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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    1. Informing; giving notice; publishing notice.NWAD ADVERTISING.2

    2. a. Furnishing advertisements; as, advertising customers.NWAD ADVERTISING.3

    3. In the sense of monitory, or active in giving intelligence, as used by Shakespeare. [Not now used.]NWAD ADVERTISING.4

    ADVICE, n. [L. viso, to see, to visit.]

    1. Counsel; an opinion recommended, or offered, as worthy to be followed.NWAD ADVICE.2

    What advice give ye? 2 Chronicles 10:9.NWAD ADVICE.3

    With good advice make war. Proverbs 20:18.NWAD ADVICE.4

    We may give advice, but we cannot give conduct.NWAD ADVICE.5

    2. Prudence; deliberate consideration.NWAD ADVICE.6

    3. Information; notice; intelligence; as, we have late advices from France.NWAD ADVICE.7

    To take advice, is to consult with others.NWAD ADVICE.8

    ADVICE BOAT, n. A vessel employed to carry dispatches or information.

    ADVISABLE, a. [See Advise.]

    1. Proper to be advised; prudent; expedient; proper to be done or practiced.NWAD ADVISABLE.2

    It is not advisable to proceed, at this time, to a choice of officers.NWAD ADVISABLE.3

    2. Open to advice.NWAD ADVISABLE.4

    ADVISABLENESS, n. The quality of being advisable or expedient.

    ADVISE, v.t. s as z. [See Advice.]

    1. To give counsel to; to offer an opinion, as worthy or expedient to be followed; as, I advise you to be cautious of speculation.NWAD ADVISE.2

    2. To give information; to communicate notice; to make acquainted with; followed by of, before the thing communicated; as, the merchants were advised of the risk.NWAD ADVISE.3

    3. To deliberate, consider, or consult.NWAD ADVISE.4

    Advise thyself of what word I shall bring again to him that sent me. 1 Chronicles 21:12.NWAD ADVISE.5

    But in this sense, it is usually intransitive.NWAD ADVISE.6

    ADVISE, v.i. To deliberate, weigh well, or consider.

    Advise and see what answer I shall return to him that sent me. 2 Samuel 24:13.NWAD ADVISE.8

    To advise with is to consult for the purpose of taking the opinions of others.NWAD ADVISE.9

    ADVISED, pp.

    1. Informed; counseled; also cautious; prudent; acting with deliberation.NWAD ADVISED.2

    Let him be advised in his answers.NWAD ADVISED.3

    With the well advised is wisdom. Proverbs 13:10.NWAD ADVISED.4

    2. Done, formed, or taken with advice or deliberation; intended; as, an advised act or scheme.NWAD ADVISED.5

    ADVISEDLY, adv. With deliberation or advice; heedfully; purposely; by design; as, an enterprize advisedly undertaken.

    ADVISEDNESS, n. Deliberate consideration; prudent procedure.


    1. Counsel; information; circumspection.NWAD ADVISEMENT.2

    2. Consultation.NWAD ADVISEMENT.3

    The action standing continued nisi for advisement.NWAD ADVISEMENT.4

    ADVISER, n. One who gives advice or admonition; also, in a bad sense, one who instigates or persuades.

    ADVISING, ppr. Giving counsel.

    ADVISING, n. Advice; counsel.

    ADVISORY, a.

    1. Having power to advise.NWAD ADVISORY.2

    The general association has a general advisory superintendence over all the ministers and churches.NWAD ADVISORY.3

    2. Containing advice; as, their opinion is merely advisory.NWAD ADVISORY.4

    ADVOCACY, n.

    1. The act of pleading for; intercession.NWAD ADVOCACY.2

    2. Judicial pleading; law-suit.NWAD ADVOCACY.3

    ADVOCATE, n. [L. advocatus, from advoco, to call for, to plead for; of ad and voco, to call. See Vocal.]

    1. Advocate, in its primary sense, signifies, one who pleads the cause of another in a court of civil law. Hence,NWAD ADVOCATE.2

    2. One who pleads the cause of another before any tribunal or judicial court, as a barrister in the English courts. We say, a man is a learned lawyer and an able advocate.NWAD ADVOCATE.3

    In Europe, advocates have different titles, according to their particular duties.NWAD ADVOCATE.4

    Consistorial advocates, in Rome, appear before the Consistory, in opposition to the disposal of benefices.NWAD ADVOCATE.5

    Elective advocates are chosen by a bishop, abbot, or chapter, with license from the prince.NWAD ADVOCATE.6

    Feudal advocates were of a military kind, and to attach them to the church, had grants of land, with power to lead the vassals of the church war.NWAD ADVOCATE.7

    Fiscal advocates, in ancient Rome, defended causes in which the public revenue was concerned.NWAD ADVOCATE.8

    Juridical advocates became judges, in consequence of their attending causes in the earl’s court.NWAD ADVOCATE.9

    Matricular advocates defended the cathedral churches.NWAD ADVOCATE.10

    Military advocates were employed by the church to defend it by arms, when force gave law to Europe.NWAD ADVOCATE.11

    Some advocates were called nominative, from their being nominated by the pope or king; some regular, from their being qualified by a proper course of study. Some were supreme; others, subordinate.NWAD ADVOCATE.12

    Advocate, in the German polity, is a magistrate, appointed in the emperor’s name, to administer justice.NWAD ADVOCATE.13

    Faculty of advocates, in Scotland, is a society of eminent lawyers, who practice in the highest courts, and who are admitted members only upon the severest examination, at three different times. It consists of about two hundred members, and from this body are vacancies on the bench usually supplied.NWAD ADVOCATE.14

    Lord advocate, in Scotland, the principal crown lawyer, or prosecutor of crimes.NWAD ADVOCATE.15

    Judge advocate, in courts martial, a person who manages the prosecution.NWAD ADVOCATE.16

    In English and American courts, advocates are the same as counsel, or counselors. In England, they are of two degrees, barristers and serjeants; the former, being apprentices or learners, cannot, by ancient custom, be admitted serjeants, till of sixteen years standing.NWAD ADVOCATE.17

    3. One who defends, vindicates, or espouses a cause, by argument; one who is friendly to; as, an advocate for peace, or for the oppressed.NWAD ADVOCATE.18

    In scripture, Christ is called an advocate for his people.NWAD ADVOCATE.19

    We have an advocate with the father. 1 John 2:1.NWAD ADVOCATE.20

    ADVOCATE, v.t. To plead in favor of; to defend by argument, before a tribunal; to support or vindicate.

    Those who advocate a discrimination.NWAD ADVOCATE.22

    The Duke of York advocated the amendment.NWAD ADVOCATE.23

    The Earl of Buckingham advocated the original resolution.NWAD ADVOCATE.24

    The idea of a legislature, consisting of a single branch, though advocated by some, was generally reprobated.NWAD ADVOCATE.25

    How little claim persons, who advocate this sentiment, really posses to be considered calvinists, will appear from the following quotation.NWAD ADVOCATE.26

    The most eminent orators were engaged to advocate his cause.NWAD ADVOCATE.27

    A part only of the body, whose cause be advocates, coincide with him in judgment.NWAD ADVOCATE.28

    ADVOCATED, pp. Defended by argument; vindicated.

    ADVOCATESS, n. A female advocate.

    ADVOCATING, ppr. Supporting by reasons; defending; maintaining.

    ADVOCATION, n. A pleading for: plea; apology.

    A bill of advocation, in Scotland, is a written application to a superior court, to call an action before them from an inferior court. The order of the superior court for this purpose is called a letter of advocation.NWAD ADVOCATION.2

    ADVOUTRESS, n. An adulteress.

    ADVOUTRY, n. Adultery. [Little used.]

    ADVOWEE, n.

    1. He that has the right of advowson.NWAD ADVOWEE.2

    2. The advocate of a church or religious house.NWAD ADVOWEE.3

    ADVOWSON, n. s as z. [The word was latinized, advocatio, from advoco, and avow is from advoco.]

    In English law, a right of presentation to a vacant benefice; or in other words, a right of nominating a person to officiate in a vacant church. The name is derived from advocatio, because the right was first obtained by such as were founders, benefactors or strenuous defenders, advocates, or the church. those who have this right are styled patrons. Advowsons are of three kinds, presentative, collative, and donative; presentative, when the patron presents his clerk to the bishop of the diocese to be instituted; collative, when the bishop is the patron, and institutes, or collates his clerk, by a single act; donative, when a church is founded by the king, and assigned to the patron, without being subject to the ordinary, so that the patron confers the benefice on his clerk, without presentation, institution, or induction.NWAD ADVOWSON.2

    Advowsons are also appendant, that is, annexed to a manor; or, in gross, that is annexed to the person of the patron.NWAD ADVOWSON.3

    ADVOYER, AVOYER, A chief magistrate of a town or canton in Switzerland.

    ADY, n. The abanga, or Thernel’s restorative; a species of Palm tree, in the West Indies, tall, upright, without branches, with a thick branching head, which furnishes a juice of which the natives make a drink by fermentation.

    ADZ, n. An iron instrument with an arching edge, across the line of the handle, and ground from a base on its inside to the outer edge; used for chipping a horizontal surface of timber.

    AE, a diphthong in the Latin language; used also by the Saxon writers. In derivatives from the learned languages, it is mostly superseded by e, and convenience seems to require it to be wholly rejected in anglicized words. For such words as may be found with this initial combination, the reader will therefore search under the letter E.

    AED, ed, ead, syllables found in names from the Saxon, signify happy; as, Eadric, happy kingdom; Eadrig, happy victory; Edward prosperous watch; Edgar, successful weapon.

    AEDILE, n. [Lat.] In ancient Rome, an officer or magistrate, who had the care of the public buildings, [ades,] streets, highways, public spectacles, etc.

    AEGILOPS, n. [Gr. a goat and the eye.]

    A tumor in the corner of the eye, and a plant so called.NWAD AEGILOPS.2

    AEGIS, n. [Gr. a goat skin, and shield; from a goat.]

    A shield, or defensive armor.NWAD AEGIS.2

    AEL, Eng. all, are seen in many names; as, in AElfred, Alfred, all peace; AElwin, all conqueror.

    AELF, seems to be one form of help, but more generally written elph or ulph; as, in AElfwin, victorious aid; AEthelwulph, illustrious help.

    AEOLIST, n. [L. AEolus.]

    A pretender to inspiration.NWAD AEOLIST.2

    AERATE, v.t. [See Air.] To combine with carbonic acid, formerly called fixed air. [The word has been discarded from modern chimistry.]

    AERATED, pp. Combined with carbonic acid.

    AERATING, ppr. Combining with carbonic acid.

    AERATION, n. The act or operation of combining with carbonic acid.

    AERIAL, a. [L. aerius. See Air.]

    1. Belonging to the air, or atmosphere; as, aerial regions.NWAD AERIAL.2

    2. Consisting of air; partaking of the nature of air; as, aerial particles.NWAD AERIAL.3

    3. Produced by air; as, aerial honey.NWAD AERIAL.4

    4. Inhabiting or frequenting the air; as, aerial songsters.NWAD AERIAL.5

    5. Placed in the air; high; lofty; elevated; as, aerial spires; aerial flight.NWAD AERIAL.6

    AERIANS, n. In church history, a branch of Arians, so called from Aerius, who maintained, that there is no difference between bishops and priests.

    AERIE, n. The nest of a fowl, as of an eagle or hawk; a covey of birds.


    1. The act of combining air with; the state of being filled with air.NWAD AERIFICATION.2

    2. The act of becoming air or of changing into an aeriform state, as substances which are converted from a liquid or solid form into gas or an elastic vapor; the state of being aeriform.NWAD AERIFICATION.3

    AERIFIED, pp. Having air infused, or combined with.

    AERIFORM, a. [L. aer, air, and forma, form.]

    Having the form or nature of air, or of an elastic, invisible fluid. The gases are aeriform fluids.NWAD AERIFORM.2

    AERIFY, v.t. To infuse air into; to fill with air, or to combine air with.

    AERNE, [See Erne.]

    AEROGRAPHY, n. [Gr. air, and to describe.]

    A description of the air or atmosphere; but aerology is chiefly used.NWAD AEROGRAPHY.2

    AEROLITE, n. [Gr. air, and a stone.]

    A stone falling from the air, or atmospheric regions; a meteoric stone.NWAD AEROLITE.2

    AEROLOGICAL, a. Pertaining to aerology.

    AEROLOGIST, n. One who is versed in aerology.

    AEROLOGY, n. [Gr. air, and description.]

    A description of the air; that branch of philosophy which treats of the air, its constituent parts, properties, and phenomena.NWAD AEROLOGY.2

    AEROMANCY, n. [Gr. divination.]

    Divination by means of the air and winds. [Little used.]NWAD AEROMANCY.2

    AEROMETER, n. [Gr. air, and measure.]

    An instrument for weighing air, or for ascertaining the mean bulk of gases.NWAD AEROMETER.2

    AEROMETRY, n. [as above.] The science of measuring the air, including the doctrine of its pressure, elasticity, rarefaction, and condensation.

    Rather, aerometry is the art or science of ascertaining the mean bulk of the gases.NWAD AEROMETRY.2

    AERONAUT, n. [Gr. a sailor, from a ship.]

    One who sails or floats in the air; an aerial navigator; applied to persons who ascent in air balloons.NWAD AERONAUT.2

    AERONAUTIC, a. Sailing or floating in the air; pertaining to aerial sailing.

    AERONAUTICS, n. The doctrine, science, or art of sailing in the air, by means of a balloon.

    AERONAUTISM, n. The practice of ascending and floating in the atmosphere, in balloons.

    AEROSCOPY, n. [Gr to see.] The observation of the air. [Little used.]

    AEROSTAT, n. [Gr. sustaining, from to stand.]

    A machine or vessel sustaining weights in the air; a name given to air balloons.NWAD AEROSTAT.2

    AEROSTATIC, a. Suspending in air; pertaining to the art of aerial navigation.


    1. Aerial navigation; the science of raising, suspending, and guiding machines in the air, or of ascending in air balloons.NWAD AEROSTATION.2

    2. The science of weighing air.NWAD AEROSTATION.3

    AERY-LIGHT, in Milton, light as air; used for airy light.

    AFAR, adv. [a and far. See Far.]

    1. At a distance in place; to or from a distance; used with from preceding, or off following; as, he was seen from afar; I saw him afar off.NWAD AFAR.2

    2. In scripture, figuratively, estranged in affection; alienated.NWAD AFAR.3

    My kinsmen stand afar off. Psalm 38:11.NWAD AFAR.4

    3. Absent; not assisting.NWAD AFAR.5

    Why standest thou afar off, O Lord? Psalm 10:1.NWAD AFAR.6

    4. Not of the visible church. Ephesians 2:17.NWAD AFAR.7

    AFEARD, a. Afeard is the participle passive. [See Fear.]

    Afraid; affected with fear or apprehension, in a more moderate degree than is expressed by terrified. It is followed by of, but no longer used in books, and even in popular use, is deemed vulgar.NWAD AFEARD.2

    AFFA, n. A weight used on the Guinea coast, equal to an ounce. The half of it is call eggeba.

    AFFABILITY, n. [See Affable.] The quality of being affable; readiness to converse; civility and courteousness, in receiving others, and in conversation; condescension in manners. Affability of countenance is that mildness of aspect, which invites to free social intercourse.

    AFFABLE, a. [L. affabilis, of ad and fabulor. See Fable.]

    1. Easy of conversation; admitting others to free conversation without reserve; courteous; complaisant; of easy manners; condescending; usually applied to superiors; as an affable prince.NWAD AFFABLE.2

    2. Applied to external appearance, affable denotes that combination of features, which invites to conversation, and renders a person accessible, opposed to a forbidding aspect; mild; benign; as, an affable countenance.NWAD AFFABLE.3

    AFFABLENESS, n. Affability.

    AFFABLY, adv. In an affable manner; courteously; invitingly.

    AFFAIR, n. [L. facere. The primary sense of facio is to urge, drive, impel.]

    1. Business of any kind; that which is done, or is to be done; a word of very indefinite and undefinable signification. In the plural, it denotes transactions in general; as human affairs; political or ecclesiastical affairs: also the business or concerns of an individual; as, his affairs are embarrassed.NWAD AFFAIR.2

    2. Matters; state; condition of business or concerns.NWAD AFFAIR.3

    I have sent that ye may know our affairs. Ephesians 6:21, 22.NWAD AFFAIR.4

    3. In the singular, it is used for a private dispute, or duel; as, an affair of honor; and sometimes a partial engagement of troops.NWAD AFFAIR.5

    In the phrase, at the head of affairs, the word means, the public concerns of executing the laws and administering the government.NWAD AFFAIR.6

    AFFECT, v.t. [L. afficio, affectum, of ad and facio, to make; affecto, to desire, from the same room. Affect is to make to, or upon to press upon.]

    1. To act upon; to produce an effect or change upon; as, cold affects the body; loss affects our interests.NWAD AFFECT.2

    2. To act upon, or move the passions; as, affected with grief.NWAD AFFECT.3

    3. To aim at; aspire to; desire or entertain pretension to; as, to affect imperial sway. [See the etymology of Affair.]NWAD AFFECT.4

    4. To tend to by natural affinity or disposition; as, the drops of a fluid affect a spherical form.NWAD AFFECT.5

    5. To love, or regard with fondness.NWAD AFFECT.6

    Think not that wars we love and strife affect.NWAD AFFECT.7

    [This sense is closely allied to the third.]NWAD AFFECT.8

    6. To make a show of; to attempt to imitate, in a manner not natural; to study the appearance of what is not natural, or real; as, to affect to be grave; affected friendship.NWAD AFFECT.9

    It seems to have been used formerly for convict or attaint, as in Ayliffe’s Parergon; but this sense is not now in use.NWAD AFFECT.10

    AFFECTATION, n. [L. affectatio.]

    1. An attempt to assume or exhibit what is not natural or real; false pretense; artificial appearance, or show; as, an affectation of wit, or of virtue.NWAD AFFECTATION.2

    2. Fondness; affection. [Not used.]NWAD AFFECTATION.3

    AFFECTED, pp.

    1. Impressed; moved, or touched, either in person or in interest; having suffered some change by external force, loss, danger, and the like; as, we are more or less affected by the failure of the bank.NWAD AFFECTED.2

    2. Touched in the feelings; having the feelings excited; as, affected with cold or heat.NWAD AFFECTED.3

    3. Having the passions moved; as, affected with sorrow or joy.NWAD AFFECTED.4

    4. a. Inclined, or disposed; followed by to; as, well affected to government.NWAD AFFECTED.5

    5. a. Given to false show; assuming, or pretending to possess what is not natural or real; as, an affected lady.NWAD AFFECTED.6

    6. a. Assumed artificially; not natural; as, affected airs.NWAD AFFECTED.7

    AFFECTEDLY, adv. In an affected manner; hypocritically; with more show than reality; formally; studiously; unnaturally; as, to walk affectedly; affectedly civil.

    AFFECTEDNESS, n. The quality of being affected; affectation.

    AFFECTING, ppr.

    1. Impressing; having an effect on; touching the feelings; moving the passions; attempting a false show; greatly desiring; aspiring to possess.NWAD AFFECTING.2

    2. a. Having power to excite, or move the passions; tending to move the affections; pathetic; as, an affecting address.NWAD AFFECTING.3

    The most affecting music is generally the most simple.NWAD AFFECTING.4

    AFFECTINGLY, adv. In an affecting manner; in a manner to excite emotions.


    1. The state of being affected. [Little used.]NWAD AFFECTION.2

    2. Passion; but more generally,NWAD AFFECTION.3

    3. A bent of mind towards a particular object, holding a middle place between disposition, which is natural, and passion, which is excited by the presence of its exciting object. Affection is a permanent bent of the mind, formed by the presence of an object, or by some act of another person, and existing without the presence of its object.NWAD AFFECTION.4

    4. In a more particular sense, a settle good will, love or zealous attachment; as, the affection of a parent for his child. It was formerly followed by to or towards, but is now more generally followed by far.NWAD AFFECTION.5

    5. Desire; inclination; propensity, good or evil; as, virtuous or vile affections. Romans 1:26, 31; Galatians 5:24.NWAD AFFECTION.6

    6. In a general sense, an attribute, quality or property, which is inseparable from its object; as, love, fear and hope are affections of the mind; figure, weight, etc., are affections of bodies.NWAD AFFECTION.7

    7. Among physicians, a disease, or any particular morbid state of the body; as, a gouty affection; hysteric affection.NWAD AFFECTION.8

    8. In painting, a lively representation of passion.NWAD AFFECTION.9

    Shakespeare uses the word for affectation; but this use is not legitimate.NWAD AFFECTION.10


    1. Having great love, or affection; fond; as, an affectionate brother.NWAD AFFECTIONATE.2

    2. Warm in affection; zealous.NWAD AFFECTIONATE.3

    Man, in his love to God, and desire to please him, can never be too affectionate.NWAD AFFECTIONATE.4

    3. Proceeding from affection; indicating love; benevolent; tender; as, the affectionate care of a parent; an affectionate countenance.NWAD AFFECTIONATE.5

    4. Inclined to; warmly attached. [Little used.]NWAD AFFECTIONATE.6

    AFFECTIONATELY, adv. With affection; fondly; tenderly; kindly. 1 Thessalonians 2:8.

    AFFECTIONATENESS, n. Fondness; goodwill; affection.


    1. Disposed; having an affection of heart.NWAD AFFECTIONED.2

    Be ye kindly affectioned one to another. Romans 12:10.NWAD AFFECTIONED.3

    2. Affected; conceited. Obs.NWAD AFFECTIONED.4

    AFFECTIVE, a. That affects, or excites emotion; suited to affect. [Little used.]

    AFFECTIVELY, adv. In an affective or impressive manner.

    AFFECTOR, AFFECTER, n. One that affects; one that practices affectation.

    AFFECTUOUS, a. Full of passion. [Not used.]

    AFFEER, v.t. To confirm. [Not used.]

    AFFEER, v.t.

    In law, to assess or reduce an arbitrary penalty or amercement to a precise sum; to reduce a general amercement to a sum certain, according to the circumstances of the case.NWAD AFFEER.3

    AFFEERED, pp. Moderated in sum; assessed; reduced to a certainty.

    AFFEERMENT, n. The act of affeering, or assessing an amercement, according to the circumstances of the case.

    AFFEEROR, n. One who affeers; a person sworn to assess a penalty, or reduce an uncertain penalty to a certainty.

    AFFETTUOSO, CON AFFETTO, [L. affectus.]

    In music, a direction to render notes soft and affecting.NWAD AFFETTUOSO.2

    AFFIANCE, n. [L. fido, fides.]

    1. The marriage contract or promise; faith pledged.NWAD AFFIANCE.2

    2. Trust in general; confidence; reliance.NWAD AFFIANCE.3

    The Christian looks to God with implicit affiance.NWAD AFFIANCE.4

    AFFIANCE, v.t.

    1. To betroth; to pledge one’s faith or fidelity in marriage, or to promise marriage.NWAD AFFIANCE.6

    To me, sad maid, he was affianced.NWAD AFFIANCE.7

    2. To give confidenceNWAD AFFIANCE.8

    Affianced in my faith.NWAD AFFIANCE.9

    AFFIANCED, pp. Pledged in marriage; betrothed; bound in faith.

    AFFIANCER, n. One who makes a contract of marriage between parties.

    AFFIANCING, ppr. Pledging in marriage; promising fidelity.

    AFFIDAVIT, n. [An old law verb in the perfect tense; he made oath; from ad and fides, faith.]

    A declaration upon oath. In the United States, more generally, a declaration in writing, signed by the party, and sworn to, before an authorized magistrate.NWAD AFFIDAVIT.2

    AFFIED, a. or part. Joined by contract; affianced. [Not used.]

    AFFILE, v.t. To polish. [Not used.]

    AFFILIATE, v.t. [L. ad and filius, a son.]

    1. To adopt; to receive into a family as a son.NWAD AFFILIATE.2

    2. To receive into a society as a member, and initiate in its mysteries, plans, or intrigues - a sense in which the word was much used by the Jacobins in France, during the revolution.NWAD AFFILIATE.3

    AFFILIATION, n. Adoption; association in the same family or society.

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