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Noah Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Contents
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    1. Circular; as a circulatory letter.NWAD CIRCULATORY.2

    2. Circulating.NWAD CIRCULATORY.3

    CIRCULATORY, n. A chimical vessel, in which that which rises from the vessel on the fire is collected and cooled in another fixed upon it, and falls down again.

    CIRCUMAMBIENCY, n. The act of surrounding, or encompassing.

    CIRCUMAMBIENT, a. Surrounding; encompassing; inclosing or being on all sides; used particularly of the air about the earth.

    CIRCUMAMBULATE, v.i. To walk round about.

    CIRCUMAMBULATION, n. The act of walking round.

    CIRCUMCELLION, n. In church history, a set of illiterate peasants that adhered to the Donatists in the fourth century.

    CIRCUMCISE, v.t. To cut off the prepuce or foreskin of males; a ceremony or rite in the Jewish and Mohammedan religions. The word is applied also to a practice among some nations of performing a like operation upon females.

    CIRCUMCISER, n. The act of cutting off the prepuce or foreskin.

    CIRCUMCURSATION, n. The act of running about.

    CIRCUMDUCT, v.t. To contravene; to nullify; a term of civil law.


    1. A leading about.NWAD CIRCUMDUCTION.2

    2. An annulling; cancellation.NWAD CIRCUMDUCTION.3


    1. A leading about.NWAD CIRCUMDUCTION.5

    2. An annulling; cancellation.NWAD CIRCUMDUCTION.6

    CIRCUMFER, v.t. To bear or carry round.


    1. The line that bounds a circle; the exterior line of a circular body; the whole exterior surface of a round body; a periphery.NWAD CIRCUMFERENCE.2

    2. The space included in a circle.NWAD CIRCUMFERENCE.3

    3. An orb; a circle; any thing circular or orbicular; as in Milton, speaking of a shield.NWAD CIRCUMFERENCE.4

    The broad circumference hung on his shoulders like the moon.NWAD CIRCUMFERENCE.5

    CIRCUMFERENCE, v.t. To include in a circular space.

    CIRCUMFERENTIAL, a. Pertaining to the circumference.

    CIRCUMFERENTOR, n. An instrument used by surveyors for taking angles. It consists of a brass index, and circle, all of a piece; on the circle is a chart, divided into 360 degrees. There are also two sights to screw on and slide up and down the index; also a spangle and socket screwed on the back side of the circle to put the head of the staff in.

    CIRCUMFLEX, n. In grammar, an accent serving to note or distinguish a syllable of an intermediate sound between acute and grave. It is a kind of undulation in the voice, but not used in English.

    CIRCUMFLEX, v.t. To mark or pronounce with the accent called a circumflex.

    CIRCUMFLUENCE, n. A flowing round on all sides; an inclosure of waters.

    CIRCUMFLUENT, a. Flowing round; surrounding as a fluid; as, circumfluent waves.

    CIRCUMFLUOUS, a. Flowing round; encompassing as a fluid; circumfluent.

    CIRCUMFORANEAN, CIRCUMFORANEOUS, a. Going about; walking or wandering from house to house; as a circumforaneous fidler or piper; circumforaneous wits.

    Circumforaneous musicians, male and female, are daily seen at the doors of hotels, in France; and sometimes they enter the room, where a company is dining, and entertain them with music; expecting a franc or a few sous as a reward.NWAD CIRCUMFORANEAN.2

    CIRCUMFUSE, v.t.

    1. To pour round; to spread round, as a fluid.NWAD CIRCUMFUSE.2

    2. To spread round; to surround.NWAD CIRCUMFUSE.3

    CIRCUMFUSILE, a. That may be poured or spread round; as, circumfusile gold.

    CIRCUMFUSION, n. [See Circumfuse.] The act of pouring or spreading round; the state of being poured round.

    CIRCUMGESTATION, n. A carrying about.

    CIRCUMGYRATE, CIRCUMGYRE, v.t. To roll or turn round.

    CIRCUMGYRATION, n. The act of turning, rolling or whirling round; the turning of a limb in its socket.

    CIRCUMJACENT, a. Lying round; bordering on every side.

    CIRCUMLIGATION, n. The act of binding round; the bond with which any thing is encompassed.

    CIRCUMLOCUTION, n. A circuit or compass of words; a periphrase; the use of a number of words to express an idea, when a suitable term is not at hand, or when a speaker chooses to avoid the use of a single term, either from delicacy or respect, or with a view to soften the force of a direct expression, or for other reason.

    CIRCUMLOCUTORY, a. Pertaining to circumlocution; consisting or contained in a compass of words; periphrastic.

    CIRCUMMURED, a. Walled round; encompassed with a wall.

    CIRCUMNAVIGABLE, a. [See Circumnavigate.] That may be sailed round.

    CIRCUMNAVIGATE, v.t. To sail round; to pass round by water; as, to circumnavigate the globe.

    CIRCUMNAVIGATION, n. The act of sailing round.

    CIRCUMNAVIGATOR, n. One who sails round.

    CIRCUMPLICATION, n. A folding, winding or wrapping round; or a state of being enwrapped.

    CIRCUMPOLAR, a. About the pole; an appellation given to stars, which are so near the north pole, as to revolve round it without setting. The number of these depends on the latitude of the spectator. We apply it to the north polar region and stars, but the word is applicable to either pole.

    CIRCUMPOSITION, n. s as z. The act of placing in a circle; or the state of being so placed.

    CIRCUMRASION, n. s as z. The act of shaving or paring round.

    CIRCUMROTARY, a. Turning, rolling or whirling round.

    CIRCUMROTATION, n. The act of rolling or revolving round, as a wheel; circumvolution; the state of being whirled round.


    1. To inclose within a certain limit; to limit, bound, confine.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIBE.2

    You are above the little forms which circumscribe your sex.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIBE.3

    2. To write round.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIBE.4

    CIRCUMSCRIBED, pp. Drawn round as a line; limited; confined.

    In geometry, this word is applied to a figure which is drawn round another figure, so that all its sides or planes touch the inscribed figure.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIBED.2

    CIRCUMSCRIBING, ppr. Drawing a line round; inclosing; limiting; confining.

    CIRCUMSCRIPTIBLE, a. That may be circumscribed or limited by bounds.


    1. The line that limits; limitation; bound; confinement.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIPTION.2

    2. In natural philosophy, the termination or limits of a body; the exterior line which determines the form or magnitude of a body.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIPTION.3

    3. A circular inscription.NWAD CIRCUMSCRIPTION.4

    CIRCUMSCRIPTIVE, a. Defining the external form; marking or inclosing the limits or superficies of a body.

    CIRCUMSCRIPTIVELY, adv. In a limited manner.

    CIRCUMSPECT, a. Literally, looking on all sides; looking round. Hence,

    Cautious; prudent; watchful on all sides; examining carefully all the circumstances that may affect a determination, or a measure to be adopted.NWAD CIRCUMSPECT.2

    CIRCUMSPECTION, n. Caution; attention to all the facts and circumstances of a case, and to the natural or probable consequences of a measure, with a view to a correct course of conduct, or to avoid danger.

    CIRCUMSPECTIVE, a. Looking round every way; cautious; careful of consequences; watchful of danger.

    CIRCUMSPECTIVELY, adv. Cautiously; vigilantly; heedfully; with watchfulness to guard against danger.

    CIRCUMSPECTLY, adv. Cautiously; with watchfulness every way; with attention to guard against surprise or danger.

    CIRCUMSPECTNESS, n. Caution; circumspection; vigilance in guarding against evil from every quarter.


    1. Something attending, appendant, or relative to a fact, or case; a particular thing, which, though not essential to an action, in some way affects it; the same to a moral action, as accident to a natural substance; as, the circumstances of time, place and persons, are to be considered.NWAD CIRCUMSTANCE.2

    2. The adjuncts of a fact, which make it more or less criminal, or make an accusation more or less probable; accident; something adventitious; incident; event.NWAD CIRCUMSTANCE.3

    3. Circumstances, in the plural, condition, in regard to worldly estate; state of property; as a man in low circumstances, or in easy circumstances.NWAD CIRCUMSTANCE.4

    CIRCUMSTANCED, pp. or a. Placed in a particular manner, with regard to attending facts or incidents; as, circumstanced as we were, we could not escape.

    CIRCUMSTANT, a. Surrounding.


    1. Attending; relating to; but not essential.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIAL.2

    2. Consisting in or pertaining to circumstances, or to particular incidents.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIAL.3

    3. Incidental; casual.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIAL.4

    4. Abounding with circumstances, or exhibiting all the circumstances; minute; particular; as a circumstantial account or recital.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIAL.5

    5. In law, circumstantial evidence is that which is obtained from circumstances, which necessarily or usually attend facts of a particular nature, from which arises presumption.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIAL.6

    CIRCUMSTANTIAL, n. Circumstantials, in the plural, are things incident to the main subject, but of less importance; opposed to essentials; as the circumstantials of religion.


    1. The appendage of circumstances; the state of any thing as modified by circumstances.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIALITY.2

    2. Particularity in exhibiting circumstances; minuteness; as the circumstantiality of a story or description.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIALITY.3


    1. According to circumstances; not essentially; accidentally.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIALLY.2

    2. Minutely; exactly; in every circumstance of particular.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIALLY.3


    1. To place in particular circumstances; to invest with particular accidents or adjuncts.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIATE.2

    2. To place in a particular condition with regard to power or wealth.NWAD CIRCUMSTANTIATE.3

    CIRCUMTERRANEOUS, a. Around the earth.

    CIRCUMVALLATE, v.t. To surround with a rampart.


    1. In the art of war, a surrounding with a wall or rampart; also, a wall, rampart, or parapet with a trench, surrounding the camp of a besieging army, to prevent desertion, and guard the army against any attempt of an enemy to relieve the place besieged.NWAD CIRCUMVALLATION.2

    2. The rampart, or fortification surrounding a besieged place.NWAD CIRCUMVALLATION.3

    [Note. This word, from the Latin, vallo, or vallum, vallus, denotes properly the wall or rampart thrown up; but as the rampart is formed by entrenching, and the trench makes a part of the fortification, the word is applied to both. See Eng. Wall.]NWAD CIRCUMVALLATION.4

    CIRCUMVECTION, n. A carrying about.

    CIRCUMVENT, v.t. Literally, to come round; hence,

    To gain advantage over another, or to accomplish a purpose, by arts, stratagem, or deception; to deceive; to prevail over another by wiles or fraud; to delude; to impose on.NWAD CIRCUMVENT.2

    CIRCUMVENTED, pp. Deceived by craft or stratagem; deluded.

    CIRCUMVENTING, ppr. Deceiving; imposing on.


    1. The act of prevailing over another by arts, address, or fraud; deception; fraud; imposture; delusion.NWAD CIRCUMVENTION.2

    2. Prevention; preoccupation.NWAD CIRCUMVENTION.3

    CIRCUMVENTIVE, a. Deceiving by artifices; deluding.

    CIRCUMVEST, v.t. To cover round, as with a garment.

    CIRCUMVOLATION, n. The act of flying round.


    1. The act of rolling round; the state of being rolled; also the thing rolled round another.NWAD CIRCUMVOLUTION.2

    2. In architecture, the torus of the spiral line of the Ionic order.NWAD CIRCUMVOLUTION.3

    CIRCUMVOLVE, v.t. To roll round; to cause to revolve; to put into a circular motion.

    CIRCUMVOLVE, v.i. To roll round; to revolve.

    CIRCUMVOLVED, pp. Rolled round; moved in a circular manner.

    CIRCUMVOLVING, ppr. Rolling round; revolving.

    CIRCUS, n.

    1. In antiquity, a round or oval edifice, used for the exhibition of games and shows to the people. The Roman circus was encompassed with porticos, and furnished with rows of seats, rising one above another for the accommodation of spectators. The Circus Maximus was nearly a mile in circumference.NWAD CIRCUS.2

    2. The open area, or space inclosed, in which were exhibited games and shows; as wrestling, fighting with swords, staves or pikes, running or racing, dancing, quoits, etc.NWAD CIRCUS.3

    3. In modern times, a circular inclosure for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship.NWAD CIRCUS.4

    CIRL, n. An Italian bird about the size of a sparrow.

    CIRRIFEROUS, a. Producing tendrils or claspers, as a plant.

    CIRROUS, a. Terminating in a cirrus, curl or tendril; as a cirrous leaf.

    CISALPINE, a. On this side of the Alps, with regard to Rome; that is, on the south of the Alps; opposed to transalpine.

    CISPADANE, a. On this side of the Po, with regard to Rome; that is, on the south side.

    CISSOID, n. A curve of the second order, invented by Diocles.

    CIST, n. A case. [See Cyst, the proper orthography.]

    CISTED, a. Inclosed in a cyst. [See Cysted.]

    CISTERCIAN, n. A monk, a reformed Benedictine.

    CISTERN, n.

    1. An artificial reservoir or receptacle for holding water, beer or other liquor, as in domestic uses, distilleries, and breweries.NWAD CISTERN.2

    2. A natural reservoir; a hollow place containing water; as a fountain or lake.NWAD CISTERN.3

    CISTIC, a. [See Cystic.]

    CISTUS, n. The rock-rose, a genus of plants of many species, most of them natives of the southern parts of Europe. Some of them are beautiful evergreen flowering shrubs, and ornamental in gardens.

    CIT, n. [contracted from citizen.] A citizen, in a low sense; an inhabitant of a city; a pert townsman; a pragmatical trader.

    CITADEL, n. A fortress or castle, in or near a city, intended for its defense; a place of arms.

    CITAL, n.

    1. Reproof; impeachment.NWAD CITAL.2

    2. Summons; citation; quotation.NWAD CITAL.3

    CITATION, n.

    1. A summons; an official call or notice, given to a person, to appear in a court, and answer to a demand; a call or notice to appear, in various other cases, and the paper containing such notice or call.NWAD CITATION.2

    2. Quotation; the act of citing a passage from a book; or from another person, in his own words; also, the passage or words quoted.NWAD CITATION.3

    3. Enumeration; mention.NWAD CITATION.4

    CITATORY, a. Citing; calling; having the power or form of citation; as, letters citatory.

    CITE, v.t.

    1. To call upon officially, or authoritatively; to summon; to give legal or official notice, as to a defendant to appear in court, to answer or defend.NWAD CITE.2

    2. To enjoin; to direct; to summon; to order or urge.NWAD CITE.3

    3. To quote; to name or repeat, as a passage or the words of another, either from a book or from verbal communication; as, to cite a passage from scripture, or to cite the very words a man utters.NWAD CITE.4

    4. To call or name, in support, proof or confirmation; as, to cite an authority to prove a point in law.NWAD CITE.5

    CITER, n.

    1. One who cites or summons into court.NWAD CITER.2

    2. One who quotes a passage or the words of another.NWAD CITER.3

    CITESS, n. [See Cit.] A city woman.

    CITHARISTIC, a. Pertaining to or adapted to the harp; or appropriated to the accompaniment of the harp.

    CITHERN, n. A stringed musical instrument, among the ancients, the precise form of which is not known, but it bore some resemblance to the modern guitar, the name of which is evidently from this ancient word.

    CITICISM, n. [from cit.] The manners of a cit or citizen.

    CITIED, a. Belonging to a city.

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