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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    VEXINGLY, adv. So as to vex, tease or irritate.

    VIAL, n. [L. phiala.] A phial; a small bottle of thin glass, used particularly by apothecaries and druggists.

    Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it on his head. 1 Samuel 10:1.NWAD VIAL.2

    Vials of God’s wrath, in Scripture, are the execution of his wrath upon the wicked for their sins. Revelation 16:1.NWAD VIAL.3

    VIAL, v.t. To put in a vial.

    VIAND, n. [L. vivendus, vivo, to live.] Meat dressed; food.

    Viands of various kinds allure the taste.NWAD VIAND.2

    [It is used chiefly in the plural.]NWAD VIAND.3

    VIATIC, a. [L. viaticum, from via, way.]

    Pertaining to a journey or to traveling.NWAD VIATIC.2

    VIATICUM, n. [L. supra.]

    1. Provisions for a journey.NWAD VIATICUM.2

    2. Among the ancient Romans, an allowance to officers who were sent into the provinces to exercise any office or perform any service, also to the officers and soldiers of the army.NWAD VIATICUM.3

    3. In the Romish church, the communion or eucharist given to persons in their last moment.NWAD VIATICUM.4

    VIBRANT, VIBRION, n. [L. vibrans.] A name given to the ichneumon fly, from the continual vibration of its antennae.

    VIBRATE, v.i. [L. vibro; Eng. wabble.]

    1. To swing; to oscillate; to move one way and the other; to play to and fro; as, the pendulum of a clock vibrates more or less rapidly, as it is shorter or longer. The chords of an instrument vibrate when touched.NWAD VIBRATE.2

    2. To quiver; as, a whisper vibrates on the ear.NWAD VIBRATE.3

    3. To pass from one state to another; as, a man vibrates from one opinion to another.NWAD VIBRATE.4

    VIBRATE, v.t.

    1. To brandish; to move to and fro; to swing; as, to vibrate a sword or staff. The pendulum of a clock vibrates seconds.NWAD VIBRATE.6

    2. To cause to quiver.NWAD VIBRATE.7

    Breath vocalized, that is, vibrated or undulated, may differently affect the lips, and impress a swift tremulous motion.NWAD VIBRATE.8

    VIBRATED, pp. Brandished; moved one way and the other.

    VIBRATILITY, n. Disposition to preternatural vibration or motion. [Not much used.]

    VIBRATING, ppr. Brandishing; moving to and fro, as a pendulum or musical chord.

    VIBRATION, n. [L. vibro.]

    1. The act of brandishing; the act of moving or state of being moved one way and the other in quick succession.NWAD VIBRATION.2

    2. In mechanics, a regular reciprocal motion of a body suspended; a motion consisting of continual reciprocations or returns; as of the pendulum of a chronometer. This is frequently called oscillation. The number of vibrations in a given time depends on the length of the vibrating body; a pendulum three feet long, makes only ten vibrations while one of nine inches makes twenty. The vibrations of a pendulum are somewhat slower at or near the equator than in remote latitudes. The vibrations of a pendulum are isochronal in the same climate.NWAD VIBRATION.3

    3. In physics, alternate or reciprocal motion; as the vibrations of the nervous fluid, by which sensation has been supposed to be produced, by impressions of external objects propagated thus to the brain.NWAD VIBRATION.4

    4. In music, the motion of a chord, or the undulation of any body, by which sound is produced. The acuteness, elevation and gravity of sound, depend on the length of the chord and its tension.NWAD VIBRATION.5

    VIBRATIUNCLE, n. A small vibration.

    VIBRATIVE, a. That vibrates.


    1. Vibrating; consisting in vibration or oscillation; as a vibratory motion.NWAD VIBRATORY.2

    2. Causing to vibrate.NWAD VIBRATORY.3

    VICAR, n. [L. vicarius, from vicis, a turn, or its root.]

    1. In a general sense, a person deputed or authorized to perform the functions of another; a substitute in office. The pope pretends to be vicar of Jesus Christ on earth. He has under him a grand vicar, who is a cardinal, and whose jurisdiction extends over all priests, regular and secular.NWAD VICAR.2

    2. In the canon law, the priest of a parish, the predial tithes of which are impropriated or appropriated, that is, belong to a chapter or religious house, or to a layman, who receives them, and only allows the vicar the smaller tithes or a salary.NWAD VICAR.3

    Apostolical vicars, are those who perform the functions of the pope in churches or provinces committed to their direction.NWAD VICAR.4

    VICARAGE, n. The benefice of a vicar. A vicarage by endowment, becomes a benefice distinct from the parsonage.

    VICAR-GENERAL, n. A title given by Henry VIII to the earl of Essex, with power to oversee all the clergy, and regulate all church affairs. It is now the title of an office, which, as well as that of official principal, is united in the chancellor of the diocese. The business of the vicar-general is to exercise jurisdiction over matters purely spiritual.

    VICARIAL, a. [from vicar.] Pertaining to a vicar; small; as vicarial tithes.

    VICARIATE, a. Having delegated power, as vicar.

    VICARIATE, n. A delegated office or power.

    VICARIOUS, a. [L. vicarius.]

    1. Deputed; delegated; as vicarious power or authority.NWAD VICARIOUS.2

    2. Acting for another; filling the place of another; as a vicarious agent or officer.NWAD VICARIOUS.3

    3. Substituted in the place of another; as a vicarious sacrifice. The doctrine of vicarious punishment has occasioned much controversy.NWAD VICARIOUS.4

    VICARIOUSLY, adv. In the place of another; by substitution.

    VICARSHIP, n. The office of a vicar; the ministry of a vicar.

    VICE, n. [L. vitium.]

    1. Properly, a spot or defect; a fault; a blemish; as the vices of a political constitution.NWAD VICE.2

    2. In ethics, any voluntary action or course of conduct which deviates from the rules of moral rectitude, or from the plain rules of propriety; any moral unfitness of conduct, either from defect of duty, or from the transgression of known principles of rectitude. Vice differs from crime, in being less enormous. We never call murder or robbery a vice; but every act of intemperance, all falsehood, duplicity, deception, lewdness and the like, is a vice. The excessive indulgence of passions and appetites which in themselves are innocent, is a vice. The smoking of tobacco and the taking of snuff, may in certain cases be innocent and even useful, but these practices may be carried to such an excess as to become vices. This word is also used to denote a habit of transgressing; as a life of vice. Vice is rarely a solitary invader; it usually brings with it a frightful train of followers.NWAD VICE.3

    3. Depravity or corruption of manners; as an age of vice.NWAD VICE.4

    When vice prevails, and impious men bear sway.NWAD VICE.5

    The post of honor is a private station.NWAD VICE.6

    4. A fault or bad trick in a horse.NWAD VICE.7

    5. The fool or punchinello of old shows.NWAD VICE.8

    His face made of brass, like a vice in a game.NWAD VICE.9

    6. An iron press. [This should be written vise.]NWAD VICE.10

    7. A gripe or grasp. [Not in use.]NWAD VICE.11

    VICE, v.t. To draw by a kind of violence. [Not in use. See Vise.]

    VICE, L. vice, in the turn or place, is used in composition to denote one qui vicem gerit, who acts in the place of another, or is second in authority.


    1. In the navy, the second officer in command. His flag is displayed at the fore top-gallant-mast head.NWAD VICE-ADMIRAL.2

    2. A civil officer in Great Britain, appointed by the lords commissioners of the admiralty, for exercising admiralty jurisdiction within their respective districts.NWAD VICE-ADMIRAL.3

    VICE-ADMIRALTY, n. The office of a vice-admiralty; a vice-admiralty court.

    VICE-AGENT, n. [vice and agent.] One who acts in the place of another.

    VICE-CHAMBERLAIN, n. An officer in court, next in command to the lord chamberlain.

    VICE-CHANCELLOR, n. An officer in a university in England, a distinguished member, who is annually elected to manage the affairs in the absence of the chancellor.

    VICE-CONSUL, n. One who acts in the place of a consul.

    VICED, a. Vitious; corrupt. [Not in use.]

    VICE-DOGE, n. A counsellor at Venice, who represents the doge when sick or absent.

    VICEGERENCY, n. [See Vicegerent.] The office of a vicegerent; agency under another; deputed power; lieutenancy.

    VICEGERENT, n. [L. vicem gereus, acting in the place of another.]

    A lieutenant; a vicar; an officer who is deputed by a superior or by proper authority to exercise the powers of another. Kings are sometimes called God’s vicegerents. It is to be wished they would always deserve the appellation.NWAD VICEGERENT.2

    VICEGERENT, a. Having or exercising delegated power; acting by substitution, or in the place of another.

    VICE-LEGATE, n. An officer employed by the pope to perform the office of spiritual and temporal governor in certain cities, when there is no legate or cardinal to command there.

    VICENARY, a. [L. vicenarius.] Belonging to twenty.

    VICE-PRESIDENT, n. s as z. An officer next in rank below a president.

    VICEROY, n. The governor of a kingdom or country, who rules in the name of the king with regal authority, as the king’s substitute.

    VICEROYALTY, n. the dignity, office or jurisdiction of a viceroy.

    VICEROYSHIP, n. the dignity, office or jurisdiction of a viceroy.

    VICETY, n. Nicety; exactness. [Not in use; probably a mistake.]

    VICIATE, v.t. [L. vitio. This veb is usually written vitiate; but as vice, from L. vitius, is established, it would be well to write the verb viciate, as we write appreciate and depreciate, from L. pretium.]

    1. to injure the substance or properties of a thing so as to impair its value, and lessen or destroy its use; to make less pure, or wholly impure; to deprave, in a physical or moral sense; as, to viciate the blood; to viciate taste or style; to viciate morals.NWAD VICIATE.2

    2. To render defective and thus destroy the validity of; to invalidate by defect; as, to viciate a deed or bond.NWAD VICIATE.3

    VICIATED, pp. Depraved; impaired in substance or quality; rendered defective and void.

    VICIATING, ppr. Injuring in subtance or properties; rendering defective; making void.

    VICIATION, n. Depravation; corruption.

    VICINAGE, n. [from L. vicinia, neighborhood; vicinus, near.]

    Neighborhood; the place or places adjoining or near. A jury must be of the vicinage, or body of the country.NWAD VICINAGE.2

    In law, common because of vicinage, is where the inhabitants of two townships contiguous to each other, have usually intercommoned with one another; the beasts of one straying into the other’s fields without molestation from either.NWAD VICINAGE.3

    VICINAL, VICINE, a. Near; neighboring. [Little used.]

    VICINITY, n. [L. vicinitas.]

    1. Nearness in place; as the vicinity of two country seats.NWAD VICINITY.2

    2. Neighborhood; as a seat in the vicinity of the metropolis.NWAD VICINITY.3

    3. Neighboring country. Vegetables produced in the vicinity of the city, are daily brought to market. the vicinity is full of gardens.NWAD VICINITY.4

    VICIOSITY, n. Depravity; corruption of manners. [But viciousness is generally used.]

    VICIOUS, a. [L. vitiosus.]

    1. Defective; imperfect; as a system of government vicious and unsound.NWAD VICIOUS.2

    2. Addicted to vice; corrupt in principles or conduct; depraved; wicked; habitually transgressing the moral law; as a vicious race of men; vicious parents; vicious children.NWAD VICIOUS.3

    3. Corrupt; contrary to moral principles or to rectitude; as vicious examples; vicious conduct.NWAD VICIOUS.4

    4. Corrupt, in a physical sense; foul; impure; insalubrious; as vicious air.NWAD VICIOUS.5

    5. Corrupt; not genuine or pure; as vicious language; vicious idioms.NWAD VICIOUS.6

    6. Unruly; refractory; not well tamed or broken; as a vicious horse.NWAD VICIOUS.7

    VICIOUSLY, adv.

    1. Corruptly; in a manner contrary to rectitude, moral principles, propriety or purity.NWAD VICIOUSLY.2

    2. Faultily; not correctly.NWAD VICIOUSLY.3


    1. Addictedness to vice; corruptness of moral principles or practice; habitual violation of the moral law, or of moral duties; depravity in principles or in manners.NWAD VICIOUSNESS.2

    What makes a governor justly despised, is viciousness and ill morals.NWAD VICIOUSNESS.3

    2. Unruliness; refractoriness; as of a beast.NWAD VICIOUSNESS.4

    VICISSITUDE, n. [L. vicissitudo; from vicis, a turn.]

    1. Regular change or succession of one thing to another; as the vicissitudes of day and night, and of winter and summer; the vicissitudes of the seasons.NWAD VICISSITUDE.2

    2. Change; revolution; as in human affairs. We are exposed to continual vicissitudes of fortune.NWAD VICISSITUDE.3

    VICISSITUDINARY, a. Changing in succession.

    VICONTIEL, a. [vice-comitalia. See Viscount.]

    In old law books, pertaining to the sheriff.NWAD VICONTIEL.2

    Vicontiel rents, are certain rents for which the sheriff pays a rent to the king.NWAD VICONTIEL.3

    Vicontiel writs, are such as are triable in the county or sheriff court.NWAD VICONTIEL.4

    VICONTIELS, n. Things belonging to the sheriff; particularly, farms for which the sheriff pays rent to the king.

    VICOUNT, n. [vice-comes.]

    1. In law books, the sheriff.NWAD VICOUNT.2

    2. A degree of nobility next below a count or earl. [See Viscount.]NWAD VICOUNT.3

    VICTIM, n. [L. victima.]

    1. A living being sacrificed to some deity, or in the performance of a religious rite; usually, some beast slain in sacrifice; but human beings have been slain by some nations, for the purpose of appeasing the wrath or conciliating the favor of some deity.NWAD VICTIM.2

    2. Something destroyed; something sacrificed in the pursuit of an object. How many persons have fallen victims to jealousy, to lust, to ambition!NWAD VICTIM.3

    VICTIMATE, v.t. To sacrifice. [Not in use.]

    VICTOR, n. [L. from vinco, victus, to conquer, or the same root.]

    1. One who conquers in war; a vanquisher; one who defeats an enemy in battle. Victor differs from conqueror. We apply conqueror to one who subdues countries, kingdoms or nations; as, Alexander was the conqueror of Asia or India, or of many nations, or of the world. In such phrases, we cannot substitute victor. But we use victor, when we speak of one who overcomes a particular enemy, or in a particular battle; as, Cesar was victor at Pharsalia. The duke of Wellington was victor at Waterloo. Victor then is not followed by the possessive case; for we do not say, Alexander was the victor of Darius, though we say, he was victor at Arbela.NWAD VICTOR.2

    2. One who vanquishes another in private combat or contest; as a victor in the Olympic games.NWAD VICTOR.3

    3. One who wins, or gains the advantage.NWAD VICTOR.4

    In love, the victors from the vanquish’d fly;NWAD VICTOR.5

    They fly that wound, and they pursue that die.NWAD VICTOR.6

    4. Master; lord.NWAD VICTOR.7

    These, victor of his health, his fortune, friends. [Not usual nor legitimate.]NWAD VICTOR.8

    VICTORESS, n. A female who vanquishes.


    1. Having conquered in battle or contest; having overcome an enemy or antagonist; conquering; vanquishing; as a victorious general; victorious troops; a victorious admiral or navy.NWAD VICTORIOUS.2

    2. That produces conquest; as a victorious day.NWAD VICTORIOUS.3

    3. Emblematic of conquest; indicating victory; as brows bound with victorious wreaths.NWAD VICTORIOUS.4

    VICTORIOUSLY, adv. With conquest; with defeat of an enemy or antagonist; triumphantly; as, grace will carry us victoriously through all difficulties.

    VICTORIOUSNESS, n. The state of being victorious.

    VICTORY, n. [L. victoria, from vinco, victus, to conquer.]

    1. Conquest; the defeat of an enemy in battle, or of an antagonist in contest; a gaining of the superiority in war or combat. Victory supposes the power of an enemy or an antagonist to prove inferior to that of the victor. Victory however depends not always on superior skill or valor; it is often gained by the fault or mistake of the vanquished.NWAD VICTORY.2

    Victory may be honorable to the arms, but shameful to the counsels of a nation.NWAD VICTORY.3

    2. The advantage or superiority gained over spiritual enemies, over passions and appetites, or over temptations, or in any struggle or competition.NWAD VICTORY.4

    Thanks be to God, who giveth us the victory, through our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Corinthians 15:57.NWAD VICTORY.5

    VICTRESS, n. A female that conquers.

    VICTUAL. [See Victuals.]

    VICTUAL, v.t. vit’l. [from victual, the noun.]

    1. To supply with provisions for subsistence; as, to victual an army; to victual a garrison.NWAD VICTUAL.3

    2. To store with provisions; as, to victual a ship.NWAD VICTUAL.4

    VICTUALED, pp. vit’ld. Supplied with provisions.

    VICTUALER, n. vit’ler.

    1. One who furnishes provisions.NWAD VICTUALER.2

    2. One who keeps a house of entertainment.NWAD VICTUALER.3

    3. A provision-ship; a ship employed to carry provisions for other ships, or for supplying troops at a distance.NWAD VICTUALER.4

    VICTUALING, ppr. vit’ling. Supplying with provisions.

    VICTUALING-HOUSE, n. A house where provision is made for strangers to eat.

    VICTUALS, n. vit’lz. [L. victus, food, from the root of vivo, which was vigo or vico, coinciding with vigeo. Basque, vicia life. This word is now never used in the singular.]

    Food for human beings, prepared for eating; that which supports human life; provisions; meat; sustenance. We never apply this word to that on which beasts or birds feed, and we apply it chiefly to food for men when cooked or prepared for the table. We do not now give this name to flesh, corn or flour, in a crude state; but we say, the victuals are well cooked or dressed, and in great abundance. We say, a man eats his victuals with a good relish.NWAD VICTUALS.2

    Such phrases as to buy victuals for the army or navy, to lay in victuals for the winter, etc. are now obsolete. We say, to buy provisions; yet we use the verb, to victual an army or ship.NWAD VICTUALS.3

    VIDELICET, adv. [L. for videre licet.] To wit; namely. An abbreviation for this word is viz.

    VIDUAL, a. [L. viduus, deprived.] Belonging to the state of a widow. [Not used.]

    VIDUITY, n. [L. viduitas.] Widowhood. [Not used.]

    VIE, v.i. [See Victor.]

    To strive for superiority; to contend; to use effort in a race, contest, competition, rivalship or strife. How delightful it is to see children vie with each other in diligence and in duties of obedience.NWAD VIE.2

    In a trading nation, the younger sons may be placed in a way of life to vie with the best of their family.NWAD VIE.3

    VIE, v.t.

    1. To show or practice in competition; as, to vie power; to vie charities. [Not legitimate.]NWAD VIE.5

    2. To urge; to press.NWAD VIE.6

    She hung about my neck, and kiss and kiss she vied so fast. [Not in use.]NWAD VIE.7

    VIELLEUR, n. A species of fly in Surinam, less than the lantern fly.

    VIEW, v.t. vu. [L. videre. The primary sense is to reach or extend to.]

    1. To survey; to examine with the eye; to look on with attention, or for the purpose of examining; to inspect; to explore. View differs from look, see, and behold, in expressing more particular or continued attention to the thing which is the object of sight. We ascended mount Holyoke, and viewed the charming landscape below. We viewed with delight the rich valleys of the Connecticut about the town of Northhampton.NWAD VIEW.2

    Go up and view the country. Joshua 7:2.NWAD VIEW.3

    I viewed the walls of Jerusalem. Nehemiah 2:13.NWAD VIEW.4

    2. To see; to perceive by the eye.NWAD VIEW.5

    3. To survey intellectually; to examine with the mental eye; to consider. View the subject in all its aspects.NWAD VIEW.6

    VIEW, n. vu.

    1. Prospect; sight; reach of the eye.NWAD VIEW.8

    The walls of Pluto’s palace are in view.NWAD VIEW.9

    2. The whole extent seen. Vast or extensive views present themselves to the eye.NWAD VIEW.10

    3. Sight; power of seeing, or limit of sight.NWAD VIEW.11

    The mountain was not within our view.NWAD VIEW.12

    4. Intellectual or mental sight. These things give us a just view of the designs of providence.NWAD VIEW.13

    5. Act of seeing. The facts mentioned were verified by actual view.NWAD VIEW.14

    6. Slight; eye.NWAD VIEW.15

    Objects near our view are thought greater than those of larger size, that are more remote.NWAD VIEW.16

    7. Survey; inspection; examination by the eye. The assessors took a view of the premises.NWAD VIEW.17

    Surveying nature with too nice a view.NWAD VIEW.18

    8. Intellectual survey; mental examination.NWAD VIEW.19

    On a just view of all the arguments in the case, the law appears to be clear.NWAD VIEW.20

    9. Appearance; show.NWAD VIEW.21

    10. Display; exhibition to the sight or mind.NWAD VIEW.22

    To give a right view of this mistaken part of liberty. -NWAD VIEW.23

    11. Prospect of interest.NWAD VIEW.24

    No man sets himself about any thing, but upon some view or other, which serves him for a reason.NWAD VIEW.25

    12. Intention; purpose; design. With that view he began the expedition. With a view to commerce, he passed through Egypt.NWAD VIEW.26

    13. Opinion; manner of seeing or understanding. These are my views of the policy which ought to be pursued.NWAD VIEW.27

    View of frankpledge, in law, a court of record, held in a hundred, lordship or manor, before the stewart of the leet.NWAD VIEW.28

    Point of view, the direction in which a thing is seen.NWAD VIEW.29

    VIEWED, pp. vu’ed. Surveyed; examined by the eye; inspected; considered.

    VIEWER, n. vu’er.

    1. One who views, surveys or examines.NWAD VIEWER.2

    2. In New England, a town officer whose duty is to inspect something; as a viewer of fences, who inspects them to determine whether they are sufficient in law.NWAD VIEWER.3

    VIEWING, ppr. vu’ing. Surveying; examining by the eye or by the mind; inspecting; exploring.

    VIEWING, n. vu’ing. The act of beholding or surveying.

    VIEWLESS, a. vu’less. That cannot be seen; not being perceivable by the eye; invisible; as viewless winds.

    Swift through the valves the visionary fair repass’d and viewless mix’d with common air.NWAD VIEWLESS.2

    VIGESIMATION, n. [L. vigesimus, twentieth.]

    The act of putting to death every twentieth man.NWAD VIGESIMATION.2

    VIGIL, n. [L. vigilia, vigil, walking, watchful; vigilo, to watch. This is formed on the root of Eng. wake. The primary sense is to stir or excite, to rouse, to agitate.]

    1. Watch; devotion performed in the customary hours of rest or sleep.NWAD VIGIL.2

    So they in heav’n their odes and vigils tun’d.NWAD VIGIL.3

    2. In church affairs, the eve or evening before any feast, the ecclesiastical day beginning at 6:00 in the evening, and continuing till the same hour the following evening; hence, a religious service performed in the evening preceding a holiday.NWAD VIGIL.4

    3. A fast observed on the day preceding a holiday; a wake.NWAD VIGIL.5

    4. Watch; forbearance of sleep; as the vigils of the card table.NWAD VIGIL.6

    Vigils or watchings of flowers, a term used by Linne to express a peculiar faculty belonging to the flowers of certain plants, of opening and closing their petals at certain hours of the dayNWAD VIGIL.7

    VIGILANCE, n. [L. vigilans. See Vigil.]

    1. Forbearance of sleep; a state of being awake.NWAD VIGILANCE.2

    2. Watchfulness; circumspection; attention of the mind in discovering and guarding against danger, or providing for safety. Vigilance is a virtue of prime importance in a general. The vigilance of the dog is no less remarkable than his fidelity.NWAD VIGILANCE.3

    3. Guard; watch.NWAD VIGILANCE.4

    In at this gate none pass the vigilance here plac’d.NWAD VIGILANCE.5

    VIGILANCY, for vigilance, is not used.

    VIGILANT, a. [L. vigilans.] Watchful; circumspect; attentive to discover and avoid danger, or to provide for safety.

    Take your places and be vigilant. Be sober, be vigilant. 1 Peter 5:8.NWAD VIGILANT.2

    VIGILANTLY, adv. [supra.] Watchfully; with attention to danger and the means of safety; circumspectly.

    VIGNETTE, VIGNET, n. An ornament placed at the beginning of a book, preface or dedication; a head piece. Those vignets are of various forms; often they are wreaths of flowers or sprigs.

    VIGOR, n. [L. from vigeo, to be brisk, to grow, to be strong; allied to vivo, vixi, to live.]

    1. Active strength or force of body in animals; physical force.NWAD VIGOR.2

    The vigor of this arm was never vain.NWAD VIGOR.3

    2. Strength of mind; intellectual force; energy. We say, a man possesses vigor of mind or intellect.NWAD VIGOR.4

    3. Strength or force in vegetable motion; as, a plant grows with vigor.NWAD VIGOR.5

    4. Strength; energy; efficacy.NWAD VIGOR.6

    In the fruitful earth his beams, unactive else, their vigor find.NWAD VIGOR.7

    VIGOR, v.t. To invigorate. [not in use.]

    VIGOROUS, a.

    1. Full of physical strength or active force; strong; lusty; as a vigorous youth; a vigorous body.NWAD VIGOROUS.2

    2. Powerful; strong; made by strength, either of body or mind; as a vigorous attack; vigorous exertions. The enemy expects a vigorous campaign.NWAD VIGOROUS.3

    The beginnings of confederacies have been vigorous and successful.NWAD VIGOROUS.4

    VIGOROUSLY, adv. With great physical force or strength; forcibly; with active exertions; as, to prosecute an enterprise vigorously.

    VIGOROUSNESS, n. The quality of being vigorous or possessed of active strength.

    [Vigor and all its derivatives imply active strength, or the power of action and exertion, in distinction from passive strength, or strength to endure.]NWAD VIGOROUSNESS.2

    VILD, VILED, a. Vile. [Not in use.]

    VILE, a. [L. vilis. Gr.]

    1. Base; mean; worthless; despicable.NWAD VILE.2

    The inhabitants account gold a vile thing.NWAD VILE.3

    A man in vile raiment. James 2:2.NWAD VILE.4

    Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed as vile in your sight? Job 18:3.NWAD VILE.5

    2. Morally base or impure; sinful; depraved by sin; wicked; hateful in the sight of God and of good men. The sons of Eli made themselves vile. 1 Samuel 3:13.NWAD VILE.6

    Behold I am vile; what shall I answer? Job 40:4.NWAD VILE.7

    VILED, a. Abusive; scurrilous; defamatory. [Not in use.]

    VILELY, adv.

    1. Basely; meanly; shamefully; as Hector vilely dragged about the walls of Troy.NWAD VILELY.2

    2. In a cowardly manner. 2 Samuel 1:21.NWAD VILELY.3

    The Volscians vilely yielded the town.NWAD VILELY.4

    VILENESS, n.

    1. Baseness; meanness; despicableness.NWAD VILENESS.2

    His vileness us shall never awe.NWAD VILENESS.3

    2. Moral baseness or depravity; degradation by sin; extreme wickedness; as the vileness of mankind.NWAD VILENESS.4

    VILIFIED, pp. [from vilify.] Defamed; traduced; debased.

    VILIFIER, n. One who defames or traduces.

    VILIFY, v.t. [from vile.]

    1. To make vile; to debase; to degrade.NWAD VILIFY.2

    Their Maker’s image forsook them, when themselves they vilified to serve ungovern’d appetite.NWAD VILIFY.3

    2. To defame; to traduce; to attempt to degrade by slander.NWAD VILIFY.4

    Many passions dispose us to depress and vilify the merit of one rising in the esteem of mankind.NWAD VILIFY.5

    [This is the most usual sense of the verb.]NWAD VILIFY.6

    VILIFYING, ppr. Debasing; defaming.

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