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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    COMMISSIONAL, COMMISSIONARY, a. Appointed by warrant.

    COMMISSIONED, pp. Furnished with a commission; empowered; authorized.

    COMMISSIONER, n. A person who has a commission or warrant from proper authority, to perform some office, or execute some business, for the person or government which employs him, and gives him authority; as commissoners for settling the bounds of a state, or for adjusting claims.

    COMMISSIONING, ppr. Giving a commission to; furnishing with a warrant; empowering by letters patent or other writing; authorizing.


    1. A joint, seam or closure; the place where two bodies or parts of a body meet and unite; an interstice or cleft between particles or parts, as between plates or lamellae.NWAD COMMISSURE.2

    2. In architecture, the joint of two stones, or application of the surface of one to that of another.NWAD COMMISSURE.3

    3. In anatomy, a suture of the cranium or skull; articulation; the corners of the lips. Also, certain parts in the ventricles of the brain, uniting the two hemispheres.NWAD COMMISSURE.4

    COMMIT, v.t. Literally, to send to or upon; to throw, put or lay upon. Hence,

    1. To give in trust; to put into the hands or power of another; to entrust; with to.NWAD COMMIT.2

    Commit thy way to the Lord. Psalm 37:5.NWAD COMMIT.3

    The things thou hast heard of me, commit to faithful men. 2 Timothy 2:2.NWAD COMMIT.4

    2. To put into any place for preservation; to deposit; as, to commit a passage in a book to memory; to commit the body to the grave.NWAD COMMIT.5

    3. To put or sent to, for confinement; as, to commit an offender to prison. Hence for the sake of brevity, commit is used for imprison. The sheriff has committed the offender.NWAD COMMIT.6

    These two were committed, at least restrained of their liberty.NWAD COMMIT.7

    4. To do; to effect or perpetrate; as, to commit murder, treason, felony, or trespass.NWAD COMMIT.8

    Thou shalt not commit adultery. Exodus 20:14.NWAD COMMIT.9

    5. To join or put together, for a contest; to match; followed by with; a latinism.NWAD COMMIT.10

    How does Philopolis commit the opponent with the respondent.NWAD COMMIT.11

    6. To place in a state of hostility or incongruity. Committing short and long words. But this seems to be the same signification as the foregoing.NWAD COMMIT.12

    7. To expose or endanger by a preliminary step or decision which cannot be recalled; as, to commit the peace of a country by espousing the cause of a belligerent.NWAD COMMIT.13

    You might have satisfied every duty of political friendship without committing the honor of your sovereign.NWAD COMMIT.14

    8. To engage; to pledge; or to pledge by implication.NWAD COMMIT.15

    The general--addressed letters to Gen. Gates and to Gen. Heath, cautioning them against any sudden assent to the proposal, which might possibly be considered as committing the faith of the United States.NWAD COMMIT.16

    And with the reciprocal pronoun, to commit ones self, is to do some act, or make some declaration, which may bind the person in honor, good faith, or consistency, to pursue a certain course of conduct, or to adhere to the tenor of that declaration.NWAD COMMIT.17

    9. To refer or entrust to a committee, or select number of persons, for their consideration and report; a term of legislation; as, the petition or the bill is committed. Is it the pleasure of the house to commit the bill?NWAD COMMIT.18


    1. The act of committing; a sending to prison; a putting into prison; imprisonment. It is equivalent to sending or putting in simply; as a commitment to the tower, or to Newgate; or for the sake of brevity, omitting the name of the place, it is equivalent to putting into prison; as, the offender is secured by commitment.NWAD COMMITMENT.2

    2. An order for confining in prison. But more generally we use mittimus.NWAD COMMITMENT.3

    3. The act of referring or entrusting to a committee for consideration; a term in legislation; as the commitment of a petition or a bill to a select number of persons for consideration and report.NWAD COMMITMENT.4

    4. The act of delivering in charge or entrusting.NWAD COMMITMENT.5

    5. A doing, or perpetration, as of sin or a crime; commission.NWAD COMMITMENT.6

    6. The act of pledging or engaging; or the act of exposing or endangering.NWAD COMMITMENT.7

    COMMITTED, pp. Delivered in trust; given in charge; deposited; imprisoned; done; perpetrated; engaged; exposed; referred to a committee.

    COMMITTEE, n. One or more persons, elected or appointed, to whom any matter or business is referred, either by a legislative body or either branch of it, or by a court, or by an corporation, or by any society, or collective body of men acting together. In legislative bodies, a house or branch of that body may resolve or form itself into a committee, called a committee of the whole hose, when the speaker leaves the chair, and one of the members acts as chairman. Standing committees are such as continue during the existence of the legislature, and to these are committed all matters that fall within the purposes of their appointment; as the committee of elections, or of privileges, etc. Special committees are appointed to consider and report on particular subjects.

    COMMITTEESHIP, n. The office and profit of committees.

    COMMITTER, n. One who commits; one who does or perpetrates.

    COMMITTIBLE, a. That may be committed.

    COMMITTING, ppr. Giving in trust; depositing; imprisoning; perpetrating; engaging; referring to a committee; exposing.

    COMMIX, v.t. To mix or mingle; to blend; to mix, as different substances.

    COMMIX, v.i. To mix; to mingle.

    COMMIXED, pp. Mixed; blended.

    COMMIXING, ppr. Mixing; blending.

    COMMIXTION, n. Mixture; a blending of different ingredients in one mass or compound.

    Mixion is used by Shakespeare, but is hardly legitimate.NWAD COMMIXTION.2


    1. The act of mixing; the state of being mingled; the blending of ingredients in one mass or compound.NWAD COMMIXTURE.2

    2. The mass formed by mingling different things; composition; compound.NWAD COMMIXTURE.3

    3. In Scots law, a method of acquiring property, by blending different substances belonging to different proprietors.NWAD COMMIXTURE.4

    COMMODE, n. A kind of head dress formerly worn by ladies.

    COMMODIOUS, a. Convenient; suitable; fit; proper; adapted to its use or purpose, or to wants and necessities; as a commodious house or room.

    The haven was not commodious to winter in. Acts 27:12.NWAD COMMODIOUS.2

    It is followed by for before a noun; as a place commodious for a camp.NWAD COMMODIOUS.3

    COMMODIOUSLY, adv. Conveniently; in a commodious manner; suitable; in a manner to afford ease, or to prevent uneasiness; as a house commodiously situated; we may pass life commodiously without the restraints of ceremony.

    COMMODIOUSNESS, n. Convenience fitness; suitableness for its purpose; as the commodiousness of a house or an apartment; the commodiousness of a situation for trade.


    1. Primarily, convenience; profit; advantage; interest. Men seek their own commodity. In this sense it was used by Hooker, Sidney, etc.; but this is nearly or wholly obsolete.NWAD COMMODITY.2

    2. That which affords ease, convenience or advantage; any thing that is useful, but particularly in commerce, including every thing movable that is bought and sold, goods, wares, merchandize, produce of land and manufactures. Unless perhaps animals may be excepted, the word includes all the movables which are objects of commerce.NWAD COMMODITY.3

    Commodities are movables, valuable by money, the common measure.NWAD COMMODITY.4

    The principal use of money is to save the commutation of more bulky commodities.NWAD COMMODITY.5

    Staple commodities are those which are the produce or manufacture of a country, and constitute the principal articles of exportation. Thus flour is the staple commodity of New-York and Pennsylvania; flour and tobacco, of Maryland and Virginia; cotton and rice, of S. Carolina and Georgia; cotton and sugar, of Louisiana.NWAD COMMODITY.6


    1. The officer who commands a squadron or detachment of ships, destined on a particular enterprise. In the British marine, he bears the rank of a brigadier-general in the army, and his ship is distinguished by a broad red pendant, tapering to the outer end, and sometimes forked.NWAD COMMODORE.2

    2. A title given by courtesy to the senior captain, when three or more ships of war are cruising in company.NWAD COMMODORE.3

    3. The convoy or leading ship in a fleet of merchantmen, which carries a light in her top to conduct the other ships.NWAD COMMODORE.4

    COMMODULATION, n. Measure; agreement.

    COMMOIGNE, n. A monk of the same convent.

    COMMON, a.

    1. Belonging equally to more than one, or to many indefinitely; as, life and sense are common to man and beast; the common privileges of citizens; the common wants of men.NWAD COMMON.2

    2. Belonging to the public; having no separate owner. The right to a highway is common.NWAD COMMON.3

    3. General; serving for the use of all; as the common prayer.NWAD COMMON.4

    4. Universal; belonging to all; as, the earth is said to be the common mother of mankind.NWAD COMMON.5

    5. Public; general; frequent; as common report.NWAD COMMON.6

    6. Usual; ordinary; as the common operations of nature; the common forms of conveyance; the common rules of civility.NWAD COMMON.7

    7. Of no rank or superior excellence; ordinary. Applied to men, it signifies, not noble, not distinguished by noble descent, or not distinguished by office, character or talents; as a common man; a common soldier. Applied to things, it signifies, not distinguished by excellence or superiority; as a common essay; a common exertion. It however is not generally equivalent to mean, which expresses something lower in rank or estimation.NWAD COMMON.8

    8. Prostitute; lewd; as a common woman.NWAD COMMON.9

    9. In grammar, such verbs as signify both action and passion, are called common; as aspernor, I despise or am despised; also, such nouns as are both masculine and feminine, as parens.NWAD COMMON.10

    10. A common bud, in botany, is one that contains both leaves and flowers; a common peduncle, one that bears several flowers; a common perianth, one that incloses several distinct fructification; a common receptacle, one that connects several distinct fructification.NWAD COMMON.11

    Common divisor, in mathematics, is a number or quantity that divides two or more numbers or quantities without a remainder.NWAD COMMON.12

    Common Law, in Great Britain and the United States, the unwritten law, the law that receives its binding force from immemorial usage and universal reception, in distinction from the written or statute law. That body of rules, principles and customs which have been received from our ancestors, and by which courts have been governed in their judicial decisions. The evidence of this law is to be found in the reports of those decisions, and the records of the courts. Some of these rules may have originated in edicts or statutes which are now lost, or in the terms and conditions of particular grants or charters; but it is most probable that many of them originated in judicial decisions founded on natural justice and equity, or on local customs.NWAD COMMON.13

    Common pleas, in Great Britain, one of the kings courts, now held in Westminster-Hall. It consists of a chief justice and three other justices, and has cognizance of all civil causes, real, personal or mixed, as well by original writ, as by removal from the inferior courts. A writ of error, in the nature of an appeal, lies from this court to the court of kings bench.NWAD COMMON.14

    In some of the American states, a court of common pleas is an inferior court, whose jurisdiction is limited to a county, and it is sometimes called a county court. This court is variously constituted in different states, and its powers are defined by statutes. It has jurisdiction of civil causes, and of minor offenses; but its final jurisdiction is very limited; all causes of magnitude being removable to a higher Court by appeal or by writ of error.NWAD COMMON.15

    Common book of prayer, the liturgy of the Church of England, which all the clergy of the Church are enjoined to use, under a penalty.NWAD COMMON.16

    Common recovery, a legal process for recovering an estate or barring entails.NWAD COMMON.17

    Common time, in music, duple or double time, when the semibreve is equal to two minims.NWAD COMMON.18

    In common, equally with another, or with others; to be equally used or participated by two or more; as tenants in common; to provide for children in common; to assign lands to two persons in common, or to twenty in common; we enjoy the bounties of providence in common.NWAD COMMON.19

    COMMON, n.

    1. A tract of ground, the use of which is not appropriated to an individual, but belongs to the public or to a number. Thus we apply the word to an open ground or space in a highway, reserved for public use.NWAD COMMON.21

    2. In law, an open ground, or that soil the use of which belongs equally to the inhabitants of a town or of a lordship, or to a certain number of proprietors; or the profit which a man has in the land of another; or a right which a person has to pasture has cattle on land of another, or to dig turf, or catch fish, or cut wood, or the like; called common of pasture, of turbary, of piscary, and of estovers.NWAD COMMON.22

    Common, or right of common, is appendant, appurtenant, because of vicinage, or in gross.NWAD COMMON.23

    Common appendant is a right belonging to the owners or occupiers of arable land to put commonable beasts upon the lords waste, and upon the lands of other persons within the same manor. This is a matter of most universal right.NWAD COMMON.24

    Common appurtenant may be annexed to lands in other lordships, or extend to other beasts, besides those which are generally commonable; this is not of common right, but can be claimed only b immemorial usage and prescription.NWAD COMMON.25

    Common because of vicinage or neighborhood, is where the inhabitants of two townships, lying contiguous to each other, have usually intercommoned with one another, the beasts of the one straying into the others fields; this is a permissive right.NWAD COMMON.26

    Common in gross or at large, is annexed to a man’s person, being granted to him and his heirs by deed; or it may be claimed by prescriptive right, as by a parson of a church or other corporation sole.NWAD COMMON.27

    COMMON, v.i.

    1. To have a joint right with others in common ground.NWAD COMMON.29

    2. To board together; to eat at a table in common.NWAD COMMON.30

    COMMON, adv. Commonly.

    COMMON-COUNCIL, n. The council of a city or corporate town, empowered to make by-laws for the government of the citizens. The common council of London consists of two houses; the upper house, composed of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen; and the lower house, of the common-council-men, elected by the several wards. In most of the American cities, the Mayor, Aldermen and common-council-men constituted one body, called a Court of Common-Council

    COMMON-CRIER, n. A crier whose occupation is to give notice of lost things.

    COMMON-HALL, n. A hall or house in which citizens meet for business.

    COMMON-LAWYER, n. One versed in Common Law.

    COMMONPLACE, n. A memorandum; a common topic.

    COMMONPLACE, v.t. To enter in a commonplace-book, or to reduce to general heads.

    Commonplace-book, a book in which are registered such facts, opinions or observations as are deemed worthy of notice or remembrance, so disposed that any one may be easily found. Hence common-place as used as an epithet to denote what is common or often repeated, or trite; as a commonplace observation.NWAD COMMONPLACE.3


    1. Held in common.NWAD COMMONABLE.2

    2. That may be pastured on common land.NWAD COMMONABLE.3

    Commonable beasts are either beasts of the plow, or such as manure the ground.NWAD COMMONABLE.4

    COMMONAGE, n. The right of pasturing on a common; the joint right of using any thing in common with others.


    1. The common people. In Great Britain, all classes and conditions of people, who are below the rank of nobility.NWAD COMMONALTY.2

    The commonalty, like the nobility, are divided into several degrees.NWAD COMMONALTY.3

    In the United States, commonalty has no very definite signification. It is however used to denote that part of the people who live by labor, and are not liberally educated, nor elevated by office or professional pursuits.NWAD COMMONALTY.4

    2. The bulk of mankind.NWAD COMMONALTY.5

    COMMONER, n.

    1. One of the lower rank, or common people; one under the degree of nobility.NWAD COMMONER.2

    2. A member of the house of commons.NWAD COMMONER.3

    3. One who has a joint right in common ground.NWAD COMMONER.4

    4. A student of the second rank in the universities in England; one who eats at a common table.NWAD COMMONER.5

    5. A prostitute.NWAD COMMONER.6

    6. A partaker.NWAD COMMONER.7

    COMMONITION, n. Advice; warning; instruction.

    COMMONITIVE, a. Warning; monitory.

    COMMONLY, adv. Usually; generally; ordinarily; frequently; for the most part; as, confirmed habits commonly continue through life.


    1. Frequent occurrence; a state of being common or usual.NWAD COMMONNESS.2

    2. Equal participation by two or more.NWAD COMMONNESS.3

    COMMONS, n. plu.

    1. The common people, who inherit or possess no honors or titles; the vulgar.NWAD COMMONS.2

    2. In England, the lower house of Parliament, consisting of the representatives of cities, boroughs and counties, chosen by men possessed of the property or qualifications required by law. This body is called the House of Commons. The House of Representatives in North Carolina bears the same name.NWAD COMMONS.3

    3. Common grounds; land possessed or used by two or more persons in common.NWAD COMMONS.4

    4. Food provided at a common table, as in colleges, where many persons eat at the same table or in the same hall.NWAD COMMONS.5

    Their commons, though but coarse, were nothing scant.NWAD COMMONS.6

    Doctors Commons, in London, a college founded by Dr. Harvey, for the professors of the civil law, where the civilians common together. The house was consumed in the great fire in 1666, but rebuilt in 1672. To this college belong thirty four proctors.NWAD COMMONS.7

    COMMONTY, n. In Scots law, land belonging to two or more common proprietors; or a heath or muir, of which there has been a promiscuous possession by pasturage.


    1. An established form of government, or civil polity; or more generally, a state; a body politic, consisting of a certain portion of men united by compact or tacit agreement, under one form of government and system of laws. This term is applied to the government of Great Britain, which is of a mixed character, and to other governments which are considered as free or popular, but rarely or improperly, to an absolute government. A commonwealth is properly a free state; a popular or representative government; a republic; as the commonwealth of Massachusetts. The word signifies strictly, the common good or happiness; and hence, the form of government supposed best to secure the public good.NWAD COMMONWEAL.2

    2. The whole body of people in a state the public.NWAD COMMONWEAL.3

    3. The territory of a state; as, all the land within the limits of the commonwealth.NWAD COMMONWEAL.4

    COMMONWEALTHSMAN, n. One who favors the commonwealth, or a republican government.

    COMMORANCE, COMMORANCY, n. A dwelling or ordinary residence in a place; abode; habitation.

    Commorancy consists in usually lying there.NWAD COMMORANCE.2

    COMMORANT, a. Dwelling; ordinarily residing; inhabiting.

    All freeholders within the precinct--and all persons commorant therein--are obliged to attend the court-leet.NWAD COMMORANT.2

    COMMORIENT, a. Dying at the same time.

    COMMOTHER, n. A godmother.


    1. Agitation; as the commotion of the sea.NWAD COMMOTION.2

    2. Tumult of people; disturbance; disorder, which may amount at times to sedition or insurrection; as the commotions of a state.NWAD COMMOTION.3

    When ye hear of wars and commotions, be not terrified. Luke 21:9.NWAD COMMOTION.4

    3. Agitation; perturbation; disorder of mind; heat; excitement.NWAD COMMOTION.5

    He could not debate without commotion.NWAD COMMOTION.6

    COMMOTIONER, n. One who excites commotion.

    COMMOVE, v.t. To put in motion; to disturb; to agitate; to unsettle; a poetic word.

    COMMUNE, v.i.

    1. To converse; to talk together familiarly; to impart sentiments mutually, in private or familiar discourse; followed by with before the person.NWAD COMMUNE.2

    And there will I meet and commune with thee. Exodus 25:22.NWAD COMMUNE.3

    2. To have intercourse in contemplation or meditation.NWAD COMMUNE.4

    Commune with your own heart on your bed. Psalm 4:4.NWAD COMMUNE.5

    3. To partake of the sacrament or Lords supper; to receive the communion; a common use of the word in America, as it is in the Welsh.NWAD COMMUNE.6

    COMMUNE, n. A small territorial district in France--one of the subordinate divisions of the country introduced in the late revolution.

    Communibus annis, one year with another; on an average.NWAD COMMUNE.8

    Communibus locis, one place with another; on a medium.NWAD COMMUNE.9

    COMMUNICABILITY, n. [See Communicate.] The quality of being communicable; capability of being imparted from one to another.


    1. That may be communicated; capable of being imparted from one to another; as, knowledge is communicable by words.NWAD COMMUNICABLE.2

    Lost bliss, to thee no more communicable.NWAD COMMUNICABLE.3

    Eternal life is communicable to all.NWAD COMMUNICABLE.4

    2. That may be recounted.NWAD COMMUNICABLE.5

    3. Communicative; ready to impart.NWAD COMMUNICABLE.6

    COMMUNICANT, n. One who communes at the Lords table; one who is entitled to partake of the sacrament, at the celebration of the Lords supper.


    1. To impart; to give to another, as a partaker; to confer for joint possession; to bestow, as that which the receiver is to hold, retain, use or enjoy; with to.NWAD COMMUNICATE.2

    Where God is worshiped, there he communicates his blessings and holy influences.NWAD COMMUNICATE.3

    Let him that is taught in the word communicate to him that teacheth in all good things. Galatians 6:6.NWAD COMMUNICATE.4

    2. To impart reciprocally, or mutually; to have or enjoy a share of; followed by with.NWAD COMMUNICATE.5

    Common benefits are to be communicated with all, but peculiar benefits with choice.NWAD COMMUNICATE.6

    But Diamede desires my company,NWAD COMMUNICATE.7

    And still communicates his praise with me.NWAD COMMUNICATE.8

    3. To impart, as knowledge; to reveal; to give, as information, either by words, signs or signals; as, to communicate intelligence, news, opinions, or facts.NWAD COMMUNICATE.9

    Formerly this verb had with before the person receiving; as, he communicated those thoughts only with the Lord Digby. Clarendon. But now it has to only.NWAD COMMUNICATE.10

    4. To deliver, as to communicate a message; to give, as to communicate motion.NWAD COMMUNICATE.11


    1. To partake of the Lords supper. Instead of this, in America, at least in New England, commune is generally or always used.NWAD COMMUNICATE.13

    2. To have a communication or passage from one to another; to have the means of passing from one to another; as, two houses communicate with each other; a fortress communicates with the country; the canals of the body communicate with each other.NWAD COMMUNICATE.14

    3. To have intercourse; applied to persons.NWAD COMMUNICATE.15

    4. To have, enjoy or suffer reciprocally; to have a share with another.NWAD COMMUNICATE.16

    Ye have done well that ye did communicate with my affliction. Philippians 4:14.NWAD COMMUNICATE.17

    COMMUNICATED, pp. Imparted from one to another; bestowed; delivered.


    1. Imparting; giving or bestowing; delivering.NWAD COMMUNICATING.2

    2. Partaking of the sacrament of the Lords supper.NWAD COMMUNICATING.3

    3. Leading or conducting from place to place, as a passage; connected by a passage or channel, as two lakes communicating with each other.NWAD COMMUNICATING.4

    4. Having intercourse by words, letters or messages; corresponding.NWAD COMMUNICATING.5


    1. The act of imparting, conferring, or delivering, from one to another; as the communication of knowledge, opinions or facts.NWAD COMMUNICATION.2

    2. Intercourse by words, letters or messages; interchange of thoughts or opinions, by conference or other means.NWAD COMMUNICATION.3

    Abner had communication with the elders of Israel, saying, Ye sought for David in times past to be king over you. 2 Samuel 3:17.NWAD COMMUNICATION.4

    Let your communication be, yea, yea; nay, nay. Matthew 5:37.NWAD COMMUNICATION.5

    In 1 Corinthians 15:33, Evil communications corrupt good manners, the word may signify conversation, colloquial discourses, or customary association and familiarity.NWAD COMMUNICATION.6

    3. Intercourse; interchange of knowledge; correspondence; good understanding between men.NWAD COMMUNICATION.7

    Secrets may be carried so far as to stop the communication necessary among all who have the management of affairs.NWAD COMMUNICATION.8

    4. Connecting passage; means of passing from place to place; as a strait or channel between seas or lakes, a road between cities or countries, a gallery between apartments in a house, an avenue between streets, etc.NWAD COMMUNICATION.9

    Keep open a communication with the besieged place.NWAD COMMUNICATION.10

    5. That which is communicated or imparted.NWAD COMMUNICATION.11

    The house received a communication from the Governor, respecting the hospital.NWAD COMMUNICATION.12

    6. In rhetoric, a trope by which a speaker or writer takes his hearer or speaker as a partner in his sentiments, and says we, instead of I or you.NWAD COMMUNICATION.13


    1. Inclined to communicate; ready to impart to others. In the sense of liberal of benefits, though legitimate, it is little used.NWAD COMMUNICATIVE.2

    2. Disposed to impart or disclose, as knowledge, opinions, or facts; free to communicate; not reserved.NWAD COMMUNICATIVE.3

    We have paid for our want of prudence, and determine for the future to be less communicative.NWAD COMMUNICATIVE.4

    COMMUNICATIVENESS, n. The quality of being communicative; readiness to impart to others; freedom from reserve.

    COMMUNICATORY, a. Imparting knowledge.

    COMMUNING, ppr. Conversing familiarly; having familiar intercourse.

    COMMUNING, n. Familiar converse; private intercourse.


    1. Fellowship; intercourse between two persons or more; interchange of transactions, or offices; a state of giving and receiving; agreement; concord.NWAD COMMUNION.2

    We are naturally led to seek communion and fellowship with other.NWAD COMMUNION.3

    What communion hath light with darkness? 2 Corinthians 6:14.NWAD COMMUNION.4

    2. Mutual intercourse or union in religious worship, or in doctrine and discipline.NWAD COMMUNION.5

    The Protestant churches have no communion with the Romish church.NWAD COMMUNION.6

    3. The body of Christians who have one common faith and discipline. The three grand communions into which the Christian church is divided, are those of the Greek, the Romish and the Protestant churches.NWAD COMMUNION.7

    4. The act of communicating the sacrament of the Eucharist; the celebration of the Lords supper; the participation of the blessed sacrament. The fourth council of Lateran decrees that every believer shall receive the communion at least at Easter.NWAD COMMUNION.8

    5. Union of professing Christians in a particular church; as, members in full communion.NWAD COMMUNION.9

    Communion-service, in the liturgy of the Episcopal church, is the office for the administration of the holy sacrament.NWAD COMMUNION.10


    1. Properly, common possession or enjoyment; as a community of goods.NWAD COMMUNITY.2

    It is a confirmation of the original community of all things.NWAD COMMUNITY.3

    2. A society of people, having common rights and privileges, or common interests, civil, political or ecclesiastical; or living under the same laws and regulations. This word may signify a commonwealth or state, a body politic, or a particular society or order of men within a state, as a community of monks; and it is often used for the public or people in general, without very definite limits.NWAD COMMUNITY.4

    3. Commonness; frequency.NWAD COMMUNITY.5

    COMMUTABILITY, n. The quality of being capable of being exchanged, or put, one in the place of the other.

    COMMUTABLE, a. That may be exchanged, or mutually changed; that may be given for another. In philology, that may pass from one into another; as, the letter b is commutable with v; or in Celtic, b and mh are commutable.


    1. Change; alteration; a passing from one state to another.NWAD COMMUTATION.2

    2. Exchange; the act of giving one thing for another; barter.NWAD COMMUTATION.3

    The use of money is to save the commutation of more bulky commodities.NWAD COMMUTATION.4

    3. In law, the change of a penalty or punishment from a greater to a less; as banishment instead of death.NWAD COMMUTATION.5

    Suits are allowable in the spiritual courts for money agreed to be given as a commutation for penance.NWAD COMMUTATION.6

    COMMUTATIVE, a. Relative to exchange; interchangeable; mutually passing from one to another; as commutative justice, justice which is mutually done and received, between men in society.

    To cultivate an habitual regard to commutative justice.NWAD COMMUTATIVE.2

    COMMUTATIVELY, adv. By way of reciprocal exchange.

    COMMUTE, v.t.

    1. To exchange; to put one thing in the place of another; to give or receive one thing for another; as, to commute our labors; to commute pain for pleasure.NWAD COMMUTE.2

    2. In law, to exchange one penalty or punishment for another of less severity; as, to commute death for transportation.NWAD COMMUTE.3

    COMMUTE, v.i. To atone; to compensate; to stand in the place of; as, one penalty commutes for another.

    COMMUTUAL, a. Mutual; reciprocal; used in poetry.

    There, with commutual zeal, we both had stroveNWAD COMMUTUAL.2

    In acts of dear benevolence and love.NWAD COMMUTUAL.3

    COMPACT, a.

    1. Closely and firmly united, as the particles of solid bodies; firm; close; solid; dense. Stone, iron and wood are compact bodies. A compact leaf, in botany, is one having the pulp of a close firm texture.NWAD COMPACT.2

    2. Composed; consisting.NWAD COMPACT.3

    A wandering fire,NWAD COMPACT.4

    Compact of unctuous vapor.NWAD COMPACT.5

    3. Joined; held together.NWAD COMPACT.6

    A pipe of seven reeds, compact with wax together.NWAD COMPACT.7

    4. Brief; close; pithy; not diffuse; not verbose; as a compact discourse.NWAD COMPACT.8

    COMPACT, n. An agreement; a contract between parties; a word that may be applied, in a general sense, to any covenant or contract between individuals; but it is more generally applied to agreements between nations and states, as treaties and confederacies. So the constitution of the United States is a political contract between the States; a national compact. Or the word is applied to the agreement of the individuals of a community.

    The law of nations depends on mutual compacts, treaties, leagues, etc.NWAD COMPACT.10

    In the beginnings of speech there was an implicit compact, founded on common consent.NWAD COMPACT.11

    COMPACT, v.t.

    1. To thrust, drive or press closely together; to join firmly; to consolidate; to make close; as the parts which compose a body.NWAD COMPACT.13

    Now the bright sun compacts the precious stone.NWAD COMPACT.14

    2. To unite or connect firmly, as in a system.NWAD COMPACT.15

    The whole body fitly joined together and compacted. Ephesians 4:16.NWAD COMPACT.16

    3. To league with.NWAD COMPACT.17

    Thou pernicious woman,NWAD COMPACT.18

    Compact with her thats gone.NWAD COMPACT.19

    4. To compose or make out of.NWAD COMPACT.20

    If he, compact of jars, grow musical.NWAD COMPACT.21

    In the two last examples, compact is used for compacted.NWAD COMPACT.22

    COMPACTED, pp. Pressed close; firmly united, or connected.

    COMPACTEDNESS, n. A state of being compact; firmness; closeness of parts; density, whence results hardness.

    COMPACTING, ppr. Uniting closely; consolidating.

    COMPACTION, n. The act of making compact; or the state of being compact.

    COMPACTLY, adv. Closely; densely; with close union of parts.

    COMPACTNESS, n. Firmness; close union of parts; density.

    COMPACTURE, n. Close union or connection of parts; structure well connected; manner of joining.

    COMPAGES, n. A system or structure of many parts united.

    COMPAGINATION, n. [See Compact.] Union of parts; structure; connection; contexture.

    COMPANABLE, a. Companionable.

    COMPANABLENESS, n. Sociableness.

    COMPANIABLE, a. Social.

    COMPANIABLENESS, n. Sociableness.


    1. One who keeps company with another; one with whom a person frequently associates, and converses. It differs from friend, says Johnson, as acquaintance from confidence. The word does not necessarily imply friendship; but a companion is often or generally a friend.NWAD COMPANION.2

    A companion of fools shall be destroyed. Proverbs 13:20.NWAD COMPANION.3

    2. One who accompanies another; as two persons meeting casually and traveling together are called companions. So soldiers are called companions in arms.NWAD COMPANION.4

    3. A partner; an associate.NWAD COMPANION.5

    Epaphroditus, my brother, and companion in labor, and fellow soldier. Philippians 2:25.NWAD COMPANION.6

    4. A fellow; a mate.NWAD COMPANION.7

    5. A sort of wooden porch placed over the entrance or stair case of the cabin in merchant ships. Hence the ladder by which officers ascend to and descend from the quarter deck is called the companion ladder.NWAD COMPANION.8

    COMPANIONABLE, a. Fit for good fellowship; qualified to be agreeable in company; sociable; agreeable as a companion.

    COMPANIONABLY, adv. In a companionable manner.


    1. Fellowship; association.NWAD COMPANIONSHIP.2

    2. Company; train.NWAD COMPANIONSHIP.3

    COMPANY, n.

    1. In military affairs, the soldiers united under the command of a captain; a subdivision of a regiment, consisting usually of a number from 60 to 100 men. But the number is indefinite.NWAD COMPANY.2

    2. Any assemblage of persons; a collection of men, or other animals, in a very indefinite sense. It may be applied to a small number, or any multitude whatever; as in scripture we read of a company of priests, a company of prophets, and an innumerable company of angels; also, a company of horses.NWAD COMPANY.3

    3. An assemblage of persons for entertainment or festivity; a party collected by invitation or otherwise.NWAD COMPANY.4

    4. Persons that associate with others for conversation or pleasure; society; as, let your children keep good company.NWAD COMPANY.5

    5. The state of being a companion; the act of accompanying; fellowship; society.NWAD COMPANY.6

    I will keep thee company.NWAD COMPANY.7

    We cannot enjoy the company of licentious men.NWAD COMPANY.8

    6. A number of persons untied for the same purpose, or in a joint concern; as a company of merchants or mechanics; a company of players. The word is applicable to private partnerships or to incorporated bodies of men. Hence it may signify a firm, house or partnership; or a corporation, as the East India Company, a banking or insurance company.NWAD COMPANY.9

    7. The crew of a ship, including the officers; also, a fleet.NWAD COMPANY.10

    To bear company, to accompany; to attend; to go with; denoting a temporary association.NWAD COMPANY.11

    His faithful dog shall bear him company.NWAD COMPANY.12

    To keep company, to accompany; to attend; also, to associate with frequently or habitually; hence, to frequent public houses. Proverbs 29:3.NWAD COMPANY.13

    COMPANY, v.t. To accompany; to attend; to go with; to be companion to.

    COMPANY, v.i.

    1. To associate with; to frequent the company of.NWAD COMPANY.16

    I wrote you not to company with fornicators. 1 Corinthians 5:9.NWAD COMPANY.17

    2. To be a gay companion.NWAD COMPANY.18

    3. To have commerce with the other sex.NWAD COMPANY.19

    COMPARABLE, a. That may be compared; worthy of comparison; being of equal regard; that may be estimated as equal.

    There is no blessing of life comparable to the enjoyment of a discreet and virtuous friend.NWAD COMPARABLE.2

    The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold. Lamentations 4:2.NWAD COMPARABLE.3

    COMPARABLY, adv. In a manner or degree worthy to be compared, or of equal regard.


    1. Estimated by comparison; not positive or absolute. The comparative weight of a body, is that which is estimated by comparing it with the weight of another body. A body may be called heavy, when compared with a feather, which would be called light, when compared with iron. So of comparative good, or evil.NWAD COMPARATIVE.2

    2. Having the power of comparing different things; as a comparative faculty.NWAD COMPARATIVE.3

    3. In grammar, expressing more or less. The comparative degree of an adjective expresses a greater or less degree of a quantity, or quality, than the positive; as brighter, or more bright; smaller; finer; stronger; weaker.NWAD COMPARATIVE.4

    Comparative anatomy, that branch of anatomy which treats of the anatomy of other animals than man, with a view to compare their structure with that of human beings, and thus to illustrate the animal functions, and particularly with reference to a more perfect knowledge of the functions of several parts of the human body.NWAD COMPARATIVE.5

    COMPARATIVE, n. One who is equal or pretends to be an equal.

    COMPARATIVELY, adv. In a state of comparison; by comparison; according to estimate made by comparison; not positively, absolutely or in itself. A thing is comparatively heavy, when it is compared with something less heavy. Paper is comparatively light or heavy; light, when compared with lead; and heavy, when compared with air.

    How few, comparatively, are the instances of a wise application of time and talents!NWAD COMPARATIVELY.2

    COMPARE, v.t.

    1. To set or bring things together in fact or in contemplation, and to examine the relations they bear to each other, with a view to ascertain their agreement or disagreement; as, to compare two pieces of cloth, two tables, or coins; to compare reasons and arguments; to compare pleasure with pain.NWAD COMPARE.2

    In comparing movable things, it is customary to bring them together, for examination. In comparing thins immovable or remote, and abstract ideas, we bring them together in the mind, as far as we are able, and consider them in connection. Comparison therefore is really collation, or it includes it.NWAD COMPARE.3

    2. To liken; to represent as similar, for the purpose of illustration.NWAD COMPARE.4

    Solon compared the people to the sea, and orators and counselors to the winds; for that the sea would be calm and quiet, it the winds did not trouble it.NWAD COMPARE.5

    In this sense compare is followed by to.NWAD COMPARE.6

    3. To examine the relations of thins to each other, with a view to discover their relative proportions, quantities or qualities; as, to compare two kingdoms, or two mountains with each other; to compare the number ten with fifteen; to compare ice with crystal; to compare a clown with a dancing master or a dandy.NWAD COMPARE.7

    In this sense compare is followed by with.NWAD COMPARE.8

    4. In grammar, to form an adjective in the degrees of comparison; as blackish, black, blacker, blackest.NWAD COMPARE.9

    5. To get; to procure; to obtain; as in Latin.NWAD COMPARE.10

    COMPARE, v.i.

    1. To hold comparison; to be like or equal.NWAD COMPARE.12

    2. Simile; similitude; illustration by comparison.NWAD COMPARE.13

    [This noun is in use, but cannot be considered as elegant.]NWAD COMPARE.14

    COMPARED, pp. Set together and examined with respect to likeness or unlikeness, agreement or disagreement; likened; represented as similar.

    COMPARER, n. One who compares or makes a comparison.

    COMPARING, ppr. Examining the relations of thins to each other; likening.


    1. The act of comparing; the act of considering the relation between persons or things, with a view to discover their agreement or resemblance, or their disagreement or difference.NWAD COMPARISON.2

    We learn to form a correct estimate of men and their actions by comparison.NWAD COMPARISON.3

    2. The state of being compared.NWAD COMPARISON.4

    If we rightly estimate what we call good and evil, we shall find it lies much in comparison.NWAD COMPARISON.5

    3. Comparative estimate; proportion.NWAD COMPARISON.6

    Who is left among you that saw this house in its first glory? And how do you see it now? Is it not in your eyes in comparison of it as nothing? Haggai 2:3.NWAD COMPARISON.7

    4. In grammar, the formation of an adjective in its several degrees of signification; as strong, stronger, strongest; greenish, green, greener, greenest; glorious, more glorious, most glorious. In English, there are strictly four degrees of comparison.NWAD COMPARISON.8

    5. A simile, similitude, or illustration by similitude.NWAD COMPARISON.9

    Whereto shall we liken the kingdom of God? Or with what comparison shall we compare it? Mark 4:30.NWAD COMPARISON.10

    6. In rhetoric, a figure by which two things are considered with regard to a third, which is common to them both; as, a hero is like a lion in courage. Here courage is common to hero and lion, and constitutes the point of resemblance.NWAD COMPARISON.11

    The distinction between similitude and comparison is, that the former has reference to the quality; the latter, to the quantity. Comparison is between more and less; similitude is between good and gad. Hannibal--hung like a tempest on the declivities of the Alps--is a likeness by similitude. The sublimity of the scriptural prophets exceeds that of Homer, as much as thunder is louder than a whisper--is a likeness by comparison.NWAD COMPARISON.12

    But comparison has reference to quality as well as quantity.NWAD COMPARISON.13

    COMPART, v.t. To divide; to mark out a plan or design into its several parts, or subdivisions.

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