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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    PRESCRIBE, v.t. [L. proescribo, to write before.]

    1. In medicine, to direct, as a remedy to be used or applied to a diseased patient. Be not offended with the physician who prescribes harsh remedies.NWAD PRESCRIBE.2

    2. To set or lay down authoritatively for direction; to give as a rule of conduct; as, to prescribe laws or rules.NWAD PRESCRIBE.3

    There’s joy, when to wild will you laws prescribe.NWAD PRESCRIBE.4

    3. To direct.NWAD PRESCRIBE.5

    Let streams prescribe their fountains where to run.NWAD PRESCRIBE.6

    PRESCRIBE, v.i. To write or give medical directions; to direct what remedies are to be used; as, to prescribe for a patient in a fever.

    1. To give law; to influence arbitrarily.NWAD PRESCRIBE.8

    A forwardness to prescribe to the opinions of others.NWAD PRESCRIBE.9

    2. In law, to claim by prescription; to claim a title to a thing by immemorial use and enjoyment; with for. A man may be allowed to prescribe for a right of way, a common or the like; a man cannot prescribe for a castle; he can prescribe only for incorporeal hereditaments.NWAD PRESCRIBE.10

    3. To influence by long use.NWAD PRESCRIBE.11

    PRESCRIBED, pp. Directed; ordered.

    PRESCRIBER, n. One that prescribes.

    PRESCRIBING, ppr. Directing; giving as a rule of conduct or treatment.

    PRESCRIPT, a. [L. proescriptus.] Directed; prescribed.

    PRESCRIPT, n. [L. proescriptum.] A direction; a medical order for the use of medicines. [But prescription is chiefly used.]

    1. Direction; precept; model prescribed.NWAD PRESCRIPT.3

    PRESCRIPTIBLE, a. That may be prescribed for.

    PRESCRIPTION, n. [L. proescriptio. See Prescribe.]

    1. The act of prescribing or directing by rules; or that which is prescribed; particularly, a medical direction of remedies for a disease and the manner of using them; a recipe.NWAD PRESCRIPTION.2

    2. In law, prescribing for title; the claim of title to a thing by virtue of immemorial use and enjoyment; or the right to a thing derived from such use. Prescription differs from custom, which is a local usage. Prescription is a personal usage, usage annexed to the person. Nothing but incorporeal hereditaments can be claimed by prescription.NWAD PRESCRIPTION.3

    The use and enjoyment of navigation and fishery in the sea, for any length of time, does not create a title by prescription. The common right of nations to the use and enjoyment of the sea is imprescriptible; it cannot be lost by a particular nation for want of use.NWAD PRESCRIPTION.4

    3. In Scots law, the title to lands acquired by uninterrupted possession for the time which the law declares to be sufficient, or 40 years. This is positive prescription. Negative prescription is the loss or omission or a right by neglecting to use it during the time limited by law. This term is also used for limitation, in the recovery of money due by bond, etc. Obligations are lost by prescription, or neglect of prosecution for the time designated by law.NWAD PRESCRIPTION.5

    PRESCRIPTIVE, a. Consisting in or acquired by immemorial use and enjoyment; as a prescriptive right or title.

    The right to be drowsy in protracted toil, has become prescriptive.NWAD PRESCRIPTIVE.2

    1. Pleading the continuance and authority of custom.NWAD PRESCRIPTIVE.3

    PRESEANCE, n. Priority of place in sitting. [Not in use.]

    PRESENCE, n. s as z. [L. proesentia; proe, before, and esse, to be.] The existence of a person or thing in a certain place; opposed to absence. This event happened during the king’s presence at the theater. In examining the patient, the presence of fever was not observed. The presence of God is not limited to any place.

    1. A being in company near or before the face of another. We were gratified with the presence of a person so much respected.NWAD PRESENCE.2

    2. Approach face to face or nearness of a great personage.NWAD PRESENCE.3

    Men that very presence fear,NWAD PRESENCE.4

    Which once they knew authority did bear.NWAD PRESENCE.5

    3. State of being in view; sight. An accident happened in the presence of the court.NWAD PRESENCE.6

    4. By way of distinction, state of being in view of a superior.NWAD PRESENCE.7

    I know not by what pow’r I am made bold,NWAD PRESENCE.8

    In such a presence here to plead my thoughts.NWAD PRESENCE.9

    5. A number assembled before a great person.NWAD PRESENCE.10

    Odmar, of all this presence does contain,NWAD PRESENCE.11

    Give her your wreath whom you esteem most fair.NWAD PRESENCE.12

    6. Port; mien; air; personal appearance; demeanor.NWAD PRESENCE.13

    Virtue is best in a body that is comely, and that has rather dignity of presence, than beauty of aspect.NWAD PRESENCE.14

    A graceful presence bespeaks acceptance.NWAD PRESENCE.15

    7. The apartment in which a prince shows himself to his court.NWAD PRESENCE.16

    An’t please your grace, the two great cardinals.NWAD PRESENCE.17

    Wait in the presence.NWAD PRESENCE.18

    8. The person of a superior.NWAD PRESENCE.19

    Presence of mind, a calm, collected state of the mind with its faculties at command; undisturbed state of the thoughts, which enables a person to speak or act without disorder or embarrassment in unexpected difficulties.NWAD PRESENCE.20

    Errors, not to be recalled, do findNWAD PRESENCE.21

    Their best redress from presence of the mind.NWAD PRESENCE.22

    PRESENCE-CHAMBER, PRESENCE-ROOM, n. The room in which a great personage receives company.

    PRESENSATION, n. [pre and sensation.] Previous notion or idea.

    PRESENSION, n. [L. proesensio proesentio; proe and sentio, to perceive.] Previous perception. [Little used.]

    PRESENT, a. s as z. [L. proesens; proe and sum, esse, to be.]

    1. Being in a certain place; opposed to absent.NWAD PRESENT.2

    2. Being before the face or near; being in company. Inquire of some of the gentlemen present.NWAD PRESENT.3

    These things have I spoken unto you, being yet present with you. John 14:25.NWAD PRESENT.4

    3. Being now in view or under consideration. In the present instance, facts will not warrant the conclusion. The present question must be decided on different principles.NWAD PRESENT.5

    4. Now existing, or being at this time; not past or future; as the present session of congress. The court is in session at the present time. We say, a present good, the present year or age.NWAD PRESENT.6

    5. Ready at hand; quick in emergency; as present wit.NWAD PRESENT.7

    ‘Tis a high point of philosophy and virtue for a man to be present to himself.NWAD PRESENT.8

    6. Favorably attentive; not heedless; propitious.NWAD PRESENT.9

    Nor could I hope in any place but thereNWAD PRESENT.10

    To find a god so present to my prayer.NWAD PRESENT.11

    7. Not absent of mind; not abstracted; attentive.NWAD PRESENT.12

    The present, an elliptical expression for the present time.NWAD PRESENT.13

    At present, elliptically for, at the present time.NWAD PRESENT.14

    Present tense, in grammar, the tense or form of a verb which expresses action or being in the present time, as I am writing; or something that exists at all times, as virtue is always to be preferred to vice; or it expresses habits or general truths, as plants spring from the earth; fishes swim; reptiles creep; birds fly; some animals subsist on herbage, others are carnivorous.NWAD PRESENT.15

    PRESENT, n. That which is presented or given; a gift; a donative; something given or offered to another gratuitously; a word of general application. Genesis 32:13, 20-21.

    Presents’ in the plural, is used in law for a deed of conveyance, a lease, letter of attorney or other writing; as in the phrase, “Know all men by these presents,” that is, by the writing itself, per presentes. In this sense, it is rarely used in the singular.NWAD PRESENT.17

    PRESENT, v.t. [Low L. proesento; L. proesens; proe, before, and sum, esse, to be.]

    1. To set, place or introduce into the presence or before the face of a superior, as to present an envoy to the king; and with the reciprocal pronoun, to come into the presence of a superior.NWAD PRESENT.19

    Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord. Job 1:6.NWAD PRESENT.20

    2. To exhibit to view or notice. The top of Mount Holyoke, in Hampshire county, in Massachusetts, presents one of the finest prospects in America.NWAD PRESENT.21

    3. To offer; to exhibit.NWAD PRESENT.22

    O hear what to my mind first thoughts present.NWAD PRESENT.23

    He is ever ready to present to us the thoughts or observations of others.NWAD PRESENT.24

    4. To give; to offer gratuitously for reception. The first President of the American Bible Society, presented to that institution ten thousand dollars.NWAD PRESENT.25

    5. To put into the hands of another in ceremony.NWAD PRESENT.26

    So ladies in romance assist their knight,NWAD PRESENT.27

    Present the spear, and arm him for the fight.NWAD PRESENT.28

    6. To favor with a gift; as, we present a man with a suit of clothes. Formerly the phrase was, to present a person.NWAD PRESENT.29

    Octavia presented the poet, for his admirable elegy on her son Marcellus.NWAD PRESENT.30

    [This use is obsolete.]NWAD PRESENT.31

    7. To nominate to an ecclesiastical benefice; to offer to the bishop or ordinary as a candidate for institution.NWAD PRESENT.32

    The patron of a church may present his clerk to a parsonage or vicarage; that is, may offer him to the bishop of the diocese to be instituted.NWAD PRESENT.33

    8. To offer.NWAD PRESENT.34

    He--presented battle to the French navy, which was refused.NWAD PRESENT.35

    9. To lay before a public body for consideration, as before a legislature, a court of judicature, a corporation, etc.; as, to present a memorial, petition, remonstrance or indictment.NWAD PRESENT.36

    10. To lay before a court of judicature as an object of inquiry; to give notice officially of a crime or offense. It is the duty of grand juries to present all breaches of law within their knowledge. In America, grand juries present whatever they think to be public injuries, by notifying them to the public with their censure.NWAD PRESENT.37

    11. To point a weapon, particularly some species of fire-arms; as, to present a musket to the breast of another; in manual exercise, to present arms.NWAD PRESENT.38

    12. To indict; a customary use of the word in the United Stats.NWAD PRESENT.39

    PRESENTABLE, a. That may be presented; that may be exhibited or represented.

    1. That may be offered to a church living; as a presentable clerk.NWAD PRESENTABLE.2

    2. That admits of the presentation of a clerk; as a church presentable. [Unusual.]NWAD PRESENTABLE.3

    PRESENTANEOUS, a. [L. proesentaneus.] Ready; quick; immediate; as presentaneous poison.

    PRESENTATION, n. The act of presenting.

    Prayers are sometimes a presentation of mere desires.NWAD PRESENTATION.2

    1. Exhibition; representation; display; as the presentation of fighting on the stage.NWAD PRESENTATION.3

    2. In ecclesiastical law, the act of offering a clerk to the bishop or ordinary for institution in a benefice. An advowson is he right of presentation.NWAD PRESENTATION.4

    If the bishop admits the patron’s presentation, the clerk so admitted is next to be instituted by him.NWAD PRESENTATION.5

    3. The right of presenting a clerk. The patron has the presentation of the benefice.NWAD PRESENTATION.6

    PRESENTATIVE, a. In ecclesiastical affairs, that has the right of presentation, or offering a clerk to the bishop for institution. Advowsons are presentative, collative or donative.

    An advowson presentative is where the patron hath a right of presentation to the bishop or ordinary.NWAD PRESENTATIVE.2

    1. That admits the presentation of a clerk; as a presentative parsonage.NWAD PRESENTATIVE.3

    PRESENTED, pp. Offered; given; exhibited to view; accused.

    PRESENTEE, n. One presented to a benefice.

    PRESENTER, n. One that presents.

    PRESENTIAL, a. Supposing actual presence. [Little used.]

    PRESENTIALITY, n. The state of being present. [Little used.]

    PRESENTIATE, v.t. To make present. [Little used.]

    PRESENTIFIC, PRESENTIFICAL, a. Making present. [Not in use.]

    PRESENTIFICLY, adv. In such a manner as to make present. [Not in use.]

    PRESENTIMENT, n. [pre and sentiment.] Previous conception, sentiment or opinion; previous apprehension of something future.

    PRESENTLY, adv. s as z. At present; at this time.

    The towns and forts you presently have.NWAD PRESENTLY.2

    1. In a short time after; soon after.NWAD PRESENTLY.3

    Him therefore I hope to send presently, so soon as I shall see how it will go with me. Philippians 2:23.NWAD PRESENTLY.4

    And presently the fig-tree withered away. Matthew 21:19.NWAD PRESENTLY.5

    PRESENTMENT, n. s as z. The act of presenting.

    1. Appearance to the view; representation.NWAD PRESENTMENT.2

    2. In law, a presentment, properly speaking, is the notice taken by a grand jury of any offense from their own knowledge or observation, without any bill of indictment laid before them at the suit of the king; as the presentment of a nuisance, a libel or the like, on which the officer of the court must afterwards frame an indictment, before the party presented can be put to answer it.NWAD PRESENTMENT.3

    3. In a more general sense, presentment comprehends inquisitions of office and indictments.NWAD PRESENTMENT.4

    In the United States, a presentment is an official accusation presented to a tribunal by the grand jury in an indictment; or it is the act of offering an indictment. It is also used for the indictment itself. The grand jury are charged to inquire and due presentment make of all crimes, etc. The use of the word is limited to accusations by grand jurors.NWAD PRESENTMENT.5

    4. The official notice in court which the jury or homage gives of the surrender of a copyhold estate.NWAD PRESENTMENT.6

    PRESENTNESS, n. s as z. Presence; as presentness of mind. [Not used.]

    PRESERVABLE, a. [See Preserve.] That may be preserved.

    PRESERVATION, n. The act of preserving or keeping safe; the act of keeping from injury, destruction or decay; as the preservation of life or health; the preservation of buildings from fire or decay; the preservation of grain from insects; the preservation of fruit or plants. When a thing is kept entirely from decay, or nearly in its original state, we say it is in a high state of preservation.

    PRESERVATIVE, a. Having the power or quality of keeping safe from injury, destruction or decay; tending to preserve.

    PRESERVATIVE, n. That which preserves or has the power of preserving; something that tends to secure a person or thing in a sound state, or prevent if from injury, destruction, decay or corruption; a preventive of injury or decay. Persons formerly wore tablets of arsenic, as preservatives against the plague. Clothing is a preservative against cold. Temperance and exercise are the best preservatives of health. Habitual reverence of the Supreme Being is an excellent preservative against sin and the influence of evil examples.

    PRESERVATORY, a. That tends to preserve.

    PRESERVATORY, n. That which has the power of preserving; a preservative.

    PRESERVE, v.t. prezerv’. [Low L. proeservo; proe and servo, to keep.]

    1. To keep or save from injury or destruction; to defend from evil.NWAD PRESERVE.2

    God did send me before you to preserve life. Genesis 45:5.NWAD PRESERVE.3

    O Lord, preserve me from the violent man. Psalm 140:1, 4.NWAD PRESERVE.4

    2. To uphold; to sustain.NWAD PRESERVE.5

    O Lord, thou preservest man and beast. Psalm 36:6.NWAD PRESERVE.6

    3. To save from decay; to keep in a sound state; as, to preserve fruit in winter. Salt is used to preserve meat.NWAD PRESERVE.7

    4. To season with sugar or other substances for preservation; as, to preserve plums, quinces or other fruit.NWAD PRESERVE.8

    5. To keep or defend from corruption; as, to preserve youth from vice.NWAD PRESERVE.9

    PRESERVE, n. preserv’. Fruit or a vegetable seasoned and kept in sugar or sirup.

    PRESERVED, pp. Saved from injury, destruction or decay; kept or defended from evil; seasoned with sugar for preservation.

    PRESERVER, n. The person or thing that preserves; one that saves or defends from destruction or evil.

    What shall I do to thee, O thou preserver of men? Job 7:20.NWAD PRESERVER.2

    1. One that makes preserves of fruits.NWAD PRESERVER.3

    PRESERVING, ppr. Keeping safe from injury, destruction or decay; defending from evil.

    PRESIDE, v.i. s as z. [L. proesideo; proe, before, and sedeo, to sit.]

    1. To be set over for the exercise of authority; to direct, control and govern, as the chief officer. A man may preside over a nation or province; or he may preside over a senate, or a meeting of citizens. The word is used chiefly in the latter sense. We say, a man presides over the senate with dignity. Hence it usually denotes temporary superintendence and government.NWAD PRESIDE.2

    2. To exercise superintendence; to watch over as inspector.NWAD PRESIDE.3

    Some o’er the public magazines preside.NWAD PRESIDE.4

    PRESIDENCY, n. Superintendence; inspection and care.

    1. The office of president. Washington was elected to the presidency of the United States by a unanimous vote of the electors.NWAD PRESIDENCY.2

    2. The term during which a president holds his office. President J. Adams died during the presidency of his son.NWAD PRESIDENCY.3

    3. The jurisdiction of a president; as in the British dominions in the East Indies.NWAD PRESIDENCY.4

    4. The family or suit of a president.NWAD PRESIDENCY.5

    A worthy clergyman belonging to the presidency of Fort St. George.NWAD PRESIDENCY.6

    PRESIDENT, n. [L. proesidens.]

    1. An officer elected or appointed to preside over a corporation, company or assembly of men, to keep order, manage their concerns or govern their proceedings; as the president of a banking company; the president of a senate, etc.NWAD PRESIDENT.2

    2. An officer appointed or elected to govern a province or territory, or to administer the government of a nation. The president of the United States is the chief executive magistrate.NWAD PRESIDENT.3

    3. The chief officer of a college or university.NWAD PRESIDENT.4

    4. A tutelar power.NWAD PRESIDENT.5

    Just Apollo, president of verse.NWAD PRESIDENT.6

    Vice-president, one who is second in authority to the president. The vice-president of the United States is president of the senate ex officio, and performs the duties of president when the latter is removed or disabled.NWAD PRESIDENT.7

    PRESIDENTIAL, a. Pertaining to a president; as the presidential chair.

    1. Presiding over.NWAD PRESIDENTIAL.2

    PRESIDENTSHIP, n. The office and place of president.

    1. The term for which a president holds his office.NWAD PRESIDENTSHIP.2

    PRESIDIAL, PRESIDIARY, a. [L. proesidium, a garrison; proe and sedeo.]

    Pertaining to a garrison; having a garrison.NWAD PRESIDIAL.2

    PRESIGNIFICATION, n. [from presignify.]

    The act of signifying or showing beforehand.NWAD PRESIGNIFICATION.2

    PRESIGNIFY, v.t. [pre and signify.] To intimate or signify beforehand; to show previously.

    PRESS, v.t. [L. pressus.]

    1. To urge with force or weight; a word of extensive use, denoting the application of any power, physical or moral, to something that is to be moved or affected. We press the ground with the feet when we walk; we press the couch on which we repose; we press substances with the hands, fingers or arms; the smith presses iron with his vise; we are pressed with the weight of arguments or of cares, troubles and business.NWAD PRESS.2

    2. To squeeze; to crush; as, to press grapes. Genesis 40:11.NWAD PRESS.3

    3. To drive with violence; to hurry; as, to press a horse in motion, or in a race.NWAD PRESS.4

    4. To urge; to enforce; to inculcate with earnestness; as, to press divine truth on an audience.NWAD PRESS.5

    5. To embrace closely; to hug.NWAD PRESS.6

    Leucothoe shookNWAD PRESS.7

    And press’d Palemon closer in her arms.NWAD PRESS.8

    6. To force into service, particularly into naval service; to impress.NWAD PRESS.9

    7. To straiten; to distress; as, to be pressed with want or with difficulties.NWAD PRESS.10

    8. To constrain; to compel; to urge by authority or necessity.NWAD PRESS.11

    The posts that rode on mules and camels went out, being hastened and pressed on by the king’s commandment. Esther 8:14.NWAD PRESS.12

    9. To urge; to impose by importunity.NWAD PRESS.13

    He pressed a letter upon me, within this hour, to deliver to you.NWAD PRESS.14

    10. To urge or solicit with earnestness or importunity. He pressed me to accept of his offer.NWAD PRESS.15

    11. To urge; to constrain.NWAD PRESS.16

    Paul was pressed in spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ. Acts 18:5.NWAD PRESS.17

    Wickedness pressed with conscience, forecasteth grievous things.NWAD PRESS.18

    12. To squeeze for making smooth; as cloth or paper.NWAD PRESS.19

    Press differs from drive and strike, in usually denoting a slow or continued application of force; whereas drive and strike denote a sudden impulse of force.NWAD PRESS.20

    PRESS, v.i. To urge or strain in motion; to urge forward with force.

    I press towards the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. Philippians 3:14.NWAD PRESS.22

    Th’ insulting victor presses on the more.NWAD PRESS.23

    1. To bear on with force; to encroach.NWAD PRESS.24

    On superior powersNWAD PRESS.25

    Were we to press, inferior might on ours.NWAD PRESS.26

    2. To bear on with force; to crowd; to throng.NWAD PRESS.27

    Thronging crowds press on you as you pass.NWAD PRESS.28

    3. To approach unseasonably or importunately.NWAD PRESS.29

    Nor press too near the throne.NWAD PRESS.30

    4. To urge with vehemence and importunity.NWAD PRESS.31

    He pressed upon them greatly, and they turned in to him. Genesis 19:3.NWAD PRESS.32

    5. To urge by influence or moral force.NWAD PRESS.33

    When arguments press equally in matters indifferent, the safest method is to give up ourselves to neither.NWAD PRESS.34

    6. To push with force; as, to press against the door.NWAD PRESS.35

    PRESS, n.

    1. An instrument or machine by which any body is squeezed, crushed or forced into a more compact form; as a wine-press, cider-press or cheese-press.NWAD PRESS.37

    2. A machine for printing; a printing-press. Great improvements have been lately made in the construction of presses.NWAD PRESS.38

    3. The art or business of printing and publishing. A free press is a great blessing to a free people; a licentious press is a curse to society.NWAD PRESS.39

    4. A crowd; a throng; a multitude of individuals crowded together.NWAD PRESS.40

    And when they could not come nigh to him for the press-- Mark 2:4.NWAD PRESS.41

    5. The act of urging or pushing forward.NWAD PRESS.42

    Which in their throng and press to the last hold,NWAD PRESS.43

    Confound themselves.NWAD PRESS.44

    6. A wine-vat or cistern. Haggai 2:16.NWAD PRESS.45

    7. A case of closet for the safe keeping of garments.NWAD PRESS.46

    8. Urgency; urgent demands of affairs; as a press of business.NWAD PRESS.47

    9. A commission to force men into public service, particularly into the navy; for impress.NWAD PRESS.48

    Press of sail, in navigation, is as much sail as the state of the wind will permit.NWAD PRESS.49

    Liberty of the press, in civil policy, is the free right of publishing books, pamphlets or papers without previous restraint; or the unrestrained right which every citizen enjoys of publishing his thoughts and opinions, subject only to punishment for publishing what is pernicious to morals or to the peace of the state.NWAD PRESS.50

    PRESS-BED, n. A bed that may be raised and inclosed in a case.

    PRESSED, pp. Urged by force or weight; constrained; distressed; crowded; embraced; made smooth and glossy by pressure, as cloth.

    PRESSER, n. One that presses.

    PRESS-GANG, n. [press and gang.] A detachment of seamen under the command of an officer, empowered to impress men into the naval service.

    PRESSING, ppr. Urging with force or weight; squeezing; constraining; crowding; embracing; distressing; forcing into service; rolling in a press.

    1. a. Urgent; distressing.NWAD PRESSING.2

    PRESSING, n. The act or operation of applying force to bodies. The pressing of cloth is performed by means of the screw, or by a calendar.

    PRESSINGLY, adv. With force or urgency; closely.

    PRESSION, n. The act of pressing. But pressure is more generally used.

    1. In the Cartesian philosophy, an endeavor to move.NWAD PRESSION.2

    PRESSITANT, a. Gravitating; heavy. [Not in use.]

    PRESSMAN, n. In printing, the man who manages the press and impresses the sheets.

    1. One of a press-gang, who aids in forcing men into the naval service.NWAD PRESSMAN.2

    PRESS-MONEY, n. Money paid to a man impressed into public service. [See Prest-money.]

    PRESSURE, n. [L. pressura.] The act of pressing or urging with force.

    1. The act of squeezing or crushing. Wine is obtained by the pressure of grapes.NWAD PRESSURE.2

    2. The state of being squeezed or crushed.NWAD PRESSURE.3

    3. The force of one body acting on another by weight or the continued application of power. Pressure is occasioned by weight or gravity, by the motion of bodies, by the expansion of fluids, by elasticity, etc. Mutual pressure may be caused by the meeting of moving bodies, or by the motion of one body against another at rest, and the resistance or elastic force of the latter. The degree of pressure is in proportion to the weight of the pressing body, or to the power applied, or to the elastic force of resisting bodies. The screw is a most powerful instrument of pressure. The pressure of wind on the sails of a ship is in proportion to its velocity.NWAD PRESSURE.4

    4. A constraining force or impulse; that which urges or compels the intellectual or moral faculties; as the pressure of motives on the mind, or of fear on the conscience.NWAD PRESSURE.5

    5. That which afflicts the body or depresses the spirits; any severe affliction, distress, calamity or grievance; straits, difficulties, embarrassments, or the distress they occasion. We speak of the pressure of poverty or want, the pressure of debts, the pressure of taxes, the pressure of afflictions or sorrow.NWAD PRESSURE.6

    My own and my people’s pressures are grievous.NWAD PRESSURE.7

    To this consideration he retreats with comfort in all his pressures.NWAD PRESSURE.8

    We observe that pressure is used both for trouble or calamity, and for the distress it produces.NWAD PRESSURE.9

    6. Urgency; as the pressure of business.NWAD PRESSURE.10

    7. Impression; stamp; character impressed.NWAD PRESSURE.11

    All laws of books, all forms, all pressures past.NWAD PRESSURE.12

    PREST, sometimes used for pressed. [See Press.]

    PREST, a. [L. proesto, to stand before or forward; proe and sto.]

    1. Ready; prompt.NWAD PREST.3

    2. Neat; tight.NWAD PREST.4

    PREST, n. A loan.

    1. Formerly, a duty in money, to be paid by the sheriff on his account in the exchequer, or for money left or remaining in his hands.NWAD PREST.6

    PREST-MONEY, n. Money paid to men impressed into the service.

    PRESTATION, n. [L. proestatio.] Formerly, a payment of money; sometimes used for purveyance.

    PRESTATION-MONEY, n. A sum of money paid yearly by archdeacons and other dignitaries to their bishop, pro exteriore jurisdictione.

    PRESTER, n. [Gr. to kindle or inflame.]

    1. A meteor thrown from the clouds with such violence, that by collision it is set on fire.NWAD PRESTER.2

    2. The external part of the neck, which swells when a person is angry.NWAD PRESTER.3

    PRESTIGES, n. [L. proestigioe.] Juggling tricks; impostures.

    PRESTIGIATION, n. [L. proestigioe, tricks.] The playing of legerdemain tricks; a juggling.

    PRESTIGIATOR, n. A juggler; a cheat.

    PRESTIGIATORY, a. Juggling; consisting of impostures.

    PRESTIGIOUS, a. Practicing tricks; juggling.

    PRESTIMONY, n. [L. proesto, to supply; proe and sto.] In canon law, a fund for the support of a priest, appropriated by the founder, but not erected into any title of benefice, and not subject to the pope or the ordinary, but of which the patron is the collator.

    But in a Spanish Dictionary thus defined, “a prebend for the maintenance of poor clergymen, on condition of their saying prayers at certain stated times.NWAD PRESTIMONY.2

    PRESTO, adv. [L. proesto.]

    1. In music, a direction for a quick lively movement or performance.NWAD PRESTO.2

    2. Quickly; immediately; in haste.NWAD PRESTO.3

    PRESTRICTION, n. [L. proestringo, proestrictus.] Dimness.

    PRESUMABLE, a. s as z. [from presume.] That may be presumed; that may be supposed to be true or entitled to belief, without examination or direct evidence, or on probable evidence.

    PRESUMABLY, adv. By presuming or supposing something to be true, without direct proof.

    PRESUME, v.t. s as z. [L. proesumo; proe, before, and sumo, to take.] To take or suppose to be true or entitled to belief, without examination or positive proof, or on the strength of probability. We presume that a man is honest, who has not been known to cheat or deceive; but in this we are sometimes mistaken. In many cases, the law presumes full payment where positive evidence of it cannot be produced.

    We not only presume it may be so, but we actually find it so.NWAD PRESUME.2

    In cases of implied contracts, the law presumes that a man has covenanted or contracted to do what reason and justice dictate.NWAD PRESUME.3

    PRESUME, v.i. To venture without positive permission; as, we may presume too far.

    1. To form confident or arrogant opinions; with on or upon, before the cause of confidence.NWAD PRESUME.5

    This man presumes upon his parts.NWAD PRESUME.6

    I will not presume so far upon myself.NWAD PRESUME.7

    2. To make confident or arrogant attempts.NWAD PRESUME.8

    In that we presume to see what is meet and convenient, better than God himself.NWAD PRESUME.9

    3. It has on or upon sometimes before the thing supposed.NWAD PRESUME.10

    Luther presumes upon the gift of continency.NWAD PRESUME.11

    It is sometimes followed by of, but improperly.NWAD PRESUME.12

    PRESUMED, pp. Supposed or taken to be true, or entitled to belief, without positive proof.

    PRESUMER, n. One that presumes; also, an arrogant person.

    PRESUMING, ppr. Taking as true, or supposing to be entitled to belief, on probable evidence.

    1. a. Venturing without positive permission; too confident; arrogant; unreasonably bold.NWAD PRESUMING.2

    PRESUMPTION, n. [L. proesumption.]

    1. Supposition of the truth or real existence of something without direct or positive proof of the fact, but grounded on circumstantial or probable evidence which entitles it to belief. Presumption in law is of three sorts, violent or strong, probable, and light.NWAD PRESUMPTION.2

    Next to positive proof, circumstantial evidence or the doctrine of presumptions must take place; for when the fact cannot be demonstratively evinced, that which comes nearest to the proof of the fact is the proof of such circumstances as either necessarily or usually attend such facts. These are called presumptions. Violent presumption is many times equal to full proof.NWAD PRESUMPTION.3

    2. Strong probability; as in the common phrase, the presumption is that an event has taken place, or will take place.NWAD PRESUMPTION.4

    3. Blind or headstrong confidence; unreasonable adventurousness; a venturing to undertake something without reasonable prospect of success, or against the usual probabilities of safety; presumptuousness.NWAD PRESUMPTION.5

    Let my presumption not provoke thy wrath.NWAD PRESUMPTION.6

    I had the presumption to dedicate to you a very unfinished price.NWAD PRESUMPTION.7

    4. Arrogance. He had the presumption to attempt to dictate to the council.NWAD PRESUMPTION.8

    5. Unreasonable confidence in divine favor.NWAD PRESUMPTION.9

    The awe of his majesty will keep us from presumption.NWAD PRESUMPTION.10

    PRESUMPTIVE, a. Taken by previous supposition; grounded on probable evidence.

    1. Unreasonably confident; adventuring without reasonable ground to expect success; presumptuous; arrogant.NWAD PRESUMPTIVE.2

    Presumptive evidence, in law, is that which is derived from circumstances which necessarily or usually attend a fact, as distinct from direct evidence or positive proof.NWAD PRESUMPTIVE.3

    Presumptive evidence of felony should be cautiously admitted.NWAD PRESUMPTIVE.4

    Presumptive heir, one who would inherit an estate if the ancestor should die with things in their present state, but whose right of inheritance may be defeated by the birth of a nearer heir before the death of the ancestor. Thus the presumptive succession of a brother or nephew may be destroyed by the birth of a child. Presumptive heir is distinguished from heir apparent, whose right of inheritance is indefeasible, provided he outlives the ancestor.NWAD PRESUMPTIVE.5

    PRESUMPTIVELY, adv. By presumption, or supposition grounded on probability.


    1. Bold and confident to excess; adventuring without reasonable ground of success; hazarding safety on too slight grounds; rash; applied to persons; as a presumptuous commander.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.2

    There is a class of presumptuous men whom age has not made cautious, nor adversity wise.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.3

    2. Founded on presumption; proceeding from excess of confidence; applied to things; as presumptuous hope.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.4

    3. Arrogant; insolent; as a presumptuous priest.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.5

    Presumptuous pride.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.6

    4. Unduly confident; irreverent with respect to sacred things.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.7

    5. Willful; done with bold design, rash confidence or in violation of known duty; as a presumptuous sin.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUS.8

    PRESUMPTUOUSLY, adv. With rash confidence.

    1. Arrogantly; insolently.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUSLY.2

    2. Willfully; in bold defiance of conscience or violation of known duty; as, to sin presumptuously. Numbers 15:30.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUSLY.3

    3. With groundless and vain confidence in the divine favor.NWAD PRESUMPTUOUSLY.4

    PRESUMPTUOUSNESS, n. The quality of being presumptuous or rashly confident; groundless confidence; arrogance; irreverent boldness or forwardness.

    PRESUPPOSAL, n. presuppo’zal. [pre and supposal.]

    Supposal previously formed; presupposition.NWAD PRESUPPOSAL.2

    PRESUPPOSE, v.t. presuppo’ze. [Eng. pre and suppose.] To suppose as previous; to imply as antecedent. The existence of created things presupposes the existence of a Creator.

    Each kind of knowledge presupposes many necessary things learned in other sciences and known beforehand.NWAD PRESUPPOSE.2

    PRESUPPOSED, pp. Supposed to be antecedent.

    PRESUPPOSING, ppr. Supposing to be previous.

    PRESUPPOSITION, n. Supposition previously formed.

    1. Supposition of something antecedent.NWAD PRESUPPOSITION.2

    PRESURMISE, n. presurmi’ze. [pre and surmise.]

    A surmise previously formed.NWAD PRESURMISE.2

    PRETEND, v.t. [L. proetendo; proe, before, and tendo, to tend, to reach or stretch.]

    1. Literally, to reach or stretch forward; used by Dryden, but this use is not well authorized.NWAD PRETEND.2

    2. To hold out, as a false appearance; to offer something feigned instead of that which is real; to simulate, in words or actions.NWAD PRETEND.3

    This let him know,NWAD PRETEND.4

    Lest willfully transgressing, he pretendNWAD PRETEND.5

    Surprisal.NWAD PRETEND.6

    3. To show hypocritically; as, to pretend great zeal when the heart is not engaged; to pretend patriotism for the sake of gaining popular applause or obtaining an office.NWAD PRETEND.7

    4. To exhibit as a cover for something hidden.NWAD PRETEND.8

    Lest that too heavenly form, pretendedNWAD PRETEND.9

    To hellish falsehood, snare them. [Not in use.]NWAD PRETEND.10

    5. To claim.NWAD PRETEND.11

    Chiefs shall be grudg’d the part which they pretend.NWAD PRETEND.12

    [In this we generally use pretend to.]NWAD PRETEND.13

    6. To intend; to design. [Not used.]NWAD PRETEND.14

    PRETEND, v.t. To put in a claim, truly or falsely; to hold out the appearance of being, possessing or performing. A man may pretend to be a physician, and pretend to perform great cures. Bad men often pretend to be patriots.

    PRETENDED, pp. Held out, as a false appearance; feigned; simulated.

    1. a. Ostensible; hypocritical; as a pretended reason or motive; pretended zeal.NWAD PRETENDED.2

    PRETENDEDLY, adv. By false appearance or representation.

    PRETENDER, n. One who makes a show of something not real; one who lays claim to any thing.

    1. In English history, the heir of the royal family of Stuart, who lays claim to the crown of Great Britain, but is excluded by law.NWAD PRETENDER.2

    PRETENDERSHIP, n. The right or claim of the Pretender.

    PRETENDING, ppr. Holding out a false appearance; laying claim to, or attempting to make others believe one is what in truth he is not, or that he has or does something which he has or does not; making hypocritical professions.

    PRETENDINGLY, adv. Arrogantly; presumptuously.

    PRETENSE, n. pretens’. [L. proetensus, proetendo.]

    1. A holding out or offering to others something false or feigned; a presenting to others, either in words or actions, a false or hypocritical appearance, usually with a view to conceal what is real, and thus to deceive. Under pretense of giving liberty to nations, the prince conquered and enslaved them. Under pretense of patriotism, ambitious men serve their own selfish purposes.NWAD PRETENSE.2

    Let not Trojans, with a feigned pretenseNWAD PRETENSE.3

    Of proffer’d peace, delude the Latian prince.NWAD PRETENSE.4

    It is sometimes preceded by on; as on pretense of revenging Caesar’s death.NWAD PRETENSE.5

    2. Assumption; claim to notice.NWAD PRETENSE.6

    Never was any thing of this pretense more ingeniously imparted.NWAD PRETENSE.7

    3. Claim, true or false.NWAD PRETENSE.8

    Primogeniture cannot have any pretense to a right of solely inheriting property or power.NWAD PRETENSE.9

    4. Something held out to terrify or for other purpose; as a pretense of danger.NWAD PRETENSE.10

    PRETENSED, a. Pretended; feigned; as a pretensed right to land. [Little used.]


    1. Claim, true or false; a holding out the appearance of right or possession of a thing, with a view to make others believe what is not real, or what, if true, is not yet known or admitted. A man may make pretensions to rights which he cannot maintain; he may make pretensions to skill which he does not possess; and he may make pretensions to skill or acquirements which he really possesses, but which he is not known to possess. Hence we speak of ill founded pretensions, and well founded pretensions.NWAD PRETENSION.2

    2. Claim to something to be obtained, or a desire to obtain something, manifested by words or actions. Any citizen may have pretensions to the honor of representing the state in the senate or house of representatives.NWAD PRETENSION.3

    The commons demand that the consulship should lie in common to the pretensions of any Roman.NWAD PRETENSION.4

    Men indulge those opinions and practices that favor their pretensions.NWAD PRETENSION.5

    3. Fictitious appearance; a Latin phrase, not now used.NWAD PRETENSION.6

    This was but an invention and pretension given out by the Spaniards.NWAD PRETENSION.7

    PRETENTATIVE, a. [L. proe and tento, to try.]

    That may be previously tried or attempted. [Little used.]NWAD PRETENTATIVE.2

    PRETER, a Latin preposition, [proeter,] is used in some English words as a prefix. Its proper signification is beyond, hence beside, more.

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