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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    GRAVITATION, n. The act of tending to the center.

    1. The force by which bodies are pressed or drawn, or by which they tend towards the center of the earth or other center, or the effect of that force. Thus the falling of a body to the earth is ascribed to gravitation.NWAD GRAVITATION.2

    GRAVITY, n. [L. gravitas, from gravis, heavy. See Grave.]

    1. Weight; heaviness.NWAD GRAVITY.2

    2. In philosophy, that force by which bodies tend or are pressed or drawn towards the center of the earth, or towards some other center, or the effect of that force; in which last sense gravity is synonymous with weight.NWAD GRAVITY.3

    Gravity is the tendency of great bodies to a center, or the sum or results of all the attractions of all the molecules composing a great body.NWAD GRAVITY.4

    3. Specific gravity, the weight belonging to an equal bulk of every different substance. Thus the exact weight of a cubic inch of gold, compared with that of a cubic inch of gold, compared with that of a cubic inch of water or tin, is called its specific gravity. The specific gravity of bodies is usually ascertained by weighing them in distilled water.NWAD GRAVITY.5

    4. Seriousness; sobriety of manners; solemnity of deportment or character.NWAD GRAVITY.6

    Great Cato there, for gravity renowned.NWAD GRAVITY.7

    5. Weight; enormity; atrociousness; as the gravity of an injury. [Not used.]NWAD GRAVITY.8

    6. In music, lowness of sound.NWAD GRAVITY.9

    GRAVY, n. The fat and other liquid matter that drips from flesh in roasting, or when roasted or baked, or a mixture of that juice with flour.

    GRAY, a. [This is probably the name given to the Greeks, on account of their fair complexion compared with the Asiatics and Africans. [See Europe.] “Keto bore to Phorcus the Graiae with fair cheeks, white from their birth, and hence they were called Graiae.” The Greek word is rendered an old woman, and in this passage of Hesiod, is supposed to mean certain deities. The probability is, that it is applied to an old woman, because she is gray. But the fable of Hesiod is easily explained by supposing the author to have had in his mind some imperfect account of the origin of the Greeks.]

    1. White, with a mixture of black.NWAD GRAY.2

    These gray and dun colors may be also produced by mixing whites and blacks.NWAD GRAY.3

    2. White; hoary; as gray hair. We apply the word to hair that is partially or wholly white.NWAD GRAY.4

    3. Dark; of a mixed color; of the color of ashes; as gray eyes; the gray-eyed morn.NWAD GRAY.5

    4. Old; mature; as gray experience.NWAD GRAY.6

    GRAY, n. A gray color.

    1. A badger.NWAD GRAY.8

    GRAY-BEARD, n. An old man.

    GRAY-EYED, a. Having gray eyes.

    GRAYFLY, n. The trumpet-fly.

    GRAY-HAIRED, a. Having gray hair.

    GRAY-HEADED, a. Having a gray head or gray hair.

    GRAYHOUND, n. A tall fleet dog, used in the chase.

    GRAYISH, a. Somewhat gray; gray in a moderate degree.

    GRAYLING, n. A fish of the genus Salmo, called also umber, a voracious fish, about sixteen or eighteen inches in length, of a more elegant figure than the trout; the back and sides of a silvery gray color. It is found in clear rapid streams in the north of Europe, and is excellent food.

    GRAYNESS, n. The quality of being gray.

    GRAYWACKE, n. A rock somewhat remarkable in its structure and geological relations; a kind of sandstone, composed of grains or fragments of different minerals, chiefly of quartz, feldspar, siliceous slate and argillite. These fragments are sometimes angular, and sometimes their edges and angles are rounded, thus forming nodules or globular masses. The size is very variable, passing from grains to nodules of a foot in diameter. The several ingredients are united by an indurated argillaceous substance, or the interstices between the larger fragments are filled by the same materials which compose the larger parts of the rock, but in grains so comminuted as to resemble a homogeneous cement. The colors are some shade of gray or brown, as bluish gray, reddish brown. etc.

    GRAZE, v.t. [L. rado, rasi, or rodo, rosi.]

    1. To rub or touch lightly in passing; to brush lightly in passing; as, the bullet grazed the wall or the earth.NWAD GRAZE.2

    2. To feed or supply cattle with grass; to furnish pasture for; as, the farmer grazes large herds of cattle.NWAD GRAZE.3

    3. To feed on; to eat from the ground, as growing herbage.NWAD GRAZE.4

    The lambs with wolves shall graze the verdant mead.NWAD GRAZE.5

    4. To tend grazing cattle; as, Jacob grazed Laban’s sheep.NWAD GRAZE.6

    GRAZE, v.i. To eat grass; to feed on growing herbage; as, cattle graze on the meadows.

    1. To supply grass; as, the ground will not graze well.NWAD GRAZE.8

    2. To move on devouring.NWAD GRAZE.9

    GRAZED, pp. Touched lightly by a passing body; brushed.

    1. Fed by growing grass; as, cattle are grazed.NWAD GRAZED.2

    2. Eaten, as growing herbage; as, the fields were grazed.NWAD GRAZED.3

    GRAZER, n. One that grazes or feeds on growing herbage.

    GRAZIER, n. gra’zhur. One who feeds cattle with grass, or supplies them with pasture.

    GRAZING, ppr. Touching lightly, as a moving body.

    1. Feeding on growing herbage; as grazing cattle.NWAD GRAZING.2

    2. Supplying pasture; as a grazing farm.NWAD GRAZING.3

    GREASE, n.

    1. Animal fat in a soft state; oily or unctuous matter of any kind, as tallow, lard; but particularly the fatty matter of land animals, as distinguished from the oily matter of marine animals.NWAD GREASE.2

    2. A swelling and gourdiness of a horse’s legs, occasioned by traveling or by standing long in a stable.NWAD GREASE.3

    GREASE, v.t. greez. To smear, anoint or daub with grease or fat.

    1. To bribe; to corrupt with presents. [Not elegant.]NWAD GREASE.5

    GREASED, pp. Smeared with oily matter; bribed.

    GREASILY, adv. With grease or an appearance of it; grossly.

    GREASINESS, n. The state of being greasy; oiliness; unctuousness.

    GREASING, ppr. Smearing with fat or oily matter; bribing.

    GREASY, a. greez’y. Oily; fat; unctuous.

    1. Smeared or defiled with grease.NWAD GREASY.2

    2. Like grease or oil; smooth; as a fossil that has a greasy feel.NWAD GREASY.3

    3. Fat of body; bulky. [Little used.]NWAD GREASY.4

    4. Gross; indelicate; indecent.NWAD GREASY.5

    GREAT, a. [L. crassus.]

    1. Large in bulk or dimensions; a term of comparison, denoting more magnitude or extension than something else, or beyond what is usual; as a great body; a great house; a great farm.NWAD GREAT.2

    2. Being of extended length or breadth; as a great distance; a great lake.NWAD GREAT.3

    3. Large in number; as a great many; a great multitude.NWAD GREAT.4

    4. Expressing a large, extensive or unusual degree of any thing; as great fear; great love; great strength; great wealth; great power; great influence; great folly.NWAD GREAT.5

    5. Long continued; as a great while.NWAD GREAT.6

    6. Important; weighty; as a great argument; a great truth; a great event; a thing of no great consequence; it is no great matter.NWAD GREAT.7

    7. Chief; principal; as the great seal of England.NWAD GREAT.8

    8. Chief; of vast power and excellence; supreme; illustrious; as the great God; the great Creator.NWAD GREAT.9

    9. Vast; extensive; wonderful; admirable.NWAD GREAT.10

    Great are thy works. Jehovah.NWAD GREAT.11

    10. Possessing large or strong powers of mind; as a great genius.NWAD GREAT.12

    11. Having made extensive or unusual acquisitions of science or knowledge; as a great philosopher or botanist; a great scholar.NWAD GREAT.13

    12. Distinguished by rank, office or power; elevated; eminent; as a great lord; the great men of the nation; the great Mogul; Alexander the great.NWAD GREAT.14

    13. Dignified in aspect, mien or manner.NWAD GREAT.15

    Amidst the crowd she walks serenely great.NWAD GREAT.16

    14. Magnanimous; generous; of elevated sentiments; high-minded. He has a great soul.NWAD GREAT.17

    15. Rich; sumptuous; magnificent. He disdained not to appear at great tables. A great feast or entertainment.NWAD GREAT.18

    16. Vast; sublime; as a great conception or idea.NWAD GREAT.19

    17. Dignified; noble.NWAD GREAT.20

    Nothing can be great which is not right.NWAD GREAT.21

    18. Swelling; proud; as, he was not disheartened by great looks.NWAD GREAT.22

    19. Chief; principal; much traveled; as a great road. The ocean is called the great highway of nations.NWAD GREAT.23

    20. Pregnant; teeming; as great with young.NWAD GREAT.24

    21. Hard; difficult. It is no great matter to live in peace with meek people.NWAD GREAT.25

    22. Familiar; intimate. [Vulgar.]NWAD GREAT.26

    23. Distinguished by extraordinary events, or unusual importance. Jude 6.NWAD GREAT.27

    24. Denoting a degree of consanguinity, in the ascending or descending line, as great grandfather, the father of a grandfather; great great grandfather, the father of a great grandfather, and so on indefinitely; and great grandson, great great grandson. etc.NWAD GREAT.28

    25. Superior; preeminent; as great chamberlain; great marshal.NWAD GREAT.29

    The sense of great is to be understood by the things it is intended to qualify. Great pain or wrath is violent pain or wrath; great love is ardent love; great peace is entire peace; a great name is extensive renown; a great evil or sin, is a sin of deep malignity, etc.NWAD GREAT.30

    GREAT, n. The whole; the gross; the lump or mass; as, a carpenter contracts to build a ship by the great.

    1. People of rank or distinction. The poor envy the great, and the great despise the poor.NWAD GREAT.32

    GREAT-BELLIED, a. Pregnant; teeming.

    GREATEN, v.t. To enlarge.

    GREAT-HEARTED, a. High-spirited; undejected.

    GREATLY, adv. In a great degree; much.

    I will greatly multiply thy sorrow. Genesis 3:16.NWAD GREATLY.2

    1. Nobly; illustriously.NWAD GREATLY.3

    By a high fate, thou greatly didst expire.NWAD GREATLY.4

    2. Magnanimously; generously; bravely.NWAD GREATLY.5

    He greatly scorned to turn his back on his foe. He greatly spurned the offered boon.NWAD GREATLY.6

    GREATNESS, n. Largeness of bulk, dimensions, number or quantity; as the greatness of a mountain, of an edifice, of a multitude, or of a sum of money. With reference to solid bodies, however, we more generally use bulk, size, extent or magnitude than greatness; as the bulk or size of the body; the extent of the ocean; the magnitude of the sun or of the earth.

    1. Large amount; extent; as the greatness of a reward.NWAD GREATNESS.2

    2. High degree; as the greatness of virtue or vice.NWAD GREATNESS.3

    3. High rank or place; elevation; dignity; distinction; eminence; power; command.NWAD GREATNESS.4

    4. Swelling pride; affected state.NWAD GREATNESS.5

    It is not of pride or greatness that he cometh not aboard your ships.NWAD GREATNESS.6

    5. Magnanimity; elevation of sentiment; nobleness; as greatness of mind.NWAD GREATNESS.7

    Virtue is the only solid basis of greatness.NWAD GREATNESS.8

    6. Strength or extent of intellectual faculties; as the greatness of genius.NWAD GREATNESS.9

    7. Large extent or variety; as the greatness of a man’s acquisitions.NWAD GREATNESS.10

    8. Grandeur; pomp; magnificence.NWAD GREATNESS.11

    Greatness with Timon dwells in such a draught,NWAD GREATNESS.12

    As brings all Brobdignag before your thought.NWAD GREATNESS.13

    9. Force; intensity; as the greatness of sound, of passion, heat, etc.NWAD GREATNESS.14

    GREAVE, for grove and groove. [See Grove and Groove.]

    GREAVES, n. plu. greevz. Armor for the legs; a sort of boots. 1 Samuel 17:6.

    GREBE, n. A fowl of the genus Colymbus and order of ansers, of several species; as the tippet-grebe, the horned grebe, the eared grebe or dob-chick.

    GRECIAN, a. Pertaining to Greece.

    GRECIAN, n. A native of Greece. Also, a Jew who understood Greek. Acts 6:1.

    1. One well versed in the Greek language.NWAD GRECIAN.3

    GRECISM, n. [L. groecismus.] An idiom of the Greek language.

    GRECIZE, v.t. To render Grecian.

    1. To translate into Greek.NWAD GRECIZE.2

    GRECIZE, v.i. To speak the Greek language.

    GREE, n. Good will.

    1. Step; rank; degree. [See Degree.]NWAD GREE.2

    GREE, v.i. To agree. [See Agree.]

    GREECE, n. [L. gressus. It ought to be written grese, but it is entirely obsolete.] A flight of steps.

    GREED, n. Greediness.

    GREEDILY, adv. [See Greedy.] With a keen appetite for food or drink; voraciously; ravenously; as, to eat or swallow greedily.

    1. With keen or ardent desire; eagerly. Jude 11.NWAD GREEDILY.2

    GREEDINESS, n. Keenness of appetite for food or drink; ravenousness; voracity.

    Fox in stealth, wolf in greediness.NWAD GREEDINESS.2

    1. Ardent desire.NWAD GREEDINESS.3

    GREEDY, a. [L. gradior, and probably signifies reaching forward.]

    1. Having a keen appetite for food or drink; ravenous; voracious; very hungry; followed by of; as a lion that is greedy of his prey. Psalm 17:12.NWAD GREEDY.2

    2. Having a keen desire of any thing; eager to obtain; as greedy of gain.NWAD GREEDY.3

    GREEK, a. Pertaining to Greece. [See Gray.]

    GREEK, n. A native of Greece.

    1. The language of Greece.NWAD GREEK.3

    Greek-fire, a combustible composition, the constituents of which are supposed to be asphalt, with niter and sulphur.NWAD GREEK.4

    GREEKISH, a. Peculiar to Greece.

    GREEKLING, n. An inferior Greek writer.

    GREEKROSE, n. The flower campion.

    GREEN, a.

    1. Properly, growing, flourishing, as plants; hence, of the color of herbage and plants when growing, a color composed of blue and yellow rays, one of blue and yellow rays, one of the original prismatic colors; verdant.NWAD GREEN.2

    2. New; fresh; recent; as a green wound.NWAD GREEN.3

    The greenest usurpation.NWAD GREEN.4

    3. Fresh; flourishing; undecayed; as green old age.NWAD GREEN.5

    4. Containing its natural juices; not dry; not seasoned; as green wood; green timber.NWAD GREEN.6

    5. Not roasted; half raw.NWAD GREEN.7

    We say the meat is green, when half-roasted.NWAD GREEN.8

    [Rarely, if ever used in America.]NWAD GREEN.9

    6. Unripe; immature; not arrived to perfection; as green fruit. Hence,NWAD GREEN.10

    7. Immature in age; young; as green in age or judgment.NWAD GREEN.11

    8. Pale; sickly; wan; of a greenish pale color.NWAD GREEN.12

    GREEN, n. The color of growing plants; a color composed of blue and yellow rays, which, mixed in different proportions, exhibit a variety of shades; as apple green, meadow green, leek green, etc.

    1. A grassy plain or plat; a piece of ground covered with verdant herbage.NWAD GREEN.14

    O’er the smooth enameled green.NWAD GREEN.15

    2. Fresh leaves or branches of trees or other plants; wreaths; usually in the plural.NWAD GREEN.16

    The fragrant greens I seek, my brows to bind.NWAD GREEN.17

    3. The leaves and stems of young plants used in cookery or dressed for food in the spring; in the plural.NWAD GREEN.18

    GREEN, v.t. To make green. This is used by Thomson and by Barlow, but is not an elegant word, nor indeed hardly legitimate, in the sense in which these writers use it. “Spring greens the year.” “God greens the groves.” The only legitimate sense of this verb, if used, would be, to dye green, or to change to a green color. A plant growing in a dark room is yellow; let this plant be carried into the open air, and the rays of the sun will green it. This use would correspond with the use of whiten, blacken, redden.

    GREENBROOM, GREENWEED, n. A plant of the genus Genista.

    GREENCLOTH, n. A board or court of justice held in the counting house of the British king’s household, composed of the lord steward and the officers under him. This court has the charge and cognizance of all matters of justice in the king’s household, with power to correct offenders and keep the peace of the verge, or jurisdiction of the court-royal, which extends every way two hundred yards from the gate of the palace.

    GREEN-CROP, n. A crop of green vegetables, such as artificial grasses, turnips, etc.

    GREEN-EARTH, n. A species of earth or mineral, so called; the mountain green of artists.

    GREEN-EYED, a. Having green eyes; as green-eyed jealousy.

    GREENFINCH, n. A bird of the genus Fringilla.

    GREENFISH, n. A fish so called.

    GREENGAGE, n. A species of plum.

    GREEN-GROCER, n. A retailer of greens.

    GREENHAIRED, a. Having green locks or hair.

    GREENHOOD, n. A state of greenness.

    GREENHORN, n. A raw youth.

    GREEN-HOUSE, n. A house in which tender plants are sheltered from the weather, and preserved green during the winter or cold weather.

    GREENISH, a. Somewhat green; having a tinge of green; as a greenish yellow.

    GREENISHNESS, n. The quality of being greenish.

    GREENLY, adv. With a green color; newly; freshly; immaturely.

    GREENNESS, n. The quality of being green; viridity; as the greenness of grass or of a meadow.

    1. Immaturity; unripeness; in a literal or figurative sense; as the greenness of fruit; the greenness of youth.NWAD GREENNESS.2

    2. Freshness; vigor.NWAD GREENNESS.3

    3. Newness.NWAD GREENNESS.4

    GREEN-SICKNESS, n. The chlorosis, a disease of maids, so called from the color it occasions in the face.

    GREEN-STALL, n. A stall on which greens are exposed to sale.

    GREENSTONE, n. [so called from a tinge of green in the color.]

    A rock of the trap formation, consisting of hornblend and feldspar in the state of grains or small crystals.NWAD GREENSTONE.2

    GREEN-SWARD, n. Turf green with grass.

    GREEN-WEED, n. Dyer’s weed.

    GREENWOOD, n. Wood when green, as in summer.

    GREENWOOD, a. Pertaining to a greenwood; as a greenwood shade.

    GREET, v.t. [L. rudo, to bray, to roar.]

    1. To address with expressions of kind wishes; to salute in kindness and respect.NWAD GREET.2

    My lord, the Mayor if London comes to greet you.NWAD GREET.3

    2. To address at meeting; to address in any manner.NWAD GREET.4

    3. To congratulate.NWAD GREET.5

    4. To pay compliments at a distance; to send kind wishes to. Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:21.NWAD GREET.6

    5. To meet and address with kindness; or to express kind wishes accompanied with an embrace. 1 Thessalonians 5:26.NWAD GREET.7

    6. To meet.NWAD GREET.8

    GREET, v.i. To meet and salute.

    There greet in silence, as the dead are wont,NWAD GREET.10

    And sleep in peace.NWAD GREET.11

    1. To weep; written by Spenser greit.NWAD GREET.12

    GREETED, pp. Addressed with kind wishes; complimented.

    GREETER, n. One who greets.

    GREETING, ppr. Addressing with kind wishes or expressions of joy; complimenting; congratulating; saluting.

    GREETING, n. Expression of kindness or joy; salutation at meeting; compliment addressed from one absent.

    GREEZE, n. [L. gressus.] A step, or flight of steps. [See Greece.]

    GREFFIER, n. A registrar, or recorder.

    GREGAL, a. [L. grex.] Pertaining to a flock.

    GREGARIAN, a. [See Gregarious.] Belonging to the herd or common sort.

    GREGARIOUS, a. [L. gregarius, from grex, a herd.]

    Having the habit of assembling or living in a flock or herd; not habitually solitary or living alone. Cattle and sheep are gregarious animals. Many species of birds are gregarious. Rapacious animals are generally not gregarious.NWAD GREGARIOUS.2

    GREGARIOUSLY, adv. In a flock or herd; in a company.

    GREGARIOUSNESS, n. The state or quality of living in flocks or herds.

    GREGORIAN, a. Denoting what belongs to Gregory. The Gregorian calendar, is one which shows the new and full moon, with the time of Easter, and the movable feasts depending thereon, by means of epacts. The Gregorian year, is the present year, as reformed by pope Gregory XIII, in 1582; consisting of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 47 seconds, with an additional day every fourth year.

    GREIT, v.i. To lament.

    GREITH, v.t. To make ready.

    GREITH, n. Goods; furniture.

    GREMIAL, a. [L. gremium.] Belonging to the lap or bosom.

    GRENADE, n. In the art of war, a hollow ball or shell of iron or other metal, about two inches and a half in diameter, to be filled with powder which is to be fired by means of a fusee, and thrown by hand among enemies. This, bursting into many pieces, does great injury, and is particularly useful in annoying an enemy in trenches and other lodgments.


    1. A foot soldier, wearing a high cap. Grenadiers are usually tall, active soldiers, distinguished from others chiefly by their dress and arms; a company of them is usually attached to each battalion.NWAD GRENADIER.2

    2. A fowl found in Angola, in Africa.NWAD GRENADIER.3

    GRENATITE, n. Staurotide or staurolite, a mineral of a dark reddish brown. It occurs imbedded in mica slate, and in talc, and is infusible by the blowpipe. It is called also prismatic garnet.

    GREW, pret. of grow.

    GREY. [See Gray.]

    GREYHOUND, n. A tall fleet dog, kept for the chase.

    GRICE, n. A little pig.

    GRIDDLE, n. A pan, broad and shallow, for baking cakes.

    GRIDE, v.t. [Eng. to cry.] To grate, or to cut with a grating sound; to cut; to penetrate or pierce harshly; as the griding sword.

    That through his thigh the mortal steel did gride.NWAD GRIDE.2

    GRIDELIN, n. A color mixed of white and red, or a gray violet.

    GRIDIRON, n. A grated utensil for broiling flesh and fish over coals.

    GRIEF ,n. [L. gravis.]

    1. The pain of mind produced by loss, misfortune, injury or evils of any kind; sorrow; regret. We experience grief when we lose a friend, when we incur loss, when we consider ourselves injured, and by sympathy, we feel grief at the misfortunes of others.NWAD GRIEF.2

    2. The pain of mind occasioned by our own misconduct; sorrow or regret that we have done wrong; pain accompanying repentance. We feel grief when we have offended or injured a friend, and the consciousness of having offended the Supreme Being, fills the penitent heart with the most poignant grief.NWAD GRIEF.3

    3. Cause of sorrow; that which afflicts.NWAD GRIEF.4

    Who were a grief of mind to Isaac and Rebekah. Genesis 26:35.NWAD GRIEF.5

    A foolish son is a grief to his father. Proverbs 17:25.NWAD GRIEF.6

    GRIEFFUL, a. Full of grief or sorrow.

    GRIEFSHOT, a. Pierced with grief.

    GRIEVABLE, a. Lamentable.

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