches, has a crown at the top, and is beset with spines.NWAD CALAMUS.2

    2. In antiquity, a pipe or fistula, a wind instrument, made of a reed or oaten stalk.NWAD CALAMUS.3

    3. A rush or reed used anciently as a pen to write on parchment or papyrus.NWAD CALAMUS.4

    4. A sort of reed, or sweet-scented cane, used by the Jews as a perfume. It is a knotty root, reddish without and white within, and filled with a spungy substance. It has an aromatic smell.NWAD CALAMUS.5

    5. The sweet flag, called by Linne Acorus.NWAD CALAMUS.6

    CALANDRA, n. A species of lark, with a thick bill, the upper part of the body of a reddish brown, spotted with black, with a body thicker than the sky-lark.

    CALANDRE, CALANDER, n. The French name of a species of insect of the beetle kind, very destructive in granaries.

    CALANGAY, n. A species of white parrot.

    CALASH, n.

    1. A light chariot or carriage with very low wheels, used for taking the air in parks and gardens. It is open, or covered with mantles of cloth, that are let down at pleasure.NWAD CALASH.2

    2. A cover for the head sometimes used by ladies.NWAD CALASH.3

    CALCAR, n. In glass works, a kind of oven, or reverberating furnace, used for the calcination of sand and salt of potash, and converting them into frit.

    CALCARATE, a. Furnished with a spur; as a calcarate corol, in larksupr; a calcarate nectary, a nectary resembling a cocks spur.

    CALCARIO-SULPHUROUS, a. [See Calx and Sulphur.] Having lime and sulphur in combination, or partaking of both.

    CALCARIOUS, a. Partaking of the nature of lime; having the qualities of lime; as calcarious earth or stone.

    CALCAVALLA, n. A kind of sweet wine from Portugal.

    CALCEATED, n. Shod; fitted with or wearing shoes.

    CALCEDON, n. [See Chalcedony.] With jewelers, a foul vein, like chalcedony, in some precious stones.

    CALCEDONIC, CALCEDONIAN, a. [See Chalcedony.] Pertaining to or resembling chalcedony.

    CALCEDONY. See Chalcedony, the more correct orthography.

    CALCIFEROUS, a. [of calx, lime, and muria, salt water.] A species of earth, of the muriatic genus, of a blue or olive green color, of the consistence of clay. It consists of calcarious earth and magnesia tinged with iron.

    CALCINABLE, a. [See Calcine.] That may be calcined; capable of being reduced to a friable state by the action of fire.

    CALCINATE, v.t. To calcine. [See Calcine.]

    CALCINATION, n. [from calcine.]

    1. The operation of expelling from a substance by heat, some volatile matter with which it is combined, or which is the cementing principle, and thus reducing it to a friable state. Thus chalk and carbonate of lime are reduced to lime by calcination, or the expulsion of carbonic acid.NWAD CALCINATION.2

    2. The operation of reducing a metal to an oxyd, or metallic calx. This is modern chemistry is called oxidation.NWAD CALCINATION.3

    CALCINATORY, n. A vessel used in calcination.

    CALCINE, v.t.

    1. To reduce a substance to a powder or to a friable state, by the action of heat; or to expel from a substance some volatile matter, combined with it, or forming its cementing principle, as the carbonic acid from limestone, or the water of crystalization from salts.NWAD CALCINE.2

    2. To oxydize, as a metal; to reduce to a metallic calx.NWAD CALCINE.3

    3. To dissolve; to destroy the principles which unite.NWAD CALCINE.4

    CALCINE, v.i. To be converted into a powder or friable substance, or into a calx, by the action of heat.

    CALCIUM, n. The metallic basis of lime.

    CALCOGRAPHICAL, a. [See Calcography.] Pertaining to calcography.

    CALCOGRAPHY, n. An engraving in the likeness of chalk.

    CALC-SINTER, n. Stalactitic carbonate of lime.

    CALC-TUFF, n. An alluvial formation of carbonate of lime.

    CALCULARY, n. A congeries of little stony knots dispersed through the parenchyma of the pear and other fruits, formed by concretions of the sap.

    CALCULATE, v.t.

    1. To compute; to reckon; to add, subtract, multiply or divide any sums, for the purpose of finding the amount, difference, or other result. This, to calculate the expenses of erecting a house, is to estimate and add together the several sums which each part of the materials and the work will cost.NWAD CALCULATE.2

    2. To ascertain by the use of tables or numbers; as, to calculate an eclipse.NWAD CALCULATE.3

    3. To form tables upon mathematical principles, as logarithms, ephemerides, etc.NWAD CALCULATE.4

    4. To compute the situation of the planets at a certain time, for astrological purposes; as, to calculate the birth of a person.NWAD CALCULATE.5

    5. To adjust by computation; to fit or prepare by the adaptation of the means to the end; as, to calculate a system of laws for a free people. Religion is calculated for our benefit.NWAD CALCULATE.6

    CALCULATE, v.i. To make a computation; as, we calculate better for ourselves than for others.

    In popular use, this word is often equivalent to intend or purpose, that is, to make arrangements, and form a plan; as, a man calculated to go a journey. This use of the word springs from the practice of computing or estimating the various circumstances which concur to influence the mind in forming its determinations.NWAD CALCULATE.8

    CALCULATED, pp. Computed; reckoned; suited; adapted by design.

    CALCULATING, ppr. Computing; reckoining; adapting by design; adjusting.


    1. The art, practice or manner of computing by numbers. The use of numbers, by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, for the purpose of arriving at a certain result. Thus computations in astronomy and geometry for making tables of numbers are called calculations.NWAD CALCULALATION.2

    2. The result of an arithmetical operation; computation; reckoning.NWAD CALCULALATION.3

    3. Estimate formed in the mind by comparing the various circumstances and facts which influence its determination.NWAD CALCULALATION.4

    CALCULATIVE, a. Pertaining to calculation; tending to calculate.

    CALCULATOR, n. One who computes or reckons; one who estimates or considers the force and effect of causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects.

    CALCULATORY, a. Belonging to calculation.

    CALCULE, n. Reckoning; computation.

    CALCULOUS, a. [Supra.]

    1. Stony; gritty; hard like stone; as a calculous concretion.NWAD CALCULOUS.2

    2. In mathematics; Differential calculus, is the arithmetic of the infinitely small differences of variable quantities; the method of differencing quantities, or of finding an infinitely small quantity, which, being taken infinite times, shall be equal to a given quantity. This coincides with the doctrine of fluxions.NWAD CALCULOUS.3

    3. Exponential calculus, is a method of differencing exponential quantities; or of finding and summing up the differentials or moments of exponential quantities; or at least of bringing them to geometrical constructions.NWAD CALCULOUS.4

    4. Integral calculus, is a method of integrating or summing u moments or differential quantities; the inverse of the differential calculus.NWAD CALCULOUS.5

    5. Literal calculus, is specious arithmetic or algebra.NWAD CALCULOUS.6

    CALDRON, n. A large kettle or boiler, of copper, or other metal, furnished with a movable handle or bail, with which to hang it on a chimney hook.

    CALECHE, [See Calash.]

    CALEDONIAN, a. Pertaining to Caledonia, an ancient name of Scotland. The termination ia, signifies a country, and was added by the Romans. Caledon signifies probably, the hill or town of the Gaels, or Caels, the primitive inhabitants.

    CALEDONIAN, n. A native of Caledonia, now Scotland.

    CALEFACIENT, a. [See Calefaction, Calefy.] Warming; heating.

    CALEFACIENT, n. That which warms or heats.


    1. The act or operation of warming or heating; the production of heat in a body by the action of fire, or by the communication of heat from other bodies.NWAD CALEFACTION.2

    2. The state of being heated.NWAD CALEFACTION.3

    CALEFACTIVE, CALEFACTOR, a. [See Calefaction.] That makes warm or hot; that communicates heat.

    CALEFY, v.i. To grow hot or warm; to be heated.

    CALEFY, v.t. To make worm or hot.

    CALENDAR, n.

    1. A register of the year, in which the months, weeks, and days are set down in order, with the feasts observed by the church, etc.; an almanack. It was so named from the Roman Calendoe, the name given to the first day of the month, and written, in large letters, at the head of each month. [See Calends.]NWAD CALENDAR.2

    2. A list of prisoners in the custody of the sheriff.NWAD CALENDAR.3

    3. An orderly table or enumeration of persons of things. Calendar-month, a solar month as it stands in Almanacks.NWAD CALENDAR.4

    CALENDAR, v.t. To enter or write in a calendar.

    CALENDER, v.t. To press between rollers, for the purpose of making smooth, glossy and wavy; as woolen and silk stuffs and linens.

    CALENDER, n. A machine or hot press, used in manufactories to press cloths, for the purpose of making them smooth, even and glossy, laying the nap, watering them and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of two thick rollers or cylinders, placed between boards or planks, the lower one being fixed, the upper one movable, and loaded with a great weight.

    CALENDRER, n. The person who calenders cloth.

    CALENDS, n. plu. Among the Romans, the fist day of each month. The origin of this name is differently related. Varro supposes it to have originated in the practice of notifying the time of the new moon, by a priest who called out or proclaimed the fact, to the people, and the number of the calends, or the day of the nones. Others alledge that the people be convened, the pontifex proclaimed the several feasts or holidays in the month; a custom which was discontinued in the year of Rom 450, when the fasti or calendar was set up in public places, to give notice of the festivals.

    CALENTURE, n. A violent ardent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially natives of cooler climates. It is attended with delirium, and one of the symptoms is, that the person affected imagines the sea to be a green field, and sometimes attempting to walk in it, is lost.

    CALF, n.

    1. The young of the cow, or of the bovine genus of quadrupeds.NWAD CALF.2

    2. In contempt, a dolt; an ignorant, stupid person; a weak or cowardly man.NWAD CALF.3

    3. The thick fleshy part of the leg behind; so called from its protuberance.NWAD CALF.4

    4. The calves of the lips, in Hosea, signify the pure offerings of prayer, praise and thanks-giving.NWAD CALF.5

    CALF-LIKE, a. Resembling a calf.

    CALF-SKIN, n. The hide or skin of a calf; or leather made of the skin.

    CALIBER, n.

    1. The diameter of a body; as the caliber of a column, or of a bullet.NWAD CALIBER.2

    2. The bore of a gun, or the extent of its bore.NWAD CALIBER.3

    Caliber-compasses, calibers, or callipers, a sort of compasses made with arched legs to take the diameter of round bodies, as masts, shot, etc. The legs move on an arch of brass, on which are marked the inches and half inches, to show how far the points of the compasses are opened asunder.NWAD CALIBER.4

    Caliber-rule, Gunners Callipers, an instrument in which a right line is so divided as that the first part being equal to the diameter of an iron or leaden ball of one pound weight, the other parts are to the first as the diameters of balls of two, three, four, etc. Pounds, are to the diameter of a ball of one pound. It is used by engineers, to determine, from a balls weight, its diameter or caliber and vice versa.NWAD CALIBER.5

    CALICE, n. A cup appropriately, a communion cup, or vessel used to administer the wine in the sacrament of the Lords supper. It is used by the Roman Catholics in the mass.

    CALICO, n. [said to be from Calicut, in India.] Cotton cloth. In England, white or unprinted cotton cloth is called calico. In the United States, calico is printed cotton cloth, having not more than two colors. I have never heard this name given to the unprinted cloth. Calico was originally imported from India, but is now manufactured in Europe and the United States.

    CALICO-PRINTER, n. One whose occupation is to print calicoes.

    CALID, a. Hot; burning; ardent.

    CALIDITY, n. Heat.

    CALIDUCT, n. Among the Ancients, a pipe or canal used to convey heat from a furnace to the apartments of a house.

    CALIF, n. Written also caliph and kalif. A successor or vicar; a representative of Mohammed, bearing the same relation to him as the Pope pretends to bear to St. Peter. Among the Saracens, or Mohammedans, a calif is one who is vested with supreme dignity and power in all matters relating to religion and civil policy. This title is borne by the Grand Signior in Turkcy, and by the Sophi of Persia.

    CALIFATE, CALIPHATE, KALIFATE, n. The office or dignity of a calif; or the government of a calif.

    CALIGATION, n. Darkness; dimness; cloudiness.

    In medical authors, caligation or caligo, is an opakeness or cloudiness of the anterior surface of the crystaline lens, causing dimness of sight; impaired sight from obstruction to the passage of light, or cataract.NWAD CALIGATION.2

    CALIGINOUS, a. Dim; obscure; dark.

    CALIGINOUSNESS, n. Dimness; obscurity.

    CALIGRAPHYIC, n. [Infra.] Pertaining to elegant penmanship.

    CALIGRAPHY, CALLIGRAPHY, n. Fair or elegant writing, or penmanship.

    CALIN, n. A compound metal, of which the Chinese make tea canisters and the like. The ingredients seem to be lead and tin.

    CALIVER, n. [from caliber.] A kind of handgun, musket or arquebuse.

    CALLIX, n.

    1. A cupNWAD CALLIX.2

    2. The membrane which covers the papillae in the pelvis of the human kidney. But it seem to be erroneously used for calyx, which see.NWAD CALLIX.3

    CALK, v.t. cauk.

    1. To drive oakum or old ropes untwised, into the seams of a ship or other vessel, to prevent their leaking, or admitting water. After the seams are filled, they are covered with hot melted pitch or rosin, to keep the oakum from rotting.NWAD CALK.2

    2. In some parts of America, to set upon a horse or ox shoes armed with sharp points of iron, to prevent their slipping on ice; that is, to stop from slipping.NWAD CALK.3

    CALK, n. Cauk. In New-England, a sharp pointed piece of iron on a shoe for a horse or an ox, called in Great Britain calking; used to prevent the animal from slipping.

    CALKER, n. Cauker. A man who calks; sometimes perhaps a calk or pointed iron on a house-shoe.

    CALKED, pp. Cauked. Having the seams stopped; furnished with shoes with iron points.

    CALKIN, n. A calk.

    CALKING, n. Cauking. In painting, the covering of the back side of a design with black lead, or red chalk, and tracing lines through on a waxed plate or wall or other matter, by passing lightly over each stroke of the design with a point, which leaves an impression of the color on the plate or wall.

    CALKING-IRON, n. Cauking-iron. An instrument like a chisel, used in calking ships.

    CALL, v.t. [Heb. To hold or restrain.] In a general sense, to drive; to strain or force out sound. Hence,

    1. To name; to denominate or give a name. And God called the light day, and the darkness he called night. Genesis 1:5.NWAD CALL.2

    2. To convoke; to summon; to direct or order to meet; to assemble by order or public notice; often with together; as, the king called his council together; the president called together the congress.NWAD CALL.3

    3. To request to meet or come.NWAD CALL.4

    He sent his servants to call them that were bidden. Matthew 22:3.NWAD CALL.5

    4. To invite.NWAD CALL.6

    Because I have called and ye refused. Proverbs 1:24.NWAD CALL.7

    5. To invite or summon to come or be present; to invite, or collect.NWAD CALL.8

    Call all your senses to you.NWAD CALL.9

    6. To give notice to come by authority; to command to come; as, call a servant.NWAD CALL.10

    7. To proclaim; to name, or publish the name.NWAD CALL.11

    Nor parish clerk, who calls the psalm so clear.NWAD CALL.12

    8. To appoint or designate, as for an office, duty or employment.NWAD CALL.13

    See, I have called by name Bezaleel. Exodus 31:2.NWAD CALL.14

    Paul called to be an apostle. Romans 1:1.NWAD CALL.15

    9. To invite; to warn; to exhort. Isaiah 22:12.NWAD CALL.16

    10. To invite or draw into union with Christ; to bring to know, believe and obey the gospel. Revelation 8:2-8.NWAD CALL.17

    11. To own and acknowledge. Hebrews 2:11.NWAD CALL.18

    12. To invoke or appeal to.NWAD CALL.19

    I call God for a record. 2 Corinthians 1:23.NWAD CALL.20

    13. To esteem or account. Isaiah 47:5; Matthew 3:15.NWAD CALL.21

    To call down, to invite, or to bring down.NWAD CALL.22

    To call back, to revoke, or retract; to recall; to summon or bring back.NWAD CALL.23

    To call for, to demand, require or claim, as a crime calls for punishment; or to cause to grow. Ezekiel 36:29. Also, to speak for; to ask; to request; as, to call for a dinner.NWAD CALL.24

    To call in, to collect, as to call in debts or money; or to draw from circulation, as to call in clipped coin; or to summon together; to invite to come together; as, to call in neighbors or friends.NWAD CALL.25

    To call forth, to bring or summon to action; as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind.NWAD CALL.26

    To call off, to summon away; to divert; as, to call off the attention; to call off workmen from their employment.NWAD CALL.27

    To call up, to bring into view or recollection; as, to call u the image of a deceased friend; also, to bring into action, or discussion; as, to call up a bill before a legislative body.NWAD CALL.28

    To call over, to read a list, name by name; to recite separate particulars in order, as a roll of names.NWAD CALL.29

    To call out, to summon to fight; to challenge; also, to summon into service; as, to call out the militia.NWAD CALL.30

    To call to mind, to recollect; to revive in memory.NWAD CALL.31

    CALL, v.i.

    1. To utter a loud sound, or to address by name; to utter the name; sometimes with to.NWAD CALL.33

    The angel of God called to Hagar. Genesis 21:17.NWAD CALL.34

    2. To stop, without intention of staying; to make a short stop; as, to call at the inn. This use Johnson supposes to have originated in the custom of denoting ones presence at the door by a call. It is common, in this phrase, to use at, as to call at the inn; or on, as to call on a friend. This application seems to be equivalent to speak, D. Kallen. Let us speak at this place.NWAD CALL.35

    To call on, to make a short visit to; also, to solicit payment, or make a demand of a debt. In a theological sense, to pray to or worship; as, to call on the name of the Lord. Genesis 4:26. To repeat solemnly.NWAD CALL.36

    To call out, to utter a loud voice; to bawl; a popular use of the phrase.NWAD CALL.37

    CALL, n.

    1. A vocal address, of summons or invitation; as, he will not come at a call.NWAD CALL.39

    2. Demand; requisition; public claim; as, listen to the calls of justice or humanity.NWAD CALL.40

    3. Divine vocation, or summons; as the call of Abraham.NWAD CALL.41

    4. Invitation; request of a public body or society; as, a clergyman has a call to settle in the ministry.NWAD CALL.42

    5. A summons from heaven; impulse.NWAD CALL.43

    St. Paul believed he had a call, when he persecuted the Christians.NWAD CALL.44

    6. Authority; command.NWAD CALL.45

    7. A short visit; as, to make a call; to give one a call that is, a speaking to; D. Kallen. To give one a call, is to stop a moment and speak or say a word; or to have a short conversation with.NWAD CALL.46

    8. Vocation; employment. In this sense calling is generally used.NWAD CALL.47

    9. A naming; a nomination.NWAD CALL.48

    10. Among hunters, a lesson blown on the horn, to comfort the hounds.NWAD CALL.49

    11. Among seamen, a whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to summon the sailors to their duty.NWAD CALL.50

    12. The English name of the mineral called by the Germans tungsten or wolfram.NWAD CALL.51

    13. Among fowlers, the noise or cry of a fowl, or a pipe to call birds by imitating their voice.NWAD CALL.52

    14. In legislative bodies, the call of the house, is a calling over the names of the members, to discover who is absent or for other purpose; a calling of names with a view to obtain answers from the person named.NWAD CALL.53

    CALLED, pp. Invited; summoned; addressed; named; appointed; invoked; assembled by order; recited.

    CALLER, n. One who calls.

    CALLET, CALLAT, n. A trull, or a scold.

    CALLET, v.i. To rail; to scold.

    CALLING, n.

    1. A naming, or inviting; a reading over or reciting in order, or a call of names with a view to obtain an answer, as in legislative bodies.NWAD CALLING.2

    2. Vocation; profession; trade; usual occupation, or employment.NWAD CALLING.3

    Pope. Swift. 1 Corinthians 7:20NWAD CALLING.4

    3. Class of persons engaged in any profession or employment.NWAD CALLING.5

    4. Divine summons, vocation, or invitation.NWAD CALLING.6

    Give all diligence to make your calling and election sure. 2 Peter 1:10.NWAD CALLING.7

    CALLIOPE, n. Calliopy. In Pagan mythology, the muse that presides over eloquence and heroic poetry.

    CALLIPERS. [See Caliber.]

    CALLOSITY, a. Hardness, or bony hardness; the hardness of the cicatrix of ulcers.

    CALLOUS, a.

    1. Hard; hardened; indurated; as an ulcer or some part of the body.NWAD CALLOUS.2

    2. Hardened in mind; insensible; unfeeling.NWAD CALLOUS.3

    CALLOUSLY, adv. In a hardened or unfeeling manner.

    CALLOUSNESS, n. Hardness, induration, applied to the body; insensibility, applied to the mind or heart.

    CALLOW, a. Destitute of feathers, naked; unfledged; as a young bird.

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