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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    INITIAL, a. [L. initialis, initium, beginning.]

    1. Beginning; placed at the beginning; as the initial letters of a name.NWAD INITIAL.2

    2. Beginning; incipient; as the initial symptoms of a disease.NWAD INITIAL.3

    INITIAL, n. The first letter of a name.

    INITIALLY, adv. In an incipient degree.

    INITIATE, v.t. [Low L. initio, to enter or begin, from initum, ineo, to enter; in and eo, to go.]

    1. To instruct in rudiments or principles; or to introduce into any society or sect by instructing the candidate in its principles or ceremonies; as, to initiate a person into the mysteries of Ceres.NWAD INITIATE.2

    2. To introduce into a new state or society; as, to initiate one into a club.NWAD INITIATE.3

    3. To instruct; to acquaint with; as, to initiate one in the higher branches of mathematics.NWAD INITIATE.4

    4. To begin upon.NWAD INITIATE.5

    INITIATE, v.i. To do the first act; to perform the first rite.

    INITIATE, a. Unpracticed.

    1. Begun; commenced. A tenant by the curtesy initiate, becomes so by the birth of a child, but his estate is not consummate till the death of the wife.NWAD INITIATE.8

    INITIATE, n. One who is initiated.

    INITAITED, pp. Instructed in the first principles; entered.

    INITIATING, ppr. Introducing by instruction, or by appropriate ceremonies.

    INITIATION, n. [L. initiatio.] The act or process of introducing one into a new society, by instructing him in its principles, rules or ceremonies; as, too initiate a person into a christian community.

    1. The act or process of making one acquainted with principles before unknown.NWAD INITIATION.2

    2. Admission by application of ceremonies or use of symbols; as, to initiate one into the visible church by baptism.NWAD INITIATION.3

    INITIATORY, a. Initiating or serving to initiate; introducing by instruction, or by the use and application of symbols or ceremonies.

    Two initiatory rites of the same general import cannot exist together.NWAD INITIATORY.2

    INITIATORY, n. [supra.] Introductory rite.

    INJECT, v.t. [L. injectus, injicio; in and jacio, to throw.]

    1. To throw in; to dart in; as, to inject any thing into the mouth or stomach.NWAD INJECT.2

    2. To cast or throw on.NWAD INJECT.3

    --And mound inject on mound.NWAD INJECT.4

    INJECTED, pp. Thrown in or on.

    INJECTING, ppr. Throwing in or on.

    INJECTION, n. [L. injectio.] The act of throwing in, particularly that of throwing a liquid medicine into the body by a syringe or pipe.

    1. A liquid medicine thrown into the body by a syringe or pipe; a clyster.NWAD INJECTION.2

    2. In anatomy, the act of filling the vessels of an animal body with some colored substance, in order to render visible their figures and ramifications.NWAD INJECTION.3

    INJOIN. [See Enjoin.]

    INJUCUNDITY, n. [L. injucunditas.] Unpleasantness; disagreeableness. [Little used.]

    INJUDICABLE, a. Not cognizable by a judge. [Little used.]

    INJUDICIAL, a. Not according to the forms of law.

    INJUDICIOUS, a. [in and judicious.] Not judicious; void of judgment; acting without judgment; unwise; as an injudicious person.

    1. Not according to sound judgment or discretion; unwise; as an injudicious measure.NWAD INJUDICIOUS.2

    INJUDICIOUSLY, adv. Without judgment; unwisely.

    INJUDICIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being injudicious or unwise.

    INJUNCTION, n. [L. injunctio, from injungo, to enjoin; in and jungo, to join.]

    1. A command; order; precept; the direction of a superior vested with authority.NWAD INJUNCTION.2

    For still they knew, and ought t’have still rememberedNWAD INJUNCTION.3

    The high injunction, not to taste that fruit.NWAD INJUNCTION.4

    2. Urgent advice or exhortation of persons not vested with absolute authority to command.NWAD INJUNCTION.5

    3. In law, a writ or order of the court of chancery, directed to an inferior court, or to parties and their counsel, directing them to stay proceedings, or to do some act, as to put the plaintiff in possession for want of the defendant’s appearance, to stay waste or other injury, etc. When the reason for granting an injunction ceases, the injunction is dissolved.NWAD INJUNCTION.6

    INJURE, v.t. [L. injuria, injury.]

    1. To hurt or wound, as the person; to impair soundness, as of health.NWAD INJURE.2

    2. To damage or lessen the value of, as goods or estate.NWAD INJURE.3

    3. To slander, tarnish or impair, as reputation or character.NWAD INJURE.4

    4. To impair or diminish; to annoy; as happiness.NWAD INJURE.5

    5. To give pain to; to grieve; as sensibility or feelings.NWAD INJURE.6

    7. To hurt or weaken; as, to injure a good cause.NWAD INJURE.7

    8. To impair; to violate; as, to injure rights.NWAD INJURE.8

    9. To make worse; as, great rains injure the roads.NWAD INJURE.9

    10. In general, to wrong the person, to damage the property, or to lessen the happiness of ourselves or others. A man injures his person by wounds, his estate by negligence or extravagance, and his happiness by vices. He injures his neighbor by violence to his person, by fraud, by calumny, and by non-fulfillment of his contracts.NWAD INJURE.10

    INJURED, pp. Hurt; wounded; damaged; impaired; weakened; made worse.

    INJURER, n. One who injures or wrongs.

    INJURING, ppr. Hurting; damaging; impairing; weakening; rendering worse.

    INJURIOUS, a. [L. injurius.]

    1. Wrongful; unjust; hurtful to the rights of another. That which impairs rights or prevents the enjoyment of them, is injurious.NWAD INJURIOUS.2

    2. Hurtful to the person or health. Violence is injurious to the person, as intemperance is to the health.NWAD INJURIOUS.3

    3. Affecting with damage or loss. Indolence is injurious to property.NWAD INJURIOUS.4

    4. Mischievous; hurtful; as the injurious consequences of sin or folly.NWAD INJURIOUS.5

    5. Lessening or tarnishing reputation. The very suspicion of cowardice is injurious to a soldier’s character.NWAD INJURIOUS.6

    6. Detractory; contumelious; hurting reputation; as, obscure hints as well as open detraction, are sometimes injurious to reputation.NWAD INJURIOUS.7

    7. In general, whatever gives pain to the body or mind, whatever impairs or destroys property or rights, whatever tarnishes reputation, whatever disturbs happiness, whatever retards prosperity or defeats the success of a good cause, is deemed injurious.NWAD INJURIOUS.8

    INJURIOUSLY, adv. Wrongfully; hurtfully; with injustice; mischievously.

    INJURIOUSNESS, n. The quality of being injurious or hurtful; injury.

    INJURY, n. [L. injuria; in and jus, juris, right.]

    1. In general, any wrong or damage done to a man’s person, rights, reputation or goods. That which impairs the soundness of the body or health, or gives pain, is an injury. That which impairs the mental faculties, is an injury. These injuries may be received by a fall or by other violence. Trespass, fraud, and non-fulfillment of covenants and contracts are injuries to rights. Slander is an injury to reputation, and so is cowardice and vice. Whatever impairs the quality or diminishes the value of goods or property, is an injury. We may receive injury by misfortune as well as by injustice.NWAD INJURY.2

    2. Mischief; detriment.NWAD INJURY.3

    Many times we do injury to a cause by dwelling on trifling arguments.NWAD INJURY.4

    3. Any diminution of that which is good, valuable or advantageous.NWAD INJURY.5

    INJUSTICE, n. [L. injustitia; in and justitia, justice.]

    1. Iniquity; wrong; any violation of another’s rights, as fraud in contracts, or the withholding of what is due. It has a particular reference to an unequal distribution of rights, property or privileges among persons who have equal claims.NWAD INJUSTICE.2

    2. The withholding from another merited praise, or ascribing to him unmerited blame.NWAD INJUSTICE.3

    INK, n. A black liquor or substance used for writing, generally made of an infusion of galls, copperas and gum-arabic.

    1. Any liquor used for writing or forming letters, as red ink, etc.NWAD INK.2

    2. A pigment.NWAD INK.3

    Printing ink is made by boiling lintseed oil, and burning it about a minute, and mixing it with lampblack, with an addition of soap and rosin.NWAD INK.4

    Ink for the rolling press, is made with lintseed oil burnt as above, and mixed with Frankfort black.NWAD INK.5

    Indian ink, from China, is composed of lampblack, and size or animal glue.NWAD INK.6

    Sympathetic ink, a liquor used in writing, which exhibits no color or appearance till some other means are used, such as holding it to the fire, or rubbing something over it.NWAD INK.7

    INK, v.t. To black or daub with ink.

    INKHORN, n. [ink and horn; horns being formerly used for holding ink.]

    1. A small vessel used to hold ink on a writing table or desk, or for carrying it about the person. Inkhorns are made of horn, glass or stone.NWAD INKHORN.2

    2. A portable case for the instruments of writing.NWAD INKHORN.3

    INKINESS, n. [from inky.] The state or quality of being inky.

    INKLE, n. A kind or narrow fillet; tape.

    INKLING, n. A hint or whisper; an intimation. [Little used.]

    INKMAKER, n. One whose occupation is to make ink.

    INKNOT, v.t. innot’. [in and knot.] To bind as with a knot.

    INKSTAND, n. A vessel for holding ink and other writing utensils.

    INK-STONE, n. A kind of small round stone of a white, red, gray, yellow or black color, containing a quantity of native vitriol or sulphate of iron; used in making ink.

    INKY, a. Consisting of ink; resembling ink; black.

    1. Tarnished or blackened with ink.NWAD INKY.2

    INLACE, v.t. [in and lace.] To embellish with variegations.

    INLAID, pp. of inlay, which see.

    INLAND, a. [in and land.] Interior; remote from the sea. Worcester in Massachusetts, and Lancaster in Pennsylvania, are large inland towns.

    1. Within land; remote from the ocean; as an inland lake or sea.NWAD INLAND.2

    2. Carried on within a country; domestic, not foreign; as inland trade or transportation; inland navigation.NWAD INLAND.3

    3. Confined to a country; drawn and payable in the same country; as an inland bill of exchange, distinguished from a foreign bill, which is drawn in one country on a person living in another.NWAD INLAND.4

    INLAND, n. The interior part of a country.

    INLANDER, n. One who lives in the interior of a country, or at a distance from the sea.

    INLANDISH, a. Denoting something inland; native.

    INLAPIDATE, v.t. [in and lapido, lapis, a stone.]

    To convert into a stony substance; to petrify. [Little used.]NWAD INLAPIDATE.2

    INLAY, v.t. pret. and pp. inlaid. [in and lay.]

    To veneer; to diversify cabinet or other work by laying in and fastening with glue, thin slices or leaves of fine wood, on a ground of common wood. This is used in making compartments.NWAD INLAY.2

    INLAY, n. Matter or pieces of wood inlaid, or prepared for inlaying.

    INLAYER, n. The person who inlays or whose occupation it is to inlay.

    INLAYING, ppr. The operation of diversifying or ornamenting work with thin pieces of wood, set in a ground of other wood.

    INLAW, v.t. To clear of outlawry or attainder.

    INLET, n. [in and let.] A passage or opening by which an inclosed place may be entered; place of ingress; entrance. Thus, a window is an inlet for light into a house; the senses are the inlets of ideas or perceptions into the mind.

    1. A bay or recess in the shore of the sea or of a lake or large river, or between isles.NWAD INLET.2

    In limine, [L.] at the threshold; at the beginning or outset.NWAD INLET.3

    INLIST, v.i. [in and list.] To enter into military service by signing articles and receiving a sum of money. [See List.]

    INLIST, v.t. To engage or procure to enter into military service. [See Enlist, a common spelling, but inlist is preferable.]

    INLISTED, pp. Engaged in military service, as a soldier.

    INLISTING, ppr. Entering or engaging in military service.

    INLISTMENT, n. The act of inlisting.

    These inlistments were for one year only.NWAD INLISTMENT.2

    1. The writing containing the terms of military service, and a list of names of those who enter into the service.NWAD INLISTMENT.3

    INLOCK, v.t. To lock or inclose one thing within another.

    INLY, a. [in and like.] Internal; interior; secret.

    INLY, adv. Internally; within; in the heart; secretly; as, to be inly pleased or grieved.

    INMATE, n. [in or inn, and mate.] A person who lodges or dwells in the same house with another, occupying different rooms, but using the same door for passing in and out of the house.

    1. A lodger; one who lives with a family, but is not otherwise connected with it than as a lodger.NWAD INMATE.2

    INMATE, a. Admitted as a dweller.

    INMOST, a. [in and most.] Deepest within; remotest from the surface or external part.

    The silent, slow, consuming firesNWAD INMOST.2

    Which on my inmost vitals prey.NWAD INMOST.3

    I got into the inmost court.NWAD INMOST.4

    INN, n. [Heb. To dwell or to pitch a tent.]

    1. A house for the lodging and entertainment of travelers. In America, it is often a tavern, where liquors are furnished for travelers and others.NWAD INN.2

    There was no room for them in the inn. Luke 2:7.NWAD INN.3

    2. In England, a college of municipal or common law professors and students; formerly, the town-house of a nobleman, bishop or other distinguished personage, in which he resided when he attended the court.NWAD INN.4

    Inns of court, colleges in which students of law reside and are instructed. The principal are the Inner Temple, the Middle Temple, Lincoln’s Inn, and Gray’s Inn.NWAD INN.5

    Inns of chancery, colleges in which young students formerly began their law studies. These are now occupied chiefly by attorneys, solicitors, etc.NWAD INN.6

    INNHOLDER, n. [inn and hold.] A person who keeps an inn or house for the entertainment of travelers; also, a taverner.

    1. An inhabitant.NWAD INNHOLDER.2

    INNKEEPER, n. [inn and keep.] An innholder. In America, the innkeeper is often a tavern keeper or taverner, as well as an innkeeper, the inn for furnishing lodgings and provisions being usually united with the tavern for the sale of liquors.

    INN, v.i. To take up lodging; to lodge.

    INN, v.t. To house; to put under cover.

    INNATE, a. [L. innatus, from innascor; in and nascor, to be born.]

    Inborn; native; natural. Innate ideas are such as are supposed to be stamped on the mind, at the moment when existence begins. Mr. Locke has taken great pains to prove that no such ideas exist.NWAD INNATE.2

    INNATED, for innate, is not used.

    INNATELY, adv. Naturally.

    INNATENESS, n. The quality of being innate.

    INNAVIGABLE, a. [L. innavigabilis; in and navigabilis. See Navigate.] That cannot be navigated; impassable by ships or vessels.

    INNER, a. [from in.] Interior; farther inward than something else, as an inner chamber; the inner court of a temple or palace.

    1. Interior; internal; not outward; as the inner man. Ephesians 3:16.NWAD INNER.2

    INNERLY, adv. More within.

    INNERMOST, a. Farthest inward; most remote from the outward part. Proverbs 18:8.

    INNERVE, v.t. innerv’. [in and nerve.] To give nerve to; to invigorate; to strengthen.

    INNING, n. The ingathering of grain.

    1. A term in cricket, a turn for using the bat.NWAD INNING.2

    INNINGS, n. Lands recovered from the sea.

    INNOCENCE, INNOCENCY, n. [L. innocentia; in and noceo, to hurt.]

    1. Properly, freedom from any quality that can injure; innoxiousness; harmlessness; as the innocence of a medicine which can do no harm. In this sense, the noun is not obsolete, though less used than the adjective.NWAD INNOCENCE.2

    2. In a moral sense, freedom from crime, sin or guilt; untainted purity of heart and life; unimpaired integrity.NWAD INNOCENCE.3

    Enjoyment left nothing to ask--innocence left nothing to fear.NWAD INNOCENCE.4

    3. Freedom from guilt or evil intentions; simplicity of heart; as the innocence of a child.NWAD INNOCENCE.5

    4. Freedom from the guilt of a particular sin or crime. This is the sense in which the word is most generally used, for perfect innocence cannot be predicated of man. A man charged with theft or murder may prove his innocence.NWAD INNOCENCE.6

    5. The state of being lawfully conveyed to a belligerent, or of not being contraband; as the innocence of a cargo, or of any merchandize.NWAD INNOCENCE.7

    INNOCENT, a. [L. innocens.]

    1. Properly, not noxious; not producing injury; free from qualities that can injure; harmless; innoxious; as an innocent medicine or remedy.NWAD INNOCENT.2

    2. Free from guilt; not having done wrong or violated any law; not tainted with sin; pure; upright. In this general sense, no human being that is a moral agent, can be innocent. It is followed by of.NWAD INNOCENT.3

    3. Free from the guilt of a particular crime or evil action; as, a man is innocent of the crime charged in the indictment.NWAD INNOCENT.4

    4. Lawful; permitted; as an innocent trade.NWAD INNOCENT.5

    5. Not contraband; not subject to forfeiture; as innocent goods carried to a belligerent nation.NWAD INNOCENT.6

    INNOCENT, n. One free from guilt or harm.

    1. A natural; an idiot. [Unusual.]NWAD INNOCENT.8

    INNOCENTLY, adv. Without harm; without incurring guilt.

    1. With simplicity; without evil design.NWAD INNOCENTLY.2

    2. Without incurring a forfeiture or penalty; as goods innocently imported.NWAD INNOCENTLY.3

    INNOCUOUS, a. [L. innocuus; in and noceo, to hurt.]

    Harmless; safe; producing no ill effect; innocent. Certain poisons used as medicines in small quantities, prove not only innocuous, but beneficial. It applied only to things; not to persons.NWAD INNOCUOUS.2

    INNOCUOUSLY, adv. Without harm; without injurious effects.

    INNOCUOUSNESS, n. Harmlessness; the quality of being destitute of mischievous qualities or effects.

    INNOMINABLE, a. Not to be named.

    INNOMINATE, a. Having no name; anonymous.

    INNOVATE, v.t. [L. innovo; in and novo, to make new, novus, new.]

    1. To change or alter by introducing something new.NWAD INNOVATE.2

    From his attempts upon the civil power, he proceeds to innovate God’s worship.NWAD INNOVATE.3

    2. To bring in something new.NWAD INNOVATE.4

    INNOVATE, v.i. To introduce novelties; to make changes in any thing established; with on. It is often dangerous to innovate on the customs of a nation.

    INNOVATED, pp. Changed by the introduction of something new.

    INNOVATING, ppr. Introducing novelties.

    INNOVATION, n. [from innovate.] Change made by the introduction of something new; change in established laws, customs, rites or practices. Innovation is expedient, when it remedies an evil, and safe, when men are prepared to receive it. Innovation is often used in an ill sense, for a change that disturbs settled opinions and practices without an equivalent advantage.

    INNOVATOR, n. An introducer of changes.

    Time is the greatest innovator.NWAD INNOVATOR.2

    1. One who introduces novelties, or who makes changes by introducing something new.NWAD INNOVATOR.3

    INNOXIOUS, a. [L. innoxius; in and noxius, noceo, to hurt.]

    1. Free from mischievous qualities; innocent; harmless; as an innoxious drug.NWAD INNOXIOUS.2

    2. Not producing evil; harmless in effects.NWAD INNOXIOUS.3

    Innoxious flames are often seen on the hair of men’s heads, and on horses’ manes.NWAD INNOXIOUS.4

    3. Free from crime; pure; innocent.NWAD INNOXIOUS.5

    INNOXIOUSLY, adv. Harmlessly; without mischief.

    1. Without harm suffered.NWAD INNOXIOUSLY.2

    INNOXIOUSNESS, n. Harmlessness.

    The innoxiousness of the small pox.NWAD INNOXIOUSNESS.2

    INNUENDO, n. [L. from innuo, to nod; in and nuo.]

    1. An oblique hint; a remote intimation or reference to a person or thing not named.NWAD INNUENDO.2

    Mercury--owns it a marriage by innuendo.NWAD INNUENDO.3

    2. In law, a word used to point out the precise person.NWAD INNUENDO.4

    INNUENT, a. [L. innuens.] Significant.

    INNUMERABILITY, INNUMERABLENESS, n. State of being innumerable.

    INNUMERABLE, a. [L. innumerabilis. See Number.]

    1. Not to be counted; that cannot be enumerated or numbered for multitude.NWAD INNUMERABLE.2

    2. In a loose sense, very numerous.NWAD INNUMERABLE.3

    INNUMERABLY, adv. Without number.

    INNUMEROUS, a. [L. innumerus; in and numerus, number.]

    Too many to be counted or numbered; innumerable.NWAD INNUMEROUS.2

    INNUTRITION, n. [in and nutrition.] Want of nutrition; failure of nourishment.

    INNUTRITIOUS, a. [in and nutritious.] Not nutritious; not supplying nourishment; not nourishing.

    INOBEDIENCE, n. Disobedience; neglect of obedience.

    INOBEDIENT, a. Not yielding obedience; neglecting to obey.

    INOBSERVABLE, a. [in and observable.]

    That cannot be seen, perceived or observed.NWAD INOBSERVABLE.2

    INOBSERVANCE, n. Want of observance; neglect of observing; disobedience.

    INOBSERVANT, a. [in and observant.] Not taking notice.

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