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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    PROJECT, v.t. [L. projicio; pro, forward, and jacio, to throw.]

    1. To throw out; to cast or shoot forward.NWAD PROJECT.2

    Th’ ascending villasNWAD PROJECT.3

    Project long shadows o’er the crystal tide.NWAD PROJECT.4

    2. To cast forward in the mind; to scheme; to contrive; to devise something to be done; as, to project a plan for paying off the national debt; to project an expedition to South America; to project peace or war.NWAD PROJECT.5

    3. To draw or exhibit, as the form of any thing; to delineate.NWAD PROJECT.6

    PROJECT, v.i. To shoot forward; to extend beyond something else; to jut; to be prominent; as, the cornice projects.

    PROJECT, n. A scheme; a design; something intended or devised; contrivance; as the project of a canal from the Hudson to the lakes; all our projects of happiness are liable to be frustrated.

    1. An idle scheme; a design not practicable; as a man given to projects.NWAD PROJECT.9

    PROJECTED, pp. Cast out or forward; schemed; devised; delineated.

    PROJECTILE, a. Impelling forward; as a projectile force.

    1. Given by impulse; impelled forward; as projectile motion.NWAD PROJECTILE.2

    PROJECTILE, n. A body projected, or impelled forward by force, particularly through the air.

    1. Projectiles, in mechanical philosophy, is that part which treats of the motion of bodies thrown or driven by an impelling force from the surface of the earth, and affected by gravity and the resistance of the air.NWAD PROJECTILE.4

    PROJECTING, ppr. Throwing out or forward; shooting out; jutting; scheming; contriving.

    PROJECTION, n. [L. projectio.] The act of throwing or shooting forward.

    1. A jutting out; extension beyond something else.NWAD PROJECTION.2

    2. The act of scheming; plan; scheme; design of something to be executed.NWAD PROJECTION.3

    3. Plan; delineation; the representation of something; as the projection of the sphere, is a representation of the circles on the surface of the sphere. There are three principal points of projection; the stereographic, in which the eye is supposed to be placed on the surface of the sphere; the orthographic, in which the eye is supposed to be at an infinite distance; and the gnomonic, in which the eye is placed in the center of the sphere.NWAD PROJECTION.4

    In perspective, projection denotes the appearance or representation of an object on the perspective plane.NWAD PROJECTION.5

    4. In alchimy, the casting of a certain powder, called powder of projection, into a crucible or other vessel full of some prepared metal or other matter, which is to be thereby transmuted into gold.NWAD PROJECTION.6

    PROJECTMENT, n. Design; contrivance. [Little used.]

    PROJECTOR, n. One who forms a scheme or design.

    1. One who forms wild or impracticable schemes.NWAD PROJECTOR.2

    PROJECTURE, n. A jutting or standing out beyond the line or surface of something else.

    PROLAPSE, n. prolaps’. [L. prolapsus, prolabor.]

    A falling down or falling out of some part of the body, as of the uterus or intestines.NWAD PROLAPSE.2

    PROLAPSE, v.i. prolaps’. To fall down or out; to project too much.

    PROLAPSION, PROLAPSUS, [See Prolapse.]

    PROLATE, v.t. [L. prolatum, profero.]

    To utter; to pronounce. [Not used.]NWAD PROLATE.2

    PROLATE, a. [supra.] Extended beyond the line of an exact sphere. A prolate spheriod is produced by the revolution of a semi-ellipsis about its larger diameter.

    PROLATION, n. [L. prolatio, from profero.]

    Utterance; pronunciation. [Little used.]NWAD PROLATION.2

    1. Delay; act of deferring. [Not used.]NWAD PROLATION.3

    2. A method in music of determining the power of semibreves and minims.NWAD PROLATION.4

    PROLEGOMENA, n. plu. [Gr. to speak.] Preliminary observations; introductory remarks or discourses prefixed to a book or treatise.

    PROLEPSIS, PROLEPSY, n. [Gr. to take.]

    1. Anticipation; a figure in rhetoric by which objections are anticipated or prevented.NWAD PROLEPSIS.2

    2. An error in chronology, when an event is dated before the actual time; an anachronism.NWAD PROLEPSIS.3

    PROLEPTIC, PROLEPTICAL, a. Pertaining to prolepsis or anticipation.

    1. Previous; antecedent.NWAD PROLEPTIC.2

    2. In medicine, anticipating the usual time; applied to a periodical disease, whose paroxysm returns at an earlier hour at every repetition.NWAD PROLEPTIC.3

    PROLEPTICALLY, adv. By way of anticipation.

    PROLETARIAN, a. [L. proletarius, from proles, offspring.] vile; vulgar. [Not used.]

    PROLETARY, n. A common person. [Not used.]

    PROLIFEROUS, a. [infra.] In botany, prolific; as a proliferous flower.

    A proliferous stem is one which puts forth branches only from the center of the top, or which shoots out new branches from the summits of the former ones, as the pine and fir.NWAD PROLIFEROUS.2

    A proliferous umbel is a compound umbel which has the umbellicle subdivided.NWAD PROLIFEROUS.3

    PROLIFIC, PROLIFICAL, a. [L. proles, offspring, and facio, to make.]

    1. Producing young or fruit; fruitful; generative; productive; applied to animals and plants; as a prolific female; a prolific tree.NWAD PROLIFIC.2

    2. Productive; having the quality of generating; as a controversy prolific of evil consequences; a prolific brain.NWAD PROLIFIC.3

    3. A prolific flower, [prolifer,] in botany is one which produces a second flower from its own substance, or which has smaller flowers growing out of the principal one. But proliferous is commonly used.NWAD PROLIFIC.4

    PROLIFICACY, n. Fruitfulness; great productiveness.

    PROLIFICALLY, adv. Fruitfully; with great increase.

    PROLIFICATION, n. [See Prolific.] The generation of young or of plants.

    1. In botany, the production of a second flower from the substance of the first. This is either from the center of a simple flower, or from the side of an aggregate flower.NWAD PROLIFICATION.2

    PROLIFICNESS, n. The state of being prolific.

    PROLIX, a. [L. prolixus; pro and laxus, literally drawn out.]

    1. Long; extended to a great length; minute in narration or argument; applied only to discourses, speeches and writings; as a prolix oration; a prolix poem; a prolix sermon.NWAD PROLIX.2

    2. Of long duration. [Not in use.]NWAD PROLIX.3

    PROLIXITY, PROLIXNESS, n. Great length; minute detail; applied only to discourses and writings. Prolixity is not always tedious.

    PROLIXLY, adv. At great length.

    PROLOCUTOR, n. [L. proloquor; pro and loquor, to speak.]

    The speaker or chairman of a convocation.NWAD PROLOCUTOR.2

    PROLOCUTORSHIP, n. The office of station of a prolocutor.

    PROLOGIZE, v.i. To deliver a prologue. [Not in use.]

    PROLOGUE, n. pro’log. [L. prologue; Gr. discourse.]

    The preface or introduction to a discourse, or performance, chiefly the discourse or poem spoken before a dramatic performance or play begins.NWAD PROLOGUE.2

    PROLOGUE, v.t. pro’log. To introduce with a formal preface.

    PROLONG, v.t. [L. pro and longus. See Long.]

    1. To lengthen in time; to extend the duration of. Temperate habits tend to prolong life.NWAD PROLONG.2

    2. To lengthen; to draw out in time by delay; to continue.NWAD PROLONG.3

    Th’ unhappy queen with talk prolong’d the night.NWAD PROLONG.4

    3. To put off to a distant time.NWAD PROLONG.5

    For I myself am not so well providedNWAD PROLONG.6

    As else I would be, were the day prolong’d.NWAD PROLONG.7

    4. To extend in space or length.NWAD PROLONG.8

    PROLONGATE, v.t. To extend or lengthen in space; as, to prolongate a line.

    1. To extend in time. [Little used.]NWAD PROLONGATE.2

    PROLONGATED, pp. Extended in space; continued in length.

    PROLONGATING, ppr. Lengthening in space.

    PROLONGATION, n. The act of lengthening in time or space; as the prolongation of life.

    The prolongation of a line.NWAD PROLONGATION.2

    1. Extension of time by delay or postponement; as the prolongation of days for payment.NWAD PROLONGATION.3

    PROLONGED, pp. Lengthened in duration or space.

    PROLONGER, n. He or that which lengthens in time or space.

    PROLONGING, ppr. Extending in time; continuing in length.

    PROLUSION, n. s as z. [L. prolusio, proludo; pro and ludo, to play.] A prelude; entertainment; diverting performance. [Little used.]


    1. A walk for amusement or exercise.NWAD PROMENADE.2

    2. A place for walking.NWAD PROMENADE.3

    PROMERIT, v.t. [L. promereo, promeritum; pro and mereo, to merit.]

    1. To oblige; to confer a favor on.NWAD PROMERIT.2

    2. To deserve; to procure by merit.NWAD PROMERIT.3

    [This word is little used or not at all.]NWAD PROMERIT.4

    PROMETHEAN, a. Pertaining to Prometheus, who stole fire from heaven.

    PROMINENCE, PROMINENCY, n. [L. prominentia, from promineo; pro and minor, to menace, that is, to shoot forward.] A standing out from the surface of something, or that which juts out; protuberance; as the prominence of a joint; the prominence of a rock or cliff; the prominence of the nose. Small hills and knolls are prominences on the surface of the earth.

    PROMINENT, a. [L. prominens.] Standing out beyond the line or surface of something; jutting; protuberant; in high relief; as a prominent figure on a vase.

    1. Full; large; as a prominent eye.NWAD PROMINENT.2

    2. Eminent; distinguished above others; as a prominent character.NWAD PROMINENT.3

    3. Principal; most visible or striking to the eye; conspicuous. The figure of a man or of a building holds a prominent place in a picture.NWAD PROMINENT.4

    PROMINENTLY, adv. In a prominent manner; so as to stand out beyond the other parts; eminently; in a striking manner; conspicuously.

    PROMISCUOUS, a. [L. promiscuus; pro and misceo, to mix.]

    1. Mingled; consisting of individuals united in a body or mass without order; confused; undistinguished; as a promiscuous crowd or mass.NWAD PROMISCUOUS.2

    A wild where weeds and flow’rs promiscuous shoot.NWAD PROMISCUOUS.3

    2. Common; indiscriminate; not restricted to an individual; as promiscuous love or intercourse.NWAD PROMISCUOUS.4

    PROMISCUOUSLY, adv. In a crowd or mass without order; with confused mixture; indiscriminately; as men of all classes promiscuously assembled; particles of different earths promiscuously united.

    1. Without distinction of kinds.NWAD PROMISCUOUSLY.2

    Like beasts and birds promiscuously they join.NWAD PROMISCUOUSLY.3

    PROMISCUOUSNESS, n. A state of being mixed without order or distinction.

    PROMISE, n. [L. promissum, from promitto, to send before or forward; pro and mitto, to send.]

    1. In a general sense, a declaration, written or verbal, made by one person to another, which binds the person who makes it, either in honor, conscience or law, to do or forbear a certain act specified; a declaration which gives to the person to whom it is made, a right to expect or to claim the performance or forbearance of the act. The promise of a visit to my neighbor, gives him a right to expect it, and I am bound in honor and civility to perform the promise. Of such a promise human laws have no cognizance; but the fulfillment of it is one of the minor moralities, which civility, kindness and strict integrity require to be observed.NWAD PROMISE.2

    2. In law, a declaration, verbal or written, made by one person to another for a good or valuable consideration, in the nature of a covenant, by which the promiser binds himself, and as the case may be, his legal representatives, to do or forbear some act; and gives to the promisee a legal right to demand and enforce a fulfillment.NWAD PROMISE.3

    3. A binding declaration of something to be done or given for another’s benefit; as the promise of a grant of land. A promise may be absolute or conditional; lawful or unlawful; express or implied. An absolute promise must be fulfilled at all events. The obligation to fulfill a conditional promise depends on the performance of the condition. An unlawful promise is not binding, because it is void; for it is incompatible with a prior paramount obligation of obedience to the laws. An express promise, is one expressed in words or writing. An implied promise, is one which reason and justice dictate. If I hire a man to perform a day’s labor, without any declaration that I will pay him, the law presumes a promise on my part that I will give him a reasonable reward, and will enforce much implied promise.NWAD PROMISE.4

    4. Hopes; expectation, or that which affords expectation of future distinction; as a youth of great promise.NWAD PROMISE.5

    My native country was full of youthful promise.NWAD PROMISE.6

    5. That which is promised; fulfillment or grant of what is promised.NWAD PROMISE.7

    He commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father. Acts 1:4.NWAD PROMISE.8

    6. In Scripture, the promise of God is the declaration or assurance which God has given in his word of bestowing blessings on his people. Such assurance resting on the perfect justice, power, benevolence and immutable veracity of God, cannot fail of performance.NWAD PROMISE.9

    The Lord is not slack concerning his promises. 2 Peter 3:9.NWAD PROMISE.10

    PROMISE, v.t. To make a declaration to another, which binds the promiser in honor, conscience or law, to do or forbear some act; as, to promise a visit to a friend; to promise a cessation of hostilities; to promise the payment of money.

    1. To afford reason to expect; as, the year promises a good harvest.NWAD PROMISE.12

    2. To make declaration or give assurance of some benefit to be conferred; to pledge or engage to bestow.NWAD PROMISE.13

    The proprietors promised large tracts of land.NWAD PROMISE.14

    PROMISE, v.i. To assure one by a promise or binding declaration. The man promises fair; let us forgive him.

    1. To afford hopes or expectations; to give ground to expect good. The youth promises to be an eminent man; the wheat promises to be a good crop; the weather promises to be pleasant.NWAD PROMISE.16

    2. In popular use, this verb sometimes threatens or assures of evil. The rogue shall be punished, I promise you.NWAD PROMISE.17

    Will not the ladies be afraid of the lion?NWAD PROMISE.18

    --I fear it, I promise you.NWAD PROMISE.19

    In the latter example, promise is equivalent to declare; “I declare to you.”NWAD PROMISE.20

    3. To promise one’s self, to be assured or to have strong confidence.NWAD PROMISE.21

    I dare promise myself you will attest the truth of all I have advanced.NWAD PROMISE.22

    PROMISE-BREACH, n. Violation of promise.

    PROMISE-BREAKER, n. A violator of promises.

    PROMISED, pp. Engaged by word or writing; stipulated.

    PROMISEE, n. The person to whom a promise is made.

    PROMISER, n. One who promises; one who engages, assures, stipulates or covenants. Fear, says Dryden, is a great promiser. We may say that hope is a very liberal promiser.

    The import of a promise, when disputed, is not to be determined by the sense of the promiser, nor by the expectations of the promisee.NWAD PROMISER.2

    [Note. In law language, promisor is used, but without necessity or advantage.]NWAD PROMISER.3

    PROMISING, ppr. Engaging by words or writing; stipulating; assuring.

    1. Affording just expectations of good or reasonable ground of hope; as a promising youth; a promising prospect. [In this sense, the word may be a participle or an adjective.]NWAD PROMISING.2

    PROMISSORILY, adv. By way of promise.

    PROMISSORY, a. Containing a promise or binding declaration of something to be done or forborne.

    1. In law, a promissory note is a writing which contains a promise of the payment of money or the delivery of property to another, at or before a time specified, in consideration of value received by the promiser. In England, promissory notes and bills of exchange, being negotiable for the payment of a less sum than twenty shillings, are declared to be void by Stat 15. Geo. III.NWAD PROMISSORY.2

    PROMONTORY, n. [L. promontorium; pro, forward, and mons, a mountain.] In geography, a high point of land or rock, projecting into the sea beyond the line of the coast; a head land. It differs from a cape in denoting high land; a cape may be a similar projection of land high or low.

    Like one that stands upon promontory.NWAD PROMONTORY.2

    If you drink tea on a promontory that overhangs the sea, it is preferable to an assembly.NWAD PROMONTORY.3

    PROMOTE, v.t. [L. promotus, promoveo, to move forward; pro and moveo, to move.]

    1. To forward; to advance; to contribute to the growth, enlargement or excellence of any thing valuable, or to the increase of any thing evil; as, to promote learning, knowledge, virtue or religion; to promote the interest of commerce or agriculture; to promote the arts; to promote civilization or refinement; to promote the propagation of the gospel; to promote vice and disorder.NWAD PROMOTE.2

    2. To excite; as, to promote mutiny.NWAD PROMOTE.3

    3. To exalt; to elevate; to raise; to prefer in rank or honor.NWAD PROMOTE.4

    I will promote thee to very great honors. Numbers 22:17.NWAD PROMOTE.5

    Exalt her, and she shall promote thee. Proverbs 4:8.NWAD PROMOTE.6

    PROMOTED, pp. Advanced; exalted.

    PROMOTER, n. He or that which forwards, advances or promotes; an encourager; as a promoter of charity.

    1. One that excites; as a promoter of sedition.NWAD PROMOTER.2

    2. An informer; a make-bate.NWAD PROMOTER.3

    PROMOTING, ppr. Forwarding; advancing; exciting; exalting.


    1. The act of promoting; advancement; encouragement; as the promotion of virtue or morals; the promotion of peace or of discord.NWAD PROMOTION.2

    2. Exaltation in rank or honor; preferment.NWAD PROMOTION.3

    My promotion will be thy destruction.NWAD PROMOTION.4

    Promotion cometh neither from the east nor from the west, nor from the south. Psalm 75:6.NWAD PROMOTION.5

    PROMOTIVE, a. Tending to advance or promote; tending to encourage.

    PROMOVE, v.t. To advance. [Not used.]

    PROMPT, a. [L. promptus, from promo.]

    1. Ready and quick to act as occasion demands.NWAD PROMPT.2

    Very discerning and prompt in giving orders.NWAD PROMPT.3

    2. Of a ready disposition; acting with cheerful alacrity; as prompt in obedience or compliance.NWAD PROMPT.4

    Tell himNWAD PROMPT.5

    I’m prompt to lay my crown at’s feet.NWAD PROMPT.6

    3. Quick; ready; not dilatory; applied to things; as, he manifested a prompt obedience; he yielded prompt assistance.NWAD PROMPT.7

    When Washington heard the voice of his country in distress, his obedience was prompt.NWAD PROMPT.8

    4. Quick; hasty; indicating boldness or forwardness.NWAD PROMPT.9

    And you perhaps too prompt in your replies.NWAD PROMPT.10

    5. Ready; present; told down; as prompt payment.NWAD PROMPT.11

    6. Easy; unobstructed.NWAD PROMPT.12

    PROMPT, v.t. To incite; to move or excite to action or exertion; to instigate. Insults prompt anger or revenge; love prompts desire; benevolence prompts men to devote their time and services to spread the gospel. Ambition prompted Alexander to wish for more worlds to conquer.

    1. To assist a speaker when at a loss, by pronouncing the words forgotten or next in order, as to prompt an actor; or to assist a learner, by suggesting something forgotten or not understood.NWAD PROMPT.14

    2. To dictate; to suggest to the mind.NWAD PROMPT.15

    And whisp’ring angels prompt her golden dreams.NWAD PROMPT.16

    3. To remind. [Not used.]NWAD PROMPT.17

    PROMPTED, pp. Incited; moved to action; instigated; assisted in speaking or learning.

    PROMPTER, n. One that prompts; one that admonishes or incites to action.

    1. One that is placed behind the scenes in a play-house, whose business is to assist the speakers when at a loss, by uttering the first words of a sentence or words forgotten; or any person who aids a public speaker when at a loss, by suggesting the next words of his piece.NWAD PROMPTER.2

    PROMPTING, ppr. Inciting; moving to action; aiding a speaker when at a loss for the words of his piece.

    PROMPTITUDE, n. [L. promptus.]

    1. Readiness; quickness of decision and action when occasion demands. In the sudden vicissitudes of a battle, promptitude in a commander is one of the most essential qualifications.NWAD PROMPTITUDE.2

    2. Readiness of will; cheerful alacrity; as promptitude in obedience or compliance.NWAD PROMPTITUDE.3

    PROMPTLY, adv. Readily; quickly; expeditiously; cheerfully.

    PROMPTNESS, n. Readiness; quickness of decision or action. The young man answered questions with great promptness.

    1. Cheerful willingness; alacrity.NWAD PROMPTNESS.2

    2. Activity; briskness; as the promptness of animal actions.NWAD PROMPTNESS.3

    PROMPTUARY, n. [L. promptuarium.] That form which supplies are drawn; a storehouse; a magazine; a repository.

    PROMPTURE, n. Suggestion; incitement.

    PROMULGATE, v.t. [L. promulgo.] To publish; to make known by open declaration; as, to promulgate the secrets of a council. It is particularly applied to the publication of laws and the gospel. The moral law was promulgated at mount Sinai. The apostles promulgated the gospel. Edicts, laws and orders are promulgated by circular letters, or through the medium of the public prints.

    PROMULGATED, pp. Published; made publicly known.

    PROMULGATING, ppr. Publishing.

    PROMULGATION, n. The act of promulgating; publication; open declaration; as the promulgation of the law or of the gospel.

    PROMULGATOR, n. A publisher; one who makes known or teaches publicly what was before unknown.

    PROMULGE, v.t. promulj’. To promulgate; to publish or teach. [Less used than promulgate.]

    PROMULGED, pp. Published.

    PROMULGER, n. One who publishes or teaches what was before unknown.

    PROMULGING, ppr. Publishing.

    PRONATION, n. [from L. pronus, having the face downwards.]

    1. Among anatomists, that motion of the radius whereby the palm of the hand is turned downwards; the act of turning the palm downwards; opposed to supination.NWAD PRONATION.2

    2. That position of the hand, when the thumb is turned towards the body, and the palm downwards.NWAD PRONATION.3

    PRONATOR, n. A muscle of the fore arm which serves to turn the palm of the hand downward; opposed to supinator.

    PRONE, a. [L. pronus.] Bending forward; inclined; not erect.

    1. Lying with the face downward; contrary to supine.NWAD PRONE.2

    2. Headlong; precipitous; inclining in descent.NWAD PRONE.3

    Down thither prone in flight.NWAD PRONE.4

    3. Sloping; declivous; inclined.NWAD PRONE.5

    Since the floods demandNWAD PRONE.6

    For their descent, a prone and sinking land.NWAD PRONE.7

    4. Inclined; propense; disposed; applied to the mind or affections, usually in an ill sense; as men prone to evil, prone to strife, prone to intemperance, prone to deny the truth, prone to change.NWAD PRONE.8

    PRONENESS, n. The state of bending downwards; opposed to the erectness of man.

    1. The state of lying with the face downwards; contrary to supineness.NWAD PRONENESS.2

    2. Descent; declivity; as the proneness of a hill.NWAD PRONENESS.3

    3. Inclination of mind, heart or temper; propension; disposition; as the proneness of the Israelites to idolatry; proneness to self-gratification or to self-justification; proneness to comply with temptation; sometimes in a good sense; as ;the proneness of good men to commiserate want.NWAD PRONENESS.4

    PRONG, n.

    1. A sharp pointed instrument.NWAD PRONG.2

    Prick it on a prong of iron.NWAD PRONG.3

    2. The tine of a fork or of a similar instrument; as a fork of two or three prongs. [This is the sense in which it is used in America.]NWAD PRONG.4

    PRONGHOE, n. A hoe with prongs to break the earth.

    PRONITY, for proneness, is not used.

    PRONOMINAL, a. [L. pronomen. See Pronoun.]

    Belonging to or of the nature of a pronoun.NWAD PRONOMINAL.2

    PRONOUN, n. [L. pronomen; pro, for, and nomen, name.]

    In grammar, a word used instead of a noun or name, to prevent the repetition of it. The personal pronouns in English, are I, thou or you, he, she, we, ye and they. The last is used for the name of things, as well as for that of persons. Other words are used for the names of persons, things, sentences, phrases and for adjectives; and when they stand for sentences, phrases and adjectives, they are not strictly pronouns, but relatives, substitutes or representatives of such sentences. Thus we say, “the jury found the prisoner guilty, and the court pronounced sentence on him. This or that gave great joy to the spectators.” In these sentences, this or that represents the whole preceding sentence, which is the proper antecedent. We also say, “the jury pronounced the man guilty, this or that or which he could not be, for he proved an alibi.” In which sentence, this or that or which refers immediately to guilty, as its antecedent.NWAD PRONOUN.2

    PRONOUNCE, v.t. pronouns’. [L. pronuncio; pro and nuncio.]

    1. To speak; to utter articulately. The child is not able to pronounce words composed of difficult combinations of letters. Adults rarely learn to pronounce correctly a foreign language.NWAD PRONOUNCE.2

    2. To utter formally, officially or solemnly. The court pronounced sentence of death on the criminal.NWAD PRONOUNCE.3

    Then Baruch answered them, he pronounced all these words to me with his mouth. Jeremiah 36:18.NWAD PRONOUNCE.4

    Sternly he pronounc’dNWAD PRONOUNCE.5

    The rigid interdiction.NWAD PRONOUNCE.6

    3. To speak or utter rhetorically; to deliver; as, to pronounce an oration.NWAD PRONOUNCE.7

    4. To speak; to utter, in almost any manner.NWAD PRONOUNCE.8

    5. To declare or affirm. He pronounced the book to be a libel; he pronounced the act to be a fraud.NWAD PRONOUNCE.9

    PRONOUNCE, v.i. pronouns’. To speak; to make declaration; to utter an opinion.

    How confidently so ever men pronounce of themselves--NWAD PRONOUNCE.11

    PRONOUNCEABLE, a. pronouns’able. That may be pronounced or uttered.

    PRONOUNCED, pp. Spoken; uttered; declared solemnly.

    PRONOUNCER, n. One who utters or declares.

    PRONOUNCING, ppr. Speaking; uttering; declaring.

    1. a. Teaching pronunciation.NWAD PRONOUNCING.2

    PRONUNCIATION, n. [L. pronunciatio.]

    1. The act of uttering with articulation; utterance; as the pronunciation of syllables or words; distinct or indistinct pronunciation.NWAD PRONUNCIATION.2

    2. The mode of uttering words or sentences; particularly, the art or manner of uttering a discourse publicly with propriety and gracefulness; now called delivery.NWAD PRONUNCIATION.3

    PRONUNCIATIVE, a. Uttering confidently; dogmatical.

    PROOF, n.

    1. Trial; essay; experiment; any effort, process or operation that ascertains truth or fact. Thus the quality of spirit is ascertained by proof; the strength of gun-powder, of fire arms and of cannon is determined by proof; the correctness of operations in arithmetic is ascertained by proof.NWAD PROOF.2

    2. In law and logic, that degree of evidence which convinces the mind of the certainty of truth of fact, and produces belief. Proof is derived from personal knowledge, or from the testimony of others, or from conclusive reasoning. Proof differs from demonstration, which is applicable only to those truths of which the contrary is inconceivable.NWAD PROOF.3

    This has neither evidence of truth, nor proof sufficient to give it warrant.NWAD PROOF.4

    3. Firmness or hardness that resists impression, or yields not to force; impenetrability of physical bodies; as a wall that is of proof against shot.NWAD PROOF.5

    See arms of proof.NWAD PROOF.6

    4. Firmness of mind; stability not to be shaken; as a mind or virtue that is proof against the arts of seduction and the assaults of temptation.NWAD PROOF.7

    5. The proof of spirits consists in little bubbles which appear on the top of the liquor after agitation, called the bead, and by the French, chapelet. Hence,NWAD PROOF.8

    6. The degree of strength in spirit; as high proof; first proof; second, third or fourth proof.NWAD PROOF.9

    7. In printing and engraving, a rough impression of a sheet, taken for correction; plu. proofs, not proves.NWAD PROOF.10

    8. Armor sufficiently firm to resist impression. [Not used.]NWAD PROOF.11

    Proof is used elliptically for of proof.NWAD PROOF.12

    I have found theeNWAD PROOF.13

    Proof against all temptation.NWAD PROOF.14

    It is sometimes followed by to, more generally by against.NWAD PROOF.15

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